ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0138.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: preservation; environment; quran; issues; Malaysia
Online: 20 October 2017 (10:11:16 CEST)
Currently, various issues on environment have been discussed, whether the importance, destruction or ways to prevent the destruction of the environment. This paper will explore the issue from the conventional viewpoint as well as from the Islamic perspective. Destruction of the environment in recent times has worsened due to the uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources by human beings in order to generate profits. In view of the increasing technological development in Malaysia presently, this matter should not have occurred because the citizens intellectual abilities can be considered advanced. In other words, these people should be able to weigh between positive and negative consequences of voraciously exploiting natural resources. However, the greed that engulfs some of these people has obscured their view from grasping the future consequences of their acts. Based on the Islamic perspective in which the Quran is the ultimate reference, destruction of the environment can actually be prevented if every individual is aware of his or her trustworthiness or responsibility as His caliphate in this universe. Nevertheless, is there any specific verse in the Quran which explains about preservation of the environment? Can lessons from the Quran provide solutions to the environmental crises in Malaysia? This study provides explanations to the questions based on literature surveys and content analyses. By interpreting some selected verses that relate to preservation of the environment, findings from the discussions have identified that the Quranic verses are valuable resources for the sustainability of the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0524.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: transgender; fertility preservation; decision making preferences
Online: 22 July 2021 (17:37:03 CEST)
Little is known about fertility preservation within the TGD community. Few receive adequate counseling placing them at risk for decision regret. The goal of this project was to develop, and pilot test the Transgender Fertility Preservation Knowledge Scale (TFPKS) to support the development and evaluation of health education resources. A community engaged; cross sectional retrospective design was used. Participants (n=189) provided information describing demographics, healthcare decision-making preferences, experiences/knowledge of fertility preservation, and treatment decision regret. The sample included 189 TGD adults. Most were white and aged 26-35 (33.3%) and not offered a consultation (73.0%). Many (41.2%) report they would have participated if offered. Knowledge regarding fertility preservation to support this desire was low. Most participants identified a patient-centered (69.4%) decision making preference. Much remains to address the healthcare inequities within the TGD population regarding fertility preservation. Overall participants had low levels of knowledge to support decision making. Further, healthcare system and individual barriers to fertility preservation remain prevalent. A foundational step towards addressing these disparities, is the identification of a valid and reliable instrument to measure TGD knowledge of fertility preservation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0183.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: Mars; minerals; biomarkers; catalysis; preservation; ionizing radiations
Online: 9 October 2018 (10:01:26 CEST)
Minerals might have played critical roles for the origin and evolution of possible life forms on Mars. The study of the interactions between “building blocks of life” and minerals relevant to Mars mineralogy under conditions mimicking the harsh Martian environment may provide key insight into possible prebiotic processes. Therefore, this contribution aims at reviewing the most important investigations carried out so far about the catalytic/protective properties of Martian minerals toward molecular biosignatures under Martian-like conditions. Overall, it turns out that the fate of molecular biosignatures on Mars depends on a delicate balance between multiple preservation and degradation mechanisms often regulated by minerals, which may take place simultaneously. Such a complexity requires more efforts in simulating realistically the Martian environment in order to better inspect plausible prebiotic pathways and shed light on the nature of the organic compounds detected both in meteorites and on the surface of Mars through in situ analysis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0461.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Germplasm; Genetic plant resources; Preservation; Propagation; in vitro
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:28:31 CEST)
Germplasm is a valuable natural resource in plant diversity that is crucial for its potential use. It provides knowledge about a species genetic composition. Germplasm protection strategies are not just planting hope threatened with extinction, they preserve medicinal and other essential plants on which survival rests. The successful use of genetic plant resources necessitates diligent collection, storage, analysis, documentation, and germplasm exchange. Slow growth cultures, cryopreservation, pollen and DNA banks, botanic gardens, genetic reserves and farmer’s fields are few conservation techniques. However, usage of an in vitro procedure with any chance of genetic instability leads to the destruction of the entire substance. Improved understanding of basic regeneration biology would, in turn, undoubtedly increase the capacity to regenerate plants from in vitro harvested explants, thus expanding selection possibilities. Germplasm conservation seeks to conserve endangered and vulnerable plant species worldwide for future proliferation and development; it is also the bedrock of agricultural production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0570.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Environmental Communication; Environmental preservation; Folk media; Guna community
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:20:58 CET)
This study focused on the assessment of folk media aimed at Environmental Communication (EC) in the Guna Community and suggested the dominant Guna Community folk media for environmental communication and preservation to conserve Mount Guna. Guna Mount is the home of different biodiversity and the tower of water, but it is becoming degraded. Folk media are operative in environmental communication and preservation. They have the power to transmitted environmental messages that incorporate cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes with societal needs. Folk media are locally oriented, easily accessible, flexible, portable, inclusive, and relatively inexpensive. A qualitative research approach was employed for this research. Ethnographic research design, snowball, and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The researchers were gathered the data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and observation. For this survey, 16 FGDs, 45 individual in-depth interviews, and participant observation were employed. Guna community has unique and indigenous folk media that use as a source of entertainment, information, and education. Their folk music, songs, dances, campfire storytelling, traditional motifs, fairs, and festivals, and folk poems are the dominants. Using folk media for operative ecology preservation is vital in the form of EC that inspires and develops positive behavior in the community by educating about environmentalism in the method of facilitating environmental issues incorporating the latest message. Finally, we recommended some folk media for developmental activities that use inform of advocacy regarding recommended reasons
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030065
Online: 20 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Automatic ancient Roman coin analysis only recently emerged as a topic of computer science research. Nevertheless, owing to its ever-increasing popularity, the field is already reaching a certain degree of maturity, as witnessed by a substantial publication output in the last decade. At the same time, it is becoming evident that research progress is being limited by a somewhat veering direction of effort and the lack of a coherent framework which facilitates the acquisition and dissemination of robust, repeatable, and rigorous evidence. Thus, in the present article, we seek to address several associated challenges. To start with, (i) we provide a first overview and discussion of different challenges in the field, some of which have been scarcely investigated to date, and others which have hitherto been unrecognized and unaddressed. Secondly, (ii) we introduce the first data set, carefully curated and collected for the purpose of facilitating methodological evaluation of algorithms and, specifically, the effects of coin preservation grades on the performance of automatic methods. Indeed, until now, only one published work at all recognized the need for this kind of analysis, which, to any numismatist, would be a trivially obvious fact. We also discuss a wide range of considerations which had to be taken into account in collecting this corpus, explain our decisions, and describe its content in detail. Briefly, the data set comprises 100 different coin issues, all with multiple examples in Fine, Very Fine, and Extremely Fine conditions, giving a total of over 650 different specimens. These correspond to 44 issuing authorities and span the time period of approximately 300 years (from 27 BC until 244 AD). In summary, the present article should be an invaluable resource to researchers in the field, and we encourage the community to adopt the collected corpus, freely available for research purposes, as a standard evaluation benchmark.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0214.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: stable isotopes; preservation; syngnathids; seahorses; pipefishes; conversion models
Online: 8 August 2020 (18:13:47 CEST)
Isotopic stable analysis (SIA) is a powerful tool in the assessment of different types of ecological and physiological studies. For that, different preservative methods for the samples are commonly used prior to isotopic analysis. The effects of various preservative methods (drying, freezing, ethanol and formaldehyde) have been analyzed for C:N ratio, δ13C and δ15N on a variety of tissues including dorsal fins (three seahorse and two pipefish species), seahorse newborns (three seahorses species), and prey (copepods and different stages of Artemia) commonly used to feed the fishes in rearing conditions. The aims of the study were to: (i) evaluate isotopic effects of preservation methods across tissues; and (ii) construct the first conversion models available in syngnathid fishes. The preservation in ethanol and to a lesser extend in formaldehyde significantly affected δ13C values, whereas δ15N signatures were not affected significantly. Due to their low lipid content, the isotopic signals in fish fins were almost unaffected, supporting the suitability of dorsal fins as a convenient tool in isotopic studies on vulnerable species such as syngnathids. The regression equations provided permit the successful conversion of δ13C and δ15N values between preservative treatments. The conversion models can be applied to isotopic studies in the field and in the laboratory.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Embalming; Cadaver; Preservation; Thiel embalming; Phenoxyethanol; Salt solution
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:14:51 CEST)
Art of embalming as practised by Egyptian about 3000 years ago transformed into embalming science of modern ages with the use of formaldehyde as a preservative solution. Subsequently, the search for ideal embalming preservative solution continues to date because of the health hazards related to formaldehyde preservation of cadavers. Alternative preservative methods and solutions suitable for making different skill training models with the specific requirement of pliability have also experimented. The literature had documented various solutions like Thiel’s solution and technique, phenoxyethanol preservation, saturated sodium chloride solution, cryopreservation, N-Vinyl-2-pyrrolidone, Ethanol–glycerin and Fix 4life solution as alternatives to formaldehyde preservation. This review is an attempt to have an overview comparison of all the recent alternate embalming methods applicable for developing skill training cadaveric models with an aim of reducing formaldehyde usage in preservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0252.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: waterlogged preservation; arboriculture; crop expansion; urban area; Iberian Peninsula
Online: 28 April 2022 (09:47:33 CEST)
The Roman economy of the Iberian Peninsula has habitually been characterised in terms of prestige goods and economic activities such as trade, mining and metallurgy. The analysis of plant-based foods –less prestigious but more essential in everyday life– has commonly been marginalised in state-of-the-art reviews. The O Areal saltworks is exceptional in terms of the large number of organic materials it preserves, and the excellent state of that preservation. After its abandonment (end of the 3rd/4th century AD), the saltworks was briefly used as a dumping ground for the surrounding area. The site's archaeobotanical remains, preserved under anoxic, waterlogged conditions, consist of the building materials used at the saltworks, tools and other artefacts, organic objects employed in activities such as fishing, and refuse. The assemblage suggests a wide diversity of species to have been introduced into northwestern Iberia during the Roman Period, including the mulberry, peach, fig, plum, grapevine, and melon. The notable presence of other edible fruit species that normally grew wild during this period, such as chestnut, walnut, stone pine, and cherry trees, might be related to the start of their cultivation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: organic acids; swine; broilers; digestibility; meat quality; meat preservation
Online: 5 April 2021 (09:34:20 CEST)
Because the application of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) causes accelerated adverse effects on the animal diet, the scientific community has taken progressive steps to enhance sustainable animal productivity without using AGP in animal nutrition. Organic acids (OAs) are non-antibiotic feed additives and a promising feeding strategy in the swine and broiler industry. Mechanistically, OAs improve productivity through multiple and diverse pathways: (a) reduction of pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by reducing the gut pH; (b) boosting the digestibility of nutrients by facilitating digestive enzyme secretion and increasing feed retention time in the gut system; (c) having a positive impact and preventing meat quality deterioration without leaving any chemical residues. Recent studies have reported the effectiveness of using encapsulated OAs and synergistic mechanisms of OAs combinations in swine and broiler productivity. On the other hand, the synergistic mechanisms of OAs and the optimal combination of OAs in the animal diet are not completely understood, and further intensive scientific explorations are needed. Moreover, the ultimate production parameters are not similar owing to the type of OAs, concentration level, growth phase, health status of animals, hygienic standards, and environmental factors. Thus, those factors need to be considered before implementing OAs in feeding practices. In conclusion, the current review evaluated the basics of OAs, mode of action, novel strategies to enhance utilization, influence on growth performances, nutrient digestibility, quality traits, and meat preservation of swine and broilers and their potential concerns regarding utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0052.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Spray Drying; Vitamin C; Phenolic Compounds; Preservation; Modeling; Optimization
Online: 2 August 2020 (18:22:59 CEST)
Umbu is a tropical fruit with high content of bioactive compounds. However, maturation causes significant losses on nutrient density reducing the nutritional value of this highly appreciated fruit. Thus, the objective of the present work was to encapsulate the Umbu fruit bioactive compounds using spray drying and identify the variables affecting the biomolecules preservation. A Box-Behnken experimental design with 3 factors was set varying inlet temperature, atomization flow rate, and maltodextrin concentration for process otimization. Then the powder physicochemical and chemical properties were characterized, and results were modeled using a polynomial equation. Results revealed that the droplet size and maltodextrin concentration had a significant influence on the conservation of the biomolecules. Drying kinetics favoring fast formation of a particle crust increases encapsulation efficiency. Bioactive compounds retention was achieved by increasing maltodextrin even at high temperatures, where a matrix is formed hindering chemical degradation. Process optimization was validated and revealed low inlet temperatures (122ºC), high atomization flow rate (5kg/h) and high maltodextrin concentration (20%) to be the most desirable conditions for bioactive compounds retention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0292.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: nitrate; Mars; Atacama Desert; sedimentation rates; biomass preservation; extremophiles
Online: 25 July 2019 (11:52:52 CEST)
Nitrate is rich in Mars sediments owing to long-term atmospheric photolysis, oxidation, and deposition coupled with a lack of leaching via rainfall. The Atacama Desert in Chile, which is similarly dry and rich in nitrate deposits, is used as a Mars analog in this study to explore the potential effects of high nitrate levels on microbial growth. Seven study sites sampled across an aridity gradient in the Atacama Desert were categorized into 3 clusters – hyperarid, intermediate, and arid sites, as defined by major elements in the regolith, associated biomass, and precipitation. Intriguingly, the distribution of nitrate concentrations in the shallow subsurface suggests that the buildup of nitrate is not solely controlled by precipitation. Correlations of nitrate with SiO2/Al2O3 and grain sizes suggest that sedimentation rates are also important in controlling nitrate distribution. At arid sites receiving more than 10 mm/yr precipitation, rainfall shows a stronger impact on biomass than nitrate does. However, high nitrate to organic carbon ratios are generally beneficial to N assimilation as evidenced both by soil geochemistry and enriched culturing experiments. This study suggests that even in the absence of precipitation on contemporary Mars, the nitrate levels are sufficiently high to benefit potentially extant Martian microorganisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: biomarker; chemoradiation; prognosis; bladder preservation; bladder neoplasm; urothelial carcinoma
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:13:28 CEST)
Chemoradiation-based bladder preservation therapy (BPT) is currently a curative option for non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients at favorable risk or an alternative to radical cystectomy (RC) for those who are unfit for RC. In BPT, only patients who achieve complete response (CR) after chemoradiation have favorable prognosis and quality of life with preserved functional bladder. Thus, predicting CR and favorable prognosis is important for optimal patient selection for BPT. We reviewed biomarkers for predicting clinical outcomes of chemoradiation-based BPT. Biomarkers studied were categorized into those related to apoptosis, cell proliferation, receptor tyrosine kinases, DNA damage response genes, hypoxia, molecular subtype, and others. Among these biomarkers, Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) and meiotic recombination 11 may be used for selecting BPT or RC. Ki-67 LI and erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (erbB2) may be used for predicting both chemoradiation response and prognosis of patients on BPT. Concurrent use of trastuzumab and a combination of carbogen and nicotinamide can overcome chemoradiation resistance conferred by erbB2 overexpression and tumor hypoxia. Further studies are needed to confirm the practical utility of these biomarkers for progress on biomarker-directed personalized management of MIBC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0282.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Computational Mathematics Keywords: Ternary; subdivision scheme; Non-stationary, Tension controlled, shape preservation
Online: 16 August 2018 (12:14:35 CEST)
The aim of this work is to analyze and investigate the shape preserving properties of ternary 4-point non-stationary interpolating subdivision schemes constructed by Beccari et al.  with a tension parameter !k+1 which can reproducing exponential. Moreover, the conditions on the initial control points are developed that allow user to generate shape preserving limit curves after a nite number of subdivision steps and generalize these results in limiting case. Signicance of derived conditions are illustrated through graphs and the whole discussion is followed by examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning; orthoimage; heritage; remote sensing; preservation; archaeology
Online: 18 August 2017 (16:49:13 CEST)
This article presents a methodology to process information from a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) from three dimensions (3D) to two dimensions (2D), and to two dimensions with a color value (2.5D), as a tool to document and analyze heritage buildings. Principally focused on the loss of material in stone, this study aims at creating an evaluation method for loss control, taking into account the state of conservation of the building in terms of restoration, from studying the pathologies, to their identification and delimitation. A case study on the Cathedral of the Seu Vella de Lleida was completed, examining the details of the stone surfaces. This cathedral was affected by military use, periods of abandonment, and periodic restorations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0099.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: cybersecurity; adversarial machine learning; machine learning; intrusion detection; functionality-preservation
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:22:14 CET)
Machine learning has become widely adopted as a strategy for dealing with a variety of cybersecurity issues, ranging from insider threat detection to intrusion and malware detection. However, by their very nature, machine learning systems can introduce vulnerabilities to a security defence whereby a learnt model is unaware of so-called adversarial examples that may intentionally result in mis-classification and therefore bypass a system. Adversarial machine learning has been a research topic for over a decade and is now an accepted but open problem. Much of the early research on adversarial examples has addressed issues related to computer vision, yet as machine learning continues to be adopted in other domains, then likewise it is important to assess the potential vulnerabilities that may occur. A key part of transferring to new domains relates to functionality-preservation, such that any crafted attack can still execute the original intended functionality when inspected by a human and/or a machine. In this literature survey, our main objective is to address the domain of adversarial machine learning attacks and examine the robustness of machine learning models in the cybersecurity and intrusion detection domains. We identify the key trends in current work observed in the literature, and explore how these relate to the research challenges that remain open for future works. Inclusion criteria were: articles related to functionality-preservation in adversarial machine learning for cybersecurity or intrusion detection with insight into robust classification. Generally, we excluded works that are not yet peer-reviewed; however, the authors include some significant papers that make a clear contribution to the domain. There is a risk of subjective bias in the selection of non-peer reviewed articles; however, this is mitigated by co-author review. We selected the following databases with a sizeable computer science element to search and retrieve literature: IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink,Google Scholar. The literature search was conducted upto January 2022. We have striven to ensure a comprehensive coverage of the domain to the best of our knowledge. We have performed systematic searches of the literature, noting our search terms and results, and following up on all materials that appear relevant and fit within the topic domains of this review. This research was funded by the Partnership PhD scheme at the University of the West of England in collaboration with Techmodal Ltd.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cannabis sativa; Germplasm preservation; Droplet vitrification; Conventional vitrification; Tissue culture
Online: 19 July 2021 (18:13:48 CEST)
Cannabis has developed into a multi-billion dollar industry that relies on clonal propagation of elite genetics with desirable agronomic and chemical phenotypes. While the goal of clonal propagation is to produce genetically uniform plants, somatic mutations can accumulate during growth and compromise long-term genetic fidelity. Cryopreservation is a process in which tissues are stored at cryogenic temperatures, halting cell division and metabolic processes to facilitate high fidelity germplasm preservation. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to optimize various stages of cryopreservation and develop a protocol for long-term germplasm storage of Cannabis sativa. The resulting protocol uses a standard vitrification procedure to cryopreserve nodal explants from in vitro shoots as follows: Nodes were cultured for 17 hours in a pre-culture solution (PCS), followed by a 20 minute treatment in a loading solution (LS), and a 60 minute incubation in plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2). The nodes were then flash frozen in liquid nitrogen, re-warmed in an unloading solution at 40°C, and cultured on basal MS culture medium in the dark for 5 days followed by transfer to standard culture conditions. This protocol was tested across 13 genotypes to assess the genotypic variability. The protocol was successful across all 13 genotypes, but significant variation was observed in tissue survival (43.3-80%) and regrowth of shoots (26.7-66.7%). Plants grown from cryopreserved samples were morphologically and chemically similar to control plants for most major traits, but some differences were observed in the minor cannabinoid and terpene profiles. While further improvements are likely possible, this study provides a functional cryopreservation system that works across multiple commercial genotypes for long-term germplasm preservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0511.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: greenery; housing estates; Lower Silesia; preservation and renewal of heritage
Online: 23 February 2021 (11:06:45 CET)
On the example of the Wałbrzych agglomeration housing estates once the most important mining and industrial region in Lower Silesia, this article illustrates the specific significance of the designing of green spaces, including urban layouts, and the issue of protecting unique trees and green spaces in the concepts of estates from the early modernism period after the First World War, in the years 1919-1927. The Wałbrzych housing settlements are crucial due to the fact that they were among the first of their kind, not only in Lower Silesia, but in the whole of the Weimar Republic. The concepts developed during the designing process soon spread beyond the borders of the country. On the basis of literature and source studies it was possible to reconstruct design ideas concerning the composition of green areas in most housing estates in the discussed area. The most interesting were presented, grouped according to the landscape and functional aspects of the use of greenery in housing estates. This made it possible to select specific solutions applied by designers, to indicate sources of inspiration and theoretically developed rules, which both then and now seem to be extremely adequate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0138.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: metal-oxides nanowires; chemical sensing; sensor array; electronic noses, food preservation
Online: 13 May 2019 (01:44:13 CEST)
Food preservatives are compound that are used for the treatment of food to improve the shelf life. In the food industry, is necessary to monitor all processes, for both safety and quality of the product. An electronic nose (or e-nose) is a biomimetic olfactory system that could find numerous industrial applications, including food quality control. Commercial electronic noses are based on sensor arrays composed by a combination of different sensors, which include conductometric metal oxide devices. Metal oxide nanowires are considered among the most promising materials for the fabrication of novel sensing devices, which can enhance the overall performances of e-noses in food applications. In the present work, is reported the fabrication of a novel sensor array based on SnO2, CuO and WO3 nanowires deposited on top of commercial μHPs, provided by ams Sensor Solutions Germany GmbH. The array was tested for the discrimination of four typical compounds added to food products or used for their treatment to increase the shelf life: ethanol, acetone, nitrogen dioxide and ozone. Results are very promising: the sensors array was able to operate for long time consuming less than 50mW for each single sensor, and PCA analysis confirms that the device was able to discriminate between different compounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0125.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Fertility preservation; oocyte vitrification; benign gynecologic disease; modified Delphi method; consensus study
Online: 6 July 2021 (08:17:55 CEST)
International guidelines are published in oncology to provide standardized information and fertility preservation (FP) care for adults and children with cancer. For benign gynecologic diseases (BGD), many recommendations are based on data coming from oncofertility studies rather than studies with a stronger and broader evidence base. The purpose of the study was to conduct a modified Delphi process for generating FP guidelines for BGD. A steering committee identified 42 potential FP practices for BGD. Then 114 key stakeholders were asked to participate in a modified Delphi process via two online survey rounds and a final meeting. Consensus was reached for 28 items. Among them, stakeholders rated age-specific information concerning the risk of diminished ovarian reserve after surgery as important but rejected proposals setting various upper and lower age limits for FP. All women should be informed about the benefit/risk balance of oocyte vitrification, in particular about the likelihood of live birth according to age. FP should not be offered in rASRM stages I and II endometriosis without endometriomas. These guidelines could be useful for gynecologists to identify situations at risk of infertility and to better inform women with BGDs who might need personalized counseling for FP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0004.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET); Cloud Computing; privacy preservation; security and privacy
Online: 3 October 2016 (20:40:50 CEST)
This project designed a set of network security mechanisms for cloud applications in VANETs. At present, cloud computing is one of the government’s development priorities in the industry. We divide cloud into public, private, and hybrid clouds in this project. Vehicles or passengers can access road conditions or public transport information through the public cloud; public transportation can access current driving records and users can access relevant enterprise information on the private cloud and hybrid cloud is a combination of public and private clouds. Both cloud computing or VANETs require network and information security. At present, many researches on VANETs security only focus on message communication, and neglect information storage. Researches on cloud computing security only focus on information protection, and neglect user privacy and anonymity. This project designed a set of network and information security mechanisms in line with the requirements of Confidentiality, Authentication, Non-repudiation, Conditional Anonymity, and Conditional Untraceability. This project primarily needs to achieve the following: 1.an authentication mechanism to verify the identity of each other between the passenger and the vehicle and to verify the identity with Single Sign-On; 2. vehicle or user privacy and anonymity, which need to be able to replace the anonymous ID and related parameters for the vehicle or the user; 3. a private communication mechanism, which enables any vehicle or user to communicate privately; and 4. an information security encryption method, which can encrypt the information on a cloud server to avoid unauthorized access by internal personnel or hackers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0277.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: revegetation; forest, springs preservation; Arjuna mount; plant species; nursery; fertilization; planting; plant care
Online: 27 August 2019 (04:34:25 CEST)
The research objectives was to determine the plants vegetation profile in forest revegetation and Mount Arjuna springs. The method used was descriptive method. While based on the techniques and tools used to research, the author uses the survey method to obtain facts that occur in the research area, namely in the area around the springs of Arjuna mount, Pasuruan, East Java, Indonesia. Data obtained in the field are then processed and analyzed using GIS, ArcView 3.3 and Google Earth programs. The results of the study explain the profile of plant vegetation, namely plant stratification, bird wealth, taxonomic wealth and plant density have a significant effect on forest revegetation and springs in Arjuna mount. The forest vegetation profile has a positive and significant effect on the preservation of springs. The better the profile of forest vegetation, the preservation of springs will be better, and vice versa.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: urban baroque greenery; 17th-18th century; allée; Lower Silesia; preservation and renewal of heritage
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:50:59 CET)
The article is the first attempt to gather information on the beginnings of using green elements in urban compositions in Lower Silesia and border areas, in the former Neumark and Lusatia. It presents Baroque urban arrangements with the use of green ground floors, tree espaliers and avenues, from the earliest ones – occurring in the aftermath of the Thirty Years’ War – and the solutions applied in private municipalities in the Habsburg, Wettin and Hohenzollern states, which were recovering from war damage, to urban developments at the end of that period, in the areas already under Prussian rule and its strict regulations. A comparison with the achievements of Eu-ropean urban planning in this field allows us to trace the paths of inspiration, but also to uncover some innovative achievements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0187.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: dioecious; DNA quality; flower type; sample preservation method; sex genotype; sex phenotype; visual assay
Online: 14 February 2020 (04:22:20 CET)
Methods for high-quality DNA extraction and knowledge of sex expression and flowering time are essential for applying genomic-assisted breeding and improve the success with hybridization in Guinea yam. A dioecious or monoecious pattern of flowering and sometimes non-flowering is a common phenomenon within and between the Dioscorea species. The flowering in yam plants raised from botanical seeds often takes an extended period, mostly till the first clonal generation after propagation from the tubers. The prolonged process of testing required to identify plant sex and flowering intensity in yam breeding often poses a challenge to realize reduced breeding cycle and apply genomic selection. This study assessed sample preservation methods for DNA quality during extraction and potential of DNA marker to diagnose plant sex at the early seedling stage in white Guinea yam. The predicted sex at the seedling stage was further validated with the visual score for the sex phenotype at the flowering stage. DNA extracted from leaf samples preserved in liquid nitrogen, silica gel, dry ice, and oven drying methods was similar in quality with a high molecular weight than samples stored in ethanol solution. Yam plant sex diagnosis with the DNA marker (sp16) identified a higher proportion of ZW genotypes (female or monoecious phenotypes) than the ZZ genotypes (male phenotype) in the studied materials with 74% prediction accuracy. The results from this study provided valuable insights on suitable sample preservation methods for quality DNA extraction and the potential of DNA marker sp16 to predict sex in white Guinea yam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0311.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: adipose tissue; mesenchymal stem cells; regenerative medicine; lipocell; extracellular matrix preservation; ringer’s lactate; liposuction
Online: 24 December 2019 (07:53:44 CET)
This work aims to characterize a new method to recover low-manipulated human adipose tissue, enriched of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ATD-MSCs) for autologous use in regenerative medicine applications. Lipoaspirated fat collected from patients was processed through Lipocell, a II-a medical device for dialysis of adipose tissue, by varying filter sizes and washing solutions. ATD-MSCs yield was measured with flow cytometry after SVF isolation in fresh and cultured samples. Purification from oil and blood was measured after centrifugation with spectrophotometer analysis. Extracellular matrix preservation was assessed through H&E staining and biochemical assay for total collagen, type-2 collagen, and GAGs quantification. Flow cytometry showed a 2-fold increase of ATD-MSCs yield in treated samples in comparison with untreated lipoaspirate; no differences where reported when varying filter size. The association of dialysis and washing thoroughly removed blood and oil from samples. Tissue architecture and extracellular matrix integrity were unaltered after Lipocell processing. Dialysis procedure associated with Ringer’s lactate preserves the proliferation ability of ATD-MSCs in cell culture. The characterization of the product shows that Lipocell is an efficient method to purify the tissue from undesired byproducts, preserving ATD-MSCs vitality and ECM integrity, resulting in a promising tool for regenerative medicine applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban fabrics; seismic vulnerability; critic analysis; cost modelling; Urban preservation programming; building works programming
Online: 23 June 2019 (14:08:14 CEST)
Vulnerability is the big issue of the small inland urban centers exposed to the risk of depopulation. In the climate and in the context of an increasing seismic risk in the center-northern part of Italy, seismic vulnerability can become the determinant cause of the final abandonment of a small town. In some Italian regions, as well as Emilia Romagna, municipalities are implementing seismic vulnerability reduction policies based on the Emergency Limit Condition that has become a basic reference for ordinary land planning. This study proposes a valuation planning approach to the seismic vulnerability reduction carried out within the general planning framework concerning the Faentina Union, a group of five small towns located in the south-western part of the Province of Ravenna, Italy. The approach consists of three main stages: knowledge – the typological, constructive and technological description of the buildings specifically concerning their vulnerability degree; interpretation – the analyses aimed to outline a range of hypotheses about the damages in case of seism; planning – identifying the works intended to definitely reduce the vulnerability of the buildings. This stage includes a cost modelling tools aimed at outlining the trade-off between the extension and the intensity of the vulnerability reduction works, given the budget.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Abies Alba Mill.; antioxidant activity; coniferous trees; essential oils; flavonoids; food preservation; green extraction; hydrodynamic cavitation; nutraceutics; polyphenols
Online: 17 December 2018 (07:07:56 CET)
Extracts from parts of coniferous trees have received increased interest due to their valuable bioactive compounds and properties, useful for plenty of experimental and consolidated applications, in fields comprising nutraceutics, cosmetics, pharmacology, food preservation, and stimulation of plant growth. However, the variability of the bioactive properties, the complexity of the extraction methods, and the use of potentially harmful synthetic chemicals, still represent an obstacle to the spreading of such valuable natural compounds. Hydrodynamic cavitation is emerging as a promising innovative technique for the extraction of precious food components and by-products from waste raw material of the agro-food production chain, which can improve processing efficiency, reduce resource consumption, and produce healthy, high-quality products. In this study, a process based on controlled hydrodynamic cavitation was applied for the first time to the production of aqueous solutions of silver fir (Abies Alba Mill.) needles with enhanced antioxidant activity. The observed levels of the in vitro antioxidant activity, comparable or higher than those found for reference substances, pure extracts, and other water extracts and beverages, highlight the very good potential of the HC process for the creation of solvent-free, aqueous solutions endowed with bioactive compounds extracted from silver fir needles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: masonry; composite; short fibers; natural hydraulic lime; sisal; three-point bending test; fracture energy; strengthening; preservation; sustainability; carbon foot print
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:31:59 CEST)
The present work aims to characterize the mechanical behavior of a new composite material for the conservation and development of the vast historical and architectural heritage that is particularly vulnerable to environmental and seismic actions. The new composite consists of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) -based mortar, reinforced by sisal short fibers randomly oriented in the mortar matrix. The NHL-based mortar ensures the chemical-physical compatibility with the original feature of the historical masonry structures (mostly in stone and clay) aiming to pursue both the effectiveness and durability of the intervention. The use of vegetable fibers (i.e. the sisal one) is an exciting challenge for the construction industry since they require a lower degree of industrialization for their processing, and therefore, their costs are also low, as compared to the most common synthetic/metal fibers. Beams of sisal-composite sizing 160x40x40 mm3 with a central notch are tested in three-point bending, aiming to evaluate both their bending strength and fracture energy. Also, tensile tests and compressive tests were performed on the composite samples, while water retention test and slump test were performed on the fresh mix. Finally, the tensile tests on the Sisal strand were carried out to evaluate the tensile strength of both strand and wire. A final comparison with unreinforced mortar specimens shows that the proposed composite ensures great workability and good performances in term of ductility and strength and it can be considered a promising alternative to the classic fiber-reinforcing systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0398.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Two-tiered mobile wireless sensor networks; Internet of Things; fine-grained spatial-temporal Top-k query; privacy preservation; completeness verification
Online: 17 February 2021 (14:24:16 CET)
To ensure the security of spatial-temporal Top-k query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks, many schemes have been proposed in the literature in the past decade. However, most of them only consider the scenario where sensor nodes are static, and cannot achieve the security goal for spatial-temporal Top-k query in mobile sensor networks, because the mobility of the sensor nodes will affect the spatial-temporal relationships of the sensory data items generated by the sensor nodes. Although we have proposed some schemes for two-tiered mobile wireless sensor networks (TMWSNs) in our previous work, there is still large room to improve their performances. In this paper, we proposed a novel scheme named STQ-TMWSN for secure fine-grained spatial-temporal Top-k query in TMWSNs based on the virtual-grid construction and the size-order encryption binding. Theoretic analysis shows that STQ-TMWSN can achieve low computation complexity and high security performance. Simulation results indicate that STQ-TMWSN brings much lower communication cost than the state-of-the-art schemes on securing Top-k query in TMWSNs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0346.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Media Studies Keywords: digital art; Andy Warhol; Yves Klein; Pop art; blockchain; NFT; digital preservation; variable media; authenticity; net-worked storage; migration; cryptocurrency; Amiga
Online: 28 February 2022 (03:29:03 CET)
For its enthusiasts, the blockchain is an archivist's dream come true: an immutable historical record that is publicly accessible and immune from censorship. Proposals like Juried Protocol Galleries could enable bots to compute the provenance of digital artworks and their appearance in exhibitions and publications. Distributed file systems like IPFS claim to store creative works in a redundant, networked fashion outside the control of any single cloud provider. Projects designed to work with blockchains like Filecoin and Arweave propose a dedicated cryptocurrency as financial incentive to support the cost of governing and sustaining this "permaweb." As dreamy as this picture sounds, many of these promises depend on technologies that have yet to be sufficiently developed or adopted. Rather than forecast the future, we can separate the hype from the reality in the present day by examining a real-life example, namely the 2021 auction of Andy Warhol's digital art with NFTs. This essay will focus less on blockchain's general promise as a preservation medium and more on the particular case of the digital Warhols, which both in form and spirit would seem a perfect application of NFTs to preserve historically important works of digital art. Which promises of the crypto-dream of permanent access to digital heritage ring true for this case study, and which are overblown?