REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1826.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: policy; entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship education; South Africa; educational policy; policy analysis; youth empowerment
Online: 30 August 2023 (10:25:14 CEST)
Entrepreneurship education in South Africa holds significant promise in empowering the youth and fostering economic growth. This article explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on youth empowerment, focusing on case studies of successful young entrepreneurs, evaluation of entrepreneurial skills development, and analysis of employment and economic outcomes. While effective models of entrepreneurship education emphasize experiential learning and collaboration with local businesses, resource constraints and infrastructure gaps pose challenges. Moreover, socio-cultural perceptions and gender disparities influence youth's willingness to engage in entrepreneurship, hindering inclusivity. Evaluating the long-term impact remains challenging, requiring robust monitoring and evaluation mechanisms. The article concludes with recommendations to enhance the impact of entrepreneurship education, including increasing funding, challenging stereotypes, fostering collaboration, and developing evaluation mechanisms to support South Africa's youth in realizing their entrepreneurial potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0503.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: political legitimacy; science policy; technology policy, technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:44:44 CET)
The underlying assumption of the discourse about technology transfer is that government intervention is legitimate. Little scholarship has examined whether this assumption is valid or not and on what basis. Legitimacy is an important construct in the context of public policy. Government intervention can only be sustained if the public views such action as legitimate. The creation and transfer of technologies to the private sector is an area where there is significant government intervention. This paper reconceptualizes political legitimacy in the context of technology transfer policy. The analysis illuminates several concerns and challenges regarding the traditional approach to understanding whether specific government interventions in technology transfer are legitimate. It subsequently applies social constructionism and the notion of morality tales to describe an alternative conceptualization of political legitimacy that integrates aspects of other frameworks. In doing so, it reimagines political legitimacy as less of an unattainable normative principle of limited practical value to policymakers and more of a descriptively understood social phenomenon that policymakers can apply while formulating not only technology transfer policy, but other kinds of public policy as well. The paper demonstrates that there is a broader basis for claims of political legitimacy for government intervention in technology transfer, there is likely a more expansive range of technology transfer problems with which the government can rightly concern itself as well as possible solutions that policymakers can justifiably consider for addressing those problems, and that the political consequences of potential overreach in technology transfer policy are likely minimal.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Mangroves; Forests policy; Policy implementation; Rehabilitation; Management; Vietnam
Online: 11 January 2021 (09:59:25 CET)
This article explored how some state policies on rehabilitation, protection and utilization of mangroves are implemented at two locals; namely, Ca Mau provice and its sub-unit Ngoc Hien District as well as Ho Chi Minh City and its sub-unit Can Gio District and what are considered as emgerging issues in the implementation process. The study employed mixed research methods including document and thematic analysis, in-depth interviews, and group discussion. The findings showed that state policies would be adapted through the ways in which these two locals manage to silmultaneously orient their work toward accommodating the madates placed upon them and cope with the reality of socio-economic difficulties at their levels. The findings also showed some issues that need to consider addressing; namely, locals’ struggles to fill the gaps between written and implemented policies in mangrove rehabilitation, conflict among sectors and stakeholders in mangrove utilization and protection, problems in guaranteeing adequate budget for in-need-locals, inconsistence in policies on "forest: water surface” ratio in mangrove-shrimp farm, and unintended consequences in forest thinning and exploitation regimes. Based on the finding analysis, the articles discussed lessons learned from the policy implementation process on mangrove rehabilitation, management and forest allocation to household in the south of Vietnam.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0802.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Traditional life policy; Non-participating policy; Participating policy; Induced demand; Optimal pricing strategy; Maximum profits
Online: 12 June 2023 (08:49:33 CEST)
This study presents a novel approach to analyzing the present value of total profit for non-participating and participating insurance policies in order to determine the optimal profitability of non-participating and participating insurance policies based on applying the approach used in operations research to the field of finance. As such, a comprehensive insurance product evaluation model was developed using both mathematical models and numerical analysis to evaluate the demand for non-participating and participating life insurance policies in response to changes in interest rates. The findings indicate that non-participating life insurance policies offer greater solvency for insurance companies compared to participating policies. The study also highlights the significance of spontaneous and induced demand in determining the total profit of both types of policies. The study concludes that life insurance companies should focus on generating spontaneous consumer demand, reducing induced demand, and implementing the optimal pricing strategy to achieve maximum profits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0628.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sustainable Development; Sustainable Development Goals; Public Policy; Agrarian Policy; Ecuador
Online: 2 February 2021 (10:29:00 CET)
This study reviews how policy and agricultural laws relate to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 12, sustainability and rural development, in Ecuador. Policy aligns itself with goals 2 in terms of increased productivity and income (target 2,3) to interna-tional markets (targets 2b y 2c), rural infrastructure, research, agricultural extension and technological development (target 2a), agrobiodiversity and traditional knowledge (target 25). It is related with SDG 12 to sustainable production and consumption targets 12.1, 12.2 and 12a). Laws highlight public procurement, research, seeds, and efficient resource management through sustainable practices. It is concluded that policy is aligned with SDGs 2 and 12 but is necessary to establish others that surpass the emphasis on produc-tivity towards export markets that leave AFC production and achieve a transition to sus-tainable production and consumption. The study of laws indicates that it is necessary to strengthen local governance for food sovereignty, including the peasant sectors within the framework of existing laws with participation in spaces of debate and formulation of ac-tions.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: abuse of return policy; network effect; return policy; platform operation strategy
Online: 19 July 2023 (10:11:33 CEST)
Currently, major e-commerce platforms are competing to improve their return services, while merchants are experiencing abuse of return policies by consumers. The effectiveness of lenient return policies is examined in helping e-commerce platforms gain a competitive advantage in this paper. A dual oligopoly model is established consisting of one platform that offers a lenient return policy with services like Instant Refunds and the other does not provide similar ones. The scenario where consumers are single-homing, while merchants are partial multi-homing is analyzed. In the scenario, many factors are examined to assess their impact on the scale of the bilateral user base and the profits for both platforms, including the proportion of consumer abusing return policies, the benefits derived from abusive returns, penalties. and costs. The findings indicate that: (1) With an increasing proportion of consumer abusing return policies, the multi-homing merchants on platform that offer lenient return service will choose to be exclusively affiliated with rival platform, accounting for a decrease in consumer base and lower platform profits compared to competitors. (2) Platform that provides lenient return policies should restrict the amount of returns to mitigate the impact of consumer abusing return policies on its profits. (3) When the proportion of consumers abusing return policies is relatively low, platform should choose moderate levels of penalty to increase the scale of both sides of users without excessively increasing costs. However. when this proportion is high, platforms should cease to offer lenient return and refund services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0210.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Policy Assessment; Green Deal; EU Common Agricultural Policy; Scaled Indicators; Greening
Online: 13 December 2021 (15:55:03 CET)
Every intervention of planning, implementation, and monitoring of agricultural and agri-environmental policies requires assessment tools that should have the characteristics of relevance, completeness, interpretability, data quality, efficiency, and overlapping. Despite the extensive selection of bibliographies and numerous projects designed to develop agri-environmental indicators necessary for assessing the sustainability of new policies, it is difficult to have an integrated and updated set of indicators available, which can be an effective and practical application tool to assists policymakers, researchers, and actors in policy design, monitoring and impact assessment. Particularly, such need is pressing to face the new environmental challenges imposed by the upcoming European Union Green Deal on the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) post 2023. This study, therefore, aims to fill this gap by proposing a selection methodology and different pools of agri-environmental indicators differentiated based on a scale approach (crop-farm-district-region). Furthermore, we have attempted to validate our approach by quantifying selected indicators for a specific evaluation necessity, represented in this case by an assessment of environmental impact of land use change induced by CAP greening requirements in the Northern Italy context. Results of this validation show original crops’ impacts comparison, but also highlight great knowledge gaps in the available literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public policy; science policy; technology; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (09:33:38 CET)
This paper presents an alternative conceptualization and definition of technology in the context of university technology transfer. The ambiguity regarding the conceptualization of technology is apparent in the technology transfer literature. An expanded conceptualization of technology potentially opens new approaches to researching the topic of technology transfer. It may also cause policymakers to think more comprehensively about what it means to successfully transfer technologies derived from federally funded research to the private sector for use that benefits the public interest. This paper integrates constructs and ideas in the related literature to provide a new perspective of technology that can support future scholarly research and public policy formulation about technology transfer in general, and university technology transfer specifically. Although the paper focuses on university technology transfer to the private sector in the United States, the insights it presents are relevant to technology transfer more broadly and applicable in other geopolitical contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0250.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Blockchain; Decentralization; Innovation Policy; National Innovation Systems; Policy Tools; Legal and Regulatory
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:50:38 CET)
Blockchain technology can achieve decentralization, multi-party verification, anti-tampering, anonymity, traceability of transactions, and the application of distributed ledger. Countries around the world continue to seek the blockchain business models, technologies and applications, and have different visions and policies for the development of blockchain. This study conducts a comparative policy framework of theoretical analysis of the blockchain technology between the USA and China. Using the innovative policy tools proposed by Rothwell and Zegveld, the above mentioned governments are analyzed from the viewpoint of twelve policy tools. The results show that the USA and China all prefer to use “Environmental-side” policy. The USA has paid more attention to “Legal and regulatory”, “Public services” and “Procurement”. China has the highest proportion of policies in “Political tools”, followed by “Legal & regulatory”, while “Scientific and technical”, “Education” and “Overseas agent” come in third . The blockchain technology has developed vigorously among industries and its applications have gradually diversified. The results are provided to various stakeholders as a reference for policy planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: policy evaluation; sustainable rural policy; spatial econometrics model; decomposition method; South Korea
Online: 22 May 2018 (10:53:25 CEST)
An imperative challenge emerges from the demand to construct a scientific method to recent agricultural and rural policies throughout the world. The objective of the present study is to conduct an ex-post quantitative evaluation of the Comprehensive Rural Village Development Project, a representative rural development project operated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, a central government agency in South Korea. The primary purpose of the project is to ensure sustainable rural society. This study found a moderate but significant positive impact of the policy in enhancing the standard of living in rural areas. The present study concludes with suggesting some policy implications and future directions of policy evaluation studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Radiation oncology; COVID-19; Radiation therapist COVID-19 policy; Radiation oncology departmental Policy
Online: 30 April 2020 (11:02:58 CEST)
Abstract: This brief policy is written after experience treating COVID-19 positive radiation therapy patients to reduce risk to therapy staff and patients in radiation oncology department. It is important to prioritize the safety of staff and non-infected patients while ensuring the continuation of radiation oncology services. Radiation therapists have sustained contact with covid-19 patients in an enclosed vault. Protocols for correct disinfecting of equipment and room and therapists following methods for less transmission of virus is crucial. This policy covers prevention methods from COVID-19 transmission from patient to patient, patient to staff, staff to patient and staff to staff as follows A.Risk reduction by screening and preparing staff and rooms B.Radiation Therapist Policy for COVID-19 positive patient with CCC (Critical Cancer Care)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1843.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Monetary policy; inflation; stock returns
Online: 27 July 2023 (08:43:34 CEST)
Inflation in 2021 and 2022 grew much faster than the Federal Reserve expected. The Fed downplayed inflation in 2021 and then increased the federal funds rate by 500 basis points between March 2022 and May 2023. This paper investigates how this unprecedented tightening impacted the stock market. To do so it estimates a fully specified multi-factor model that measures the exposure of 53 assets to Bauer and Swanson (2022) monetary policy surprises over the 1988 to 2019 period. It then uses the monetary policy betas to gauge investors’ beliefs about monetary policy between 2020 and 2023. The results indicate that changing perceptions about monetary policy multiplied uncertainty and stock market volatility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Complexity; policy-recommendation; mathematical models
Online: 5 December 2022 (11:33:35 CET)
In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity. As a result of the interplay between many factors, the control of this disease can be challenging. However, few studies have demonstrated malaria's complexity, control, and modeling although this perspective could lead to effective policy recommendations. This paper aims to be a didactic material providing the reader with an overview of malaria. More importantly, using a system approach lens, we intend to highlight the debated topics and the multifaceted thematic aspects of malaria transmission mechanisms, while showing the control approaches used as well as the model supporting the dynamics of malaria. As there is a large amount of information on each subject, we have attempted to provide a basic understanding of malaria that needs to be further developed. Nevertheless, this study illustrates the importance of using a multidisciplinary approach to designing next-generation malaria control policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0525.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: flood; policy; governance; institutions; Nigeria
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:03:23 CET)
In recent years, Nigeria is witnessing increasing frequency of flood occurrence with devastating impact translating into significant loss of lives (in Nigeria, over 300 people died in September 2022) and properties. Addressing flood disaster requires holistic approach from policy and governance perspectives, integration of policies and programs and synergies between institutions. Using synergies and eliminating trade-offs, flood governance and policy coherence integrate all relevant policy fields and institutions to achieve common policy outcomes. The objective of this study is to examine and understand how flood governance and policy coherence are approached, as well as institutional design and implementation for coherence in Nigeria. The findings revealed that there is no single flood policy in Nigeria. Due to this, there is no focus and no defined objectives for flood governance, prevention, control, and management, and no imperative for the government to seek both short-term and long-term flood solutions. There is no synergy and coordination among institutions for flood governance in the country. Since the country established the federal ministry of environment in 1999, the environment, floods, and climate-related hazards were given less priority. State and local governments handle most flood disasters and emergencies. Federal assistance is provided, however, when flood disasters exceed the capabilities of local and state governments. This study recommends that across the country, flood policy needs to be designed, formulated, and implemented while assigning governance responsibility and decentralizing policy to state and local governments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0350.v1
Online: 27 June 2022 (05:31:25 CEST)
Turkana County's fisheries sector, which is entirely dependent on Lake Turkana, is vital to the county's economy. The Fisheries Sector in the County supports 1,500 households directly and 1,100 households indirectly. Despite its economic and social importance, the sector faces numerous challenges such as high post-harvest fish losses, uncoordinated development approaches, over-exploitation of some lake areas and weak links between research, management, and other sector players. Furthermore, since the start of devolution in 2013, the sector has been operating without an overall policy and legal framework. The primary goal of the study was to identify important challenges in the management of the fisheries sector in Turkana County that would lead the successful and coordinated growth of the fisheries industry. To capture their perspectives on the problems and potential in the usage of Lake Turkana's fisheries resources, semi-structured questionnaires and Key Informants interviews were used to collect primary data from the sector's fisheries actors. A total of 60 people were interviewed, and their responses were recorded in the Kobo Collect toolbox for later analysis. Secondary data was also gathered from numerous national policy declarations, guidelines, and legislation that have been used to manage Lake Turkana's fishery resources. The findings indicate that a policy directing the exploitation and development of fisheries is required in order to fully realize the potential of fisheries and aquaculture in the County. The development of the policy will lay a solid foundation for the creation of a legal framework to strengthen the sector in Turkana County, which is a necessary step toward achieving sustainable development and management of fisheries in accordance with national, regional, and international frameworks. By leveraging the role of the County Directorate of Fisheries and Beach Management Units in the sectors' monitoring, management, and development, the policy will also promote effective coordination of stakeholders at all levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0271.v1
Online: 28 February 2019 (12:49:31 CET)
The majority of the population in developing countries resides in the rural area. Development itself cannot address the challenges of the rural area since its economic, political and environmental landscape is different from an urban area. The paper attempts to assess the rural dimension aspect of Nepali Agriculture Policy since rural development and agricultural development is closely resembled due to an agrarian-based economy of the country and a large rural population. Therefore, a critical review of National Agriculture Policy, 2004 (NAP-2004) was carried out under “Commercialization of Agriculture”, “Food Security”, “Rural Infrastructure”, “Gender”, “Climate Change” and “Social Inclusion” thematic area. The results showed that NAP-2004 satisfactorily address rural development albeit ample space for improvement. The findings of the paper could be beneficial to policymakers and development workers in the field of rural development and agriculture along with academicians having interest in it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0425.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: technology transfer; anthropotechnology; offset policy
Online: 24 August 2018 (05:45:03 CEST)
This research aimed, within the scope of the anthropotechnological approach, analyze the technology transfer, performed via the offset policy in the field of public health, called the Radiotherapy Expansion Plan, from the Health Ministry. The objective of this policy is to create and improve accredited organizations, concerning the oncological treatment, specifically in the insertion of radiotherapeutic equipment. This process is divided into two stages: the insertion of the radiotherapy equipment, and the compensations provided for in the commercial agreement. To meet this purpose, the research started from understanding the theoretical and methodological approaches of the fields of study of anthropotechnology, technology transfer and offset policy. In this sense, there was used the methodological strategy of the case study, supported by applied research, with a qualitative and exploratory approach. External and internal environments of a specific situation were analyzed, located in the State of Paraná, which received the radiotherapy equipment. It was verified that the initiatives of insertion of radiotherapeutic equipment in the context of the Expansion Plan have undergone numerous confrontations, inserted in the contextual and organizational particularities that affect its development and effectiveness. There are challenges that require responses from a set of organizations involved, in order to implement the trade agreement established by the offset policy, highlighting the first stage as a process of technology transfer. Thus, the situation located in the State of Paraná consistently consolidated the insertion of the radiotherapy equipment. It allowed its disclosure as a reference situation, and based on the dimensions and indicators analysis provided by anthropotechnology, made possible the comprehensionof the technology transfer involved in the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0279.v1
Online: 15 August 2018 (16:06:52 CEST)
Paper presents the energy policy of the Republic of Serbia with special attention to the energy situation on the government controlled territory. South Serbian autonomous province of Kosovo and Metohija is under UN jurisdiction since the 1999 according to UNSC Resolution 1244. Renewable energy sources are rarely used in Serbia with exception of energy from hydropower plants, but in this sector priorities in geothermal and energy coming from biomass recently increased. In natural gas sector, Serbia has the deal with Russia for construction of South Stream gas-line through Serbia and for construction of the first underground storage in depleted gas reservoir in Banatski Dvor. In 2008, Serbia also sold 51% of the government founded petroleum industry – NIS which has exclusive monopoly for exploitation of crude oil. Serbian government has complete monopoly in electric power sector. Electric power infrastructure became technologically obsolete, and operative efficiency is at very low level. Serbia has not yet decided whether Serbian Electric Power Industry – EPS will be privatized. District heating sector mostly natural gas fuelled is highly inefficient and it is in jurisdiction of local municipalities but also has social component dictated by central government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cloud robotic; Security policy; DDoS
Online: 8 August 2018 (08:54:39 CEST)
Cloud robot is becoming popular and security of cloud robot is important. However, the researches of cloud robot safety are a few. This work develops a security policy to defense DDoS attack of cloud robot. In this policy, complex, but accurate calculation models are deployed on the cloud, simple but efficient calculation models are deployed on the robot. In the cloud, there are master server and standby server. The master server transfers parameters of complex but accurate models to the standby server periodically and the master executes the start-stop backup policy. Specifically, this work proposes and proves an algorithm to dynamically adjust the interval of parameter transfer. According to a PDRA feature of Netflow, when DDoS attacks, the master server sends warning signals to the robot and standby server. The robot runs local models to avoid stopping work until it is connected to the standby server. Then, standby server provides service to the robot until the master server recover. Finally, this work implemented a gesture recognition cloud robot based on convolutional neural network, hidden Markov model and PDRA feature of Netflow to verify the policy. Experiment shows that the security policy to defense DDoS attack for cloud robot is effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0117.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: strategy; government; policy; government programme
Online: 25 May 2017 (18:05:52 CEST)
This article uses strategy metaphors consisting of a plan, a home and a game to study government programme formation in Finland. The strategy approach both contradicts and complements the traditional political science approach to government formation. The government programme has been strategic in the sense of separating the formulation and implementation parts of the strategy. The most important function of the metaphor of plan is to hold coalition parties together. The adopted austerity policy provides a meagre contribution to the expansion of services and the increase in government spending. Consequently, the home metaphor in the government programme appears in the distant future and in combating external threats. The game metaphor is apparent in the goal of making contracts with social partners. The vocabulary change from politics to strategy alters the government programme’s position in terms of catering to the needs of civil servants, citizens and stakeholders. The strategy perspective might be instrumental in shifting open democratic debates to closed and secretive policy formations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: cultural space; cultural sustainability; culture indicators; sustainability indicators: cultural policy; development policy; sustainable development.
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:42:29 CEST)
Few assessments and indicators on cultural sustainability have been applied to national and local development policies in Indonesia. Said policies have had the notion of space solely defined through its physical aspect. This study aims to establish the cultural aspect of space as a workable indicator for sustainability in development planning. The study grounds itself in the coastal area of Kalibaru Subdistrict, North Jakarta, a region characterized by dense and culturally diverse residential areas located in between heavy industrial development. Primary data are gathered from 10 informants of varying occupations with residence in the area for more than 20 years. In-depth interviews and Spatial Cognitive Mapping were conducted to articulate the cultural spaces of their everyday activities. Prevalent themes of spatial practice were identified and described in 3 categories of 1. core cultural spaces, 2. tactical cultural spaces, and 3. spaces of cultural conflict. The participatory procedures to identify cultural spaces as described in the study were concluded to be operable within existing indicator or index frameworks for sustainability policy. The availability of cultural spaces and its enumeration may be incorporated into national surveys for effective data collection and use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: spectrum sharing, collaborative spectrum sharing, policy-based sharing, transmission opportunities, rendezvous channels, policy interpreter
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:35:10 CEST)
This paper describes some of the challenges that need to be addressed in order to develop collaborative spectrum sharing systems. The importance of these challenges stems from the assumption that rules for spectrum sharing can change after the deployment of radio networks and the whole system must be able to adapt to them. To address such a requirement, we used a policy-based approach in which transmissions are controlled by a policy interpreter system, and the policies can be modified during system operation. Our primary goal was to develop a prototype of such a system. In this paper, we outline the implementation of policy interpretation, automatic generation of transmission opportunities in case a request for transmission is denied by the policy reasoner, and the generation of rendezvous channels for the synchronization of otherwise asynchronously running software defined radios.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0634.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: bovine TB; risk factors; disease control; animal health policy; veterinary epidemiology; evidence-based policy
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:25:31 CEST)
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) outbreaks, caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection, are a costly animal health challenge. Understanding factors associated with the duration of outbreaks, known as breakdowns, could lead to better disease management policy development. We undertook a retrospective observational study (2012-2018) and employed Finite Mixture Models (FMM) to model the outcome parameter, and to investigate how factors were associated with duration for differing subpopulations identified. In addition to traditional risk factors (e.g. herd size, bTB history), we also explored farm geographic area, parcels/farm fragmentation, metrics of intensity via nitrogen loading, and whether herds were designated controlled beef finishing units (CBFU) as potential risk factors for increased duration. The final model fitted log-normal distributions, with two latent classes (k) which partitioned the population into a subpopulation around the central tendency of the distribution, and a second around the tails of the distribution. The latter subpopulation included longer breakdowns of policy interest. Increasing duration was positively associated with recent (<3 yrs) TB history and the number of reactors disclosed, (log) herd size, beef herd-type relative to other herd types, number of land parcels, area, and being designated a controlled finishing unit (“feedlot”), and having high annual inward cattle movements within the “tails” subpopulation. Breakdown length was negatively associated with year of commencement of breakdown (i.e. a decreasing trend) and non-significantly with the organic nitrogen produced on the farm (N kg/hectare), a measure of stocking density. The latter finding may be due to confounding effects with herd size and area. Most variables contributed only moderately to explaining variation in breakdown duration, that is, they had moderate size effects on duration. Herd-size and CBFU had greater effect sizes on the outcome. The findings contribute to evidence-based policy formation in Ireland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0414.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: agriculture; agrivoltaic; climate policy; Canada; energy policy; farming; land use; photovoltaic; solar energy; renewable energy
Online: 23 January 2023 (12:16:00 CET)
Canada has committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by increasing the non-emitting share of electricity generation to 90% by 2030. As solar energy costs have plummeted, agrivoltaics (co-development of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems and agriculture) provide an economic path to these goals. This study quantifies agrivoltaic potential in Canada by province using geographical information system analysis of agricultural areas and numerical simulations. Systems modeled would enable conventional farming of field crops to continue (and potentially increase yield) by using bifacial PV for single-axis tracking and vertical system configurations. Between a quarter (vertical) to more than one third (single axis tracking) of Canada’s electrical energy needs can be provided solely by agrivoltaics using only 1% of current agricultural lands. These results show that agrivoltaics could be a major contributor to sustainable electricity generation and provide the ability for Canada to render the power generation sector net zero/GHG emission free. It is clear that the potential of agrivoltaic-based solar energy production in Canada far outstrips current electric demand and can thus be used to electrify and decarbonize transportation, heating, expand economic opportunities by powering the burgeoning computing sector, and export green electricity to the U.S. to help eliminate their dependence on fossil fuels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0645.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: actor; influence; mactor analysis; policy; strategy
Online: 11 July 2023 (04:09:51 CEST)
Wastewater management in Bogor, Indonesia, faces significant challenges to achieving a sustainable state. The growth of self-help settlements which are sporadic, unplanned, unorganized, and very dense, has an impact on the government's difficulties in providing sustainable wastewater management services. The research aims to examine fast-growing areas of self-help settlements, identify critical elements as a basis for strategy, and map the roles and influence of stakeholders in managing fast-growing areas in self-help settlements based on domestic wastewater management. This research uses a case study approach. Data were collected through observation, interviews, and focus group discussions. Data in this study were analyzed using Mactor software. The result showed knowledge and understanding of the correct management of domestic wastewater are the basis for achieving the actors' goals. In an implementation, social capital is needed to increase community participation by providing incentives that can affect the management of domestic wastewater, and it is necessary to increase the capacity of actors to assist the community in managing domestic wastewater. Ease of implementation at the community level must be based on community-based planning with government assistance so that the community itself carries out the decision on the type of domestic wastewater management by considering the advantages and disadvantages of each wastewater management system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0137.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Government; Hospitalization; Pandemics; Public policy; Transportation.
Online: 9 February 2022 (11:04:11 CET)
To effectively combat the COVID-19 pandemic, the state government of Bahia, Brazil, has distributed intensive and non-intensive care units along the nine regions that divide the state of Bahia, such that COVID-19 patients could be easily hospitalized in health care units located at the same regions where they live. However, the observed hospitalizations networks for COVID-19 patients shows that a considerable number of COVID-19 patients had to travel beyond their region of residence to be hospitalized. Hence, this study indicates that the current distribution of health care units in Bahia, Brazil, is not sufficient to effectively reduce the distances traveled by COVID-19 patients requiring hospitalization. We believe that such unnecessary travels to distant hospitals may put the sick patients as well as healthy people involved in the transportation process in risk, further delaying the stabilization of the COVID-19 pandemic in each region of the state of Bahia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0307.v1
Online: 11 June 2021 (09:02:07 CEST)
Poverty is one of the indexes that can see how a country succeeds in development. In Indonesia, the poverty rate is high as the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic increases over time. Therefore, a solution is embraced in the form of government policies in tackling poverty in Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to analyze the poverty caused by the Covid-19 pandemic.What is the current state of poverty caused by the Covid-19 pandemic in Indonesia? and what are the previous government policies that have succeeded in reducing poverty in Indonesia? The method used in this study is the literature review method based on the results of critical analysis of journal articles that are relevant to the topic of discussion. The results showed that three government policies have succeeded in lowering the poverty level in Indonesia, namely the PKH program policy, the zakat policy as an indicator of poverty reduction, and the Bank Wakaf Mikro policy. Therefore, this study focuses on the policy as a study for government policy in lowering poverty levels due to the Covid-19 Pandemic.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Climate Change; Policy; Migration; Health; Governance
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:39:36 CET)
Changing mobility patterns combined with changes in the climate present challenges and opportunities for global health, requiring effective, relevant and humane policy responses. This study used data from a systematic literature review that examined the intersection between climate change, migration and health. The aim of the present study was to synthesize policy recommendations in the peer-reviewed literature, regarding this type of environmental migration with respect to health, to strengthen the evidence-base. Systematic searches were conducted in four academic databases (PubMed, Ovid Medline, Global Health and Scopus) and Google Scholar for empirical studies published between 1990 – 2020 that used any study design to investigate migration and health in the context of climate change. Studies underwent a two-stage protocol-based screening process and eligible studies were appraised for quality using a standardized mixed-methods tool. From the initial 2,425 hits, 68 articles were appraised for quality and included in the synthesis. Among the policy recommendations, six themes were discernible: (1) avoid the universal promotion of migration as an adaptive response to climate risk; (2) preserve cultural and social ties of mobile populations; (3) enable the participation of migrants in decision-making in sites of relocation and resettlement; (4) strengthen health systems and reduce barriers for migrant access to health care; (5) support and promote optimization of social determinants of migrant health; (6) integrate health into loss and damage assessments related to climate change. The results call for transformative policies that support the health and wellbeing of people engaging in, or affected by mobility responses, including those whose migration decisions and experiences are influenced by climate change, and to establish and develop inclusive migrant healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0714.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Public Health, Sport policy, Sport access
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:22:47 CET)
It has been shown that assessing the capacity and quality of sports equipment is important to develop a better understanding of sport participation. Different organizations are involved in the provision of sports products and services. In this regard, policymakers need to design a framework to give people more access to sports facilities. It appears that geographical access to such facilities can affect differences in sport participation around the globe. In this study, Shiraz city districts and the Shiraz sports clubs list were collected. The list of sports clubs was matched with Shiraz districts in March 2020. The significance of the relationship between area, the population of each region, per capita construction budget, frequency of clubs, green area, number of parks, population to number of club’s ratio, and area to the number of club’s ratio indicators and the number of sports clubs were analyzed by SPSS version 22 Using the Spearman correlation coefficient test. There were statistically significant relationships between district and population of each region, District and sports club, District and Population to the number of clubs, area and green area, per capita construction budget and the number of parks, per capita construction budget and population of each region (p<0.05 for all). A significant correlation between the districts and the Population to the number of club’s ratio shows that there is no proper distribution of sports facilities in different urban areas. For this reason, in some areas, people may not have adequate access to sports facilities. Also, a significant correlation was observed between total area and green area, per capita construction budget and the number of parks and Per capita construction budget and the population of each region. So, the health level of the people who live in undeveloped districts is endangered and more attention should be paid to them.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: electricity poverty; quantile regression; poverty policy
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:56:31 CEST)
The main objective of this article is to explore the causes of household electricity poverty in Spain from an innovative perspective. Based on evidences of energy inequality across households with different income levels, a quantile regression approach is used to better capture the heterogeneity of determinants of energy poverty across different levels of electricity expenditure. Results illustrate some interesting and counter intuitive findings about the relationship between household income and electricity poverty and the technical sufficiency of quantile regression compared to the blurred results of a standard single coefficient / OLS approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainable development; active transport; visioning; policy
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:19:52 CEST)
This paper sets out three visions for the year 2035 which bring about a radical change in the level of walking, cycling and public transport in Turkish urban areas. A participatory visioning technique was structured according to a three-stage technique: (i) Extensive online comprehensive survey. In which potential transport measures were researched for their relevance to promoting sustainable transport in future Turkish urban areas; (ii) Semi-structured interviews. Where transport strategy suggestions were developed in the context of the possible imaginary urban areas and their associated contextual description of the imaginary urban areas for each vision; (iii) Participatory workshops. Where an innovative method was developed to explore various creative future choices and alternatives. Overall, this paper indicates that the content of the visions was reasonable, but such visions need a considerable degree of consensus and radical approaches to tackling them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0123.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainable; livelihood; policy; vulnerability; choice; quality
Online: 7 June 2018 (12:39:47 CEST)
This study aims to assess food security status of rural, peri-urban and urban households and role of socio-economic factors in ensuring food security. A survey was conducted to collect primary (quantitative) data from 630 respondents using proportionate sampling technique from Punjab, Pakistan. Cronbach’s Alpha reveals stability (>0.75) of data scale items. Using Dietary Intake Assessment (DIA), findings reveal urban households as highly food-secure whereas rural household as most vulnerable to food security at 2450kcal/day per person. Study indicates food price increase as the leading factor in preventing food security among households. Contrary, study identifies risk factors associated to food quality under the abundant availability and access as the new dimension to household food insecurity. Further, results of binary logit model show that socio-economic factors such as monthly income, total number of earners, education of household head and access to market are positively related with food security status whereas, social isolation, volatility in food prices and risk factors in food quality are negatively related with household food security. Therefore, study proposes educational orientation and entrepreneurial development as sustainable solution to ensure food security among masses. Besides, further country level researches are advised to deep delve the mounting menace of food security.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cohesion policy; data visualization; open data
Online: 8 January 2018 (11:11:47 CET)
The implementation of the European Cohesion Policy aiming at fostering regions competitiveness, economic growth and creation of new jobs is documented over the period 2014–2020 in the publicly available Open Data Portal for the European Structural and Investment funds. On the base of this source, this paper aims at describing the process of data mining and visualization for information production on regional programmes performace in achieving effective expenditure of resouces.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0004.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Sustainable transport, policy implementation, governance, institutions
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:35:36 CEST)
There is a large potential for cost-effective solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to improve the sustainability of the transport sector that is yet unexploited, in particular in the urban context. Considering the cost-effectiveness and the potential for co-benefits, it is hard to understand why energy gains and mitigation action in the transport sector is still lagging behind the potential. Particularly interesting is the fact that there is substantial difference among countries with relatively similar economic performances, such as the OECD countries in the development of their transport CO2 emission over the past thirty years despite the fact that these countries had relatively similar access to efficient technologies and vehicles. This study aims to apply some well established political science theories on the particular example of climate change mitigation in the transport sector in order to identify some of the factors that could help explain the variations in success of policies and strategies in this sector. The analysis suggests that institutional arrangements that contribute to consensus building in the political process provide a high level of political and policy stability which is vital to long-term changes in energy end-use sectors that rely on long-term investments. However, there is no direct correlation between institutional structures, e.g. corporatism and success in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector. Environmental objectives need to be built into the consensus-based policy structure before actual policy progress can be observed. This usually takes longer in consensus democracies than in politically more agile majoritarian policy environments, but the policy stability that builds on corporatist institutional structures is likely to experience changes over a longer-term, in this case to a shift towards low-carbon transport that endures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0083.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: urban sustainability; environmental governance; energy policy
Online: 27 July 2016 (05:56:56 CEST)
As the world’s second largest economy, China ranks amount the world’s top nations when it comes to carbon emission, and therefore its attitude towards climate change is closely followed by all parties concerned. There have been few researches on the role of environmental governance in low-carbon city transformation process, especially the Chinese one. This paper analyses the role of government environmental regulation played in the low-carbon city transformation process by taking Shenzhen as the research object. One of the world's youngest super cities, it also happens to be the lowest carbon emission intensity city in China. Striving to explore green low-carbon development path for the whole country, Shenzhen provides practical experience for countries to cope with global climate change. However, its efforts to reduce the total carbon emissions failed, but it emphasized the carbon emission intensity, which is consistent with the international commitments made by the central government. China’s policy towards handling climate change relies on hierarchical governance arrangement. The strength of the NGOs in the country is weak and incomparable with the government’s, which has mastered most of the resources and is just a reality in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0133.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land and water management; land use change modelling; water and irrigation policy; modelling of policy impact.
Online: 3 July 2017 (15:13:44 CEST)
Agriculture and farming worldwide are responsible for numerous environmental threats, including degradation of land and water resources depletion. Underlining the dynamic interaction between bio-physical and socio-economic drivers is the key towards a more sustainable land and water management. With regard to a highly developed agricultural area in southern Italy, multi-regression models were developed to interpret the observed inter-annual variability of cropped land. Main drivers related to Common Agricultural Policy support, product market prices, crop yield and irrigation water availability were investigated. The adopted models revealed the different weighs of each driver. The findings reported the role that direct payments played in supporting the extension of irrigated crops, such as processing tomato. Likewise, the models pointed to decoupled payment scheme as the most important driver of change in the crop pattern over the last years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0194.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sufficiency; energy crises; energy poverty; policy instruments
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:37:06 CEST)
In 2021 an acute energy crisis inflicted severe damage on the global economy, leading to escalated prices for electricity, gas, and fuel. In order to shield individuals and businesses from the mounting energy expenses, governments have been compelled to implement policy measures, including tax reductions, price restrictions or discounts, and subsidies. This research paper examines these policy responses through the lens of energy sufficiency. Energy poverty poses a significant threat to social cohesion and support for climate-related initiatives. Therefore, it is imperative to employ compensatory measures. However, the design of such solutions must carefully consider the incentives to reduce energy consumption and associated carbon emissions. The findings of the analysis demonstrate that the escalation of energy costs holds promise for achieving energy sufficiency. Nevertheless, the government's response to the surge in energy prices and energy poverty falls short and lacks precision. Most of the policy changes primarily focus on regressive energy cost subsidies and nudging households away from fossil fuels, but they fail to generate the necessary impetus for achieving energy sufficiency, which involves the elimination of energy poverty and excessive energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0059.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: climate shocks; temperature change; inflation; monetary policy
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:50:25 CEST)
In the era of persistent globalization, climate governance has emerged as a prominent concern within both the theoretical community and government departments of diverse nations. Of particular interest in academic research is the adverse effect of climate shocks on the global economy. This paper employs average temperature as a surrogate indicator for climate shocks and examines the influence of temperature fluctuations on inflation levels using a balanced panel dataset from 1995 to 2021. The findings indicate a positive association between temperature change and inflation within the country, which remains consistent even after subjecting the analysis to multiple robustness tests. Furthermore, accounting for heterogeneity reveals variations in the magnitude of response of inflation levels to temperature fluctuations. Regarding the analysis of underlying mechanisms, the study underscores the significance of energy demand as a pivotal pathway influencing inflationary pressures at the national level. Lastly, by incorporating GDP per capita as a threshold, the research reveals a nonlinear relationship between temperature change and inflation levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1934.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Coastal Exclusion Policy; Governance; Scale; Function Shift
Online: 27 June 2023 (15:28:07 CEST)
The coastal zone, situated at the sensitive interface between land and sea, serves as a pivotal area of extensive human economic activities. As one of China's economic special zones, Xiamen exemplifies the comprehensive trajectory of coastal governance in China. This research adopts an interdisciplinary approach grounded in historical geography and political ecology, employing data collection methods encompassing historical literature, field surveys, and interviews. The research findings indicate that:(1) The year 1994 witnessed the pivotal role played by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in connecting Jimei Peninsula from a local context to the international arena, thus signifying a momentous turning point in the process of scale reconstruction. However, the subsequent implementation of the Coastal Exclusion Policy in 2002 had detrimental consequences, leading to the disintegration of the local scale, the erosion of maritime culture, and the disregard for the livelihood security of displaced coastal populations.(2)The Coastal Exclusion Policy serves as an instrumental tool for implementing scale politics, while its functional realignment has had profound implications for the coastal zone, encompassing economic transformation, ecological degradation, and the marginalization of the socio-cultural fabric that intertwines humans and the coastal environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0096.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Health; Policy; Knowledge; Perception; Medical Students; Malaysia
Online: 11 April 2022 (11:07:12 CEST)
Background: Health policy is a set of comprehensive principles and legislations that guide how healthcare should be effectively delivered in the community. Medical schools should prepare students to undertake managerial responsibilities by incorporating health policy in the curriculum to deal with the intricacies of healthcare systems and their clinical roles in their future professional careers. Objective: To examine medical students' perception at a Public University in Malaysia regarding teaching health policy and their participation in health policy roles. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study using universal sampling was carried out among the medical students using a paper-based questionnaire to collect the data. Results: Most respondents opined their willingness to learn health policy (80.9%) and that teaching health policy (83.6%) should be compulsory for medical students. The respondents thought health policy should be introduced earlier in Year 1 or 2. The student scores on their knowledge regarding health policy and year of study were significantly associated with their involvement in the health policy roles in both the simple and multiple logistic regression. Both statistical tests reported higher participation in health policy roles with the higher year of study, though only Year 4 and 5 were significant in the simple logistic regression and only Year 5 in the multiple logistic regression compared to Year 1. On the other hand, age and type of admission show significant results only in the simple logistic regression, while the race was only significant at the multivariate level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that most respondents showed their willingness to learn health policy, participate in the health policy programs, and recommend that health policy be considered an essential topic in the medical curriculum, which should be taught right from the first year of medical school. We recommend encouraging students’ participation in health policy activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0507.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: planning delay; land depletion; local fiscal policy
Online: 25 January 2021 (14:53:39 CET)
The main focus of this paper is to analyze the effect of local public finance on spatial land use through economic models and empirical evidence from Israel. The theoretic models extends the Alonso-Mill-Muth model by incorporating local public finance. The first finding is that steady population growth provides a channel for land capitalization through the mechanism of long term land property right. This implies a possible conflict of interest if ownership of land leasing revenue and the ad valorem property tax are not consistent. The empirical section examines one of the implications derived from the models highlighting a possible inconsistency between central and local governments due to land ownership centralization. This causes local tax revenue inequality among Israeli municipalities. Statistical evidence shows that cities with a larger share business land use can generate more tax without assistance from the central government, and are therefore more fiscal independent. Fiscal status has a significant effect on the planning time of residential construction. Municipalities with higher local tax revenues have shorter planning time(higher probability of acceptance) conditional on the plan’s size and other features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0656.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: orchid books; database; species; documentations; policy; extinction
Online: 26 November 2020 (07:36:45 CET)
Orchids totalling close to 4000 species in Malaysia are one of the most diverse and most widespread family here had gained momentum in recognition among policy makers and guardians of the forest as one of the profiles that fit and can benefit plant conservation on a broad scale in recent years. Listed not only as conservation indicator but also as priority germplasm for sustainable floriculture industry in the country, a milestone that could safeguard wild orchids from verge of extinction in the natural habitat. Through our 30 years of studying orchids in the wild, we understand more about the distribution, rarity, threats and extinction of orchids than ever before, and we have the scientific tools to address many of the problems, yet many species face daily threats including habitat loss and unsustainable exploitation mainly via Internet trade. Prior to executing workable conservation plan, various research institutions working closely with Forestry Departments in Malaysia to first inventory and document the orchid species richness in the country. Selangor, Sarawak and Perlis Forestry Departments in collaboration with UPM have published seven orchid books that cover various habitat types. Selangor Forestry Department is leading on publishing biodiversity data in form of books for its various ecotourism’s sites and State Parks, and had published two books on orchids. Sarawak state has published one on the limestone orchids, and Perlis is the first to embark on the feat published one in 2010 and currently preparing a new book that includes other flagship wild flowers. Realizing the importance of documenting its biodiversity wealth, Malaysia has developed an information system that would be a one-stop retrieval point or repository for biodiversity facts and as a part of the commitments to CBD to facilitate reporting and the transfer of biological diversity and conservation-related information both nationally and internationally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0496.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: resource management; oil curse; footprint; fiscal policy
Online: 19 November 2020 (08:41:25 CET)
The resource curse indicates that economic growth performs poorly in countries with significant natural resources. Nevertheless, certain countries rich in energy managed to protect their resource riches in the long run. It is necessary to enforce effective policies in resource-rich countries to fully leverage the advantages which can come from the abundance of natural resources. This study aimed to evaluate how oil-rich countries would avoid resource flows by successful fiscal and management policies. By taking the guidance of Norway and implementing fiscal policy focused on tax rules on its oil management, it is proposed that oil-exporting countries benefit significantly. The framework attempts to mitigate this resource curse and utilise oil revenues in the interest of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0473.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Poverty; Education; Economic Policy; Social Welfare; Investment
Online: 18 November 2020 (12:04:00 CET)
Underpinned by the research works on private returns on education in developing nations that have found a positive correlation between earning and subsequent level of schooling, this paper presents a concept of an investment policy which will help the impoverished children in becoming economically successful through systematic funding of their educational needs with an obligation of interest adjusted returns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0680.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sharing economy; benefit; challenge; impactions; Vietnam; policy
Online: 30 August 2020 (17:34:46 CEST)
In recent years, there have been many new global companies investing and operating in Vietnam as a form of sharing economy (Uber, Grab, Foody, Agoda, Facebook, Google) These kinds of economy models are popular in the world but very new in Vietnam. Sharing economy enterprises bring both benefit and challenges for Vietnam. Before time, there is no policy and law to govern the activities of these companies. So they make the challenges for the authority of Vietnam to manage. This paper will analyze the nature, characters, and impact of the sharing economy in Vietnam. It also mentions the problems and recommends some solutions to manage activities of sharing - economy company
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biosecurity; Dual-use; Plasmids; Sequencing; Science Policy
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:07:24 CET)
Recombinant laboratory plasmids (RLPs) are common in biological research and freely shared among academic research laboratories (ARLs), a practice required by many research funding agencies. However, the generation of accurate, reproducible results in experiments utilizing RLPs can be hampered by a lack of accompanying sequence information and metadata. This culture of RLP sharing without knowledge of sequence or etiology is accepted by publishers, not regulated by governments, and outside the realm of bio-industry. In addition, no centralized infrastructure currently exists to collate such data, which at the moment is fragmented across companies, non-profits, and governments and thus is not easily accessed or enacted toward threat assessment. The ubiquity, free exchange, and dual-use risk of RLPs exemplifies a biosecurity threat and elevates the need to characterize their composition to facilitate improved biorisk management by the academic community. A number of common sense solutions are available to create a culture that addresses the biosecurity gap posed by RLP sharing. Culture shift in RLP management will require new norms, effective data management for collation of RLP sequences and metadata, and an incentive structure that encourages sequencing by stakeholders. The next generation of researchers must initiate and champion this shift with support from funding agencies and endorsement from governments and international organizations. Coordination of efforts and stakeholders will require international public/private collaboration, a structure that will be critical to ensure widespread utility as well as the ability of lower-resourced partners to participate, contribute, and benefit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0363.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: health policy, VHA, VA, CMS TRICARE, Scandal
Online: 18 July 2018 (11:28:15 CEST)
In 2014, a whistleblower reported that many U.S. veterans died while waiting for care at the Phoenix VHA. Problems with veteran’s care through 2018 reveal ongoing and systematic problem. In March 2018, the VA Inspector General identified critical deficiencies at the Washington, DC VA Medical Center including failures to track patient safety events accurately, ineffective sterile processing, and more than 10 thousand open or pending prosthetic / sensory aid consults. The VHA clearly has problems with access and quality in a budget-constrained environment. In this policy analysis, four separate interventions that address the gap between the magnitude as well as the use of the VHA’s fixed budget versus access and cost expectations are explored. These policy interventions include maintaining the status quo, returning to a “VHA-only” option, transitioning to a CMS central payer system, and consolidating care under the DoD TRICARE insurance plans. An objective evaluation suggests that extending TRICARE to veterans while phasing out the VHA’s care responsibilities, while politically unpalatable, would likely provide the best of four possible solutions under various criterion weighting schemes. A central payer solution under the CMS would also be viable consideration. A Friedman’s test with Wilcoxon rank sum post-hoc tests suggests that TRICARE patient perceptions of quality are superior to VHA and non-VHA / non-DoD (p<.001), that access provided by the TRICARE program is ranked second in terms of venue acceptance only to the CMS solution set based on primary provider acceptance, and that the cost per beneficiary of a TRICARE solution ($6.5K / beneficiary) is far better than a VHA-only solution ($14.0 K / beneficiary), the CMS central payer solution ($12.2K / beneficiary), or the status quo (between $12.2K and $14.0K / beneficiary). The intent of this paper is to provoke thoughtful consideration of solutions for providing access to high-quality healthcare for veterans within our outside of the VHA. In this policy analysis, separate interventions that address the gaps between cost, quality, and access are explored. These policy interventions include maintaining the status quo, returning to a VHA-only option, transitioning to a CMS central payer system, and consolidating care under TRICARE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0008.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate policy; Nepal; NAPA; LAPA; climate experts
Online: 5 July 2017 (04:51:31 CEST)
The government of Nepal (GoN) has developed and implemented climate policies, plans and frameworks such as NAPA, National Climate Change Policy, LAPA and currently in the process of developing National Adaptation Plans (NAPs). These policies and plans are in different states of its implementation with diverse opinions and perceptions of the stakeholders. The paper has explored these opinions and experiences of climate experts in Nepal on state of climate policies, inter-linkages, roles and responsibilities of ministries/departments, important factors and subjective indicators for effective implementation of the policies. Altogether 30 experts responded the questionnaire sent via the email, LinkedIn and Skype Interview in the 1st phase of Delphi research technique. The experiences of these experts range from 2-30 years representing government, non-government sectors, media and independent experts. As per most of the experts interviewed, the policies and plans are progressing in strategic direction with national and local priorities. The LAPA is the pioneer framework to address the local climatic issues, originated in Nepal. However, lack of clarity on roles/responsibilities and coordination among the ministries/departments; clear mechanisms for implementation of these policies; lack of sensitization, decentralization and delegation of finance and technologies; capacity of the stakeholders are the major challenges identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0220.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; adaptation; WaSH; policy; sustainability; development
Online: 31 May 2017 (11:44:04 CEST)
Climate change threatens water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) facilities and services, as these are intimately linked to the water cycle and are vulnerable to changes in the quantity and quality of available water resources. Floods and droughts, which pollute and reduce water delivery respectively, have now become a perennial issue to deal with in the northern regions of the country, including the Bolgatanga Municipality. This study aimed to assess the degree to which climate change adaptation measures are mainstreamed into the WaSH development planning process in Ghana. Stakeholders from government and non-government agencies were interviewed to gain perspectives on the threat of climate change, the inclusion of climate change in WaSH planning and the barriers preventing mainstreaming. In general, despite awareness and concern about climate change, adaptation measures have been regarded to be far away from the immediate concerns of WaSH development planning. Most of the current measures are reactive and respond to environmental issues rather than to climate change stressors. In essence, stakeholders expressed the view that the adaptive capacity of the Municipality was low and that mainstreaming has not yet occurred. Despite the lack of progress, there are great opportunities for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into planning through increasing awareness and capacity, legislative and institutional changes and the development of participatory systems to provide early warning systems and disaster risk analyses that will inform future planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0006.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: adaptation; Brazil; climate change policy; mitigation; risks
Online: 7 July 2016 (10:54:49 CEST)
Subnational governments play a key role responding to climate change risks in terms of policy strategies and instruments. This article analyzes how Brazilian municipal and state governments have developed and implemented public policies to mitigate and to adapt to climate change risks. We surveyed all cities’ and states’ climate policies within the country. The methodological approach includes five main points of analysis: 1. mitigation targets and intentions; 2. adaptation actions; 3. stakeholders’ participation; 4. policy implementation; 5. participation in networks related to climate change. Our results suggest that even though subnational climate policies in Brazil are isolated initiatives within the national context, they play an important role responding to climate change risks in different scales and levels. The strongest Brazilian policies with both mitigation and adaptation actions counted on previous mobilization for the climate issue involving different stakeholders from several segments of the society. These governments have also participated in transnational cooperation networks related to climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0504.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: science policy; technology policy; technology; technology maturity level; technology readiness level; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (10:45:25 CET)
This paper presents the results of a study aimed at understanding how technology maturity level influences the incidence of university technology transfer to the private sector. The study examined the topic from the perspective of private sector organizations. It used data from a random sample of patent applications filed with the United States Patent and Trademark Office and a theoretically guided sampling of multiple cases of private sector organizations that contemplated obtaining and assimilating technologies created at universities in the United States. The patent application data were analyzed using nonparametric statistical techniques and the case data were analyzed using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The findings of the study suggest that the typical maturity level of technologies created at U.S. universities is a TRL-5 or lower on as scale adapted from the NASA technology readiness level (TRL) scale. A technology maturity level of TRL-6 or higher is likely an insufficient but necessary part of at least one unnecessary but sufficient configuration of conditions that tends to result in the occurrence of university technology transfer. However, under certain circumstances, a technology maturity level of at least TRL-6 could be a sufficient but unnecessary condition for the occurrence of university technology transfer. These findings have several important implications. First, they provide support for the notion that university technology transfer is subject to causal complexity. Moreover, it may be possible to increase the incidence of university technology transfer in the United States by implementing public policy and practices that explicitly take technology maturity level into consideration.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Climate action; Climate policy innovation; Effectiveness; Shifting vulnerabilities; Green House Gases; Sustainable Development Goals; Telecoupling; Transformation; Resilience; Policy Field
Online: 18 November 2020 (10:33:31 CET)
The urgency to address the adverse impacts of climate change on livelihoods and ecosystems has seen an increase in global driven initiatives. However, shifting vulnerabilities associated with land use resource based adaptation and maladaptive feedback loops they create have been given low attention. Policy discourses that frame adaptation as a local responsibility and bias towards reducing industrial Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the expense of Agricultural emissions across scale are thought to account for the undesirable situation. This calls for a reflective policy framework and climate policy innovation. We provide counter arguments using Drivers, Pressure, State, Impact, Response (DPSIR) model and telecoupling principles to suggest use of resilience as an integrative lens in visualising the proposal. Using a case study on resource constrained smallholder dairy production systems, western Kenya, we analyse the critical issues in the context of decision making and environmental externalities. The effect of price risks on dairy cattle feeding strategies and ultimately carbon footprints and ecoefficiencies were examined through methane simulation and gross margin analysis (GM). The lowest ecoefficiency was associated with exclusively local coping strategies i.e. Maize Stover (Ms), while the highest ecoefficiency was observed in feeding strategies that utilise external resources and/or legume fodders. We conclude that management of externalities need to capture institutional, economic processes and incentive systems, as well as organizational and policy coherence to shape the interests and behaviour of individual land user. In particular, policy innovation should focus on price and market risks as critical factors that mediate actor decision making at implementation level as they impact GHG emissions which transcend individual decision boundaries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0644.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: neglected diseases; healthcare policy; India; ontology; framework; roadmap
Online: 8 August 2023 (08:55:37 CEST)
The need for systemic healthcare policies to systematically eliminate NTDs globally and in India has been stressed for more than two decades. Yet, the present policies and the research on them do not meet the need. We present an ontological framework, a research roadmap, and a policy brief to address the gap. The ontology clearly, concisely, and comprehensively represents the combinations of diseases, the objectives regarding the diseases, the entities to address them, the outcomes sought, and the potential policy instruments to invoke. The paper explicates the state-of-the-policies and state-of-the-research on policies to eliminate NTDs in India. It highlights the significant gaps in both. Last, it presents a set of systemic policies congruent with the ontology to systematically address the gaps. The recommendations are aligned with the present research, policies, practices, and recommendations in India and of WHO, UN agencies, and other similar bodies. The approach can be generalized to provide roadmaps for other countries facing a similar challenge and for other diseases of similar complexity. The roadmaps, with continuous feedback and learning, can help navigate the challenge efficiently and effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1415.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Digital Financial Inclusion; Policy; Practices; challenges; developing economy
Online: 19 May 2023 (09:02:23 CEST)
Globally, over 1.4 billion adult people remain unbanked. This worrisome phenomenon was exacerbated by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, which further created a new dimension of inequality in accessing financial services. Digital financial inclusion promises to be an effective tool for addressing this socioeconomic ill and propelling economic development. Given the limited studies on the subject in the context of the developing economies, it is imperative to understand the existing policies, practices, and barriers to digital financial inclusion in the developing economies so as to provide cutting-edge interventions for redress. It is against this background that this study seeks to address the following research questions: (1) What is the state of digital financial inclusion in the developing economy? (2) What are the policies and practices regarding digital financial inclusion in the developing economy? (3) What are the barriers to digital financial inclusion and innovative interventions for redress? Findings reveal that about 44% of the adult population in developing countries does not have access to financial services, with only a few countries that have made significant progress and gains through policy and practice such as mobile financial services, mobile money interoperability, native connectivity, human capital development, and digitalization of public services for digital financial inclusion. The findings also identify challenges and implications with recommendations, which are discussed in detail in the paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0757.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Covid-19; Vaccine; Medical Science Students; Mandatory Policy
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:01:57 CEST)
Introduction. Covid-19 faced the world with serious health and socioeconomic issues. At the very beginning of the pandemics, the vaccine was considered by health authorities and the medical community the only way to curb the spread of the virus. One of the measures that have been proposed to increase vaccinations was the mandatory policy. The purpose of this study was to compare determinants of voluntary and mandatory vaccination among students of Albanian University. Methodology: This cross-sectional study by means of an online survey, was conducted among students enrolled in the private University “Albanian University”, Tirana, Albania during the last week of winter semester 7-14 Feb 2022. Results: 878 students participated in this study, among them 612 (69.7%) were females, 266 (30%) were males. 506 (57%) of the participants were enrolled in Medical Sciences (MS), 372(42.3%) were Non-Medical Science (Non-MS) group. 773 (88%) was vaccinated against Covid-19, 105 (11.8%) were not vaccinated. 466 (53%) reported voluntary vaccination, 412 (46.9%) reported mandatory vaccination. Among students that vaccinated voluntary 266 (57%) were from MS group, 200(42.9%) from Non-MS group. 237(57.5%) of students in mandatory vaccination group were from MS group, 175 (42.4%) from Non-MS. Conlusion. Vaccine safety and efficacy were hindering factors of vaccination. Also, based on the results of this study, the students felt encouraged to vaccinate by the academic staff. This clearly demonstrates that the staff does not lack the skills to enhance stu-dents' knowledge about the risk of infectious diseases and the importance of vaccination. Therefore, to influence as much as possible students’ attitude toward vaccination, comprehensive educational programs including modification of existing curricula should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0802.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: urban farming; actors; policy network; social network analysis
Online: 23 April 2023 (13:36:34 CEST)
This research aims to produce a network structure in the Integrated Urban Farming Program in Bandung City to map the policy actors involved in it as an effort to support food security in the city. This research uses a mixed method with an exploratory sequential strategy involving policy actors from the government, private sector, academia, community, and mass media. To obtain the network structure in integrated urban farming to determine the most important actors, this research uses a social network analysis approach by utilizing the Gephi application. The network structure is based on four dimensions, namely centrality. The results of this study confirm that the actor who has the most connections (degree centrality), as well as the one who holds the best communication control (betweenness centrality), is Parahyangan Catholic University (Academic). While the actor who plays the most important role (eigenvector) is at the lower level of the government Sub-District and Urban Village. This research is useful for explaining the importance of the position of actors in the urban agriculture policy network which is the key to the success of a program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0466.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Adaptation, Challenges, Covid-19, Policy measures, SMEs, Syria
Online: 26 January 2023 (03:13:38 CET)
SMEs constitute the backbone of the Syrian economy which have suffered manifold challenges due to the continuous Syrian war. Covid-19 added further pressures on Syrian SMEs and force them to take certain adaptation strategies to survive. This paper aims to investigate the main challenges that face Syrian SMEs during the pandemic and illustrate how they respond to adversities emerged from governmental intervention to control the spread of the virus. It also discusses the measures initiated by the government to support SMEs during the pandemic. Through interviewing persons from the Syrian SMEs ecosystem, we find that high interest rates on SMEs loans, decline on demand as well as high inflation represent the main challenges. SMEs respond to these challenges by marketing products online, stock procurement, and strengthen connections with stakeholders. We recommend the Syrian authorities reduce lending rates and increase loan size available to SMEs to help them overcome the pandemic adversities. Moreover, SMEs will immensely benefit from training on digital tools to enhance their expansion and survival opportunities. Furthermore, bazars should be organized around the year to give SMEs the opportunity to gain continuous access to markets. In addition, incubation services should be revised, particularly, to SMEs with great potential to grow to create the suitable environment for them to scale and flourish.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: oveweight; obesity; public policy; nutrition education; malnutrition; school
Online: 12 September 2022 (12:26:50 CEST)
Being overweight or obese is a public health problem. This work evaluated a food and nutrition education (EAN) intervention against overweight schoolchildren in four schools in the West Panama Province. A quasi-experimental before-and-after study that implemented a 34-week EAN intervention through workshops with didactic material to 403 children between 8 and 13 years old. The knowledge and attitude survey was used as an evaluation tool before and after the educational intervention. The prevalence of excess weight (40%) did not report differences after the intervention. No differences were reported in the median level of attitude, although higher levels of knowledge were reported in students of both sexes. EAN in schoolchildren can be effective in acquiring knowledge and maintaining a positive attitude towards food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: AMR; agriculture; One Health; health economics; policy; modelling
Online: 12 August 2022 (11:28:08 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasingly pressing threat to human, animal, and environmental health. Reducing the use of antibiotics in agriculture has been identified as a key way to curb the spread of AMR. However, the effect of such policies on AMR prevalence, and their broader impacts on agricultural, health, and economic outcomes at the population level have proven very difficult to estimate and compare. This paper draws on and formalises ideas presented at the JPIAMR New Perspectives on Bacterial Drug Resistance workshop in June of 2022. With reference to emerging literature on the topic, it proposes a quantitative framework for estimating the relevant causal relationships needed to quantify the cross-sectoral impacts of AMR policies in agriculture, and for comparing these outcomes in like terms in a way which can feed directly into policy decision-making, notably without prohibitive data requirements. The ability of researchers to apply frameworks such as this will be increasingly necessary in order to holistically capture the impacts of AMR policies and to situate them in the broader policy context; especially where the mechanisms of transmission are opaque or complex, where data availability is limited; and where policymakers must allocate scarce resources among many competing objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0438.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: forest fires; forest fires policy; social media; Indonesia
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:17:01 CEST)
Early detection that results in early warning of forest fires occurrences in Indonesia, which are strongly related to land management practices (including peatlands), is necessary to mitigate land and forest fires in Indonesia. Riau has been chosen in this study because of its vulnerability to forest fires. The remoteness of this region is one reason for developing alternative warning tools using meteorological and social media information. This study identified tweets related to fires using carefully selected keywords, geoparsed to select messages relevant to fire occurrences, and binned within several Indonesian sub-regions in Riau Province. Content analysis was performed for 31 related online local newspapers. Assessment to study the correlation between meteorological and Twitter information with the forest fires was conducted. Existing approaches that the BMKG and other Indonesian agencies use to detect fire activities are reviewed, and a novel approach based on crowdsourcing of tweets is proposed. The results show a correlation between meteorological information and Twitter activity with satellites derived hotspot information. The policy implications of these results suggest that information should be included in the fire management system in Indonesia to support fire early detection as part of fire disaster mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0368.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: health promotion; physical activity; local government; policy analysis
Online: 13 November 2020 (09:31:28 CET)
Policy is a lever for initiating the structural and environmental changes that foster health-enhancing physical activity (HEPA) promotion. However, little is known about the evidence in support of local governments regarding their HEPA-promoting policies. This study collected comprehensive information on municipal HEPA policies on the French Riviera to gain an overview of HEPA policy development in this territory. Mid-sized cities from the two counties constituting the French Riviera were targeted (n = 17). In each city, a local tool for HEPA policy analysis, CAPLA-Santé, was used to gain information from key informants heading the departments of sports, health services and social services. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Ten mid-sized cities volunteered to participate. Key informants from the sports (n = 10), health services (n = 5) and social services (n = 6) departments were interviewed. Written HEPA policy documents were formalized in six cities. These documents (n = 14) were mainly from the sports (n = 8) and health services (n = 4) sectors. The key informants reported that support from that national policy, the commitment of elected officials, and large local stakeholder networks facilitated HEPA promotion, whereas the lack of intersectoral collaboration and limited resources were limitations. The results provide insight into the development of municipal HEPA policies, highlighting some of the barriers, facilitators and perspectives. These findings could be valuable to scale up HEPA promotion at the local level.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: DQN Algorithm; Policy Modeling; Prior Knowledge; Intelligent Decision
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:08:04 CEST)
The reinforcement learning problem of complex action control in the Multi-player wargame is a hot research topic in recent years. In this paper , a game system based on turn-based confrontation is designed and implemented with the state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning models. Specifically, we first design a Q-learning algorithm to achieve intelligent decision-making, which is based the DQN(Deep Q Network) to model the complex game behaviors. Then, a priori- knowledge based algorithm PK-DQN(Prior Knowledge- Deep Q Network) is introduced to improve the DQN algorithm, which accelerates the convergence speed and stability of the algorithm. The experiments demonstrate, the correctness of the PK-DQN algorithm is validated and its performance surpass the conventional DQN algorithm. Furthermore, the PK-DQN algorithm shows effectiveness in defeating the high level of rule-based opponents, which provides promising results for the exploration of the field of smart chess and intelligent game deduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0300.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Chiredzi; livelihoods; Sangwe; smallholders; transformative social policy; Zimbabwe
Online: 24 June 2020 (14:04:49 CEST)
The analyses of the socio-economic consequences of the 2000s land redistribution in Zimbabwe have always been biased towards the analyses of the ‘production’ and ‘redistributive’ aspects while other equally important features such as ‘social cohesion’, ‘cooperation’, ‘protection’, and ‘accumulation’ amongst beneficiaries are neglected. Using the Sangwe farm in Chiredzi as a case study, this article departs from the conventional use of the political economy, sustainable livelihoods, human rights-based and neo-patrimonial approaches. It experiments with the transformative social policy approach positing that this approach includes the features which are ignored in dominant analyses. Using both quantitative and qualitative data in an exploratory research design, the article shows that viewed from this social policy perspective, the 2000s land reform was not a mere resounding success nor was it a complete disaster. The programme actually produced mixed results. There is therefore, the need to deploy eclectic approaches in the analysis of its consequences.
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: energy efficiency; green buildings; housing policy; innovation theory
Online: 10 May 2020 (16:47:52 CEST)
The present article analyzes the integration of green building policy and practice with the largest low-income housing production program in the US and the innovativeness of its housing agencies. Drawing on policy innovation literature, panel data and regression analysis are employed to quantify associations between state-level characteristics and the adoption of green building criteria into the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) program. Results show that, on average, housing agencies have increasingly adopted green building criteria, and most have identified co-benefits from energy-efficient buildings and smart growth. Despite overall progress, the rate of adoption of green building criteria has decreased, few states have comprehensive criteria, and many have dropped important criteria, such as on-site renewable energy generation. Results are consistent with hypotheses derived from the literature and suggest the integration of green building with LIHTC developments is significantly associated with government motivation, financial resources, and exogenous characteristics that affect the demand for green building. Future research should explore organization-level factors that affect environmental policy innovation. It is recommended that LIHTC housing agencies require compliance with green building rating systems and periodically reconfigure green building criteria based on planned evolutionary change, data-driven strategies, and life-cycle analyses towards zero net energy consumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0064.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: advocacy coalition; policy; antiretroviral therapy; emergence; South Africa
Online: 4 March 2020 (10:59:44 CET)
South Africa possesses the largest anti-retroviral therapy (ART) program in the world but the path to this record was dramatic. There is scarce literature employing a comprehensive framework to explain this ART policy change and inform current policy making processes. This paper applies the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) to analyse the interactions among diverse actors, institutions and networks that were associated with the ART policy change in South Africa. Post-apartheid, HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related mortality were serious public health problems. At the time, the discernible coalitions in the AIDS policy subsystem were the prescience coalition and AIDS dissidents. In view of the availability of compelling scientific evidence on the pathogenesis of HIV/AIDS, the clinical usefulness of ART, the availability of funding for national ART roll-out, strong global advocacy to reduce the cost of ART, all of these in an era when access to adequate HIV care was increasingly considered a human right, the environment to establish an appropriate ART policy for the country was conducive. However, AIDS dissidents dominated the policy agenda via their control over key institutions, the use of various dimensions of power, biasing evidence to inform policy, and promoting the activities of strong interest groups that were not in support of ART. National ART roll-out ultimately emerged as a political priority as a result of external shocks (on the ART policy subsystem) which disfavoured the dominant coalition. Failure to supplement this application of the ACF with key pubic policy concepts such as power dimensions, evidence use in policy, governance and emergence of global health networks would have led to suboptimal appraisal of the ART policy change and misinformation of current policy making processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0030.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: artificial general intelligence, AI policy, self-regulatory organization
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:52:39 CET)
The first group to build artificial general intelligence or AGI stands to gain a significant strategic and market advantage over competitors, so companies, universities, militaries, and other actors have strong incentives to race to build AGI first. An AGI race would be dangerous, though, because it would prioritize capabilities over safety and increase the risk of existential catastrophe. A self-regulatory organization (SRO) for AGI may be able to change incentives to favor safety over capabilities and encourage cooperation rather than racing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0203.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: biodiversity; climate change adaptation; ecosystems; Paris agreement; policy; nature-based solutions
Online: 14 September 2019 (12:07:15 CEST)
Ecosystems are not merely vulnerable to climate change but, if sustainably restored and protected, are a major source of human resilience. Not only is the evidence-base for the importance of these “Nature-based Solutions” (NbS) growing rapidly, but NbS are featuring with increasing prominence in global climate change policy. Here we report on the prominence of NbS in the 141 adaptation components of the 167 Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) that were submitted to UNFCCC by all signatories of the Paris Agreement. In total, 103 nations include NbS in the adaptation component of their NDC, 76 nations include them in both their adaptation and mitigation component, and an additional 27 include them as part of their mitigation plans only. In other words, 130 nations—or 66% of all signatories to the Paris Agreement—have articulated intentions of working with ecosystems, in one form or another, to address the causes and consequences of climate change. However, commitments rarely translate into robust science-based targets. As climate pledges are revised in 2020, we urge the ecosystem science community to work closely with policymakers to identify meaningful adaptation targets that benefit both people and the ecosystems on which they depend.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0001.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: industrial policy; stock price volatility; China’s power market
Online: 1 May 2018 (05:37:39 CEST)
China combines green energy and industrial policy in its power market reform with various policy initiatives, including price support scheme for electricity from renewable sources and subsidies in the push for broader use of greener energy. This study focuses on the impacts of power market reform on the stock price volatility of listed power companies: 1) we use the Iterative Cumulative Sums of Squares (ICSS) algorithm to identify structural break points in stock prices; 2) we analyze the characteristics of stock price volatility based on the GARCH model; 3) we report the impact of power regulation on stock price fluctuations based on the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. The result suggests three structural breaks in China’s power stock price volatility were related to the promulgation of power market reform policies. We find that industrial policies promote the reduction of power stock price fluctuations and its impact on power stock price volatility is consistent in the long run. However, our study also indicates the recent policies related to renewable energy do not have a very significant impact on the power stock market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0004.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable regional development; knowledge economy; regional innovation policy
Online: 1 October 2017 (08:21:30 CEST)
The paper explores different models of innovation management at the regional level and reasons for the best model considering the specific features of St. Petersburg as the innovative region of Russia. The authors, on the base of their long-time experience in studies of innovative enterprises and elaborating the regional innovation policy in St. Petersburg, propose the tool of creation and measuring the results of the regional innovation policy that promotes the life quality improvement and regional sustainable development. The balanced scorecard is used as a method, based on the methodology of knowledge economy development and adjusted to the specific needs of St. Petersburg innovation eco-system. The authors pay special attention to the implementation of principles of green economy into the realization of the regional innovation policy and the proposed balanced scorecard.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0122.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: state budget; fiscal policy; public expenditure; Islamic economic
Online: 27 June 2017 (07:09:12 CEST)
This paper discusses the management of public expenditures in Indonesia in State Budget 2017. The data collected from fiscal policy documents, especially about government spending plans in 2017, and then be reviewed by policy analysis, the theory of public expenditures, and the theory of public goods, and compared with the theory of public expenditure in Islamic economics. Public expenditure management in Indonesia has implemented a distribution system that divided public expenditure for central government expenditures, transfers to the regions, and the village fund. In terms of fiscal policy, public expenditure priorities to support the achievement of sustainable economic growth, job creation, poverty reduction, and the reduction of gaps in the welfare of the whole community. In Islamic economics, public expenditure is used to meet the needs of the community based on the principles of general interest derived from the shari'a. Public expenditure on Indonesia's government as an effective tool to divert economic resources and increase the income of society as a whole, and focused on the embodiment of the people's welfare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Rebound Effect; Intervention; monetary policy rate; panel data
Online: 10 February 2017 (17:39:25 CET)
This study examines the exchange rate rebound effects of the Central Bank intervention in the selected ECOWAS economies. An empirical understanding of these effects is very important to trade adjustment as well as the macroeconomic stability in these countries. Using the panel data modelling framework, the study finds that the impact of the Central Bank intervention on exchange rate is insignificant and it does not lead to the exchange rate rebound. In addition, money supply as well as monetary policy rate implemented by the monetary authorities significantly influences the level of exchange rate in a positive direction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Attitudes; Behaviour; Communication; Information; Prompts; Policy; Recycling; Waste
Online: 15 August 2016 (11:34:39 CEST)
Recycling information can be complex and often confusing which may subsequently reduce the participations in any waste recycling schemes. As a result, this research explored the roles as well as the importance of a holistic approach in designing recycling information using 15 expert-based in-depth interviews. The rationale was to offer a better understanding of what constitutes waste, recycling, and how recycling information should be designed and presented to make recycling more attractive/convenient. Based on the research participants’ perceptions with supports from the existing studies, this research sub-categorised recycling information into three different themes, termed the “WWW” of recycling information components. As a result, these components (or attributes) were extensively described (using findings of semi-structured interviews) to elicit pragmatic guidance for practitioners, policy-makers, and other stakeholders in designing structured communication or information strategies that may simplify and subsequently increase waste-recycling practices. The policy implications of holistic information in enhancing recycling are further discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1022.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: food insecurity; transit; food stamps; education; food; policy; nutrition
Online: 14 August 2023 (10:20:42 CEST)
Food security is intrinsically related to health and well-being. This paper investigates the status-quo of food insecurity among the population residing close to transit in various parts of the United States of America (USA). The data from the 2020 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) collected by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of the USA are analyzed in this research. Logistic regression is carried out by treating food insecurity as the dependent variable and socioeconomic variables such as age, income, education and dependency on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) as independent variables. Food insecurity is assessed with aggregated information on four aspects of inputs from those respondents who live near a transit: 1) worry food would run out, 2) food didn't last, 3) couldn't afford to eat balanced meals, and 4) cut the size of meals or skip meals. Findings suggest that respondents who live close to transit in the USA and are from large central metro counties of the Northeast, Southern and Western states showed an increase in food insecurity if they were below 65 years of age, had income below country’s median income or their educational attainment was below bachelor’s degree. There was a significant association found between food insecurity of respondents living close to transit and subscribed to using food stamps or SNAP. Policies that could alleviate food insecurity by reducing cost of living near transit are recommended.
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Keynesian theory; economic geography; regional development; disparities; policy interventions
Online: 6 July 2023 (18:04:21 CEST)
This article examines the application of Keynesian theory in economic geography, focusing on regional development and reducing inequalities. The objective is to highlight the relevance and benefits of applying Keynesian principles in addressing spatial economic challenges. The novelty lies in examining the intersection of Keynesian economics and geography, which offers insights into regional planning, infrastructure development, and cluster formation. The results show how policymakers and researchers can use Keynesian theory to promote balanced growth and improve living standards. The keywords for this article are Keynesian theory, economic geography, regional development, disparities, and policy interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1510.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Antibiotic; antimicrobial resistance (AMR); One-Health; economic; nanotechnology; policy
Online: 22 May 2023 (10:55:31 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing public health concern worldwide, and it poses a significant threat to human, animal, and environmental health. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics have contributed significantly to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance, which may lead to significant economic consequences like reduced productivity and increased healthcare costs. Nanotechnology offers a promising platform for addressing this challenge. Nanoparticles have unique properties that make them highly effective in combating bacterial infections by inhibiting the growth and survival of multidrug-resistant bacteria in three areas of health: human, animal, and environmental. To conduct an economic evaluation of surveillance in this context, it is crucial to have a comprehension of the connections to be addressed by several nations by implementing national action policies based on the One Health strategy. This review provides an overview of the progress made thus far and presents potential future directions to optimize the impact of nanobiotics on AMR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0806.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: health system; health workforce; human resources; health policy; bursary
Online: 23 April 2023 (14:22:53 CEST)
Botswana, Eswatini and Lesotho are three Southern African countries which make use of re-turn-of-service (RoS) schemes to increase human resources for health in their countries. These initiatives bind beneficiaries to a pre-defined period of service upon completion of their studies based on the length of funding support received. We aim to review the history of these policies to understand the conceptualisation, intent and implementation of these schemes. We used a mul-ti-methods research design which consisted of a literature review, policy review and semi-structured interviews with policymakers and implementors. All three governments have a combination of grant-loan schemes and full bursaries or scholarships. The policies have all been operating for over 20-years, with Eswatini’s pre-service being the oldest since it was introduced in 1977 followed by Lesotho’s 1978 policy and Botswana’s 1995 pre-service policy. These policies have never been reviewed or updated. RoS schemes in these countries were introduced to ad-dress critical skills shortages, improve employability prospects for citizens, to have competent public sector employees by global standards, and to aid career progress of government employ-ees. Ministries of Health are passive role players. However, these schemes can only be efficient if there is clear cooperation and coordination between all stakeholders.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0497.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; intensive care unit; policy; resource use; vaccination
Online: 18 April 2023 (11:02:35 CEST)
Given that population COVID-19 vaccination does not appreciably reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission, instead, the potential to reduce hospitalization has been used to justify coercive vaccine passports. We aim to use a recently published research study as an example in order to demonstrate how data can be misinterpreted and result in deriving misleading ethical and policy implications. Bagshaw et al wrote that unvaccinated patients with COVID-19 in Alberta, Canada “had substantially greater rates of ICU admissions, ICU bed days, and ICU related costs than vaccinated patients did. This increased resource use would have been potentially avoidable had these unvaccinated patients been vaccinated.” The authors in Bagshaw et al then concluded that their findings “have important implications for discourse on the relative balance of increasingly stringent public health protection (restrictions), including mandatory vaccination policies, and the sustainability and function of health system infrastructure and capacity during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.” Here we show the following. First, the effect of vaccination on intensive care admissions were grossly over-estimated due to several limitations of this and almost all other vaccine studies. Second, an effect of vaccination on access to acute care and on all-cause excess deaths was grossly over-stated due to several more likely causes being omitted from discussion and from the common narrative. Third, policy implications were overstated and at best unclear due to missing consideration of more relevant aspects required to inform policy. Overall, the data cannot support what Bagshaw et al called “increasingly stringent public health protection (restrictions), including mandatory vaccination policies”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: green hydrogen; roadmap; strategic policy; infrastructure; sustainable energy future
Online: 13 March 2023 (09:58:50 CET)
The most potential renewable energy source for global emissions reductions is green hydrogen production. Iraq is looking into several sources of alternative energy to lessen its dependency on fossil fuels and to considerably cut its carbon dioxide emissions. This research examined the conceptual framework for the production and consumption of green hydrogen in Iraq. On the basis of accessible official and public data from government agencies, the potential capabilities of renewable energy resources are assessed, and certain fair assumptions are also established for a full study and evaluation of a possible hydrogen production in the country. The data presented here demonstrate conclusively that the contributions of renewable energy to the production of green hydrogen are substantial, giving the country prominence in the area of green hydrogen production. A pathway for a green hydrogen economy in the country by 2050 is proposed by this research based on its analysis. It is distributed in three stages: green hydrogen as a fuel for industry; using green hydrogen for fuel cells; and hydrogen commercialization. On the other hand, the research found a number of challenges to the implementation of a green hydrogen production that can be used in Iraq and other developing countries, including technological, economic, and social problems in addition to the related policy consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Assistive Technology; Accessible Technology; Consumer Technologies; Provision, Policy; Funding
Online: 16 August 2022 (09:57:38 CEST)
Estimates by the World Health Authority suggest that 1 billion people do not have access to the assistive technologies they require. Over the past decade, the design of products that empower people with a disability has shifted from specialised and dedicated products designed only for those with a disability to features and functions integrated into cost-effective consumer technologies for the benefit of all. The opportunity for expansion of the availability of such technologies is at risk of being ignored as a result of models of delivery that are founded in medical devices and which have failed to reflect trends in our understanding of technology and the choices and preferences expressed by persons with a disability. This research undertaken suggests that the opportunities of such expansion offer significant benefits to people with a disability and better both economic and social return on investment for authorities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: health policy; unorganised sector; brick-kiln workers; migrant; migration
Online: 8 June 2022 (08:54:52 CEST)
Urbanization is a global phenomenon and as the economies are shifting from rural based subsistence to services based, the net flow of migration is inevitable. Unfortunately, In India, migration is very poorly understood. India is next to China in production of bricks, accounting for nearly 13% of global annual bricks’ production. The condition of brick-kiln workers is pitiable, especially due to poor care available. They are exposed to health hazards such as various communicable diseases, sexually transmitted diseases and occupational health hazards. The diseases such as respiratory problems, allergies, gastrointestinal ailments and malnutrition are frequent in these populations. This paper reflects upon various policies that exist for the welfare of unorganised sector but do these workers qualify for these benefits? This paper provides empirical basis for paradigm shift for policy formulation to provide safety nets for migrant population and have better urban planning for future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0091.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: tobacco age of sale; tobacco policy; youth; young adults
Online: 7 June 2022 (03:44:33 CEST)
Background: Prior to the federal law passed in late 2019, many states passed an increased age of sale law prohibiting youth under age 21 (or Tobacco 21) from purchasing tobacco products and e-cigarettes. Although previous research has documented tobacco retail sales violations, fewer studies have examined age verification and illegal tobacco sales in the context of Tobacco 21 or in repeated purchase attempts in various settings. Methods: In this study conducted between 2019 and 2022, buyers aged 18 to 20 years made repeated unsupervised purchase attempts of cigarettes, cigars, e-cigarettes, tobacco-free nicotine pouches and/or smokeless tobacco in store visits to over 180 tobacco or vape retailers in New Jersey, New York City, and Pitt County, North Carolina. Buyers documented whether they were asked for identification and whether they were able to successfully purchase a tobacco or nicotine product at each visit. Results: The primary outcome will be the percent of retailers that checked buyers’ identification at store visits and the precent of visits that resulted in a successful underage tobacco product purchase. We will aim to compare the results across time periods and study sites while controlling for other factors (including repeated visits). Conclusion: These results will be beneficial to designing compliance check inspections and/or interventions that reduce youth access to tobacco.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0020.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Epidemics; Optimal Policy; Trace and Quarantine strategy; Agent networks
Online: 4 April 2022 (15:12:26 CEST)
The sudden onset of the Covid-19 pandemic disrupted the modern multi-national interconnected society and led the countries and societies to enforce unprecedented restrictions on movement. Among myriad containment measures, the policy of trace and quarantine found universal adoption among countries; the swift adoption of the policy was soon met with widespread criticism and opposition activists who questioned the utility and the risk associated with such a large scale collection of data and infringement on the movement of individuals. Consequently, one often tends to be either pro- or anti-trace and quarantine; the ensuing polarizing and politicized left little room for nuance. In this work, we undertake a methodology study to understand the nuances of the impact of different implementations of trace and quarantine. To this end, we design a user-friendly and intuitive tool that can be employed by experts to model the disease dynamics and societal structure. We focus on the study of the cost of policy with respect to quarantine degree, which captures the distance between the person required to quarantine after a person is detected to be infected. Our study results in a surprising conclusion: the cost is not necessarily monotone with respect to the degree of quarantine. Our analysis indicates that governments must curb the urge to adopt simplistic policy and the optimal policy of trace and quarantine for a country strongly depends on its societal structure and disease dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: micropositioners; reinforcement learning; disturbance observer; deep deterministic policy gradient
Online: 15 March 2022 (07:58:27 CET)
The robust control of high precision electromechanical systems, such as micropositioners, is challenging in terms of the inherent high nonlinearity, the sensitivity to external interference, and the complexity of accurate identification of the model parameters. To cope with these problems, this work investigates a disturbance observer-based deep reinforcement learning control strategy to realize high robustness and precise tracking performance. Reinforcement learning has shown great potential as optimal control scheme, however, its application in micropositioning systems is still rare. Therefore, embedded with the integral differential compensator (ID), deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) is utilized in this work with the ability to not only decrease the state error but also improves the transient response speed. In addition, an adaptive sliding mode disturbance observer (ASMDO) is proposed to further eliminate the collective effect caused by the lumped disturbances. The sterling performance is revealed with intensive tracking simulation experiments and demonstrates the improvement in the accuracy and response time of the controller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Bioeconomy strategy; regional development; residues; policy; market; technology; commoditization
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:19:07 CET)
The European Bioeconomy Strategy aims to strengthen and boost biobased sectors, unlocking investments and markets while rapidly deploying local bioeconomies across Europe and improving compliance with environmental and social sustainability goals. Current biomass provision structures and infrastructure might not be able to tap the sustainable potential of forestry-, agricultural residues and biogenic waste envisaged forming the biogenic feedstock base of the Circular Bioeconomy of tomorrow. Therefore, for the present paper, we assess mobilization strategies, their current status, opportunities, and barriers for local low value and heterogenous biomass resources. Based on discussions with bioenergy supply chain experts, we cluster mobilization measures into three assessment levels; the legislative framework, market structures and technological innovation. Scientific literature research on the respective keywords is performed, the European policy landscape mapped, and the results are enriched with anecdotal evidence, especially for recent and running projects and market developments that lack in published track records. We can identify research needs on all three assessment levels. Still, technological development and legislative frameworks are providing support for heterogeneous biomass mobilization. Market creation, however, represents a bottleneck. We provide novel perspectives, how physical- and virtual bio-hubs and crediting stake- and shareholder variety could create added-value based on sustainable primary economic activities and their cascading activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0593.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: affordable housing; environmental justice; equity; green building; housing policy
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:45:31 CEST)
Research on green-certified buildings has often been focused on the benefits of green standards, such as energy efficiency, smart growth, resource conservation, and health protection. Recent studies suggest the adoption of a reductionist sustainability planning language can turn green-certified houses into luxury goods, attracting White, prime-age, college-educated households with some pro-environmental attitudes who replace existing long-term, lower-income residents in core urban areas. While many factors may work together in driving neighborhood change and gentrification in cities, the question this study aims to address is to what extent the supply of green-certified units can affect neighborhood change and gentrification? We use Central Virginia’s Multiple Listing Service (MLS) housing market transactions data and the U.S. Census Bureau’s socioeconomic data to present the differential effect of new construction of market-rate, green-certified units in a natural experiment using difference-in-differences estimates. We find that neighborhoods that include new, green-certified units have experienced a statistically significant increase in population, supporting new construction and positively affecting house prices. We also detect some negative effects on minorities and minority owners, but these effects have not yet reached statistical significance. This study finds strong evidence of green housing providing the conditions that make areas ripe for gentrification, but more studies should follow up to better measure and generalize this finding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0664.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Policy Optimization; Ensemble Learning; Artificial Neural Network; Index Sensitivity
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:19:11 CEST)
Capability assessment plays a crucial role in the demonstration and construction of equipment. To improve the accuracy and stability of capability assessment, we study the neural network learning algorithms in the field of capability assessment and index sensitivity. Aiming at the problem of over-fitting and parameter optimization in neural network learning, the paper proposes an improved machine learning algorithm—the Ensemble Learning Based on Policy Optimization Neural Networks (ELPONN) algorithm with the policy optimization and ensemble learning. This algorithm presents optimized neural network learning algorithm through different strategies evolution, and builds an ensemble learning model of multi-intelligent algorithms to assessment the capability and analyze the sensitivity of the indexes. Through the assessment of capabilities, the algorithm effectively avoids parameter optimization from entering the minimum point in performance to improve the accuracy of equipment capability assessment, which is significantly better than previous neural network assessment methods. The experimental results show that the mean relative error is 4.10%, which is better than BP, GABP, and early stopping. The ELPONN algorithm has better accuracy and stability performance, and meets the requirements of capability assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0417.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sustainable development goals; university; institutional policy; learning strategy; indicators
Online: 17 December 2020 (07:57:34 CET)
This paper presents a practical case illustrating how the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda have been designed and articulated in the context of the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU). Even though there is a widespread formal adherence of universities to the SDGs, there is a lack of solid commitment to go beyond the compartmentalization of their implementation and to contribute to a holistic approach. The EHUagenda 2030 is a roadmap to move towards an integrated, verifiable and pragmatic contribution to this international agenda. It describes the UPV/EHU's contribution to 12 of the 17 SDGs, with the addition of its own commitment to linguistic and cultural diversity (SDG 17 + 1), along with the three sectoral plans: the Equality Campus, the Inclusion Campus and the Planet Campus. It also describes the refocus of its education model IKD i3; i3 is ikaskuntza x ikerketa x iraunkortasuna, Basque for learning x research x sustainability. Additionally, it includes the UPV/EHU’s Panel of Sustainable Development Indicators, which addresses the technical aspects of monitoring the implementation of the SDGs. The systematic methodology used in this process (mapping; mainstreaming; diagnosis and definition and, finally, estimation) and presented in this paper could be replicated in other universities yet to embark on this integration. The steps and findings presented here can also be applied to other organizations and help the integration process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0491.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial Innovation; Economic Policy Uncertainty; ARDL; NARDL; Toda-Yamamoto
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:53:19 CET)
The study's motivation is to gauge the nexus between economic policy uncertainty and financial innovation for the period 2004M1 to 2018M12 in BRIC nations. For establishing a long-run cointegration study applied Autoregressive Distributed Lagged (ARDL) and asymmetry effects of economic policy uncertainty investigated following nonlinear framework known as NARDL. Furthermore, directional causality is established by performing a non-granger causality test. Cointegration test results of Fpss, Wpss, and tBDM confirmed the long-run association between EPU and financial innovation. On the other hand, the Wald test results proved asymmetry effects furring from EPU to financial innovation both in the long-run and short-run. Referring to asymmetry effects that positive and negative shocks in financial innovation, the study revealed that negative linkage between shocks in EPU and financial innovation in the long-run but short-run effects are insignificant. Furthermore, financial innovation measured by R&D investment exhibits positive linked with shocks in EPU, implying that uncertainty induces innovation in the economy. Refers to directional causality estimation, the study revealed evidence supporting the feedback hypothesis between EPU and financial innovation in all sample countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0417.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: schizophrenia; stress; drug policy; environment; contaminants; pesticides; fungi; prohibition
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:21:43 CEST)
Background: Most modern studies about human marijuana use have been made under a set of arbitrary cultural standards and policies not related to drug harm potential, loosely called Prohibition. Here we asked if potential health hazards generated by Prohibition are addressed in research design and analysis. Methods: For this, we have searched PubMed database (from inception to December 2017) for citations of prevalent contaminants of illegal street cannabis: fungi and pesticides. In addition, we performed full text evaluation of 23 studies selected from, and including, 2 meta-analysis reviews investigating potential health hazards from cannabis use. Results: Different combinations of the keywords cannabis, prohibition, pesticides, fungi, contaminants, cancer, schizophrenia, psychosis, show that these words coincide in less than 1% of the cannabis human studies within the database. In the scope of 141 abstracts in which the terms, cannabis and pesticides coincide, none is directed to distinguish cannabis and pesticide adverse effects on CNS. A similar picture emerges when fungi is the paired word. Full text evaluation shows that all but one of the studies analyzed, completely neglect or comment on the nature of cannabis source, legal status, or contamination as a confounding factor. Discussion: Our results show a potential bias on scientific investigation that may affect data reliability in informing about the health hazards of cannabis use. This finding suggests that other aspects of the Prohibition environment may also go unacknowledged. Conclusion: Prohibition related health risks usually go unacknowledged and unaccounted for in biomedical research on Cannabis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0151.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Dwindling Economy; Nigeria Economic Sector; Fraud; Insecurity; Policy Implementation
Online: 6 August 2020 (10:26:16 CEST)
Dwindling Economy is otherwise known as depression economy or economy depression interchangeably and/or recess economy. It is an occurrence wherein an economy is in a state of financial turmoil, often the result of a period of negative activity based on the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rate. However, this has become a global phenomenon; a good example of a necessitating factor is the global oil crash market and pandemics virus (Covid-19) ravaging the human race. That has conjointly led to the decline in the GDP growth per capital of a country; which forces degradation in the performances of economic sectors, retrenchment of staff and wrapping-up of industries. It is a lot worse than a recession, with GDP falling significantly, and lasts for periods of time. Pen ultimately, Nigeria has been in deteriorating financial state for years; her economy in the last few years has been going through some turbulence. A country that had recorded an average GDP growth of 6.5 per cent, one of the highest in the world less than a decade ago, is now projected to grow at about 2.3 per cent in 2016. It is no longer news that Nigeria's economy is experiencing total collapse and if nothing is done to put the peg in the right spot something worse than what we are witnessing may soon be on sight. Based on some of all these issues and other, Nigeria was said to be technically recess.In this paper, efforts were made to explore the state of the Nigeria economy in the last 36 years (1981-2017) and correlate it with the recent phenomena that conjointly constitute to its dwindling economy. Our comprehensive and elusive literary survey and extemporariness suggested way forwards to rescue the raveling situation of Nigeria dwindling economics, if not providing lasting solution but temporarys’ one that could stand test of time.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; CoVID-19; pandemic control; research policy
Online: 28 April 2020 (07:50:12 CEST)
There were warnings before; nevertheless the current CoVID-19 pandemic took the world by surprise: within just four month, it conquered the globe and claimed over 200'000 lives. Unprecedented governmental actions put about half of the population under curfew or lock-down. The resulting economic meltdown is expected to eliminate globally 9’000’000’000’000 (9 trillion) USD in 2020 and 2021 alone, a value roughly the size of the yearly GDP of the world’s 150 smallest economies. The resulting crises might cause mass-unemployment and a hunger pandemic later this year. This Essay analyses current statistical data of the CoVID-19 pandemic to develop a guideline for a path through the crisis, minimizing both loss of lives and economic costs. Part 1 details the current situation; part 2 develops a small set of measures, allowing a near normal life until a future vaccination campaign has reached sufficient numbers of people; and part 3 provides some important lessons for the future beyond SARS-CoV-2. The Essay leads to the following key-messages: 1) The CoVID-19 pandemic will stay for at least two more years. This is the minimum time required for a vaccination campaign to reach sufficient numbers of people. 2) The crucial element to control the pandemic is keeping case numbers under the threshold required for a functional tracing, testing & isolation (TTI) strategy. That threshold differs from country to country and strongly depends on culture and the applied tracing technology as well as available testing capacities. 3) The economic burden of a TTI strategy is moderate while fatalities are also reduced. Hence, such an approach is strongly recommended. Its implementation requires a set of simple and cost-effective measures (see figure below), which in combination seem to be sufficient to keep CoVID-2’s reproductive rate at or below 1. 4) Implementing international coordination of actions will be necessary for effective infection-chain tracing5) If case numbers are above the TTI threshold, shutdown measures remain the only option until tracing of infection chains becomes feasible again.6) In the future, neglected pandemic-related research requires a funding boost. Just 1% of the bill of the current crisis could support the research of 45’000 scientist for 20 years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0119.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Poverty alleviation; poverty analysis; depressed areas; welfare; regional policy
Online: 11 September 2019 (13:01:05 CEST)
Poverty alleviation is a hallmark of post-revolution Chinese policymaking. Since 1978, the Communist Party of China (CPC) has implemented successive waves of poverty alleviation policies whose effects have become the focus of an ever-increasing body of academic literature. This paper reviews this diverse but limited literature that evaluates the impact of the CPC’s poverty reduction programs through four major channels, namely fiscal investment programs, social safety nets, rural governance on the village-, county- and provincial level, and the relocation of rural populations from destitute regions. This paper aims to synthesize results and evaluate whether and how the abovementioned poverty alleviation programs have had distinct positive or negative impacts on regional development outcomes. Furthermore, I highlight contradictions in empirical findings to motivate the discussion about contextual importance when designing and implementing future poverty alleviation programs. Finally, I suggest that an exhaustive and critical appraisal of the empirical strategies used in this literature would further the development and application of more accurate and informative methodologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: retention policy; emotional contribution; job retention and business growth
Online: 1 September 2019 (10:11:07 CEST)
This study investigates aspects of job retention and business growth in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). It examines how employers think about retention policy in relation to business growth, in contrast to previous studies’ main focus on employee motivation, job retention, and turnover. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of Engineering and Informational Technology SMEs in South Korea. The results show that an important factor influencing job retention policies of SMEs is the motivation of employees to make voluntary effort, rather than offering them additional financial rewards or using other Human Resource Management (HRM) practices to improve individual performances. Interviewees believed that job retention and business growth are closely related and they discussed various ways of eliciting emotional contributions from employees. Unlike research on larger firms, these suggestions did not involve financial rewards. How employers think about the roles played by employees strongly influences their firm’s productivity and competitiveness. The SME CEOs examined in this study considered this issue central to their firm’s survival and growth. This study suggests SME employers adjust their retention policy correspondingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; research; knowledge society; critical thinking; educational policy
Online: 17 April 2019 (06:09:19 CEST)
In an era characterized by a move towards a “knowledge society”, universities are central in fostering “knowledgeability”, that is the reflexive understanding of knowledge in knowledge societies. The objective of “knowledgeability” can be met through creating a stronger link between education and research. Furthermore, overall student performance, for example in critical thinking and problem solving, can be improved if research-related activities are incorporated into the curriculum. The aim of this paper is to use inter-national examples to discuss the research- education nexus from four different perspectives, namely context, policy, im- plementation and quality, with case studies from higher education institutions in Singapore and Sweden. We suggest that different integrative technologies can be used to enhance the links, but it will be essential to consider the inputs of training, service and support in using new technology. Interestingly, the act of evaluating the link between edu- cation and research will increase awareness of this linkage by stakeholders involved in both education and research. In turn the link can be strengthened, contributing to increased quality in both education and research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0079.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Systems Management, Biomedical Research Policy, Organizational Development, Quality Management
Online: 6 March 2019 (11:42:47 CET)
There has been a growing call for reform of the U.S. biomedical community in recent years. As a community, we face a growing list of issues including excessive waste, reproducibility, bias, inadequate training, and the absence of sustainable long-term planning that detract from the overall goal of advancing human health. In response to this debate, biomedical stakeholders have taken positive steps forward to remedy these issues. However, we must continually improve upon these steps to promote the long-term stability of the biomedical enterprise. Given the widespread interest of the scientific community in addressing these issues, there exists a unique opportunity to come together and create a new era of biomedical discovery. The completion of this exciting task requires reflection on our view and management of the system, and what the best route to sustainable change may be. Importantly, a coordinated approach that considers the collective make-up of the biomedical system and how processes and people influence collective output and create value for patients is needed. Here, these three areas and the concepts of systems theory, total quality management, and organizational development and their contribution to the management and effectiveness of biomedical discovery are discussed. Importantly recommendations are made concerning overall management strategy, process efficiency and quality research, administrative tasks, organizational cultural challenges, individual and team development, and funding strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0077.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: biodiversity; climate change; forests; nature-based solutions; policy; resilience
Online: 6 December 2018 (07:39:13 CET)
The current focus on afforestation in climate policy runs the risk of compromising both longterm carbon storage and human adaptation. It also works against efforts to stem the tide of biodiversity loss. We outline why an emphasis on diverse, intact natural ecosystems—as opposed to tree plantations with fast-growing exotic species—will help nations deliver the goals of the Paris Agreement and much more.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0744.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Sustainable economic policy; sustainable economic growth; economic policies; technology.
Online: 31 October 2018 (09:12:00 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent to which traditional economic policies can be oriented by sound practices. It is becoming widely accepted that sustainable economic growth (and not only economic growth) is the final target of economic policies; but most economic policies are applied just looking to the short-run without taking in account the long-run perspective. Our aim will be to show how a sustainable economic policy-making would be possible, making compatible the stabilization of the economy in the short-run with a sustainable economic growth in the long-run. We confront the design of economic policies with the 17 goals of the 2030 Agenda. We argue that all sustainable development goals can be attained by the design and implementation of sustainable economic policies. Finally, to illustrate this point we will conduct a simulation exercise to show under which combinations of demand policies technological shocks would promote a path of sustainable growth. Our results will provide a reference framework for a sustainable economic policy-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Reproducibility, quality, research integrity, universities, methods, science policy, rigor
Online: 16 October 2018 (11:33:46 CEST)
In recent years, biomedical research has faced increased scrutiny over issues related to reproducibility and quality in scientific findings(1-3). In response to this scrutiny, funding institutions and journals have implemented top-down policies for grant and manuscript review. While a positive step forward, the long-term merit of these policies is questionable given their emphasis on completing a check-list of items instead of a fundamental re-assessment of how scientific investigation is conducted. Moreover, the top-down style of management used to institute these policies can be argued as being ineffective in engaging the scientific workforce to act upon these issues. To meet current and future biomedical needs, new investigative methods that emphasize collective-thinking, teamwork, shared knowledge and cultivate change from the bottom-up are warranted. Here, a perspective on a new approach to biomedical investigation within the individual laboratory that emphasizes collaboration and quality is discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0243.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: aged; homes for the aged; malnutrition; dehydration; nutrition policy
Online: 11 October 2018 (14:48:57 CEST)
Preventing malnutrition and dehydration in older care home residents is complex, with both conditions remaining prevalent, despite numerous guidelines spanning several decades. This policy-mapping scoping review used snowballing search methods to locate publicly-available policies, reports and best practice guidelines relating to hydration and nutrition in UK residential care homes, to describe the existing knowledge base and pinpoint gaps in practice, interpretation and further investigation. Findings were synthesised narratively to identify solutions. Strategies for improvements to nutritional and hydration care include: development of age and population-specific nutrient and fluid intake guidelines; statutory regulation, contractual obligations for commissioners, appropriate menu-planning, implementation and auditing of care, acknowledgment of residents’ eating and drinking experiences, effective screening, monitoring and treatment and staff training. The considerable body of existing knowledge is failing to influence practice, relating to translational issues of implementing knowledge into care at the point of delivery, and this is where future research and actions should focus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0017.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Bayesian approach; conjugate prior; cartel; leniency program; policy simulation
Online: 2 May 2018 (08:37:32 CEST)
Cartels cause tremendous damage to the market economy and disadvantage consumers by causing higher prices and lower quality; moreover, they are difficult to detect. We need to prevent them by scientific analysis, which includes the determination of an indicator to explain antitrust enforcement. Particularly, the probability of cartel penalization is a useful indicator for the evaluation of the competition enforcement. This study is to estimate the probability of cartel penalization by using a Bayesian approach. In the empirical study, the probability of cartel penalization is estimated by Bayesian approach from cartel data of Department of Justice in United States from 1970 to 2009. The probability of cartel penalization is seen to be sensitive to change of competition law and the results shows the usefulness of higher interpretation than other research. The result of the policy simulation shows how effective the leniency program is. From this estimation, antitrust enforcement is evaluated, and thereby, can be improved.