Preprint Article Version 25 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

An Issue in Einstein’s Concept of Time

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How to cite: Niemz, M. H.; Stein, S. W. An Issue in Einstein’s Concept of Time. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v25 Niemz, M. H.; Stein, S. W. An Issue in Einstein’s Concept of Time. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v25

Abstract

Today’s concept of time is based on Einstein’s theories of special (SR) and general relativity (GR). Many physicists anticipate that GR has an issue since it is not compatible with quantum mechanics. Here we show: Predictions made by SR and GR are correct, but “Einstein time” (Einstein’s concept of time, proper time of one observer) has an issue. SR and GR work well for one observer describing his reality and for another observer describing his reality. Yet Einstein time distracts from a master reference frame (birthplace of each observer’s unique reality) that is beyond SR and GR. In Euclidean relativity (ER), we replace Einstein time with “Euclidean time” (proper time of all objects/observers). In Euclidean spacetime (ES), all energy is moving radially away from “an origin” (the Big Bang) at the speed of light. For each object, time flows in a unique 4D direction related to its position. Unlike other ER models, we claim that an observer’s reality is only created by projecting ES orthogonally to his proper 3D space and to his proper flow of time. ER gives us the same Lorentz factor as in SR and the same gravitational time dilation as in GR, but now we learn that they stem from a projection. ER outperforms SR in explaining time’s arrow and mc2. ER outperforms a GR-based cosmology in solving competing Hubble constants and declaring cosmic inflation, expansion of space, and dark energy redundant. Most important, ER is compatible with quantum mechanics: It solves the wave–particle duality and quantum entanglement while declaring non-locality redundant.

Keywords

cosmology; Hubble constant; gravitation; wave–particle duality; entanglement

Subject

Physical Sciences, Quantum Science and Technology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 14 March 2023
Commenter: Markolf Niemz
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: We improved these lines of the new version:
Lines 10-12,
Line 17,
Lines 45-46,
Line 56,
Lines 103-105,
Lines 132-134,
Lines 167-168,
Lines 224-225,
Lines 274-277,
Lines 785-786,
Line 826,
Lines 831-832.
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