Pre-Graduate and Post-Graduate Medical Education in the Health Sciences
Affiliation: Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina; Instituto Murciano de Investigaciones Biosanitarias, Universidad de Murcia, 30120 Murcia, Spain
Interests: flavonoids; nitric oxide; hypertension; platelets; heart; kidney; acetylcholine; sodium balance; phenylephrine; pulse wave velocity
Medical education is the process of teaching, learning and training of students, with a progressive integration of knowledge, experiences, skills, attitudes, responsibility and values to eventually enable students to practice their profession within the area of medicine and the health sciences. Although the term originated in the field of medical training, it now encompasses all degrees and professions in the field of health sciences. Likewise, today it is considered that medical education is (or should be) a continuum of training, ranging from pre-graduate to post-graduate and continuing education. This educational continuum is an essential component of the health professions. We encourage authors to send their experiences on the topic to be published at Preprint.org.
Keywords: medical education; competences; skills; e-learning; virtual teaching
Keywords: medical education; competences; skills; e-learning; virtual teaching
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Domenico Scarlatti; oil painting; watch glass nails; drumstick fingers; clubbing; Pierre-Marie-Bamberger syndrome
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:56:14 CEST)
(1) Background: Little is known about the baroque composer Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757), whose life was centred behind closed doors at the royal court in Spain. There are no reports about his illnesses. From his compositions, mainly for harpsichord, an outstanding virtuosity can be read. (2) Case Presentation: In this case report, the only known oil painting of Domenico Scarlatti is presented, on which he is about 50 years old. In it one recognizes conspicuous hands with hints of watch glass nails and drumstick fingers. (3) Discussion: Whether Scarlatti had chronic hypoxia of peripheral body regions as a sign of, e.g., bronchial cancer or a severe heart disease, is not known. (4) Conclusions: The above-mentioned signs recorded in the oil painting, even if they were not interpretable at that time, are clearly represented and recorded for us and are open to diagnostic discussion from today's point of view.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: opioids; barbiturates; stimulants; veterinarian; pentobarbital
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:05:36 CEST)
Objective: To evaluate the changing pattern of distribution of Schedule II and III opioids, barbiturates, and stimulants to veterinary educational institutions in the United States. Design: Longitudinal study. Sample: Veterinary teaching institutions that use Schedule II and III drugs. Procedures: Distribution of controlled substances to veterinary teaching institutions was obtained from the Drug Enforcement Administration’s Automated Reports and Consolidated Orders System (ARCOS) for opioids (e.g. methadone, fentanyl, codeine), barbiturates (pentobarbital, butalbital), and stimulants (amphetamine, methylphenidate, lisdexamfetamine) from 2006 - 2019. Opioids were converted to their morphine milligram equivalents (MME) for evaluation over time. Results: Controlled substance distribution to veterinary schools exhibited dynamic, and agent specific, changes. The total MME for eleven opioids peaked in 2013 and decreased by 17.3% in 2019. Methadone accounted for two-fifths (42.3%) and fentanyl over one-third (35.4%) of the total MME in 2019. Pentobarbital distribution was greatest by weight of all substances studied and peaked in 2011 at 69.4 kg. Stimulants underwent a pronounced decline and were very modest by 2014. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Opioids by total MME in veterinary teaching practice have undergone more modest changes than opioids used with humans. Hydrocodone, codeine and recently fentanyl use have declined while methadone increased. Stimulant distribution decreased to become negligible. Together, this pattern of findings warrant continued monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0559.v1
Online: 27 October 2020 (15:27:36 CET)
Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has affected HCPs in multiple way. It has caused psychological impact in form of anxiety, depression, and insomnia. In this study, we aim to study and compare the stress level, anxiety and depression among HCPs who are posted in special COVID-19 units with the HCPs who are not posted in COVID-19 units.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2020, at various hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. All health care professionals (HCPs) were invited to participate. A total of 301 HCPs completed this study, who were divided into two groups; those who are posted in COVID-19 ward (Group A) and those who are not (Group B). Psychological Impact was English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 (DASS-21).Results: In Group A, 70.5% had moderate, severe, or extremely severe depression compared to 49.2% in group B. In Group A, 75.4% had moderate, severe, or extremely severe anxiety compared to 44.7% in group B. In Group A, 80.3% had moderate, severe or extremely severe stress compared to 54.2% in group B. Anxiety, depression and stress were significantly higher in HCPs who were posted in COVID-19 ward compared to those who were not posted in COVID-19 wardConclusion: There was significantly higher anxiety, stress and depression in health care professionals posted in COVID-19 ward. Both the government and health care agencies should take responsibility for protecting the psychological well-being of health care communities all over the world and ensuring a healthy work environment.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID 19; Health Education; RCSI; teaching and learning; Pandemic
Online: 30 October 2020 (10:13:08 CET)
Background: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain) was closed due to COVID 19. The aim of this paper is to present our experience, in managing teaching and learning, during this pandemic. Methods: Following, ethical approval, several meetings were held with the senior faculty and student representatives to select alternative virtual approaches for teaching, learning and assessment with evidence-based instructional design. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. All procedures were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. In alignment with global scenario, we decided upon early graduation for our students, and expedited the clinical examinations, with special permission from health and education ministries. Two major clinical examinations were redesigned to form a single hybrid clinical examination with two parts. Following all COVID 19 preventive measures, students were taken in groups of seven and simulated patients were substituted for real patients. No more than 40 students were present at any point of time, with no more than 10 examined in one block. 149 out of 152 RCSI students attended the clinical examinations and 524 students from the three RCSI campuses attended the written online examination. A structured survey was conducted to elicit students’ perceptions and participation was entirely voluntary. Results: 82% of students were happier to be joining the workforce early and, 22% expressed concerns. A comparison of student performance in these examinations against the equivalent components from semester one yielded no significant deviation in student performance, illustrating that the quality was consistent. Conclusion: We recommend that the government accredit online or distance learning programmes and explore appropriate methodologies for evaluation of online learning and assessment. Incorporating practical/clinical training, will continue to be a great challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0152.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: color vision deficiency; medical students; ishihara plates; humans; incidence; prevalence; frequency
Online: 5 February 2021 (09:58:31 CET)
Introduction Color vision deficiency (CVD) constitutes one of the frequently observed eye disorders in all human populations. Color is a prominent sign utilized in the medical profession to study and identify histopathological specimens, lab instruments, and patient examination. Color deficiency affects the medical skills of students resulting in poor clinical examination and color appreciation. There is no effective screening of CVD at any level of the medical profession. Hence, this study was aimed to determine the prevalence of CVD among medical students. Materials and methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted from September 2019 to February 2020 over a period of six months in Karachi, Pakistan. All medical students aged 18-21 years of either gender enrolled in the first and second years of medical college were included in this study. The examination was performed during daylight. Ishihara plates were placed at a distance of 75 cm from the subject and tilted so that the plane of the paper lies perpendicular to the line of vision. Students were given five seconds to read the plate and one examiner was instructed to mark the checklist. A score of less than 12 out of 14 red/green test plates (not including the demonstration plate) was considered as a CVD. All statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results The mean age of the medical students was 19.61± 1.22 years. There were (n=123) 53.0% females and (n=111) 47.0% males. Most of the medical students (n=131, 56.0%) belonged to the upper-middle-class socioeconomic group. CVD was observed in (n=13) 6.0%of medical students. Age (p=0.001) and socioeconomic status (p=0.001) were the only demographic factors significantly associated with color deficiency. Conclusions Color deficiency, although an unnoticed concern, is fairly common among medical students. Medical students must be screened for CVD as this will enable them to be aware of their limitations in their future observational skills as a doctor and devise ways of overcoming them in clinical practice.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0274.v1
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:21:35 CET)
As medical schools cope with the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new cohort of students will be admitted in the fall. Administrators are again challenged to make unprecedented enrollment decisions without standardized exams. This challenge provides unique opportunities to support holistic admissions but also abruptly bypasses a process that has been employed since 1928. This article highlights key factors that are being considered during current medical school admission cycles, including limited opportunities to take standardized exams, heightened student anxiety, and potential exam alternatives. These factors are framed and discussed within the context of the medical college admission test (MCAT) exam.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Epidemiolog; Pathophysiology; Clinical manifestations; Vaccines
Online: 23 February 2021 (16:00:05 CET)
During 2019, the number of patients suffering from cough, fever and reduction of WBC’s count increased. At the beginning, this mysterious illness was called “fever with unknown origin”. At the present time, the cause of this pneumonia is known as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 is one member of great family of coronaviruses. Coronaviruses can cause different kind of illnesses including respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and neurological diseases in animals like cat and bat. Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The SARS-CoV-2 has some particular structures for binding to host cells, reproducing itself in cells and damaging human cells. The SARS-CoV-2 can bind angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE‐2) receptors and cause various difficulties for human. The SARS-CoV-2 can cause either not-serious issues like fever and cough or serious concerns such as multi-organ failure. Source(s) of SARS-CoV-2 is under debate. Malayan pangolin and bat are the most suspicious candidate for being sources of the SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by various ways such as transmitting from infected human to healthy human and can make severe pneumonia, which can lead to death. The SARS-CoV-2 can infect different kind of people with different ages, races, and social and economic levels. The SARS‐CoV‐2 infection can cause various sorts of clinical manifestations like cough and fever and intensity of signs and symptoms depends on sufferer conditions. Clinicians use all of available documents and tests like laboratory, histopathological and radiological findings for diagnosing new cases and curing patients with high accuracy. At the present time, there is no particular way for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection; neither antiviral drugs nor palliative agents. It seems that the best way for standing against the SARS-CoV-2 infection is preventing from it by social distancing and vaccination. This review tries to prepare an essential brief update about SARS-CoV-2 infection for clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Medicine; Applications
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:41:54 CET)
The medical & the dental field is a never ending field of innovations & developments and each time the reasearchers come up with something new. One such new dimension in the fields of medicine being the incorporation of Artificial intelligence assisted technologies improving diagnosis, treatmemt plan and treatment stategies. This review focusses on the application of different technologies of AI in different fields of medicine.
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