Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency among Medical Students

Version 1 : Received: 1 February 2021 / Approved: 5 February 2021 / Online: 5 February 2021 (09:58:31 CET)

How to cite: Aziz, M.Z.; Uddin, M.M.; Farooque, U.; Farooque, R.; Karimi, S. Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency among Medical Students. Preprints 2021, 2021020152. Aziz, M.Z.; Uddin, M.M.; Farooque, U.; Farooque, R.; Karimi, S. Prevalence of Color Vision Deficiency among Medical Students. Preprints 2021, 2021020152.


Introduction Color vision deficiency (CVD) constitutes one of the frequently observed eye disorders in all human populations. Color is a prominent sign utilized in the medical profession to study and identify histopathological specimens, lab instruments, and patient examination. Color deficiency affects the medical skills of students resulting in poor clinical examination and color appreciation. There is no effective screening of CVD at any level of the medical profession. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of CVD among medical students. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2019 to February 2020 over a period of six months in Karachi, Pakistan. All medical students aged 18-21 years of either gender enrolled in the first and second years of medical college were included in this study. The examination was performed during daylight. Ishihara plates were placed at a distance of 75 cm from the subject and tilted so that the plane of the paper lies perpendicular to the line of vision. Students were given five seconds to read the plate and one examiner was instructed to mark the checklist. A score of less than 12 out of 14 red/green test plates (not including the demonstration plate) was considered as a CVD. All statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results The mean age of the medical students was 19.61± 1.22 years. There were (n=123) 53.0% females and (n=111) 47.0% males. Most of the medical students (n=131, 56.0%) belonged to the upper-middle-class socioeconomic group. CVD was observed in (n=13) 6.0%of medical students. Age (p=0.001) and socioeconomic status (p=0.001) were the only demographic factors significantly associated with color deficiency. Conclusions Color deficiency, although an unnoticed concern, is fairly common among medical students. Medical students must be screened for CVD as this will enable them to be aware of their limitations in their future observational skills as a doctor and devise ways of overcoming them in clinical practice.


color vision deficiency; medical students; ishihara plates; humans; incidence; prevalence; frequency


Medicine and Pharmacology, Immunology and Allergy

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