Preprint Article Version 62 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Euclidean Relativity Solves the Hubble Constant Tension

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How to cite: Niemz, M. H. Euclidean Relativity Solves the Hubble Constant Tension. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v62 Niemz, M. H. Euclidean Relativity Solves the Hubble Constant Tension. Preprints 2022, 2022070399. https://doi.org/10.20944/preprints202207.0399.v62

Abstract

Special relativity (SR) and general relativity (GR) describe nature in “subjective concepts” (concepts of an observer). Examples of such concepts are space and time—or waves and particles. Despite the Lorentz covariance of SR, the general covariance of GR, and coordinate-free formulations of SR/GR, the perspective of each observer is egocentric. Even if we consider all these egocentric perspectives, we will not craft a “holistic view” of nature (a view taken from all perspectives in space at the same instant in time) because there is no absolute time in SR/GR. Here I show: Euclidean relativity (ER) describes nature in “objective concepts” (concepts that are immanent in all objects). Space and time are replaced by “pure distance”. Waves and particles are replaced by “pure energy”. Each object’s proper space d1, d2, d3 and its proper time τ span an absolute 4D Euclidean spacetime (ES), where d1, d2, d3 and d4 = are pure distances. The invariant parameter in ER is absolute, cosmic time t. An observer’s reality is created by projecting ES orthogonally to his proper space and to his proper time. ER compares to a “heliocentric model 2.0”, in which the sun is the center of our solar system but not of our galaxy. That model provides a holistic view from “beyond” (outside of) our galaxy. Likewise, ER provides a holistic view from beyond space. The “master reality” ES (described by ER) is beyond each observer’s reality (described by SR/GR). ER solves 15 mysteries geometrically, such as the Hubble constant tension and entanglement. Field equations are not required.

Keywords

spacetime; cosmology; dark energy; quantum mechanics; entanglement; non-locality

Subject

Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 17 May 2024
Commenter:
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: The most important changes are in these lines of the new version:
lines 5-20 (Abstract),
lines 22-29,
lines 60-67,
lines 123-129,
lines 210-212,
lines 526-527,
lines 584-588,
lines 624-631,
lines 646-650.
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