Preprint Article Version 26 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

An Issue in Einstein’s Concept of Time

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How to cite: Niemz, M.H.; Stein, S.W. An Issue in Einstein’s Concept of Time. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v26 Niemz, M.H.; Stein, S.W. An Issue in Einstein’s Concept of Time. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v26

Abstract

Today’s concept of time is based on Einstein’s theories of special (SR) and general relativity (GR). Many physicists anticipate that GR has an issue since it is not compatible with quantum mechanics. Here we show: SR and GR work well for each observer describing his unique reality, but “Einstein time” (Einstein’s concept of time) has an issue. It arranges all events in the universe in a 1D line on my watch, yet neither cosmology nor quantum mechanics care about my watch. Einstein time hides the big picture! In Euclidean relativity (ER), we replace egocentric Einstein time (proper time of one observer) with universal Euclidean time (proper time of all objects/observers). It originates from an absolute point O (Big Bang). In Euclidean spacetime (ES), all energy is moving radially away from O at the speed c. For each object, time flows in a unique 4D direction related to its position. Unlike other ER models, we claim that an observer’s reality is only created by projecting ES orthogonally to his proper 3D space and to his proper flow of time. ER gives us the same Lorentz factor as in SR and the same gravitational time dilation as in GR, but now we learn that they stem from a projection. ER outperforms SR in explaining time’s arrow and mc2. ER outperforms a GR-based cosmology in solving competing Hubble constants and declaring cosmic inflation, expansion of space, and dark energy redundant. Most important, ER is compatible with quantum mechanics: It solves the wave–particle duality and quantum entanglement while declaring non-locality redundant.

Keywords

cosmology; Hubble constant; gravitation; wave–particle duality; entanglement

Subject

Physical Sciences, Quantum Science and Technology

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 16 March 2023
Commenter: Markolf Niemz
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: We improved these lines of the new version:
Lines 8-14,
Lines 131-136,
Lines 404-406,
Lines 408-412.
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