Preprint Article Version 67 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Euclidean Relativity Solves the Hubble Constant Tension

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How to cite: Niemz, M. H. Euclidean Relativity Solves the Hubble Constant Tension. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v67 Niemz, M. H. Euclidean Relativity Solves the Hubble Constant Tension. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v67

Abstract

Special relativity (SR) and general relativity (GR) describe nature in “subjective concepts” (concepts of an observer). Relative space and time—or waves and particles—are examples of such concepts. Despite the Lorentz covariance of SR and the general covariance of GR, the perspectives of observers are always egocentric. Even coordinate-free formulations of SR/GR based on a parameterization do not provide a “holistic view of nature” (comprehensive view of nature from all possible perspectives at the same instant in time) because there is no absolute time in SR/GR. I show: Euclidean relativity (ER) describes nature in “objective concepts” (concepts that are immanent in all objects). Relative space and time become “pure distance”. Waves and particles become “pure energy”. Each object’s proper space d1, d2, d3 and its proper time τ span a 4D Euclidean spacetime (ES), where d1, d2, d3 and d4 = are pure distances. All energy moves through ES at the speed c. For each object, proper time flows in the direction of its 4D motion. Thus, there is a relative 4D vector “flow of proper time”. The invariant parameter is absolute, cosmic time t. An observer’s reality is created by projecting ES orthogonally to his proper space and to his proper time. ER compares to a “heliocentric model 2.0”, where the sun is the center of our solar system but not of our galaxy. That model provides a holistic view from “beyond” (outside) our galaxy. ER provides a holistic view from beyond each observer’s reality. SR and GR remain valid in each observer’s reality, but only ER solves the Hubble constant tension and 14 more mysteries. ER solves them geometrically—without field equations.

Keywords

spacetime; cosmology; dark energy; quantum mechanics; entanglement; non-locality

Subject

Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 15 June 2024
Commenter:
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Again, there are only a few minor improvements in these lines of the new version:
line 6 (Abstract),
lines 11-21 (Abstract),
lines 125-135,
lines 158-163,
lines 190-195.
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