Preprint Article Version 22 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

An Issue in Einstein’s Concept of Time

Version 1 : Received: 25 July 2022 / Approved: 26 July 2022 / Online: 26 July 2022 (09:39:10 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 27 July 2022 / Approved: 28 July 2022 / Online: 28 July 2022 (03:47:22 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 31 July 2022 / Approved: 1 August 2022 / Online: 1 August 2022 (09:01:17 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 2 August 2022 / Approved: 3 August 2022 / Online: 3 August 2022 (04:04:29 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 3 August 2022 / Approved: 4 August 2022 / Online: 4 August 2022 (04:51:16 CEST)
Version 6 : Received: 23 August 2022 / Approved: 24 August 2022 / Online: 24 August 2022 (05:01:17 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 28 August 2022 / Approved: 29 August 2022 / Online: 29 August 2022 (05:34:28 CEST)
Version 8 : Received: 4 September 2022 / Approved: 5 September 2022 / Online: 5 September 2022 (05:24:55 CEST)
Version 9 : Received: 5 September 2022 / Approved: 6 September 2022 / Online: 6 September 2022 (03:44:41 CEST)
Version 10 : Received: 6 October 2022 / Approved: 7 October 2022 / Online: 7 October 2022 (08:29:57 CEST)
Version 11 : Received: 16 October 2022 / Approved: 17 October 2022 / Online: 17 October 2022 (04:12:56 CEST)
Version 12 : Received: 14 November 2022 / Approved: 15 November 2022 / Online: 15 November 2022 (02:52:14 CET)
Version 13 : Received: 21 December 2022 / Approved: 22 December 2022 / Online: 22 December 2022 (03:14:47 CET)
Version 14 : Received: 27 December 2022 / Approved: 27 December 2022 / Online: 27 December 2022 (02:08:51 CET)
Version 15 : Received: 28 December 2022 / Approved: 28 December 2022 / Online: 28 December 2022 (03:07:42 CET)
Version 16 : Received: 29 December 2022 / Approved: 29 December 2022 / Online: 29 December 2022 (02:41:35 CET)
Version 17 : Received: 30 December 2022 / Approved: 30 December 2022 / Online: 30 December 2022 (01:55:51 CET)
Version 18 : Received: 3 January 2023 / Approved: 3 January 2023 / Online: 3 January 2023 (06:44:05 CET)
Version 19 : Received: 26 January 2023 / Approved: 27 January 2023 / Online: 27 January 2023 (07:05:20 CET)
Version 20 : Received: 6 February 2023 / Approved: 7 February 2023 / Online: 7 February 2023 (02:29:22 CET)
Version 21 : Received: 14 February 2023 / Approved: 15 February 2023 / Online: 15 February 2023 (03:05:26 CET)
Version 22 : Received: 23 February 2023 / Approved: 24 February 2023 / Online: 24 February 2023 (03:41:34 CET)
Version 23 : Received: 26 February 2023 / Approved: 27 February 2023 / Online: 27 February 2023 (07:58:55 CET)
Version 24 : Received: 5 March 2023 / Approved: 6 March 2023 / Online: 6 March 2023 (06:25:09 CET)
Version 25 : Received: 13 March 2023 / Approved: 14 March 2023 / Online: 14 March 2023 (06:39:18 CET)
Version 26 : Received: 15 March 2023 / Approved: 16 March 2023 / Online: 16 March 2023 (01:55:51 CET)
Version 27 : Received: 21 March 2023 / Approved: 22 March 2023 / Online: 22 March 2023 (03:09:52 CET)
Version 28 : Received: 24 March 2023 / Approved: 24 March 2023 / Online: 24 March 2023 (02:19:05 CET)
Version 29 : Received: 2 April 2023 / Approved: 3 April 2023 / Online: 3 April 2023 (05:27:14 CEST)
Version 30 : Received: 9 April 2023 / Approved: 10 April 2023 / Online: 10 April 2023 (04:28:36 CEST)
Version 31 : Received: 10 April 2023 / Approved: 11 April 2023 / Online: 11 April 2023 (04:01:12 CEST)
Version 32 : Received: 24 April 2023 / Approved: 24 April 2023 / Online: 24 April 2023 (05:42:54 CEST)
Version 33 : Received: 3 May 2023 / Approved: 5 May 2023 / Online: 5 May 2023 (02:52:40 CEST)
Version 34 : Received: 7 May 2023 / Approved: 9 May 2023 / Online: 9 May 2023 (07:39:15 CEST)
Version 35 : Received: 25 June 2023 / Approved: 26 June 2023 / Online: 26 June 2023 (04:45:05 CEST)
Version 36 : Received: 1 October 2023 / Approved: 2 October 2023 / Online: 2 October 2023 (04:04:45 CEST)
Version 37 : Received: 8 October 2023 / Approved: 9 October 2023 / Online: 9 October 2023 (03:05:30 CEST)
Version 38 : Received: 19 October 2023 / Approved: 19 October 2023 / Online: 19 October 2023 (02:03:16 CEST)
Version 39 : Received: 24 October 2023 / Approved: 25 October 2023 / Online: 25 October 2023 (10:09:24 CEST)
Version 40 : Received: 26 October 2023 / Approved: 26 October 2023 / Online: 26 October 2023 (10:41:07 CEST)
Version 41 : Received: 27 October 2023 / Approved: 27 October 2023 / Online: 27 October 2023 (11:41:02 CEST)
Version 42 : Received: 13 November 2023 / Approved: 13 November 2023 / Online: 13 November 2023 (11:34:06 CET)
Version 43 : Received: 22 November 2023 / Approved: 23 November 2023 / Online: 23 November 2023 (02:37:26 CET)
Version 44 : Received: 29 November 2023 / Approved: 29 November 2023 / Online: 29 November 2023 (11:08:20 CET)
Version 45 : Received: 3 January 2024 / Approved: 4 January 2024 / Online: 4 January 2024 (15:17:43 CET)
Version 46 : Received: 10 January 2024 / Approved: 10 January 2024 / Online: 11 January 2024 (01:50:35 CET)
Version 47 : Received: 1 February 2024 / Approved: 2 February 2024 / Online: 2 February 2024 (04:56:17 CET)
Version 48 : Received: 6 February 2024 / Approved: 7 February 2024 / Online: 7 February 2024 (06:49:43 CET)
Version 49 : Received: 8 February 2024 / Approved: 9 February 2024 / Online: 9 February 2024 (10:50:47 CET)
Version 50 : Received: 22 February 2024 / Approved: 23 February 2024 / Online: 23 February 2024 (09:29:35 CET)
Version 51 : Received: 28 February 2024 / Approved: 29 February 2024 / Online: 29 February 2024 (11:41:20 CET)
Version 52 : Received: 3 March 2024 / Approved: 4 March 2024 / Online: 4 March 2024 (10:21:59 CET)
Version 53 : Received: 17 March 2024 / Approved: 18 March 2024 / Online: 18 March 2024 (10:38:54 CET)
Version 54 : Received: 19 March 2024 / Approved: 20 March 2024 / Online: 20 March 2024 (08:24:52 CET)
Version 55 : Received: 23 March 2024 / Approved: 24 March 2024 / Online: 25 March 2024 (08:32:30 CET)
Version 56 : Received: 26 March 2024 / Approved: 27 March 2024 / Online: 27 March 2024 (06:35:00 CET)
Version 57 : Received: 9 April 2024 / Approved: 10 April 2024 / Online: 10 April 2024 (10:57:58 CEST)
Version 58 : Received: 18 April 2024 / Approved: 19 April 2024 / Online: 19 April 2024 (04:51:55 CEST)

How to cite: Niemz, M.H.; Stein, S.W. An Issue in Einstein’s Concept of Time. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v22 Niemz, M.H.; Stein, S.W. An Issue in Einstein’s Concept of Time. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v22

Abstract

Today’s concept of time is based on Einstein’s theories of special (SR) and general relativity (GR). Many physicists anticipate that GR has an issue since it is not compatible with quantum mechanics. Here we show: Predictions made by SR and GR are correct, but “Einstein time” (Einstein’s concept of time, proper time of one observer) has an issue. SR and GR work well for one observer describing his reality and for another observer describing his reality, but they lack a “master reference frame” from which either one reality could be deduced at once. We replace Einstein time with “Euclidean time” (proper time of all objects/observers) and SR/GR with Euclidean relativity (ER). In Euclidean spacetime (ES), all energy is moving radially away from an “origin” (Big Bang) at the speed of light. For each object, time flows in a unique 4D direction related to its position. Unlike other ER models, we claim that an observer’s reality is only created by projecting ES to his proper 3D space and to his proper flow of time. ER gives us the same Lorentz factor as in SR and the same gravitational time dilation as in GR. Curved trajectories in Cartesian ES coordinates replace “curved spacetime” in GR. ER outperforms SR in explaining time’s arrow and mc2. ER outperforms a GR-based cosmology in solving competing Hubble constants and declaring cosmic inflation, expansion of space, and dark energy redundant. Most important, ER is compatible with quantum mechanics: It solves the wave–particle duality and quantum entanglement while declaring non-locality redundant.

Keywords

cosmology; Hubble constant; gravitation; wave–particle duality; quantum entanglement

Subject

Physical Sciences, Quantum Science and Technology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 24 February 2023
Commenter: Markolf Niemz
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Our manuscript is still in the peer-review process. We improved these lines of the last version:
Lines 53-56
Lines 76-83
Lines 166-173
Lines 252-265
Lines 340-344
Lines 353-354
Lines 397-402
Lines 438-442
+ Respond to this comment

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our Diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
* All users must log in before leaving a comment
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 1
Metrics 0


×
Alerts
Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.