ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0466.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antibiotic; diarrhea; prevalence, shigella; shigellosis
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:08:52 CEST)
Infectious diarrhoea such as shigellosis causes considerable morbidity and mortality, especially in infants, immune-compromised individuals and those living with HIV/AIDS. It is endemic in developing countries and in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa, where diarrhoeal disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to establish incidences of Shigella, its serotype and resistant pattern of isolates from human faeces from residence of Johannesburg, South Africa. All stools received between January to April from the private healthcare system were cultured on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate and MacConkey Agar and Shigella was confirmed by standard biochemical reactions and a serological method. An antimicrobial sensitivity test was used. A total of 11 009 samples from patients between 22 days to 94 years old yielded 110 Shigella isolates, of which 47 (43%) were S. flexneri, 61 (55%) were S. sonnei, 1 (1%) was S. dysenteriae and 1 (1 %) was S. boydii. The majority of patients were children between < 1 to 5 years, 76 (69%), followed by those between 6 to 10 years 13 (12%). In children up to 10 years, S. sonnei was confirmed in 52 cases (59%) and S. flexneri in 36 cases (41%). Overall, 53 (48%) males and 57 (52%) females were infected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0408.v1
Online: 16 December 2020 (13:11:26 CET)
This experiment was carried out to determine the overall prevalence of pigeon diseases and especially emphasized on prevalence of parasitic diseases in study areas. During this study 45 farms were selected which have >20 pair of pigeon for commercial and >10 pair pigeon for traditional farm in the three study area namely Rajshahi, Natore and Pabna district of Bangladesh. The data were collected from different farm within the study area through a questionnaire and interview schedule with the farm owners. During one year of study period a total Out of 3677 pigeon, positive case in cage of external parasites were 722 and internal parasite positives 114 from 263 fecal sample. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal and external parasites in pigeon at northern Bangladesh is obtained. The infestation of lice Columbaecula columbae and fly Pseudolynchia canariensis were observed 18.08% and 1.55% respectively. The present study found two species of ectoparasites lice and fly. Diversity of ectoparasite in birds infestation may be depend on many factors, which may include home range, behavior, size and roosting habit of the host. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in pigeon are founded that 43.34% in research area. Specific incidence was 22.81% in Ascariasis, 18.63% in Capilariasis and 1.90% in Raillietina parasite in pigeon. Ascaridia colombae is one of the most common (22.81%) helminth species in pigeons in this study. The effect of breed of pigeon observed in present studies the highest in indigenous (63.47%) and lowest exotic (36%) prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite was observed. The specific percentages of Ascariasis, Capilariasis and Raillatina gastrointestinal parasites of pigeon were found 20% & 31.74%; 14% & 30.15% and 2% & 1.58% in exotic & indigenous breed, respectively. In the present study, there is a relation between the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections with the age of the pigeons which showed that high prevalence in adults (50%) and compare to young (22.22%). but it was statistically significant (P>0.05). In relation with farming system the gastrointestinal parasitic incidence of pigeon was observed in modern and tradition farming system, the highest incidence was 71.16% in traditional & lowest 31.14% in modern farming. When observed specifically in Ascariasis, Capillariasis & Raillietina were 16.39% & 37.41%; 13.11% & 31.25% and 1.63% & 2.5% in modern & traditional, respectively. The effect of regions on the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in pigeon was observed in Pabna (68.32%), Natore (57.84%) and Rajshahi (33.33%). The specific percentages of Ascariasis, Capilariasis and Raillatina gastrointestinal parasites of pigeon were 18.18%, 33.33% & 26.31%; 14.54%, 33.33% & 23.38% and 0.606%, 1.66% & 7.89% in Rajshahi, Pabna and Natore, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COPD; COVID-19; prevalence; prognosis
Online: 11 September 2020 (05:47:59 CEST)
Patients with COPD have a higher prevalence of coronary ischemia and other factors that put them at risk for COVID-19-related complications. We aimed to explore the impact of COVID-19 in a large population-based sample of patients with COPD in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. We analyzed clinical data in electronic health records from January 1st to May 10th, 2020 by using Natural Language Processing through the SAVANA Manager® clinical platform. Out of 31,633 COPD patients, 793 had a diagnosis of COVID-19. The proportion of patients with COVID-19 in the COPD population (2,51%; CI95% 2,33 – 2,68) was significantly higher than in the general population aged > 40 years (1,16%; 95%CI 1,14 – 1,18); P < .001. Compared with COPD-free individuals, COPD patients with COVID-19 showed significantly poorer disease prognosis, as evaluated by hospitalizations (31,1 % vs 39,8%: OR 1,57; 95%CI 1,14 – 1,18) and mortality (3,4% vs 9,3%: OR 2,93; 95%CI 2,27 – 3,79). Patients with COPD and COVID-19 were significantly older (75 vs. 66 years), predominantly male (83% vs 17%), smoked more frequently, and had more comorbidities than their non-COPD counterparts. Pneumonia was the most common diagnosis among COPD patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 (59%); 19% of patients showed pulmonary infiltrates suggestive of pneumonia and heart failure. Mortality in COPD patients with COVID-19 was associated with older age and prevalence of heart failure (P<0.05). COPD patients with COVID-19 showed higher rates of hospitalization and mortality, mainly associated with pneumonia. This clinical profile is different from exacerbations caused by other respiratory viruses in the winter season.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0311.v1
Online: 14 August 2020 (08:15:09 CEST)
Prevalence of overweight and obesity are escalating globally among the general population. However, there are limited evidence on the trends and prevalence of overweight /obesity in the military setting. Increased rates of injuries, low work productivity, incurred higher healthcare costs and prematurely discharge from service are consequences of overweight/obesity among the military. Therefore, we aimed to systematically describe the trends and prevalence of overweight and obesity in the military population, by regions and military service branches. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were used. Inclusion criteria were military population (inclusive of all service branches) with BMI reported as the overweight/obesity indicator. Population related to military but not exclusively military personnel such as the retirees, the veterans and their dependents were excluded. From the 27 included studies, 13 were published between year 2010 to 2014 and half were conducted in the United States. Overall, studies showed increasing trend in the prevalence of overweight (30% to 50%) and obesity (2% to 30%); only one study showed a decreasing trend of 0.9% and 0.6% for the prevalence of overweight and obesity respectively. However, the rates of increment differed between countries, where Asian countries demonstrated lower overweight prevalence compared to the United States and the European countries. In conclusion, the military population is not protected from overweight and obesity. Interventions should be implemented to prevent overweight / obesity among the military personnel.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0433.v1
Online: 6 May 2020 (12:34:07 CEST)
The present study was designed to check the prevalence of cancer in residents of District Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Patients' data were collected from three consulted Institutes during the year 2005-09. The data was analyzed for different parameters; year-wise, age-wise prevalence, gender-wise, occupation wise and marital status wise prevalence, addiction status, type of cancer, site affected, diagnostic tests performed and treatment of cancer. Results revealed that during 2005, a high number of cancer patients were present. A total of 172 patients were in the age group of 51-60 years, while only 11 patients were in the age group of 80 plus years. Female patients were more as compared to males. Married people were highly affected than unmarried. Patients addicted to smoking were highly affected than non-addicted patients. Malignancy was high in patients as compared to benign cancer. The most affected site was the blood system. The most affected people occupation wise were housewives followed by the farmer. A biopsy was mostly conducted for the diagnosis of cancer. Most of the patients were treated with chemotherapeutic agents. It has been revealed that the number of cancer patients decreased per annum. Moreover, the study should be conducted on the general population of Bannu as well as of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to sort out the total number of patients. The government should launch preventive, diagnostic programs so that prevalence may be minimized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Population screening; eye disease; prevalence; awareness
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:36:36 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Vision impairments and related blindness are major public health problems. Prevalence of eye disease and barriers to optimal care markedly vary among different geographic areas. In the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), an epidemiological surveillance on the state of ocular health in the population aged over 50 years was performed in 2019. Materials and Methods: Participants were sampled to be representative of the region inhabitants. Data were collected through a telephone interview and an eye examination. Prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy, maculopathy was assessed. The Cohen’s kappa (k) was used to measure the agreement between presence of eye disease and awareness of the disease by the participants. Results: Overall, 983 people with mean age of 66.0±9.5 years were included in the study. The prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, maculopathy, and retinopathy was 52.6%, 5.3%, 5.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Among the total of affected people, those aware of their condition were 21.8% (k=0.12, slight agreement) for cataract, 65.4% (k=0.78, substantial agreement) for glaucoma, 7.1% (k=0.10, slight agreement) for maculopathy, and 0% for retinopathy (k=-0.004, agreement lower than that expected by chance). Refractive defects were corrected in the vast majority of participants. Conclusion: In the Abruzzo region, about two third of citizens aged 50 years or over suffer from cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy or maculopathy, which are recognized as leading causes of blindness. Many people with eye disease do not know they have it. These data can be used by clinicians and policymakers to undertake clinical, political, and social actions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0522.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Dementia; prevalence; Tanzania; sustainable development goals
Online: 21 June 2021 (15:22:37 CEST)
As a result of an increasing population of aged people in sub-Saharan Africa, dementia is predicted to surge up to 90% by 2030. This review is set to assess the prevalence of dementia, for 65+ aged population in sub-Saharan states and particularly in Tanzania. Subsequently, the review will identify the possible risks factors – age, gender, level of education, cardiovascular problems, diabetes and mild cognitive impairment – and will lay out the challenges of reducing the dementia burden in Tanzania. Additionally, the review explores the current approaches in solving dementia disorders, including a general view of the public understanding of dementia. Also, the review recognises the gaps in government funding to mental health, a barrier to service access and the need for further research on Alzheimer’s and other dementias. Lastly, the review links the sustainable development goals (SDGs) addressed and appreciate the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the fight against dementia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0551.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:24:09 CET)
The data for the study on the epidemiology of bovine mastitis were collected fromNovember 2015 to February 2016 to investigate the prevalence of mastitis in administrative towns of three selected districts of Arsi zone, Oromia Regional State, namely Iteya, Sagure, and Asella, Ethiopia; and to analyze the association between the risk factors and mastitis occurrence. Sample cows were selected and examined for clinical mastitis and at the same time, milk samples were evaluated both clinically and using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). Some parameters of the cows which have biological relation with this disease together with other potential risk factors were collected along with primary data collection. The analysis of the primary data showed that overall mastitis prevalence in the locations covered by the study was 28.6% of which 83.3% was subclinical, while 16.7% were clinical mastitis cases. Analysis related to the investigation of the existence of an association between risk factors and mastitis revealed that there was a significant association between the occurrence of mastitis and two of the risk factors evaluated, breed and age of the cow. The other risk factors investigated (i.e. parity, location, and lactation stage had no significant association with mastitis occurrence). Since mastitis is a complex disease that results from the interaction of different factors, it may be difficult to limit it to only some given factors. Environment and management factors and their combination may also have an additional impact on the epidemiology of the disease. A prevalence with the indicated magnitude together with the added effect of a lower level of awareness of the society about milk-associated zoonoses implies that this disease causes significant public health problems. In addition, mastitis may cause silent economic loss through unnoticed production loss along with reduced milk yield from subclinical and clinical (e.g. blind teats) cases. Due to a lack of awareness about mastitis and/or negligence, farmers in all corners of the country are suffering from economic and public health problems imposed by mastitis. This lack of awareness about mastitis-associated problems and/or negligence could be a possible reason for the use of raw milk which is a common scenario particularly in pastoral areas and the selling of adulterated milk which is becoming increasingly practiced in Ethiopia which is also true in these specific localities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0015.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: prevalence; soil transmitted helminth; Nkpor; Mgbodohia
Online: 2 January 2018 (12:25:01 CET)
Soil transmitted helminthic infections (STHIs) are common public health concern among children in Sub saharan Africa. A study to determine the prevalence of these infections among pupils in two primary schools in Nkpor and Mgbodohia communities, Obio/Akpor Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria was conducted. The formo-ether concentration technique was used to concentrate and separate the eggs and cysts from the faeces. Out of 107 pupils investigated, 81 (75.7 %) were positive for at least one helminthic infection. Although more females (54.3%) were infected than males (45.7%), there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in the prevalence of Soil transmitted helminthic infections in relation to sex. There was a significant difference (P>0.5) in infection among two major age groups (5-10years-45% and 11-15years-41.9%). Children within the age group of 16-20years had the least infection (9.9%). Out of the 81 children positive for STH, 47 (43.9 %,), 23 (21.5%), 11 (10.3%) and 5(4.7%) had Ascaris lumbricoide, Hookworm, Trichirus trichiura and mixed infection (A.lumbricoide + T. trichiura) respectively. Ascaris lumbricoide (43.9%) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in prevalence than other parasites. Soil transmited helminthic infections are a public health among children concern in the study area. Provision of portable water, toilet facilities and good education on the epidemiology of STHIs in addition to regular de-worming will enhance control measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0319.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Disposable E-cigarettes Youth Young Adult Prevalence
Online: 17 November 2022 (02:29:42 CET)
Background: In the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey disposable e-cigarette devices are shown to be the most widely used e-cigarette devices amongst U.S. youth. In this paper we report the results of research designed to estimate the prevalence of use of BIDI® Stick branded e-cigarettes amongst youth (aged 13 to 17), and under-age young adults (aged 18 to 20) in the U.S. Methods: Cross sectional online survey of a nationally representative sample of 1,215 youth (13 17 years) recruited via the IPSOS probability-based KnowledgePanel and 3,370 young adults aged 18 to 24 - amongst whom 1,125 were aged 18 to 20. Results: Amongst youth aged 13 to 17, 0.91% [95% CI: 0.44-1.68] or 190,000 [95% CI: 90,000-350,000] youth reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick branded product and 0.04% [95% CI: 0.00-0.38] or less than 10,000 youth reported currently using a BIDI® Stick branded product. Amongst those young adults aged 18 to 20, 3.90% [95% CI: 2.49-5.81] or 470,000 [95%CI: 300,000-700,000] reported having ever used a BIDI® Stick product whilst 0.60% [95% CI: 0.17-1.55] or 70,000 [95% CI: 20,000-180,000] reported they now use a BIDI® Stick product “every day” or “some days”. Conclusions: The low prevalence of youth and underage adult current use of the BIDI® Stick e cigarette suggests that this product is not responsible for the recent growth in the use of disposable e-cigarettes by youth within the U.S. as demonstrated by the 2022 National Youth Tobacco Survey.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Colonization; Prevalence; GBS; Resistance phenotype
Online: 22 August 2022 (08:04:16 CEST)
Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a commensal in the body, causes a wide range of infectious diseases. The colonisation levels of GBS and its resistance profile to antibiotics provide important information useful for orienting prevention strategies. There is little data available on the subject with determination of resistance phenotypes in Cameroon. We therefore aimed to determine the prevalence of colonization, antibiotic resistance, including patterns of inducible resistance to clindamycin of GBS in Yaounde. To achieve this goal, a prospective cross-sectional study with an analytical component was carried out from the 28th June to the 29th August 2020 at the BIOSANTE laboratory and the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetrics and Paediatrics hospital. Vaginal swabs and urine were collected on 163 women. This samples were analysed using 5% defibrinated sheep blood agar and chocolate plus polyvitex agar. The isolates were identified using the morphology of the colony, Gram staining, haemolysis, catalase test and latex grouping test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done by disk diffusion method following the recommendations of the ACFSM 2019. The double disk diffusion method was used to identify isolates with clindamycin inducible resistance. Our data was analysed by the software SPSS version 2.1. The results obtained showed that the global prevalence of colonization by GBS was 37% (57/163), 40.35% in non-pregnant women and 59.65% in pregnant women. Pregnancy (P-value = 0.019) and gestational age (P-value = 0.025) constituted the risk factors of maternal colonization by GBS. In addition, the strains of GBS were resistant to all antibiotics tested. A D test showcased that 64.7% of GBS were resistant in a constitutive manner to clindamycin. We also note the presence of M phenotypes. As a whole, our results demonstrate that the rate of GBS colonization in this study was similar or higher than those in the previous report in Cameroon. All this indicates that attention should be paid to this bacterium in the monitoring of antimicrobial resistance and in the care of pregnant women and newborns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0273.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: 18S; Cryptosporidium; dairy cattle; gp60; genotyping; prevalence
Online: 19 October 2021 (11:54:33 CEST)
Cryptosporidium is comprised an apicomplexan parasitic protist, which infects a wide range of hosts, causing cryptosporidiosis. In cattle farms, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis results in high mortality in calves leading to considerable economic loss in the livestock industry. Infected animals may also act as a major reservoir of Cryptosporidium spp., in particular C. parvum, the most common cause of cryptosporidiosis in calves. This poses a significant risk to other farms via breeding centres, to trading of livestock and to human health. This study, funded by the Interreg-2-seas programme, is a part of a global project aimed at strategies to tackle cryptosporidiosis. To reach this target, it was essential to determine whether prevalence was dependent on the studied countries or if the issue was borderless. Indeed, C. parvum occurrence was assessed across dairy farms in certain regions of Belgium, France and the Netherlands. At the same time, the animal-to-animal transmission of the circulating C. parvum subtypes was studied. To accomplish this, 1084 faecal samples, corresponding to 57 dairy-farms from all three countries, were analysed. Well-established protocols amplifying the 18S rDNA and gp60 genes fragments, followed by DNA sequencing, were used for the detection and subtyping C. parvum; the DNA sequences obtained were further characterised using a combination of bioinformatics and phylogenetics methods. Our results show 25.7%, 24.9% and 20.8% prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Belgium, France and the Netherlands respectively. Overall, 93% of the farms were Cryptosporidium positive. The gp60 subtyping demonstrated a significant number of the C. parvum positives belonged to the IIa allelic family, which has been also detected in humans. Consequently, this study highlights how widespread is C. parvum in dairy farms and endorses cattle as a major carrier of zoonotic C. parvum subtypes, which subsequently pose a significant threat to human health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: Haemorrhage; Prevalence; postpartum; Postpartum haemorrhage; Peramiho; Songea.
Online: 24 September 2021 (08:20:23 CEST)
Background: The prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is increasing globally that is from 6.5% in 2000 to 11% in 2016. But there are regional variations where there is decrease of PPH in some parts of Asia and increase in Africa and developed countries. Objectives: The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, causes and associated factors for postpartum haemorrhage at St. Joseph referral hospital in Peramiho- Songea from November 2017 to December 2019. Method: The retrospective cross-sectional hospital-based study was used and data was obtained from maternity hospital registry book/data base of St. Joseph mission hospital in Peramiho Songea, from November 2017 to November 2019. Descriptive data was analysed by tables and graphs. Results: The prevalence of PPH in Peramiho referral hospital was 1.3% in 2017, 1.26% in 2018 and 1.4% in 2019. The overage prevalence for the three years is 1.3%. However, 73.3% of total prevalence is from home deliveries in rural areas. The main cause of PPH in the hospital was uterus atony (42%), retained placenta (15.5%), 3rd and 4th grade tears (11.2%), uterine rupture (8.1%) and coagulopathy (5.6%). The main attributing factors were age >35years (34%), other antenatal pregnancy complication (27%), previous PPH (18.6%), Antenatal anaemia (16%), placenta previa, Eclampsia, preeclampsia (12%) each. Conclusion: The prevalence of PPH from this study is slightly high with the main cause being uterine atony and affected mainly those undergone SVD where about two quarter were home deliveries. However further research studies are needed to investigate the main reason for higher home deliveries in Peramiho residence and nearby area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Anaemia; Antenatal; Dar es Salaam; hospital; pregnant; prevalence
Online: 17 October 2022 (07:58:27 CEST)
Background: Anaemia in pregnancy have been a cause of serious concern and burden as it contributes significantly to high maternal mortality worldwide. This study aims to explore how big the burden of anaemia in pregnant women is, how it can be reduced during antenatal clinic in order to minimize risks and complications of anaemia among pregnant women. Method: An analytical cross-sectional study design used, involved 560 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at three regional referral hospitals in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania, from January to June 2022. Those willing to participate and met inclusion criteria were included in the study. Data was collected by interview through a structured questionnaire. Analysis of data was done using SPSS v25.0, (p<0.001) considered statistical significant. Results: A total of 560 pregnant women were interviewed. The prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy is high about 70.9% whereby 61.2% participants had mild anaemia, 33.2% participants had moderate anaemia and 25.6% participants had severe anaemia. Significant associations were found between age, education level, marital status, Less ANC attendance (<3 visit), lack of health insurance and lack of employment among pregnant women. Conclusion: Prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy women is still high and its predictors highly affect its control. Hence the ministry of health in collaboration with other stakeholders should develop policies, educating community on the importance of antenatal visit for early detection and treatment of anaemia and impacting knowledge to medical personnel in management of anaemia in pregnancy and associated complications in order to decrease maternal mortality rate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0357.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Prototheca bovis; bovine mastitis; microalga; cattle; Ecuador; prevalence
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:59:00 CEST)
The genus Prototheca, unicellular, non-photosynthetic, yeast-like microalgae, is a pathogen of concern for the dairy industry causing bovine mastitis that currently cannot be cured and hence generates significant economic losses in milk production. In this study, for the first time in Ecuador, we identify Prototheca bovis as the etiologic agent of chronic mastitis in dairy cattle. Milk samples (n=458) of cows with chronic mastitis were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA). Microscopy and cytB gene sequencing were used to identify Prototheca, whereby Prototheca bovis was isolated from 15.1% (n=69) of the milk samples, one of the highest infection rates that can be found in the literature in a “non-outbreak” situation. No other Prototheca species were found. We were unable to isolate the alga from environmental samples. We showed that P. bovis was relatively resistant to disinfectants used to sterilize milking equipment on the cattle farms where it was isolated. We discuss how to avoid future infection and also hypothesize that the real prevalence of Prototheca infection in bovine mastitis is probably much higher than what was detected. We recommend a protocol to increase the diagnostic yield in the bacteriology laboratory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: eastern Mediterranean; EMR; hospital; malnutrition; prevalence; systematic review
Online: 7 September 2022 (11:06:27 CEST)
Background: Malnutrition has negative consequences in hospitals, like poor disease recovery, increased mortality, length of hospitalization, readmission, and health care costs.Aims: This review was designed to determine malnutrition prevalence in hospitals located in eastern Mediterranean region (EMR).Study design: To conduct this systematic review, papers, including original articles, related references and conference proceedings on the prevalence of malnutrition in adult hospitalized patients published in international journals and scientific databases from 1 Jan 2017 to 31 Jan 2022 will be included. The following keywords and their alternatives will be used in the literature search: malnutrition, patient, and EMR. The protocol has been registered at PROSPERO (code: CRD42022339426).Methods: After initial screening based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text articles will be read carefully and eligible documents will be selected according to the defined objectives. Afterward, the selected papers will be reviewed for methodological quality and the required information will be extracted. Finally, in case of sufficient data, a meta-analysis will be performed. Screening, selection, quality assessment, and data extraction will be done by at least two independent reviewers.Results: This review is ongoing and will be completed until the end of year 2023.Conclusion: This review aims to provide comprehensive evidence about the prevalence of malnutrition among adult inpatients in EMR hospitals. This can provide regional authorities, health managers and policy makers good information regarding current status to make appropriate decisions for promoting the health status in hospitals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: GeneXpert; MDR-TB; Prevalence; River Nile State; Sudan
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:41:23 CEST)
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there were 558000 new cases with resistance to Rifampicin, of which 82% had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Objectives: We aimed to identify the prevalence of MDR-TB in River Nile state, Sudan, and the risk factors contributing to its occurrence. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional hospital-based study involved 200 specimens taken from patients suspected of having MDR-TB tested using an automated GeneXpert assay. Results: Results of GeneXpert assay showed that the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 81 (40.5%), and out of 81 positive test results there were 13 (16%) had MDR-TB. Additionally, 7 cases of MDR-TB were previously treated which represented about (53%) of MDR patients, the remaining 6 MDR-TB patients were new cases and represented (47%) of MDR-TB patients. Moreover, there were 4 MDR-TB patients who had a history of contact with MDR-TB patients. Conclusion: Prevalence of MDR-TB in River Nile State, Sudan was 16%, which is greater than WHO estimation for Sudan (10.1%). The results revealed that the main risk factor to develop MDR-TB was a history of contact with MDR-TB, so adherence to treatment and social awareness about the spread of MDR-TB are crucial preventive measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Onchocerciasis; Onchocerca volvulus; epilepsy; nodding syndrome; prevalence; ivermectin
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:53:07 CEST)
In June 2020, a door-to-door household survey was conducted in Mvolo County, an onchocerciasis endemic area in South Sudan. A total of 2,357 households containing 15,699 individuals agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 5,046 (32.1%, 95%CI: 31.4-32.9%) had skin itching and 445 (2.8%, 95% CI: 2.6-3.1%) were blind. An epilepsy screening questionnaire identified 813 (5.1%) persons suspected to have epilepsy. Of them, 804 (98.9%) were seen by a medical doctor and in 798 (98.1%) the diagnosis of epilepsy was confirmed. The overall epilepsy prevalence was 50.8/1000 (95% CI: 47.6-54.4/1000) and prevalence of nodding syndrome was 22.4/1000 (95% CI: 20.1-24.9/1000). Younger age, being male, skin itching, blindness and living in a village close to the Naam river were risk factors for epilepsy. The annual incidence of epilepsy was 82.8/100,000 (95% CI: 44.1-141.6/100,000). In conclusion, a high prevalence and incidence of epilepsy was observed in Mvolo, South Sudan. Strengthening the onchocerciasis elimination programme is urgently needed to prevent epilepsy in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Proportionate prevalence; spatial distribution; antibiotics; supportive therapy; Jhenaidah
Online: 5 August 2020 (15:37:06 CEST)
A descriptive epidemiological study has been conducted using hospital database of Teaching Veterinary Hospital (TVH) at Jhenaidah Government Veterinary College (JGVC) from July 2018 to June 2019. The study aimed to estimate the proportionate prevalence of different livestock and poultry diseases along with their spatiotemporal distribution and drug prescribing pattern. A total of 960 clinical cases were recorded during the study period. Ectoparasitic cases were proportionately higher in cattle (25.2%), whereas Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) cases were more frequent in goat (53.4%). The proportionate prevalence of other cases in cattle was Fascioliasis (14.3%), Myiasis (11.2%) and Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) (7.2%). The proportionate prevalence of other cases in goats were vitamin and mineral deficiency (12.3%), bloat (5.2%), abscess (4.7%), and dog bite (1.2%). Again, the proportionate prevalence of poultry diseases was Infectious Bursal Disease (41.2%), salmonellosis (33.4%), fowl cholera (13.7%) and pox (7.8%). Most of the cattle cases were highly prevalent during the summer season except fascioliasis. In goat, PPR was predominated in the rainy season whereas myiasis was in the winter. Around 92% of disease cases were spatially located within the 2.5 km radius of the TVH of JGVC where only 0.9% of disease cases came from >10km away from TVH of JGVC. Simple linear regression identified a significant relation (p=0.01) with the distance and number of diseased animals came to the hospital. Antimicrobials belonging to b-Lactam group were most frequently prescribed for both poultry (48.6%), cattle (32.5%) followed by goat (9.2%), however sulfar drugs (34.8%) were commonly prescribed for goat cases. This type of study is very novel in Jhenaidah region of Bangladesh that might contribute to the researchers for further investigation.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Human papillomavirus (HPV); cervical cancer; prevalence; genotypes; China
Online: 1 August 2020 (16:25:46 CEST)
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a key role in the development of cervical cancer that ranks as the third most common gynecological cancer in China. We attempt to investigate the age and genotype-specific prevalence of HPV DNA in western Chinese females. Methods: A total of 301,880 woman were recruited from 4 different regions of western China. Routine cervical samples were collected and HPV screening was performed using 21 HPV Genotyping test (Hybribio). The overall prevalence, age-specific prevalence, and genotype distribution were analyzed. Results: The overall prevalence of HPV was 18.01%. The high-risk HPV infection rate was 79.14%, the low-risk HPV infection rate was 12.56%, and the mixed HPV infection rate was 8.30%. The most common 4 HR HPV subtypes were HPV-52, 16, 58 and 53, which accounted for 20.49 %, 19.93 %, 14.54 % and 10.01 %. In LR HPV genotype, HPV-6 ranked the highest (28.17 %), followed by HPV-81 (9.09 %), HPV-11 (3.78 %). HPV genotype subgroup analysis also showed that single-type infections had the highest prevalence rate (77.26%) among HPV positive individuals. Among muti-infection genotype, double infection was most common with frequencies of 76.04%. Conclusion: This large report shows that the overall prevalence of HPV was high in China, whose distribution exhibits different patterns across different particular age and regions. Viral genotypes HPV53, 6 were are frequently detected in this population, which is worth of significant clinical attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: acute pharyngitis; rational use of drugs; incidence; prevalence
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:37:07 CET)
According to Indonesia’s result of Basic Health Research of 2013, prevalence of acute respiratory infection in 2007 and 2013 were not different (25.5% and 25.0%, respectively). Identifying the cause of acute pharyngitis is a key point in determining the optimal treatment. The main purpose is to evaluate the rational use of drugs and its irrational impact as well as the correlation of the drug use with the incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis. This study was a descriptive and observational study, carried out retrospectively and concurrently at two community health centers located in Bandung and Cimahi, Indonesia. There were 80.01% over prescription of antibiotics, with a total of 8.98% is non-treatment option, and 62.43% irrational used of corticosteroids. The incidence and prevalence of acute pharyngitis at one health center in Bandung were 2.45% and 2.31%, respectively, with irrationality rate of 83.82%. Those recorded at one health center in Cimahi were 2.11% of incidence and 2.00% of prevalence with irrational rate of 91.29%. It can be concluded that there were still irrational use of medicines in the treatment of acute pharyngitis in community health center. The higher incidence and prevalence might indicate the declining health services quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: dental caries; caries experience; epidemiology, prevalence; risk; public health
Online: 17 January 2023 (08:56:34 CET)
Oral health surveys are essential to assess the dental caries experience and to influence national policies. This retrospective cross-sectional study aims to analysis dental caries experience who sought dental treatment in a reference university dental hospital at the Lisbon Metropolitan Area between January 2016 and March 2020. Full-mouth examination, sociodemographic, behaviors and medical information were included. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression analysis were applied to ascertain risk indicators associated with dental caries experience. A final sample of 9,349 participants (5,592 females/3,757 males) were included, aged 18 to 99 years old. In this population, caries experience was 91.1%, higher in female participants. Age (OR= 1.01, 95% CI [1.00-1.02], occupation (OR= 2.94, 95% CI [2.37-3.65], OR= 3.35, 95% CI [2.40-4.67], OR= 2.55, 95% CI [1.66-3.91], for employed, unemployed and retired, respectively), overweight (OR= 1.52, 95% CI [1.18-1.96]), reporting to never visited a dentist (OR= 0.38, 95% CI [0.23-0.64] and self-reported week teeth status (OR= 2.14, 95% CI [1.40-3.28]) were identified as risk indicators for the presence of dental caries, according to adjusted multivariable logistic analyses. These results highlight a substantial rate of dental experience in a Portuguese cohort and will pave the way for future tailored oral public health programs in Portugal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0188.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Modifiable lifestyle factors; Metabolic disorders; Prevalence; Relationships; Burkina Faso
Online: 12 October 2021 (21:02:23 CEST)
This study aimed to report the magnitude of modifiable lifestyle factors, their relationships with metabolic disorders in Burkinabè adults by using nationally representative data. This cross-sectional study included 4100 adults selected through multistage cluster sampling performed during the first national survey conducted in 2013 in Burkina Faso. The modifiable factors we considered were tooth cleaning, fruit and/or vegetable (FV) intake, substances’ use, physical activity and overweight/obesity, while metabolic syndrome abnormal components defined metabolic disorders. We performed logistic regressions. 31.1% cleaned the teeth at least twice a day, 14.7% consumed five or more FV, 39.7% used alcohol and/or tobacco, the prevalence of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity was respectively 6.6% and 17.7%. About 41.0% had at least two metabolic disorders and 9.5% had at least three. Lifestyle factors associated with having at least two metabolic disorders were overweight/obesity, more FV intake (when five or more aOR=1.5, p<0.001), physical inactivity (aOR=1.3, p<0.05), tooth cleaning (aOR=0.8, p<0.01). Except for consuming five or more FV (aOR=1.4, p=0.09), the same trend of relationships was observed with having at least three metabolic disorders. Excluding overweight/obesity and physical inactivity, unhealthy modifiable lifestyle factors were common and tooth cleaning was found as a protective practice for metabolic disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0615.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Babesiosis; Cattle; Host factors; Prevalence; Tick infestation; South Omo
Online: 28 July 2021 (09:05:24 CEST)
Background: Babesiosis and its tick carriers cause serious problems for cattle and are among the common protozoan blood parasites in Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from September 2019 to August 2020 to identify babesiosis in cattle and its tick vectors in extensively managed livestock in Dasenech and Salamago District South Omo Ethiopia. A total of 470 blood samples were collected for identification of hemoparasite using a thin blood smear followed by the Giemsa staining method and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) determination for detection of anemia. Results: Accordingly, the overall prevalence of bovine babesiosis in the study districts were 21.7% and Babesia bigemina (15.53%) and B. bovis (6.17%) were identified during this study. Factors such as age, sex, body condition score, season, tick burden, and level of tick Infection were considered as risk factors; yet, the season and level of tick Infection were found significantly associated (p< 0.05) with the occurrence of babesiosis. Besides, the mean PCV value of infected cattle (21.49%) was lower than non-infected animals (28.29%) which shows there was a strong correlation (p=0.0001) between anemia and Babesiosis. The prevalence of tick Infection was 86.17% (405/470) and a total of 8040 ticks adult ticks belonging to four tick genera namely Amblyomma (32.34%), Boophilus (18.51%), Hyalomma (18.94%), and Rhipicephalus (16.38%) were identified and all have a significant role (p< 0.05) on the occurrence of babesiosis in cattle. Conclusion: Bovine babesiosis is an important hemoparasitic protozoan disease of cattle in the study areas. To address and manage the problem, nearby veterinary service systems need to diagnose blood parasites and provide alternatives, especially for tick-borne diseases. Also, it is essential to customize appropriate and integrated tick control measures and tactical treatment of overt bovine babesiosis clinical cases.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Seroepidemiologic Studies; Prevalence; Coronavirus Infections; Occupational Exposure; Occupational Health
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:11:01 CET)
The negative effect of COVID-19 pandemic has reach world economy due to absence from work for SARS-CoV-2 infection in workers, among other things. However, some economic areas are essential to society and people must continue working outside home, to support economic reactivation; their serological profile could be different from global population. Cross-sectional study. Workers from health, construction, public transportation, public force, bike delivery messengers, independent or informal commerce areas, and residents of Bucaramanga or its metropolitan area were invited to participate. All participants self-completed a virtual survey and a blood test was taken to assess IgG and IgM with ARC COV2 test. Seroprevalence was estimated considering a complex survey design, correcting for finite population effect and adjusting for test performance. 7.045 workers were enrolled; 59.9% were women, most were residents of Bucaramanga and working in health occupations. Global adjusted seroprevalence was 19.5% (IC95% 18.6 - 20.4), being higher for Girón [27.9% (CI95% 24.5 - 31.30]). Workers with multiple contact with people during working hours or using public transportation to go to work had higher frequency of seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2. Seroprevalence among workers living in these four municipalities from the Colombian northeast area is still low.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0679.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Sub Clinical Mastitis; prevalence; Surf Field Mastitis Test; Jhenaidah
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:40:34 CEST)
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) among medium to large scale household dairy farms in southwestern district, Jhenaidah, Bangladesh during July to December 2019. A total of 78 (n=100) lactating cows from household dairy farms (N=32) having three or more dairy cows were selected randomly as sampled populations. Milk samples were screened for SCM by using Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT). The prevalence of SCM varied among farm level [71.9% (95% CI: 53.3-86.3)], individual animal level [67.9% (95% CI: 56.4-86.3)] and quarter level [29.5% (95% CI: 24.5-34.9)]. Descriptive statistics represented the farmers and farm demography, characteristics of the sampled population, and overall management feature. Random Effect Logistic Regression identified, Body Condition Score (BCS) [OR=3.8 and 2.9, at cows level and quarter level respectively (BCS-2 vs. BCS-≥3)], and breed [OR=5.1 and 2.9, at cows level and quarter level respectively (HF× Sahiwal vs. HF × Local)] as potential risk factors. This study shows that SCM is highly prevalent in the study area, which is a major threat to the dairy industry's production performance. Regular screening by SFMT, proper hygiene, improve the management system, and farmer’s awareness is required to control the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0176.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Simple Sequence Repeats; Polyomaviridae; Prevalence, Distribution; Virus Host; Evolution
Online: 14 June 2020 (14:35:24 CEST)
The simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are small 1-6bp tandem repeat elements present across diverse genomes and involved in gene regulation and evolution. Presently we analyzed SSRs in genomes of 98 species of family Polyomaviridae across four genera. The genome size ranged from 3962bp (BM87) to 7369bp (BM85) but maximum genomes were in the range of 5 to 5.5 kb. The GC% had an average of 42% and ranged between 34.69 (BM95) to 52.35 (BM81). A total of 3036 SSRs and 223 cSSRs were extracted using IMEx with incident frequency from 18 to 56 and 0 to 7 respectively. The most prevalent mono-nucleotide repeat motif was “T” (48.95%) followed by “A” (33.48%). “AT/TA” was the most prevalent dinucleotide motif closely followed by “CT/TC”. The distribution was expectedly more in coding region with 77.6% SSRs of which nearly half were in Large T Antigen (LTA) gene. Notably, most viruses with humans, apes and related species as host exhibited exclusivity of mono-nucleotide repeats in AT region, a proposed predictive marker for determination of humans as host in virus in course of its evolution. Each genome has a unique SSR signature which is pivotal for viral evolution particularly in terms of host divergence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0092.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Hepatitis B; Bangladesh; prevalence; vertical transmission; occult infection; genotypes.
Online: 5 September 2018 (09:24:31 CEST)
Despite a considerable body of published research on Hepatitis B in Bangladesh, researchers continue to lament the lack of reliable information about Hepatitis B epidemiology. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive survey of the literature with particular focus on a number of epidemiological questions, as well as a commentary on the trends of Hepatitis B research as it has taken place in Bangladesh. The key themes to emerge from this review are: first, beyond noting a declining trend, it is difficult to provide conclusive estimates about Hepatitis B prevalence in the general population of Bangladesh. The majority of the studies, even the ones conducted on apparently healthy populations, fail to be adequately representative for the reasons explored in the article. Secondly, Hepatitis B in Bangladesh is sharply stratified across sociodemographic lines, which speaks to the role of awareness and risk exposure in Hepatitis B prevalence. Third, more research on occult infection rates is required to estimate the extent of risk posed by the current blood donation screening program, which relies exclusively on Hepatitis B surface antigen as a biomarker. The same considerations apply for the comparative importance of vertical vs. horizontal transmission, and prevalence among particular risk groups like healthcare workers with high occupational exposure. Finally, while recent studies do allow us, albeit with some ambiguity, to draw conclusions about distribution of Hepatitis B genotypes in Bangladesh, there needs to be an added emphasis on molecular epidemiology. It is hoped that the present review, the first of its kind in Bangladesh, will serve as an up-to-date summary of the course Hepatitis B epidemiology research in Bangladesh has taken thus far, as well as crucial gaps to address going forward.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: sexual violence; migrants; refugees; asylum seekers; Europe; prevalence; Belgium
Online: 2 July 2018 (07:41:45 CEST)
1) Background: Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health issue with negative socio-economic and physical, mental, sexual and reproductive health consequences. Migrants, applicants for international protection and refugees (MAR) are identified as a vulnerable group for SV. Since many European countries have been confronted with high migratory pressure, developing prevention strategies and care paths focusing on those MAR affected by SV is needed. To this end, this study reviews evidence on the prevalence of SV among MAR groups in Belgium. 2) Methods: A critical interpretive synthesis was applied to 25 peer-reviewed articles and 22 grey literature documents based on the socio-ecological model. 3) Results: The evidence shows that prevalence rates of SV are high among MAR in Belgium, but comparable prevalence data are lacking. Several challenges for conducting prevalence studies SV in this population are identified and discussed. 4) Conclusions: Sexual violence in MAR in Europe is probably more frequent than in the general population, however representative studies confirming this hypothesis are lacking. Future research should start with a clear definition of the concerned population and acts of SV to generate comparable data. Participatory qualitative research approaches should be applied to fully grasp the complexity of interplaying determinants of SV in MAR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0493.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Plasmodium; malaria; Intermittent Preventive Treatment; Prevalence and Public health facilities
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:40:54 CET)
Introduction: Uganda has got the highest prevalence rate of malaria among the risk groups compared to other parts of the world. In addition, Uganda bears a particularly large burden from the disease which is limited by a lack of reliable data, but it is clear that the prevalence of malaria infection, incidence of disease, and mortality among pregnant women all remain very high. According to the Iganga DHIS2 Jan-May report, a higher number of pregnant women received Intermittent Preventive Treatment one (IPT1) and the numbers dropped for IPT2 and IPT3. The district is also referral point of the greater Busoga region and has got several challenges towards malaria control. The study aimed at assessing the uptake of Intermittent Preventive Treatment and the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Iganga district so as to generate evidence for scaling up appropriate interventions for IPT uptake among pregnant women. Methods: The research was a retrospective study using secondary data to assess the uptake of IPT and prevalence of malaria for financial year 2019/2020 in nine Public Health Centre IIIs and one Public Health Centre IV. In this study IPT was defined as the administration of a curative dose of an effective antimalarial drug to all pregnant women without testing for presence of malaria parasite and at least three doses as recommended. Secondary data from HMIS was obtained and analyzed to assess the uptake of IPT services and the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women was determined using proportions. Results: The study found that of 6,672 women who received the first dose of IPT-SP, 1671 (25%) of the women received less than 2 doses of IPT and 46% of pregnant women received more than 2 doses of IPT. The study showed that a total of 3,435 pregnant women tested positive for malaria which brings the prevalence to 50%, and being highest among pregnant women aged 20-24 years at 50%. Conclusions: The study showed that the uptake of IPT was relatively low among lower age groups with a relatively high prevalence of malaria among the same age group. This calls for all stakeholders (DHO, MOH, Iganga District, NGOs e.t.c) urgent attention thus to ensure mass sensitization about malaria and IPT importance with IEC and ITN distribution, early diagnosis and treatment, giving incentives to ANC attending mothers, control of the vector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0457.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; serological markers (IgM/IgG); Prevalence; private universities; Cameroon
Online: 25 January 2023 (11:27:36 CET)
Background: COVID-19 remains a rapidly evolving and deadly pandemic worldwide. This necessitates the continuous assessment of existing diagnostic tools for robust, up-to-date and cost-effective pandemic response strategy. We sought to determine the infection rate (PCR-positivity) and degree of spread (IgM/IgG) of SARS-CoV-2 in three university settings in Cameroon Method: Study volunteers were recruited from November 2020 to July 2021 among COVID-19 non-vaccinated students in three Universities from two regions of Cameroon (West and Centre). Molecular testing was performed by RT-qPCR on nasopharyngeal swabs and IgM/IgG antibodies in plasma were detected using the Abbott Panbio IgM/IgG rapid diagnostic test (RDT) at the Virology Laboratory of CREMER/IMPM/MINRESI. The molecular and serological profiles were compared and, p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Amongst the 291 participants enrolled (mean age 22.59±10.43 years), 19.59% (57/291) were symptomatic and 80.41 %(234/2691) asymptomatic. Overall COVID-19 PCR-positivity rate was 21.31% (62/291), distributed as follows: 25.25% from UdM-Bangangte; 27.27% from ISSBA-Yaounde and 5% from IUEs/INSAM-Yaounde. Women were more affected than men (28.76% [44/153] vs. 13.04% [18/138], p<0.0007) and they significantly expressed more IgM+/IgG+ (15.69% [24/153] vs. 7.25% [10/138], p<0.01). Participants from Bangangté, the nomadic, and the “non-contact cases” mainly presented an active infection compared to those from Yaoundé (p= 0.05; p=0.05 and p=0.01 respectively). Overall IgG seropositivity (IgM-/IgG+ and IgM+/IgG+) was 24.4% (71/291). A proportion of 26.92% (7/26) presenting COVID-19 IgM+/IgG- had negative PCR versus 73.08% (19/26) with positive PCR, p<0.0001. Furthermore, 17.65% (6/34) with COVID-19 IgM+/IgG+ had negative PCR as compared to 82.35% positive PCR (28/34), p<0.0001. Lastly, 7.22% (14/194) with IgM-/IgG- had a positive PCR. Conclusion: This study calls for a rapid preparedness and response strategy in higher institutes in case of any future pathogen with pandemic or epidemic potentials. The observed disparity between IgG/IgM and viral profile supports prioritizing assays targeting the virus (nucleic acid or antigen) for diagnosis and antibody screening for sero-surveys
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0392.v1
Subject: Keywords: Age; adherence; anti-hypertensive; Controlled hypertension; clinic; hypertension; Prevalence; Systemic
Online: 17 May 2021 (15:57:01 CEST)
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of controlled systemic hypertension and its associated risk factors among the hypertensive patients who attended the clinic at Mbeya Zonal Referral Hospital in Tanzania. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was used determine the prevalence of co to 252 hypertensive patients were recruited during clinic visit from September to November 2020 and participant was randomly selected interviews using structured self-administered questionnaires. Data was analyzed using chi square test to find the risk factors associated with controlled hypertension. Results: Among 252 participants, 94(39.7%) individuals with controlled hypertension giving the prevalence of controlled hypertension. The proportion of females with controlled hypertension was slightly higher than male (49 females to 45 males). The prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension was 152(60.3%) participants. The prevalence of controlled hypertension was higher among patients who have regular clinic visit (p< .05) and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. A similar trend was observed among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic, short duration of illness, higher level of education and there was no association between age, sex, marital status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having health insurance and having chronic illness. Conclusion: Prevalence of controlled hypertension is higher among patients who have regular clinic visit and have daily adherence to their anti-hypertensive medication. Also, it is higher among participants without financial challenges to attend clinic so they can have regular clinic visit and checkup. Reinforcement on regular drug intake and clinic visit, good nutrition and reduced salt intake and modifying lifestyles of patient with hypertension is important.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: back health; low back pain; prevalence; kindergarten; primary education; children
Online: 14 January 2021 (14:03:09 CET)
It is well known that low back pain (LBP) prevalence is high during the course of school age children’s lives. However, literature concerning the initial onset of back pain between ages of 3 and 11 years remains scarce. The present study aimed to analyze the prevalence of LBP in kindergarten and primary school students. 278 (9.9±2.1 years old; 52.2% girls) students from two public kindergarten and primary schools in Valencia, Spain participated in this cross-sectional study. The Nordic questionnaire on LBP was used to ask questions related to the duration of LBP symptoms over time. The lifetime prevalence of LBP was 47.5% (n = 132), a last year prevalence of 44.2% (n = 123), and a last week prevalence of 18.8% (n = 50) was reported. Boys and girls reached lifetime prevalence of 52.3% (n = 64) and 47.7% (n = 82) (χ2 = 1.978, p = .099), respectively. By age group, lifetime episodes of LBP also showed a higher prevalence with increasing age (χ2 = 32.637; p < .001). In summary, our findings suggest that LBP increases with age. In addition, our results further strengthen the evidence that LBP onset could start as young as 10-years-old.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0604.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Prevalence; Depression; Anxiety; Insomnia; Stress; PTSD; Distress
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:29:20 CEST)
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, stress, PTSD, and distress in Chinese healthcare workers (HCWs) and the changes in prevalence before and after the peak incidence of COVID-19 in China. 20 cross-sectional studies assessing the aforementioned psychological outcomes were included. Eligible studies were searched from the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Comparative analysis based on the time period of the included studies was conducted to assess changes in prevalence before and after peak incidence. Additionally, subgroup analyses based on study quality, province, survey tools, gender and healthcare profession, frontline or non-frontline working status, and severity of psychological outcomes were conducted to evaluate the prevalence of outcomes across various study methods, geographic regions, and professions. The findings of this study suggest that the overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, stress, PTSD, and distress before peak incidence were 36.2%, 34.2%, 22.4%, 31.3%, 9.8%, and 56.7% as opposed to 31.8%, 24.1%, 34.4%, 59.0%, 20.9%, and 40.7% after the peak. The higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, and distress prior to the peak incidence of COVID-19 in China and of insomnia, stress, and PTSD thereafter serve as evidence that the mental health decline of HCWs is dynamic and should be addressed with adaptive approaches that provide tailored treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: color vision deficiency; medical students; ishihara plates; humans; incidence; prevalence; frequency
Online: 5 February 2021 (09:58:31 CET)
Introduction Color vision deficiency (CVD) constitutes one of the frequently observed eye disorders in all human populations. Color is a prominent sign utilized in the medical profession to study and identify histopathological specimens, lab instruments, and patient examination. Color deficiency affects the medical skills of students resulting in poor clinical examination and color appreciation. There is no effective screening of CVD at any level of the medical profession. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of CVD among medical students. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2019 to February 2020 over a period of six months in Karachi, Pakistan. All medical students aged 18-21 years of either gender enrolled in the first and second years of medical college were included in this study. The examination was performed during daylight. Ishihara plates were placed at a distance of 75 cm from the subject and tilted so that the plane of the paper lies perpendicular to the line of vision. Students were given five seconds to read the plate and one examiner was instructed to mark the checklist. A score of less than 12 out of 14 red/green test plates (not including the demonstration plate) was considered as a CVD. All statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results The mean age of the medical students was 19.61± 1.22 years. There were (n=123) 53.0% females and (n=111) 47.0% males. Most of the medical students (n=131, 56.0%) belonged to the upper-middle-class socioeconomic group. CVD was observed in (n=13) 6.0%of medical students. Age (p=0.001) and socioeconomic status (p=0.001) were the only demographic factors significantly associated with color deficiency. Conclusions Color deficiency, although an unnoticed concern, is fairly common among medical students. Medical students must be screened for CVD as this will enable them to be aware of their limitations in their future observational skills as a doctor and devise ways of overcoming them in clinical practice.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Odds Ratio; Prevalence; Knee Joints; Osteoarthritis (OA); Age-related degeneration (ARD)
Online: 7 July 2020 (03:01:34 CEST)
Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) and age-related degeneration (ARD) are stimulants for the development of the fabella in the knee joint. This meta-analysis updates previous studies and reviews on the prevalence of the fabella in OA or ARD knee joints. In addition, it provides a quantitative estimation of the fabellar prevalence in knees having OA and ARD. Methodology: Twenty studies comprising of data from 11,056 knee joints were included in the analysis, consisting of 6,819 Knees of OA subjects (including those with age more than 40 years) and 4,237 knees of non-OA subjects (including less than 40years) knees, respectively. 2,434 knees had fabellae present in OA subjects (including more than 40years), and 844 fabellae were present in non-OA subjects (including less than 40years). The Odds and Risk Ratios were calculated. Sensitivity analysis and cumulative analysis were conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Results: Prevalence of fabella was found to be higher in OA knees, where the Risk Ratio of developing fabella was 2.50 (2.07-3.01). Compared with this, the Risk Ratio for the incidence of fabella in OA with ARD knee was 1.84 (1.66-2.03). The bilateral occurrence of fabella was more common than unilateral. The risk of developing fabella in individuals aged less than forty-year was 63% less than individuals aged more than forty years. Conclusion: OA and ARD would increase the prevalence of fabella by 84%, thus acting as stimulants and risk factors for ossified fabella.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis B virus; prevalence of HBsAg; rural and urban zone; Togo
Online: 1 January 2020 (14:31:28 CET)
Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a public health problem in many parts of the world, due to its frequency, complications and socio-economic consequences. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in rural areas and in urban areas. This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of HBV infection from 2015-2018 at CHR-Sokodé and USP of Ogaro. Biological data of 3000 participants (500 per year in each zone) enrolled and results of HBsAg were assessed during the study period. Female are represented 60% with average age comprised between [20, 29] years old. The high rate of participants enrolled (45.10%) are come for the monitoring of pregnancy. The prevalence of VHB during the study are 20.33% (610/3000), high prevalence (6.27%) and the means of VHB prevalence are shown in the age range between [30; 39] with 12.17% (365/3000) of female and 8.17% (235/3000) of male are positive after diagnostic detection of HBsAg (antigen of Hepatitis B virus). The prevalence of HBV in rural zone (Ogaro) are 5.23% and 15.07% in urban zone (Sokodé) and the high prevalence (17.50%) are shown in urban zone. The high prevalence of young suggests that some effort will be due to sensibilized young for HBV sexual transmission and the way of prevention. In addition, some research would be done in research of alternative therapy against this infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0440.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Point prevalence survey; Antimicrobial resistance; Ghana; CwPAMS; Antibiotic use; THET
Online: 23 December 2022 (03:53:09 CET)
Commonwealth Partnerships for Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) uses a health partnership model to establish AMS in Commonwealth countries. The University Hospital of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology in partnership with Ulster University, in Northern Ireland undertook an AMS project from November 2021 to May 2022. We report on the implementation and its effect on antibiotic use and infections management at the University Hospital. The Global-Point Prevalence Survey (PPS) protocol was used to assess antibiotics use at the hospital at the beginning, midpoint and end of the project. Feedback on each PPS was given to staff to inform behaviour change and improve antibiotic prescribing. Antibiotic use reduced from 65% at baseline to 59.7% at the end of the project. The rate of health-associated infections also reduced from 17.5% at baseline to 6.5%. In addition, the use of antibiotics belonging to the WHO Access group at the hospital was 40% initially but increased to 50% at the project endpoint. Culture and antibiotic susceptibility requests increased from the beginning of the project from 111 total requests to 330 requests over 7 months. The AMS model implemented improved antibiotic use as well as requests for culture and susceptibility test which must be sustained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0067.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: COVID-19; Disease-behaviour dynamics model; Prophylactic attitude; Vaccination; Perceived disease prevalence
Online: 5 December 2022 (08:28:57 CET)
In this age of mass media and, in particular, social media-driven perception of reality, coupling disease and prophylactic opinion dynamics models can provide better insights into disease evolution than using a disease model alone. We develop in this work two disease-opinion dynamics models based on the epidemiology of the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the availability or not of imperfect vaccines. We assume that susceptibility to infection decreases with the level of prophylactic attitude (personal hygiene, social distancing), and changes in prophylactic attitudes of susceptible individuals occur in response to perceived disease prevalence and vaccination coverage and efficacy in the population. We derive and discuss the disease-free equilibriums and reproduction numbers in the introduced models. We further assess the impacts of the distribution of opinions at disease introduction, the ability to detect presymptomatic, asymptomatic and symptomatic positive COVID-19 cases, the behavioural responses to the outbreak and the introduction of vaccination, and the effects of distortions of disease prevalence by public policy and mass media on disease dynamics. The insights highlighted from the proposed models are expected to make informative contributions to public policy in a context of opinion fluxes in response to perceived disease prevalence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0822.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Sarcopenia; Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Obesity, Insulin Resistance; Prevalence; Metabolic Diseases
Online: 31 December 2020 (15:34:29 CET)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) continues to rise and has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease among all ages and ethnicities. Metabolic disorders such as obesity and insulin resistance are closely associated with sarcopenia and NAFLD. Sarcopenic obesity is a clinical disorder characterized by the simultaneous loss of skeletal muscle and gain of adipose tissue. It is associated with worse outcomes in individuals with NAFLD. It is projected that NAFLD and sarcopenia will rise as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase at an unparallel rate. Recently, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have gained considerable interest, but we still lack a well-defined definition and a management approach. Therefore, it is imperative to continue shining the light on this topic and better understand the underlying mechanism as well as treatment options. In this review article, we aimed to address the pathophysiology, impact, and outcomes of sarcopenic obesity on NAFLD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0279.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: COVID19; risk; clinical; metrics; cost; false-positive; false-negative; prevalence; sensitivity; specificity
Online: 9 July 2020 (15:57:30 CEST)
Since the beginning of the year 2020, the global healthcare system has been challenged by the threat of the SARS-COV 2 virus. Molecular, antigen, and antibody testing are the mainstay to identify infected patients and fight the virus. Molecular and antigen tests that detect the presence of the virus are relevant in the acute phase only. Serological assays detect antibodies to the Sars-CoV-2 virus in the recovering and recovered phase. Each testing methodology has its advantages and disadvantages. To evaluate the test methods, sensitivity (percent positive agreement - PPA) and specificity (percent negative agreement – PNA) are the most common metrics utilized, followed by the positive and negative predictive value (PPV and NPV), the probability that a positive or negative test result represents a true positive or negative patient. In this paper, we illustrate how patient risk and clinical costs are driven by false-positive and false-negative results. We demonstrate the value of reporting PFP (probability of false positive results), PFN (probability of false negative results), and costs to patients and healthcare. These risk metrics can be calculated from the risk drivers of PPA and PNA combined with estimates of prevalence, cost, and Reff number (people infected by one positive SARS COV-2).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0052.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: pressure ulcer; bed sore; pressure injury; decubitus ulcer; position change; prevalence; Ethiopia
Online: 5 August 2019 (07:40:01 CEST)
Background: Pressure ulcers (PU) aﬀect millions of people worldwide and always occur over bony areas of the body where pressure and tissue distortion is greatest. The national pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer remains unknown. Hence, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of position change on pressure ulcer among hospitalized clients in Ethiopia. Methods: Studies were retrieved through search engines in PubMed, Scopus, WHO afro library, Google Scholar, Africa journal online, PsycINFO and web-science following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P). Analysis was done using STATA version 14 software. We checked the between-study heterogeneity using the I2 and examined a potential publication bias by visual inspection of the funnel plot and Egger’s regression test statistic. The random-effect model was fitted to estimate the summary effects, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence interval (CIs) across studies. Results: Out of the reviewing 401 studies, 7 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated pooled prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was 11.7% (95% CI (7.28, 16.13%)). Based on the subgroup analysis, the estimated magnitude of pressure ulcer was 15.89% (95% CI: 35.34, 54.04) among studies their sample size were greater than or equals to 250. Those clients who have position change during hospitalization were 85% less likely to develop pressure ulcer [(OR 0.15, 95%CI (0.06, 0.4)] than their counter part. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of pressure ulcer in Ethiopia was relatively high. Position change of the client during hospitalization had paramount benefit to reduce the burden of pressure ulcer. Therefore, policymakers could give special attention to minimize the magnitude of pressure ulcer in order to improve the overall quality of healthcare service. Further meta-analysis study is need to identify individual and health care service related factors to the occurrence of pressure ulcer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; Hepatitis B virus; Hepatitis C virus; liver cirrhosis; prevalence; cancer
Online: 17 November 2022 (10:30:13 CET)
Background and Aim: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common infection in liver cirrhosis. This systematic review and meta-analysis provides detailed information on the prevalence of SBP among HBV and HCV-related liver cirrhosis globally. Methods: A systematic search for articles describing the prevalence of SBP in HBV, and HCV related cirrhosis was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Our search returned ten (10) eligible articles involving 1,713 viral cirrhosis cases representing eight (8) countries. A meta-analysis was performed on our eligible studies using the random effect model. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022321790). Results: The pooled prevalence of SBP in HBV associated cirrhosis had the highest estimate [8.0% (95% CI, 2.7 – 21.0%; I2= 96.13%; p < 0.001)], followed by SBP in HCV associated liver cirrhosis [4.0% (95% CI, 1.3% – 11.5%; I2 = 88.99%; p < 0.001)]. China (61.8%, CI: 57.1 – 66.3%), the USA (50.0%, CI: 34.6 – 65.4%), and Holland (31.1%, CI: 21.6 – 42.5%) had the highest estimate for SBP in HBV associated liver cirrhosis, SBP in HCV associated liver cirrhosis and SBP in HBV+HCV associated liver cirrhosis respectively. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of SBP in viral hepatitis-associated liver cirrhosis with the year of sampling and method of SBP detection at P<0.001. There was an increase in SBP incidence at the beginning of 2016 across the liver cirrhosis in this study. Conclusion: The findings of this review revealed an increase in the incidence of SBP in viral hepatitis over the last decade, the latter could be due to the global increase in Bacterial resistance. This indicates a possible future rise in the global prevalence of SBP among HBV, and HCV-related liver cirrhosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0033.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; clinical mastitis; antibiotic resistance (AR) prevalence; AR phenotype; AR genotype; recent trend
Online: 22 January 2023 (06:50:19 CET)
This study was aimed to examine the recent trends of antibiotic resistance (AR) prevalence in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk of animals with clinical mastitis in areas of the Abruzzo and Molise regions in central Italy. Fifty-four S. aureus isolates could be obtained from routine testing for clinical mastitis agents carried out in the author institution in years 2021 and 2022. These were analyzed for phenotypic resistance to eight antibiotics recommended for testing by European norms and belonging to the antibiotic classes used for mastitis treatment in milk producing animals. Moreover, the presence of 14 transferable genetic determinants encoding resistance to the same antibiotics was analyzed by qPCR tests developed in this study. Phenotypic resistance to non-β-lactams was infrequent, with only one 2022 isolate resistant to clindamycin. However, low level resistance to the β-lactam cefoxitin was observed in 59.2% isolates in both years making these isolates classifiable as methicillin resistant. The AR genotypes detected were blaZ gene (50% 2021 isolates and 44.4% 2022 isolates), ermC/T- aphA3-blaZ (one 2021 isolate), ant6-ermC/T-aphA3-blaZ (one 2021 isolate), ermB-blaZ (one 2022 isolate) and mecA-mph (one 2022 isolate). An interview to the veterinarians who conferred the samples, regarding antimicrobials prescribed for mastitis treatment and criteria of usage, indicated a possible causal relation with the AR test results. The low prevalence of AR genotypes, not increasing in time, most probably reflecting the reported management of antibiotic therapies in farms. However, the frequently observed cefoxitin resistance needs to be explained genotypically, further monitored and limited by modifying antibiotic usage practices. The identification of a mecA positive isolate in 2022 suggests to investigate further if this genotype is emerging locally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: autistic spectrum disorder; anorexia nervosa; female; prevalence; Bayes’ Theorem; diagnosis; management; generalized joint hypermobility.
Online: 10 November 2022 (11:02:35 CET)
It appears that up to 80% of females with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have not been diagnosed by 18 years of age. This translates to a prevalence of about 5-6%, and if true has serious implications for female mental health. One way of finding the true value is to use Bayes’ Theorem with a comorbid condition as a more easily recognizable flag. An obvious choice is anorexia nervosa (AN), but it transpires that the proportion of women with ASD who develop AN is unknown. This study uses published data in novel ways to provide two methods of estimating a range for this variable, and gives a median value of 8.3% for AN in ASD and with four other methods a median prevalence of 6% for female ASD. The clinical implications for diagnosis and management of ASD and comorbidities are discussed and a solution is provided for the rate of ASD in generalized joint hypermobility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: diabetes type-1; T1D; diabetes type-2; T2D; antibiotics; antibiotic classes; microbiome; dysbiosis; prevalence; concordance
Online: 3 December 2021 (12:45:23 CET)
Abstract: Several publications have raised the issue that the development of diabetes is preceded by alteration of the microbiome (dysbiosis) and hence, the role of environmental factors, triggering dysbiosis, should be considered. Antibiotics are powerful agents inducing dysbiosis and the authors wanted to explore the possible relationship between the consumption of different major classes of antibiotics and the prevalence of diabetes (type-1, /T1D/, type-2 /T2D/) in thirty European countries. According to our hypothesis, if such association exists, the dominant use of certain major antibiotic classes might be reflected in the prevalence of T1D and T2D in different countries. Comparisons were performed between the prevalence of diabetes (T1D and T2D) estimated for 2019 and featured in the Diabetes Atlas with the average yearly consumption of major antibiotic classes of the previous 10 years (2010-19) extracted from the ECDC yearly reports on antibiotic consumption in Europe. Pearson correlation and variance analysis were used to estimate the possible relationship. Strong, positive (enhancer) associations were found between the prevalence of T1D and the consumption of tetracycline (J01A /p: 0.001/) and the narrow spectrum penicillin (J01CE /p: 0,006/, CF /p: 0.018/). Strong negative (inhibitor) association was observed with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant penicillin (J01CR /p: 0.003/), macrolide (J01F /p: 0.008/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.001/). T2D showed significant positive associations with cephalosporin (J01D /p: 0.048/) and quinolone (J01M /p: 0.025/), and a non-significant negative association was detected with broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase-sensitive penicillin (J01CA /p: 0.67/). Countries with the highest prevalence of diabetes (first 10 positions) showed concordance with the higher consumption of “enhancer” and the lower consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (first 10 positions) as indicated by variance analysis. Countries with high prevalence of T1D showed high consumption of tetracycline (p: 0.015), and narrow spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.008), and low consumption of “inhibitor” antibiotics (broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase resistant, combination penicillin (p: 0.005), cephalosporin (p: 0.036), and quinolone (p: 0.003). Countries with a high prevalence of T2D consumed more cephalosporin (p: 0.084), quinolone (p: 0.54), and less broad-spectrum, beta-lactamase sensitive penicillin (p: 0.012) than other countries. Conclusion/Interpretation: The development of diabetes-related dysbiosis might be attached to higher consumption of specific classes of antibiotics, showing positive (enhancer) associations with the prevalence of diabetes, and the low consumption of other classes of antibiotics shoving negative (inhibitory) associations. Those groups of antibiotics are different in T1D and T2D
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0598.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Zambezi; Health Care Workers; cigarette smoking; Cigarettes; Gender differences; Prevalence; Tobacco use; Vulnerable populations; Risk factors
Online: 23 December 2020 (16:28:15 CET)
Smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases and remains a significant public health challenge in many lower- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including Namibia. The purpose of the study was to estimate the prevalence of smoking and its associated risk factors among HCWs and non-HCWs in Zambezi region. An exploratory cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and October 2020 among residents of the eight (8) constituencies of Zambezi region. Four hundred and sixty-one (461) respondents who had been residents of the selected constituencies for over five years and aged between 17-60 years were selected for the study. The main outcome measure was current cigarette smoking status. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents. We stratified data analysis by individual being health workers or non-health workers. A bivariate Pearson Chi-square test was used to determine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and the smoking status. Statistically significant variables in the bivariate analysis were used as predictors in the univariate and multivariate models. The response rate of potential participants was 95% (n=434). The mean (±SD) age of participant’s was 32.5 (± 11.34 years). Significant relationships were observed between smoking status and area of residency (constituency), gender, age category, level of education, age of onset of smoking and the daily smoking frequency. The majority of smokers (n=108) were none-HCWs with males being the majority (n=62). Age (p=0.001), education levels (p=0.001) and area of residency (p=0.022) were highly associated with smoking among none-HCW while marital status was associated with smoking among HCWs (p=0.013). In the final multivariate model, the odds of smoking among female non-HCWs were significantly lower (OR: 0.386; 95% CI: 0.228 – 0.655). Furthermore, the odds of smoking among this same group were lower among those who had secondary level education (OR: 0.178; 95% CI: 0.0659 – 0.483), post-secondary (OR: 0.117, 95% CI: 0.0412 – 0.330) and first stage tertiary (OR: 0.306: 95% CI: 0.106 – 0.881) compared to those who had primary school education. In conclusion, smoking prevalence among none HCWs and HCWs working in Zambezi included in the study was similar to that of the general Namibian population but higher than other neighboring countries within SADC. The results showed a need for the establishment of specific smoking related strategies that target HCWs to address smoking use parallel to the running of none HCWs which would ultimately decrease the smoking prevalence and improve health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0618.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Chemical Intolerance, Drug Intolerance, Food Intolerance, QEESI, BREESI, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Toxicant-induced Loss of Tolerance, Prevalence
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:49:32 CEST)
Keywords: Chemical Intolerance, Drug Intolerance, Food Intolerance, QEESI, BREESI, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Toxicant-induced Loss of Tolerance, Prevalence
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0292.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Multi-scale model; system of differential equations; HIV propagation; complex network; basic reproduction number; antiretroviral therapy; prevalence.
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:35:52 CEST)
A multiscale mathematical model is proposed seeking to study the propagation dynamics of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a group of young people between 15 and 24 years of age, through sexual contact without protection, considering the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and therapeutic failure. The model consists in a scale-free complex network that follows a power law, coupled with the immunological dynamics of each individual, that is, it considers the infection by the virus in the immune system of each HIV carrier, through a system of non-linear differential equations that govern the infection’s behavior in the immune system. Propagation of the virus in the network is modelled by taking into account information from the immunological status of each person. The study found that for a population to have high HIV prevalence, it is not necessary at the beginning of the simulation time for the virus to propagate rapidly. In addition, the study proves that with a higher number of sexual partners, there will be greater prevalence of HIV in the population and that the use of ART helps to control the propagation of the infection in the population. As an interesting result, it was also found that there is a higher number of HIV carriers who abandon ART than those who have access to it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0257.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: seasonal change; honeybee; adult bee; capped brood; Varroa mite; colony size; dinotefuran; neonicotinoid; mite-prevalence; field experiment
Online: 12 October 2020 (16:35:43 CEST)
Neonicotinoids, such as dinotefuran (DF), have caused a variety of problems, such as massive loss and winter failure of the bee colony, as a price for the benefit of reducing farm work, because it continues to maintain a high insecticide activity over a long period of time. In this study, a field experiment was conducted for about six months to investigate the effects of DF on bee colonies damaged by Varroa mites. This study examined the long-term changes in such as the size of bee colonies, the intake of sugar syrup (SS), intake of pollen paste (PP), which is a vehicle for administering DF, the intake of DF, the mite-prevalence of bees and the inside and outside temperatures of hive-boxes. The variation width of the inner temperature of the hive-box is less than that of the ambient temperature (Ta). The inner temperature of the hive-box is adjusted with about 30 ℃ of Ta as the boundary. If Ta is lower than 30 ℃, the inner temperature of the box is higher than Ta, and if Ta is higher than 30 ℃, it is lower than Ta. The temperature variation width of the DF-exposed colony is greater than that of the control colony. The average intake of SS per bee per day of the DF-exposed colony is more than that of the control colony. The average intake of PP per bee per day of the DF-exposed colony is almost equal to that of the control colony. These results suggest that bees do not avoid DF, and ingest PP without distinction between toxic and pesticide-free. In the period from the start of DF administration to the colony extinction, the intake of DF per colony is about 865 µg/colony, the intake per bee is 14 ng/bee, and the intake per bee per day is less than 0.1 ng/bee/day in this work. These intakes are much lower than the previous ones (60-65 ng/bee, 0.27-2.32 ng/bee/day). These discrepancies may be because attacks of mites and Japanese giant hornets hastened the colony collapse. Seasonal changes in mite-prevalence of honeybees is approximately the same regardless of the bee colonies. At the end of August (the start of attacks by Japanese giant hornets), the mite-prevalence will increase rapidly. Even if the number of bees damaged by mites turns to decrease, the mite-prevalence will continue to increase, with approaching 100% before bee colonies become extinct. In this study, it was found that the bee colony was collapsed by the intake of a smaller amount of DF due to the synergistic effect of DF and mite-damage. To prevent a bee colony collapse, not only to make an effort to minimalize the adverse effect on the bee colony of neonicotinoids such as DF with long-term residual effect and high insecticide properties, it is necessary to reduce the damage of mites as much as possible, while considering the synergistically adverse effects of neonicotinoids and miticides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0121.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Allergy; Asthma; Wheeze; Rhinitis; Home Allergens; Household Dust; Mildew; Cockroach; Dust mites; Pets; Endotoxin; Population Study; Prevalence Study; NHANES
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:23:09 CEST)
Our study examines the association of the presence of mildew, cockroaches, and pets in homes as well as household dust allergens with the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. No study has concurrently assessed home environment exposures in relation to allergic conditions in the general US population. Data from 5,409 participants from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey living in their current homes for ≥1 year were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses between home exposures and allergic diseases prevalence and severity were performed. In adjusted analyses, mildew was associated with higher current asthma, allergies, and allergic rhinitis prevalence; endotoxin, with higher current asthma prevalence), and dust Canis familiaris (Can f) 1, with higher allergic rhinitis prevalence. However, presence of cockroaches and dust Dermatogoides farinae (Der f) 1 were associated respectively with lower current asthma and allergies prevalence. Presence of mildew, dust Der f1, Dermatogoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1, Feline domesticus (Fel d) 1, and endotoxin were all associated with asthma and/or wheeze severity. Non-atopic asthma was more frequent with mildew and/or musty smell dust and higher dust Fel d1 concentration, while atopic asthma was more prevalent with higher Can f1and endotoxin concentrations in dust. This study confirms previous relationships and reports novel associations, generating hypotheses for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Emergency Use Authorization; endemic; false omission; false omission rate; home testing; point-of-care testing (POCT); positive predictive value geometric mean-squared; prevalence boundary; recursive protocol; tier; visual logistics
Online: 30 April 2022 (08:42:08 CEST)
Goals: To use visual logistics for interpreting COVID-19 molecular and rapid antigen test (RAgT) performance, determine prevalence boundaries where risk exceeds expectations, and evaluate benefits of recursive testing along home, community, and emergency spatial care paths. Methods: Mathematica/open access software helped graph relationships, compare performance patterns, and perform recursive computations. Results: Tiered sensitivity/specificity comprise: T1) 90%/95%; T2) 95%/97.5%; and T3) 100%/≥99%, respectively. In emergency medicine, median RAgT performance peaks at 13.2% prevalence, then falls below T1, generating risky prevalence boundaries. RAgTs in pediatric ERs/EDs parallel this pattern with asymptomatic worse than symptomatic performance. In communities, RAgTs display large uncertainty with median prevalence boundary of 14.8% for 1/20 missed diagnoses, and at prevalence >33.3-36.9% risk 10% false omissions for symptomatic subjects. Recursive testing improves home RAgT performance. Home molecular tests elevate performance above T1, but lack adequate validation. Conclusions: Widespread RAgT availability encourages self-testing. Asymptomatic RAgT and PCR-based saliva testing present the highest chance of missed diagnoses. Home testing twice, once just before mingling, and molecular-based self-testing help avoid false omissions. Community and ER/ED RAgTs can identify contagiousness in low prevalence (<22%). Real-world trials of performance, cost-effectiveness, and public health impact could identify home molecular diagnostics as the optimal diagnostic portal.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.