ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ATO; Performance Evaluation; Scenario-based Testing; Simulation
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:42:05 CET)
There is increasing interest in automating train operations of mainline services, e.g. to increase network capacity. Automatic train operation (ATO) is already achieved by several pilot projects, but not implemented on a large scale. Before the general introduction of new or adapted technologies can have a transformative effect on the operation of such a complex system as train operation on mainlines, they have to pass functional, interoperability and performance tests. A virtual preliminary analysis is one way to ensure a smooth as well as safe introduction and implementation. This paper aims to present an approach that applies to the performance testing of ATO systems. Therefore, methods and test standards for technologies enabling automatic operation in other transport sectors are reviewed. The main findings have been adapted, transformed and combined to be used as a general strategy for virtual performance testing in the railway sector. Specifically, universal performance indicators, namely punctuality, accuracy, energy consumption, safety and comfort, are presented. A layer model for scenario description is adapted from the automotive sector, as well as the definition of different scenario types. Lastly, factors that can influence the performance of an ATO algorithm are identified. To demonstrate the developed approach, a straightforward investigation of a case study is conducted using a microscopic train simulator in combination with an ATO algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0194.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: urban drainage; SWMM5.1; land use; hydraulic performance; Shire Endaslasse
Online: 9 October 2020 (10:26:40 CEST)
The stormwater drainage problem is one of the major challenges facing in Shire Endaslasse town, Ethiopia. In a town, Street flooding and overtopping drainage system problems are occurring during the rainy season. This causes ponding which poses difficulties in ease of transportation and it hinders the day-to-day activity of the people. So, the study focuses on the performance of the stormwater drainage system in Shire Endaslasse town using Arc GIS and SWMM5.1. For this study, the primary data were collected by field surveys and interviews with the council body. Simulation results for storm events show that in some of the drainage systems in different regions of Shire Endaslasse town have flooded. During the field observation, the drainage structures are filled with solid wastes, inadequate inlet and outlet structures and some of the top element of the manhole have been broken this may cause a problem of aesthetic and healthy at large it may increase flood risk. The flooding risk in the drainage systems is very high due to the drainage system is undersized to cope with the current rainfall rates, but also is very limited to face the upcoming predicted rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0573.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: ISP; SDN; SDN-IP; legacy network; performance comparison
Online: 5 July 2021 (12:20:08 CEST)
Legacy IPv4 networks are strenuous to manage and operate. Network operators are in need to minimize the capital and operational expenditure of running network infrastructure. The implementation of Software-defined networking (SDN) addresses those issues by minimizing the expenditures in the long run. Legacy networks need to integrate with the SDN networks for the smooth migration towards the fully functional SDN environment. In this paper, we compare the network performance of the legacy network with the SDN network for IP routing in order to determine the feasibility of the SDN deployment in the Internet Service provider (ISP) network. The simulation of the network is performed in the Mininet test-bed and the network traffic is generated using distributed Internet traffic generator. Open network operating system is used as a controller for the SDN network in which SDN-IP application is used for IP routing. Round trip time, bandwidth, and packet transmission rate from both SDN and legacy networks are first collected and then the comparison is done. We found that SDN-IP performs better in terms of bandwidth and latency as compared to legacy routing. The experimental analysis of interoperability between SDN and legacy networks shows that SDN implementation in production level carrier-grade ISP network is viable and progressive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0076.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: performance evaluation; cloud services; group decision making; multicriteria decision making; fuzzy sets
Online: 22 September 2016 (10:45:55 CEST)
This paper formulates the performance evaluation of cloud services as a multicriteria group decision making problem, and presents a fuzzy multicriteria group decision making method for evaluating the performance of cloud services. Interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers are used to model the inherent subjectiveness and imprecision of the performance evaluation process. An effective algorithm is developed based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method and the Choquet integral operator for adequately solving the performance evaluation problem. An example is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed fuzzy multicriteria group decision making method for solving the multicriteria group decision making problem in real world situations.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bio-Binder; Guayule Resin; HMA; Mix Performance; Superpave Mix Design; Sustainability
Online: 20 August 2021 (08:54:55 CEST)
Literature revealed the potential of using guayule resin for asphalt cement replacement from the binder’s perspective. However, monitoring guayule resin through binder-aggregate mixture could disclose its performance through field. In this study, designated binders were employed to investigate the applicability of such an innovative replacer through mixture, which were neat asphalt and guayule-based binders (neat guayule, asphalt-rubber-guayule, guayule-rubber binders). Consecutively, field-simulated lab mixtures were prepared to investigate the major distresses. Moisture damage, rutting, fatigue cracking, and thermal cracking resistances were investigated using the modified Lottman (TSR) test, rut test by asphalt pavement analyzer (APA), semi-circular bending (SCB) test, and disk-shaped compact tension (DCT) test, respectively. Additionally, the Hamburg wheel-tracking (HWT) test was employed to evaluate moisture susceptibility and rutting resistance. Outcomes revealed that the neat guayule was susceptible to moisture damage at a 7% air content (Va) when the TSR test was employed. In contrast, all investigated mixtures yielded perfect performances against moisture susceptibility under the HWT test. Guayule-based mixtures perfectly resisted rutting, as analyzed by the rut test and HWT test. Generally, changing parameters (e.g., Va, rubber addition, and partial asphalt replacement by guayule and rubber) enhanced the guayule-based mixture resistance to rutting and moisture damage resulting in acceptable performances. Guayule-based mixture had a high fracture toughness at low temperatures, hence fatigue fracture resistance at intermediate temperatures. Neat guayule mixture with or without rubber addition did not entirely resist thermal fracture. However, partial asphalt replacement by guayule and rubber resisted the thermal fracture to a great extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0443.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: group decision makers; multicriteria analysis; performance evaluation; internet of things; intuitionistic environment
Online: 19 October 2018 (08:08:19 CEST)
The performance evaluation of the Internet of Things (IoT) based supply chain is challenging due to the involvement of multiple decision makers, the multi-dimensional nature of the evaluation process, and the existence of uncertainty and imprecision in the decision making process. To ensure effective decisions are made, this paper presents a fuzzy multicriteria analysis model for evaluating the performance of IoT based supply chain. The inherent uncertainty and imprecision of the performance evaluation process is adequately handled by using intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A new algorithm is developed for determining the overall performance index for each alternative across all criteria. The development of the fuzzy multicriteria group decision making model provides organizations with the ability to effectively evaluate the performance of their IoT based supply chains for improving their competitiveness. An example is presented for demonstrating the applicability of the model for dealing with real world IoT-based performance evaluation problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0086.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: automated immunoassays; COVID-19; lateral flow immunoassay; performance; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 4 November 2022 (01:59:01 CET)
Background: The duration of the vaccine's protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. Evaluation of the clinical performance of available tests is required. Objectives: To evaluate the clinical performance of three immunoassays for the detection of IgG antibodies generated by mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Two automated immunoassays (Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG and Abbott SARS-CoV-2 CLIA IgG) and one lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA Test Livzon IgG) were tested. 300 samples distributed in 3 groups were analyzed: 100 subjects over 18 years old and under 45 years old, 100 subjects between 45-65 years old and another 100 over 65 years old. collected before vaccination, at 21 days, 1, 2, 3 and 6 months post-vaccination. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and agreement (I. Kappa) were calculated for each serological test. Results: Maximum sensitivity for IgG was 98.7%, 98.1%, and 97.8% for the ELISA Euroimmun, CLIA Abbott, and Livzon LFIA assays and maximum specificity for IgG was 99.4%, 99.9%. % and 98.4% ELISA, CLIA and LFIA respectively at 3 months after vaccination with a decrease in antibody levels from the sixth month. The best agreement was observed between ELISA and CLIA 100%; (k = 1.00). The agreement between ELIA, CLIA and LIFIA was 99% (k = 0964) at the second and third month after vaccination. Seroconversion was faster and longer lasting in the younger age groups. Conclusion: Our study showed an equivalent and homogeneous clinical performance for IgG of three immunoassays after vaccination and that the LIFIA assay is the most cost-effective, reliable and accurate for routine use in population studies of seroconversion and seroprevalence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: heat transfer fluid; nanofluid; heating; ventilation and air conditioning system; experimental test; coefficient of performance
Online: 6 April 2022 (10:08:59 CEST)
Nowadays, energy saving is considered a key issue worldwide, as it brings a variety of benefits: reducing greenhouse gas emissions, reducing demand for energy imports, and lowering costs on a household and economy-wide level. Researchers and building designers are looking to optimize building efficiency by means of new energy technologies. Changes in existing buildings can also be made to reduce energy consumption and costs. These may include the usage of new heat transfer fluids based on nanofluids. In this work, an extended experimental campaign (from February 2020 to March 2021) has been carried out on an educational building in the Campus of University of Salento, Lecce – Italy, in order to evaluate the increase in performance of the HVAC system, due to the usage of a nanofluid. The results show that, under optimal operating conditions, plant performance improves more than 10%, with average daily peaks of about 15%.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: health; safety and environment management; HSE; performance evaluation; checklist; contractors
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:45:13 CEST)
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the performance of health, safety and environmental management of civil, traffic and urban services contractors in the 18th district of Tehran municipality in 2015-2016. Methods: This is an applied, longitudinal, descriptive-comparative study. The statistical population of this study was construction contractors, urban services and traffic in the municipality of district 18 of Tehran in the years 2015-2016. from 52 contractors, 18 construction contractors, 21 utilities contractors and 13 traffic contractors, respectively, were selected using census method. the research instrument consisted of periodic direct observation and completion of the HSE standard checklist by researchers. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test by SPSS software.Results: The HSE performance of all contractors (civil, utilities and traffic) was acceptable and the results of Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the HSE performance of contractors at the second visit of 2015 and the first visit of 2016 was significantly different in favor of civil contractors )p <0.01), but there was no significant difference between the first and third visits of 2015 and the second and third visits of 2016 (p> 0.05). visits in six periods indicate HSE Civil Contractors status increased from 100% unfavorable to 88.88% acceptable level and 11.11% good level, and in the case of civil service contractors who initially had 95.23% in an unfavorable situation and 4.76% in a favorable situation achieved 100% acceptable performance, and finally, the traffic contractors, who were 100% unfavorable, were upgraded to 100% acceptable. Conclusion: According to the findings of the study, it seems that the supervision of municipality inspectors on HSE performance of contractors can be effective in improving and strengthening the commitment to HSE requirements, therefore, it is suggested that periodical visits be made to the municipal contractors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0663.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: electrochromic glazing; building energy; daylight performance; optimal control; climate zone; EnergyPlus
Online: 29 October 2018 (08:48:15 CET)
Solar radiation is closely related to the energy buildings consume for cooling, heating, and lighting purposes. Glazing is the only material of the building envelope that transmits solar radiation and needs to be appropriately designed to reduce energy cㅈonsumption. Currently, smart glass technology is being actively investigated and developed for effective solar radiation control. Among the various types of smart glass, electrochromic glazing is one of the most promising technologies, as it can adjust transmittance on its own, has a wider transmittance range in both the clear and darkened states, and consumes less electricity. Considering the importance of solar radiation adjustment in electrochromic glazing technology, this study attempted to develop an optimal control method for electrochromic glazing. Toward this goal, the solar radiation incident on vertical surfaces and outdoor temperature conditions were controlled in three regions with different climatic characteristics, and the annual cooling, heating, and lighting loads, discomfort glare, and interior illumination were analyzed. This approach enabled the optimal conditions with respect to visual comfort to be determined. Subsequently, the EDPI (Energy and daylight performance index) was used to optimize control conditions for each region, thereby producing integrated evaluations from results with different units and properties. The proposed control method will be utilized to develop a control algorithm and a control system to reduce building energy consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0244.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cost containment; Performance Evaluation; Multi-level System; Diagnosis-related Group (DRG); Health system sustainability
Online: 11 May 2021 (11:29:16 CEST)
This study aims to develop a performance evaluation system that can facilitate performance evaluation at region, hospital, and department levels to enable better cost management for sustainable development. A multi-level system of performance evaluation informs a hierarchical assessment of cost management from regions to hospitals to departments using diagnosis-related group (DRGs). Various metrics are developed employing the variances between targets and actuals where targets are determined from two perspectives: benchmarking using external regional prices and change management using internal data. Targets for the latter are statistically based and specifically incorporate variability. The model is applied to two hospitals, twenty departments, nine DRGs and 1071 inpatients. The analyses indicate that the approach can provide a practical evaluation tool that allows for particular characteristics at multiple levels. The system provides macro-micro and external-internal perspectives in performance, enabling high-level variances to be decomposed thereby identifying sources of performance variability and financial impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0366.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Military Police; Efficiency; Police performance; Productivity; Decision making; Multicriteria; PROMETHEE II; MCDA
Online: 28 March 2022 (14:09:57 CEST)
Purpose: This research aims to model a police agency ordering problem based on criteria that measure the performance of operational and logistical variables, using a multicriteria method. Design/methodology/approach: The multicriteria method PROMETHEE II was used, which with the aid of the Visual PROMETHEE software, emulated the systematized data in the impact matrix and produced the final ordering of the most efficient police agencies in equalizing the operational, logistical, financial, and human resources applied in the combating crime and reducing criminal indices. Findings: The results confirmed that the resources made available to police agencies located in different municipalities in the metropolitan region of the state of Rio de Janeiro are better applied by managers compared to police units in the capital of Rio de Janeiro. Research limitations/implications: As implications of the research, it can be inferred that the use of multicriteria methods in modelling problems in public security can contribute to the rationalization of the use of available resources to fight crime in large cities. Research has shown that it is possible to use the multicriteria methodology in ordering police agencies that best equalize the available resources. Practical implications: The practical impact of this research lies in optimizing the resources available to law enforcement agencies in the fight against crime in general. Social implications: The results can influence the decision making of the local government in the allocation of resources, as well as offering sectors of the economy information relevant to local development. Originality/value: The results of the MCDA analysis can be used to help police agencies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to be more efficient. In addition, the application of MCDA can be a new approach to measuring the efficiency of police services.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: energy performance; co2 emission; cogenerated heat and power (chp); organic rankin cycle (orc)
Online: 26 December 2019 (12:32:17 CET)
The paper presents the results of energy and environmental analysis of geothermal CHP plant operation in Polish conditions. As the most favorable, for the geothermal conditions prevailing in Poland, the variant of CHP plant based on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has been taken into consideration. As the case study the existing geothermal well located in the town of Konin in the Wielkopolska voivodship has been chosen. The conceptual design of CHP plant has been proposed and evaluated from energy and environmental point of view. As energy performance criteria the non-renewable primary energy consumption has been chosen. In case of environmental performance carbon dioxide emission has been taken as evaluation criteria. The analysis has been performed for different operating conditions and three working fluids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0019.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: emotion classification; machine learning classifiers; ISEAR dataset; data mining; performance evaluation; data science; opinion-mining
Online: 2 August 2019 (08:49:27 CEST)
Emotion detection from the text is an important and challenging problem in text analytics. The opinion-mining experts are focusing on the development of emotion detection applications as they have received considerable attention of online community including users and business organization for collecting and interpreting public emotions. However, most of the existing works on emotion detection used less efficient machine learning classifiers with limited datasets, resulting in performance degradation. To overcome this issue, this work aims at the evaluation of the performance of different machine learning classifiers on a benchmark emotion dataset. The experimental results show the performance of different machine learning classifiers in terms of different evaluation metrics like precision, recall ad f-measure. Finally, a classifier with the best performance is recommended for the emotion classification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0145.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: banking; financial performance; sustainability performance
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:23:42 CET)
Banking sector is generally taken out of sample while the sustainability performance, and the financial performance are compared with each other. The core aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the declarations made in the cope of sustainability reports on the financial performance in the banking sector. Seven banks were included in the study which were placed at least one time in BIST Sustainability Index in between 2010-2017 years. Environment, human resources, product liability and community involvement were determined as sustainability criteria and return on assets, return on equity and net interest margin were determined as financial performance criteria. Non-Parametric Statistic Tests and Panel Data Analysis were used for analysis and types, and the sizes of banks were selected as dummy variables. As a result, it is found that the declarations of sustainability reports have a significant effect only on return on assets and have no significant effect on return on equity and net interest margin. And also, when we analyzed the relationship of sustainability criteria and return on assets, we found that the declarations about environment and human resources have negative effects on return on assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0401.v1
Subject: Keywords: PV array configurations; Partial shading conditions; Performance assessment; Maximum Power Generation; Mismatch power loss; Relative power loss; Fill factor
Online: 27 October 2021 (11:32:30 CEST)
Partial shading on solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays is a prevalent problem in photovoltaic systems that impair the performance of PV modules and is responsible for reduced power output as compared to that in standard irradiance conditions thereby resulting in the appearance of multiple maximas on panel output power characteristics. These maxims contribute to mismatch power losses among PV modules. The mismatch losses depend on shading characteristics together with different interconnected configuration schemes of PV modules. The research presents a comparative analysis of partial shading effects on a 4 x4 PV array system connected in series(S), parallel (P), serries-parallel (SP),total-cross-tied (TCT),central-cross-tied(CCT),bridge-linked(BL),bridge-linked total cross-tied (BLTCT) ,honey-comb(HC), honey-comb total-cross-tied (HCTCT) and ladder (LD) configurations using MATLAB/Simulink. The PV module SPR-X20-250-BLK was used for modeling and simulation analysis. Each module is comprised of 72 number of PV cells and a combination of 16 PV modules was employed for the contextual analysis. Accurate mathematical modeling for the HCTCT configuration under partial shading conditions (PSCs) is provided for the first time and is verified from the simulation. The different configuration schemes were investigated under short-narrow,short-wide,long-narrow,long-wide, diagonal, entire row distribution, and entire column distribution partial shading condition patterns with mathematical implementation and simulation of passing clouds. The performance of array configurations is compared in terms of maximum power generated ), mismatch power loss (∆), relative power loss ) and the fill factor (FF). It was inferred that on average, TCT configuration yielded maximum power generation under all shading patterns among all PV modules interconnection configurations with minimum mismatch power losses followed by hybrid and conventional PV array configurations respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Underwriter; IPO’s; Performance; underwriter reputation; IPO’s Performance
Online: 5 September 2020 (09:55:05 CEST)
In this paper, it is defined that how the IPOs are affected by the underwriter reputation. What will happen to IPOs who are backed by reputed underwriter and who is not? And evaluate the IPOs short-run and long-run performance. Also try to explain the relationship between IPOs and underwriter. Also tried to compare some of the international return and Pakistani returns. Also determine the relation of the investor to the underwriter. There is a set of investors who have there own relationship with the underwriters how they will affect on the IPOs in the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: benchmarking; evaluation of performance; performance indicator; principal component analysis
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:16:30 CEST)
The Inefficient water use, varying and low productivity in Kenya public irrigation schemes is a major concern. It is therefore necessary to periodically monitor and evaluate the performance of public irrigation schemes. The performance of public irrigation in western Kenya was assessed by combining benchmarking methodology and principal component analysis. The aim was to quantify and rank the performance of pumped public irrigation schemes in Kenya. Eleven benchmarking indicators were computed for the period from 2012 to 2016 and compared to global benchmark values. The indicators used fall under agricultural productivity, water supply and financial performance categories. The computed agricultural productivity was 36%–51% in Ahero, 23%–42% in West Kano and 26%–50% Bunyala irrigation scheme. Water supply performance in Ahero, West Kano and Bunyala irrigation schemes varied from 24% to 58%, 3% to 49% and 19% to 43% respectively. Financial performance varied from 46% to 54% in Ahero, 25% to 32% in West Kano and 54%–56% in Bunyala irrigation scheme. An average overall performance efficiency of 46%, 39% and 31% was obtained in Ahero, Bunyala and West Kano irrigation schemes respectively. The performance of the irrigation schemes is very poor and measures on improving performance are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: advanced industrial engineering; strategy; management; business performance; key performance indicators
Online: 28 July 2022 (08:43:32 CEST)
The paper deals with the design of a systematic procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes for a project-oriented production type of organization. In the first part of the contribution, a summary of the theoretical starting points for the field of strategic management and change management is presented. In the second part, the contribution deals with the analysis of the current situation in the area of the impact of the change of strategy on the management of business processes. In the last part, the proposal of the procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes and the verification results are presented. The proposed procedure includes steps where the selection and verification of key performance indicators at individual levels of management plus the quantification of the impact of the change in strategy on the processes takes place. The management can thus monitor and evaluate the chosen processes in accordance with the fulfilment of the chosen strategy of the company. The last chapter presents the verification of the proposal for the systematic introduction of changes into the processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Grid-connected PV plant, Monitoring, Performance parameters, performance comparison, Mauritania.
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:30:39 CET)
This paper presents preliminary operational performance results of a pilot grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system designed and installed on the rooftop of the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy and Mining headquarter in Nouakchott (latitude of 18.1°N and the longitude of 16.0°W), Mauritania. The aim is for the government to demonstrate the relevance of using solar energy and to encourage the uptake of solar PV technology for commercial and residential building applications in Mauritania.. In this study, the grid-connected PV system has a peak power of 48 kW and the performance monitoring was carried out during one year, with a system that allow to measure DC power, inverter and system conversion efficiency, energy generated by the PV arrays, solar radiation in the inclination plane of panels, ambient temperature and module temperature. During this period, the PV plant was found to supply 65,668 kWh to the grid. The final yield ranged from 3.91 to 5.09 kWh/kWp/day. The performance ratio was found to vary from 69.69% to 89.35% and the annual capacity factor was found to be 19%. Finally, performance parameters were compared with other PV plants installed in the same region of Northern Africa. The outcome of this work is deemed important in assisting accurate PV system design and decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0042.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: performance-based management; performance measurement; good governance; local government; public agency
Online: 3 April 2019 (11:27:59 CEST)
Performance appraisal is a fundamental indicator in public accountability to achieve the good governance principles. Hence, this study aims to analyze the performance measurement that can improve performance on government agencies in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted in qualitative approach. The research found that non-integrated models of performance measurement in South Sulawesi are inefficient and ineffective. Inefficiency happens because it uses time and cost resources separately, while being ineffective is because both models focuses on each goal instead on performance goals and the process is not supported by the actual management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0019.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: clustering; machine learning; distributed computing; performance portability; GPGPU; OpenCL; peak performance
Online: 2 February 2019 (03:27:07 CET)
Clustering is an important task in data mining that has become more challenging due to the ever-increasing size of available datasets. To cope with these big data scenarios, a high-performance clustering approach is required. Sparse grid clustering is a density-based clustering method that uses a sparse grid density estimation as its central building block. The underlying density estimation approach enables the detection of clusters with non-convex shapes and without a predetermined number of clusters. In this work, we introduce a new distributed and performance-portable variant of the sparse grid clustering algorithm that is suited for big data settings. Our compute kernels were implemented in OpenCL to enable portability across a wide range of architectures. For distributed environments, we added a manager-worker scheme that was implemented using MPI. In experiments on two supercomputers, Piz Daint and Hazel Hen, with up to 100 million data points in a 10-dimensional dataset, we show the performance and scalability of our approach. The dataset with 100 million data points was clustered in 1198s using 128 nodes of Piz Daint. This translates to an overall performance of 352TFLOPS. On the node-level, we provide results for two GPUs, Nvidia's Tesla P100 and the AMD FirePro W8100, and one processor-based platform that uses Intel Xeon E5-2680v3 processors. In these experiments, we achieved between 43% and 66% of the peak performance across all compute kernels and devices, demonstrating the performance portability of our approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0363.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Schedule Performance Index (SPI); Cost Performance Index (CPI); To Complete Cost Performance Indicator (TCPI); Predicting; Models
Online: 24 March 2020 (14:49:20 CET)
The importance of this study may be defined by using the smart techniques to earned value indicators of residential buildings projects in Republic of Iraq, only one development intelligent forecasting model was presented to predict Schedule Performance Index (SPI), Cost Performance Index (CPI), and To Complete Cost Performance Indicator (TCPI) are defined as the dependent. The approach is principally influenced by the determining numerous factors which effect on the earned value management, that involves Iraqi historical data. In addition, six independent variables (F1: BAC, Budget at Completion., F2: AC, Actual Cost., F3, A%, Actual Percentage., F4: EV, Earned Value. F5: P%, Planning Percentage., and F6: PV, Planning Value) were arbitrarily designated and satisfactorily described for per construction project. It was found that ANN has the capability to envisage the dust storm with a great accuracy. The correlation coefficient (R) has been 90.00%, and typical accuracy percentage has been 89.00%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0392.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: K-means; performance; pattern
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:31:53 CEST)
We are in the era where various processes need to be online. However, data from digital learning platforms are still underutilised in higher education, yet, they contain student learning patterns, whose awareness would contribute to educational development. This limits development of adaptive teaching and learning mechanisms. In this paper, a model for data exploitation to dynamically study students progress is proposed. Variables to determine current students progress are defined and are used to group students into different clusters. K-means clustering is performed on real data consisting of students from a South African tertiary institution. Cluster migration is analysed and the corresponding learning patterns are revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0795.v2
Online: 14 May 2021 (16:27:12 CEST)
The authors propose in this study to evaluate financial performance applications for stock prices of the Indonesian Stock Exchange in manufacturing companies. The method of research used here is a quantitative descriptive method. In that statement, Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies between 2016 and 2018 are the population use in this research, using the sampling technique Purpose Sampling. This research uses secondary data from 2016 to 2018, the financial reports of Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies. The Indonesian stock exchange web site has been provided with all data sources at https://www.idx.co.id, and searching for www.google.id. Our analysis shows that book value prices and the net profit margin affect stock prices. The value of financial performance at the Indonesian Stock Bourses manufacturing companies' cost amounts to 64.5 percent, while other factors not listed in this study account for 35.4 percent.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0105.v1
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:08:07 CET)
Top performance in team sports attracts the attention from the general public. In particular, the best players became incredibly skilled and physically powerful, a fact that potentiates to deliver a product considered attractive, exciting and competitive. Not surprisingly, this is a very valuable product from an economic and social standpoint, thus, all sports professionals are extremely interested in developing new procedures to improve sports performance. Besides, the great interests of the various stakeholders (owners, CEO-s, agents, fans, media, coaches, players, families and friends) are one of the main reasons for this development of sports science umbrella and the accompanying sports industry. all their personal performances should be coordinated and put into function by the sports team. In this scientific and applied manuscript, we will deal primarily with the individual treatment of players in order to improve their personal performance and, consequently, team sport performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: solid waste management; performance assessment; fuzzy rule-based modeling; performance indicators; Simulink MATLAB
Online: 30 January 2019 (06:55:00 CET)
Most of the municipalities in the Gulf region are facing performance related issues in their municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. They lack to possess a deliberate inter-municipality benchmarking processes. Instead of identifying the performance gaps for their key components (e.g., personnel productivity, operational reliability, etc.) and adopt proactive measures, the municipalities primarily rely on an efficient emergency response. A novel hierarchical modeling framework, based on deductive reasoning, is developed for performance assessment of MSWM systems. Fuzzy rule based modeling using Simulink-MATLAB was used for performance inferencing at different levels, i.e., component, sub-components, etc. The model is capable of handling the inherent uncertainties due to limited data and imprecise knowledge base. The model’s outcomes can exclusively assist the managers working at different levels of organizational hierarchy for effective decision-making. Performance of the key component, assists the senior management to assess the overall compliance level of performance objectives. Subsequently, operation management can hone in the sub-components to acquire useful information for intra-municipality performance management. While, individual indicators are useful for inter-municipality benchmarking. The model has been implemented on two municipalities operating in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. The results demonstrate the model’s pragmatism for continuous performance improvement of MSWM systems in the country and elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0367.v1
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:27:20 CEST)
French academies almost all implement reactivity drills and small-sided games (SSG) the day preceding a match (MD-1). The present study aimed to determine the physical impact of different training durations on MD-1 on the subsequent matchday performance (MD). Eleven elite U19 academy soccer players con-ducted three typical training sessions lasting 45min (TS45), 60min (TS60), and 75min (TS75) on MD-1. Dur-ing TS60, warm-up, reactivity and SSG were 10, 15, and 24min, respectively, plus coaches' feedback or wa-ter breaks. Durations decreased and increased by 25% for TS45 and TS75, respectively. Tests were con-ducted on MD-4 (CONTROL) and MD before the match (TEST). Tests consisted of a counter movement jump (CMJ), 20m sprint, Illinois agility test (IAT), and Hooper questionnaire. CONTROL values were simi-lar over the three experimental conditions. TEST on MD revealed greater CMJ for TS45 (42.7 ± 5.1cm) compared to TS60 (40.5 ± 5.5cm, p=0.032) and TS75 (40.9 ± 5.7cm, p=0.037). 20m time was lower for TS45 (3.07 ± 0.10s, p<0.001) and TS60 (3.13 ± 0.10s, p=0.017) compared to TS75 (3.20 ± 0.10s). IAT time was lower on TS45 (14.82 ± 0.49s) compared to TS60 (15.43 ± 0.29s, p<0.001) and TS75 (15.24 ± 0.33s, p=0.006). Further-more, the Hooper index was lower at TEST for TS45 (7.64 ± 1.50) compared to TS60 (11.00 ± 3.49, p=0.014) and TS75 (9.73 ± 2.41, p=0.045) indicating a better readiness level. We concluded that as training session duration increases, performance decreases on MD. A 45min training session including reactivity and SSG exercises is therefore recommended on MD-1.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0271.v1
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:08 CEST)
UHPC is a type of cement-based composite used in new construction and/or rehabilitation of existing buildings to extend service life. It is a novel composite material that can serve as an alternative to concrete construction in hostile climates. Following decades of study and production, a diverse variety of commercial UHPC compositions are now available globally to meet the rising number of applicants and demand for high-quality building materials. Although UHPC offers major benefits over normal concrete, its utilization is restricted due to restrictive design rules and exorbitant costs. As a result, a thorough examination of the durability properties of UHPC is required to give important information for material testing requirements and processes, as well as to broaden its practical uses. This report is aimed at increasing basic understanding of UHPC and supporting more UHPC research and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: swimming; COVID-19; swim performance
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:34:46 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant training disruptions during the 2020-21 season due to lockdowns, quarantines, and strict adherence to pandemic protocols. The main purpose of this study was to determine how pandemic training restrictions affected training volume and performance in one collegiate swim team. Cumulative training volume data, across a 28-week season, were compared between a pandemic (2020-2021) versus non-pandemic (2019-2020) season. Swimmers were categorized into three groups (Sprinters, Mid-Distance, and Long-Distance) based on training group. Performance times in 25 swimmers who competed in Regional Championships, during both the non-pandemic and pandemic year, were compared via 1-way ANOVA. 26 male and 22 female swimmers commenced the 2020-21 (pandemic) season, with 23% of swimmers voluntarily opting out. Three COVID-19 cases were confirmed (2%) by the medical staff with no long-term effects. Significant reductions in average swim volume were verified in Sprinters (32,867±10,135 vs.14,800±7,995yards;p<0.001), Mid-Distance (26,457±10,692 vs.17,054±9.923yards;p<0.001), and Long-Distance (37,600±14,430 vs.22,254±14,418yards;p<0.001) swimmers (non-pandemic vs. pandemic season, respectively). In the Regional performance analyses, the Sprinters swam faster (n=8;-0.5±0.6secs), while Mid-Distance (n=10;0.17±2.1secs) and Long-Distance (n=7;6.0±4.9secs) swimmers swam slower (F=11.76;p=0.0003;r2=0.52). Thus, the pandemic caused significant reductions in swim training volume, with Sprinters performing better and Long-Distance swimmers performing worse at Regional Championships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0312.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Internet; television; academic performance; utilization.
Online: 26 November 2019 (10:51:18 CET)
An investigation was carried out to study the effects of television and internet on academic performance of senior secondary schools students in Rigachukun Inspectorate of Kaduna state. A well structured and designed questionnaire was adopted in eliciting information from the respondents. The respondents were sampled from schools within Kaduna state. The information obtained showed that the percentage of senior secondary school students who made use of internet for academic purpose was as much as those who could not operate a computer or even browse the internet. Good number of students applied internet mostly through phones and computer with internet access in solving their assignment. A larger percentage of students devoted their time to watching non-educative programs on television, even though it was discovered that some of them also watch educative programs. Positive impacts of television and internet are however obscuring and not glaring. Investigation carried out revealed that students in senior secondary schools need to be sensitized and oriented on how they can derive the best from internet and television. Schools should be encouraged in using television and internet as an instrument of learning and teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0241.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: leadership; community leadership; job performance
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:37:32 CET)
Leadership performance by village leaders is essential to promote sustainable life among rural communities, especially fisheries community who living along coastal villages. Otherwise, previous studies found that performance issues among village’s leaders remain as serious problems, and need to find the best solution. This study was conducted to profile the job performance among village leaders based on demographic factors such as educational level, age and experiences as village leader. The data of this cross-sectional survey were collected by questionnaires on 300 respondents consist of members of village organization through stratified sampling’s technique, while the data was analysed by SPSS using items of mean, standard deviation, independent-sample t-test and anova. The finding shown that there were differences in job performance among village leaders on educational level, age and experiences. Interestingly, the finding told the best on job performance among village leaders are (i) the age between 41 to 50 years old; (iii) the experience between 11 to 20 years; and (iii) the higher educational level the higher job performance among them. This result can be using by government or any responsible parties to improve job performance among village leaders, especially for recruitment selection and for in-service training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Training; competence; incentives; management; performance.
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:55:28 CEST)
Background.Nurse gives professional nursing service to patients according to competence owned. Based on these services in the end of every year, nurses are given incentives for medical services as financial incentive. Purpose. To analyze the impact of competence training and incentives medical services’ distribution upon the achievement of nurse’s performances in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Matterial and method. Observational survey research with cross sectional design. Population. Nurses in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Technique. Total sampling technique with number of samples 183 respondents. Inclusive criteria of samples are willing to be interviewed, nurse’s status, permanent offices without limitation from particular working unit or poly in hospital. Independent variable: (1) competence training; (2) Incentives for medical services. Dependent variable; Nurse’s performance achievement. Variables are measured by using Lickert scale. Information are recorded through questionnaire. Analyzes using linier regression. Result. There are impacts of competence training (α=.000;ß=.489)and distribution of incentives for medical services(α=.012; ß=.152)upon nurse’s performances achievement in General Hospital of Prof.W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Conclusion.The training of nursing service status that could increase competences among nurses with affair incentives for medical services’ distribution simultaneously end up in the increasing of nurse’s performances achievement in a hospital
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; management; performance; sustainability
Online: 31 July 2017 (15:43:49 CEST)
The study examines how the South African construction industry can nurture an entrepreneur and a large successful entrepreneurial construction company, even though the founder had no formal education and the company was founded during the Apartheid era. The question of whether entrepreneurs are born or are made is based on the age-old question of nurture and nature. The paper presents the narratives of a successful entrepreneur Mr. Sam Lubbe. The narratives presented are collected through a case study research approach. The data collected suggests that although Sam does not have any formal education, he succeeded based on nurturing given to him when he had the opportunity to work for a large South African construction company, his innate characteristics of self-confidence, task-result orientation, originality, future direction, and a unique business model which also helped him access international construction work opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0379.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical simulator training; individual performance trend; speed-accuracy function; automatic detection; performance feed-back
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:40:08 CEST)
Simulator training for image-guided surgical interventions may benefit from artificial intelligence systems that control the evolution of task skills in terms of time and precision of a trainee's performance on the basis of fully automatic feed-back systems. At the earliest stages of training, novice trainees frequently focus on getting faster at the task, and may thereby compromise the optimal evolution of the precision of their performance. For automatically guiding them towards attaining an optimal speed-accuracy trade-off, an effective control system for the reinforcement/correction of strategies must be able to exploit the right individual performance criteria in the right way, reliably detect individual performance trends at any given moment in time, and alert the trainee, as early as necessary, when to slow down and focus on precision, or when to focus on getting faster. This article addresses several aspects of this challenge for speed-accuracy controlled simulator training before any training on specific surgical tasks or clinical models should be envisaged. Analyses of individual learning curves from the simulator training sessions of novices and benchmark performance data of one expert surgeon, who had no specific training in the simulator task, validate the suggested approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Academic performance; Machine Learning; RBFNN; psychomotor
Online: 6 July 2022 (05:09:31 CEST)
Introduction: Academic success is primary goal of every student. It is described as the extent to which a student has successfully achieved his or her short and long-term educational goals. Several factors have been established to predict academic performance of students. Machine learning techniques have been employed in predicting students’ performance, but it has not been prevalent in developing countries like Nigeria and most studies did not consider class teachers’ end-of-the-year rating. Aim: The aim of this work is to develop a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) for prediction of secondary school students’ performance. Materials and Methods: We obtained data from school repository containing students’ raw score and classteachers’ rating from year one to year six. The data was labelled into pass or fail given the actual outcome of their examinations. Subjects were categorized into Mathematics, English and major, depending on the student’s specialization. Class-teachers’ ratings were also included in the dataset. The preprocessed dataset was used to train the RBFNN model. The impact of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also measured. Results: We set up four experiments in order to achieve our aim. The best result gave the sensitivity of 93.49%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 86.59% and an AUC score of 94%. Other experiments gave a relatively low performance. Conclusion: This study helps students to get a projection of academic success even before sitting for the examination. This will also help parents and counsellors in knowing the direction of their counseling to each student. Teachers and parents should pay attention to class teacher ratings of the students as this is discovered to affect the prediction accuracy of their examination success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0519.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Network; Graph theory; Soccer; Performance analysis
Online: 27 August 2021 (11:30:10 CEST)
Formation in soccer is among the most important tactical choices for a successful match.Herein, the simulations of 420000 match-plays have been performed varying the formation, the number of opponents that are actively pressing the team, the speed of the opponents in attempting a pass interception. Dribbling has been neglected. The match-play ends either with a successful series of passes from a central back to the line of the strikers or with the opponents that steal the ball. In this work, I demonstrate that 3-4-3 formation, which is among the most employed formations, relates to the highest probability of success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0140.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: K-Mean, Mean-Shift, Performance, Accuracy
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:00:32 CEST)
Clustering, or otherwise known as cluster analysis, is a learning problem that takes place without any human supervision. This technique has often been utilized, much efficiently, in data analysis, and serves for observing and identifying interesting, useful, or desired patterns in the said data. The clustering technique functions by performing a structured division of the data involved, in similar objects based on the characteristics that it identifies. This process results in the formation of groups, and each group that is formed, is called a cluster. A single said cluster consists of objects from the data, that have similarities among other objects found in the same cluster, and resemble differences when compared to objects identified from the data that now exist in other clusters. The process of clustering is very significant in various aspects of data analysis, as it determines and presents the intrinsic grouping of objects present in the data, based on their attributes, in a batch of unlabeled raw data. A textbook or otherwise said, good criteria, does not exist in this method of cluster analysis. That is because this process is so different and so customizable for every user, that needs it in his/her various and different needs. There is no outright best clustering algorithm, as it massively depends on the user’s scenario and needs. This paper is intended to compare and study two different clustering algorithms. The algorithms under investigation are k-mean and mean shift. These algorithms are compared according to the following factors: time complexity, training, prediction performance and accuracy of the clustering algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0424.v1
Online: 21 October 2020 (09:31:42 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. This condition resulted in huge research on CVD increasing the need for animal models suitable for the in vivo research. Daphnia and Zebrafish are good animal models for cardiovascular research due to their relative body transparency and easy culture property. Several methods have been developed to conduct cardiac performance measurement in Daphnia and Zebrafish. However, most of the methods only able to obtain heartbeat rate. The other important cardiac endpoints like stroke volume, ejection fraction, fraction shortening, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity must use other programs for measurement. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we successfully developed a one-stop ImageJ-based method using kymograph macros language that able to obtain multiple cardiac performance endpoints simultaneously for the first time. To validate its utility, we incubate Daphnia magna at different ambient temperatures and exposed zebrafish with astemizole to detect the corresponding cardiac performance alterations. In summary, the kymograph method reported in this study provides a new, easy to use, and inexpensive one-stop method on obtaining multiple cardiac performance endpoints with high accuracy and convenience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: healthcare sector; financial performance; public hospitals
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:27:46 CEST)
Hospital indebtedness is a complex and very diverse phenomenon. Thus, the goal of this study is the comparison of the financial performance of public hospitals in accordance with their ownership and size. The results of the research lead to the conclusion that the vast majority of public hospitals are indebted, and their ownership structure does not affect their financial condition. What is more, the statistical analysis depicted that large Marshall hospitals are less indebted than poviat-commune ones. In the group of medium-size hospitals, the situation was the opposite. Moreover, the study did not confirm the significant relationship between the size or ownership and the financial status of the hospital. The analysis conducted in the article is aimed at filling in the gap in studies comparing the indebtedness between different types of public hospitals.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: imaging; CMOS; camera; SNR; noise; performance
Online: 9 October 2018 (09:38:23 CEST)
Expensive cameras meant for research applications are usually characterized by the manufacturers and detailed specifications  are available for them. Suppliers of inexpensive cameras usually do not provide such detailed information about their cameras. This data set provides the acquisition speed and noise characteristics acquired from a monochrome 1.2 megapixel CMOS camera, the QHY5L-II M . The source code provided along with this data set  can also be used to acquire similar data for other QHY cameras. This enables the use of such cost-effective cameras for other scientific applications in other fields, beyond the designed use in Astronomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Shadings; Thermal Performance; Iwan; experimental; EnergyPlus
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:49:55 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of an exterior shading element (Iwan) on energy consumption in four different climatic regions, and for different geographical directions, has been investigated numerically and experimentally. By applying different materials and techniques and creating various elements and spaces, architects make hard climatic conditions more tolerable for residents. Iwan is one of the cooling elements which is used in different forms and dimensions in the Islamic architecture. In the present research, Iwan has been introduced as a climatic element in traditional and contemporary architectures and its role in reducing the energy consumption in buildings has been studied. In this respect, first, the thermal loads of a building without Iwan are computed by means of EnergyPlus software. Then, four different forms of Iwan are added to the above-mentioned structure along the four principal geographical directions, and the effect of Iwan on the reduction of thermal loads is analyzed for four different climates. Finally, the design parameters of Iwan, in terms of depth and form, that can help reduce the thermal loads in different climatic conditions are presented. The results show that the best position for using an Iwan is the south direction and the use of Iwan in temperate & humid, hot & humid, cold & mountainous and hot & dry climates could reduce the energy consumption in buildings by 32%, 26%, 14%, and 29%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: winglets; lift-induced drag; wing tip device; non-planar lifting surface; performance optimization; aircraft performance; regional aircraft
Online: 9 June 2019 (03:48:26 CEST)
An increasing number of aircraft is equipped with wing tip devices, which either are installed by the aircraft manufacturer at the production line or are retrofitted after the delivery of the aircraft to its operator. Installation of wing tip devices has not been a popular choice for regional turboprop aircraft and the novelty of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of retrofitting the British Aerospace (BAe) Jetstream 31 with an appropriate wing tip device (or winglet) to increase its cruise range performance, taking also into account the aerodynamic and structural impact of the implementation. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, no previous study exists which has attempted to assess the winglet retrofit of an existing aircraft type of similar size and operating profile. The optimal winglet design achieved a 2.38% increase of the maximum range by reducing the total drag by 1.19% at a mass penalty of 3.25%, as compared with the baseline aircraft configuration. Other designs were found to be more effective in reducing the total drag, but the structural reinforcement required for their implementation outweighed the achieved performance improvements. Since successful winglet retrofit programs for typical short to medium range narrow body aircraft report even more than 3% of block fuel improvements, undertaking the project of installing an optimal winglet design to the BAe Jetstream 31, should also consider a Direct Operating Cost (DOC) assessment on top of the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the retrofit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: atmospheric propagation; communication system performance; attenuation; communication
Online: 29 July 2022 (11:15:18 CEST)
6G is already being planned and will employ much higher frequencies, leading to a revolutionary era in communication between people as well as things. It is well known that weather, especially rain, can cause increased attenuation of signal transmission for higher frequencies. The standard methods for evaluating the effect of rain on symbol error rate are based on long-term averaging. These methods are an inaccurate, which results with an inefficient system design. This is critical regarding bandwidth scarcity and energy consumption and requires a more significant margin of effort to cope with the imprecision. Recently we have developed a new and more precise method for calculating communication system performance in case of rain, using the probability density function of rain rate. For high rain rate (above 10mm/hr), for a typical set of parameters, our method shows the symbol error rate in this range to be higher by orders of magnitude than that found by ITU standard methods. Our model also indicates that sensing and measuring the rain rate probability is important in order to provide the required bit error rate to the users. To the best knowledge of the authors, this novel analysis is unique. It can constitute a more effi-cient performance metric for the new era of 6G communication and prevent disruption due to incorrect system design. Keywords: atmospheric propagation, communication system performance, attenuation, com-munication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0093.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: anxiety; low participation; mother tongue; speaking performance
Online: 7 May 2022 (05:36:27 CEST)
The goal of classroom English instruction is to educate students on how to use the English language effectively for communication in any scenario. It is identified by presenting various teaching tactics and speaking activities to encourage students to participate more actively in conversations. The study intended to identify the problems in the speaking performance of Grade 8 Jade in Tagum City National High School. The study was conducted using a quantitative non-experimental descriptive survey method. Results revealed that the problems in speaking performance have garnered a mean of 3.20 (moderate) as descriptive equivalent and it was found out that the prevailing speaking problem is anxiety with a mean of 3.84, interpreted as high. Thus, an intervention program is designed to address the problems in the speaking performance of the respondents. This program is divided into two: Overcoming Speaking Anxiety Seminar-Workshop and Speaking Enhancement Activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0151.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: high-performance; heritable; multi-environments; credibility interval
Online: 10 February 2022 (11:14:21 CET)
The giant challenge breeding flood-irrigated rice is to identify superior genotypes that present high-yielding with specific grain qualities, resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, excellent adaptation to the target environment. Thus, the objectives of this study were to propose a bayesian multi-trait model, estimate genetic parameters, and select flood-irrigated rice genotypes with better genetic potentials in different evaluation environments. For this, twenty-five rice genotypes belonging to the flood-irrigated rice improvement program were evaluated. The grain yields, grain length, width and thickness, grain length, and grain width and weight of 100 grains in the agricultural year 2016/2017. The experimental design used in all experiments was a randomized block design with three replications. The Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm estimated genetic parameters and genetic values. The grain thickness trait was considered highly heritable, with a credibility interval ranging from: h^2: 0.9480; 0.9440; 0.8610, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The grain yields showed a low correlation estimate between grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in all environments, with a credibility interval ranging from (ρ= 0.5477; 0.5762; 0.5618 and 0.5973; 0.5247; 0.5632, grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The Bayesian multi-trait model proved to be an adequate strategy for the genetic improvement of flood-irrigated. Genotypes 2 and 15 had similar potential in the three environments, they should be selected as high-performance multi-trait genotypes for the genetic breeding of flood-irrigated rice in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0511.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: real sea surface; object detection; performance detection
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:16:15 CET)
The video images captured at long range usually have low contrast floating objects of interest on a sea surface. A comparative experimental study of the statistical characteristics of reflections from floating objects and from the agitated sea surface showed the difference in the correlation and spectral characteristics of these reflections. The functioning of the recently proposed modified matched subspace detector (MMSD) is based on the separation of the observed data spectrum on two subspaces: relatively low and relatively high frequencies. In the literature the MMSD performance has been evaluated in generally and moreover using only a sea model (additive Gaussian background clutter). This paper extends the performance evaluating methodology for low contrast object detection and moreover using only the real sea dataset. This methodology assumes an object of low contrast if the mean and variance of the object and the surrounding background are the same. The paper assumes that the energy spectrum of the object and the sea are different. The paper investigates a scenario in which an artificially created model of a floating object with specified statistical parameters is placed on the surface of a real sea image. The paper compares the efficiency of the classical Matched Subspace Detector (MSD) and MMSD for detecting low-contrast objects on the sea surface. The article analyzes the dependence of the detection probability at a fixed false alarm probability on the difference between the statistical means and variances of a floating object and the surrounding sea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:40:53 CET)
The article presents an original method to assess the sustainability of concrete. The method uses three parameters, namely: performance, lifetime and environmental impact, to calculate a sustainability index. The originality and the simplicity of the proposed method presented in the article consists in the fact that by applying the relation to determine the sustainability index, the first two factors service life and performance are constant. This approach is possible in the context of the new proposals to specify the durability of structural concrete in EN 1992 and EN 206. That allows classification of concrete according to its performance, through Environmental action Resistance Classes (ERC). For this purpose, specific experimental methods were used in order to determine the performance of concrete exposed to carbonation. The concretes were prepared with two cement types with additions (CEM II / A-S and CEM II / A-M (S-LL)). Based on the carbonation resistance classes (the first constant - the performance) and exposure classes, the thickness of the concrete cover layer was determined to ensure a certain service lifetime (second constant - the service lifetime). Finally, the global warming potential was calculated for each composition, consequently allowing the users of the method, to select the compositions with the lowest impact on the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0400.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: gauging weirs; impact; swimming performance; hydraulic barriers
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:05:33 CET)
The monitoring of river discharge is vital for the correct management of water resources. A worldwide facility used for measuring discharge are flat-V gauging weirs. These structures consist of a small weir, with a triangular cross-section and a flat “V”-shaped notch. Their extensive use is a consequence of their utility in the measurement of both low and high flow conditions. However, depending on their size, local morphology and river discharge can act as full or partial hydraulic barriers to fish migration. To give answer to this question, the present work studies fish passage performance over flat-V weirs considering their hydraulic performance. For this, radio-tracking and video monitoring observations were combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models in two flat-V weirs, using Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) as target species. Results show that fish passage is conditioned by both hydraulic and behavioral processes, providing evidences about the scenarios where flat-V weirs may act as full or partial barriers to upstream movements. For the studied flat-V weirs, a discharge range of 0.27-8 m3/s, with a water drop difference between upstream and downstream water levels lower than 0.7 m and a depth downstream the weir higher than 0.30 m can be considered as an effective passage situation for barbels. These findings are of interest to quantify flat-V weir impacts, for engineering applications and to establish managing or retrofitting actions when required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:12:23 CET)
This article presents a method to assess the sustainability of concrete based on three elements: service life, performance and environmental impact. The method proposes - to achieve similar performance and service life times, regardless of the component materials used, so that the sustainability assessment ultimately depends on the environmental impact criterion. To this end, specific experimental methods are used to determine the performance of concrete in terms of compressive strength and carbonation resistance for concrete cast with two blended cement types. The procedure needed to classify the concrete through carbonation resistance is detailed, in relationship with the performance obtained for compressive strength. The obtained results highlight the concrete formulations to be used to ensure similar performances regardless of the cement type used. In conclusion, the simplicity in the application of the method, which is closely related to the performance approach on concrete durability in the revision proposals of the European standards, is highlighted. The method is also a useful tool to encourage the widespread use in concrete formulation of blended cements with low environmental impact, without reducing the performance or service life time of the constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0030.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: reservoir computing; time series prediction; performance optimisation
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:09:46 CET)
Reservoir computing is a machine learning method that uses the response of a dynamical system to a certain input in order to solve a task. As the training scheme only involves optimising the weights of the responses of the dynamical system, this method is particularly suited for hardware implementation. Furthermore, the inherent memory of dynamical systems which are suitable for use as reservoirs mean that this method has the potential to perform well on time series prediction tasks, as well as other tasks with time dependence. However, reservoir computing still requires extensive task dependent parameter optimisation in order to achieve good performance. We demonstrate that by including a time-delayed version of the input for various time series prediction tasks, good performance can be achieved with an unoptimised reservoir. Furthermore, we show that by including the appropriate time-delayed input, one unaltered reservoir can perform well on six different time series prediction tasks at a very low computational expense. Our approach is of particular relevance to hardware implemented reservoirs, as one does not necessarily have access to pertinent optimisation parameters in physical systems but the inclusion of an additional input is generally possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0140.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: performance; biodegradation; bacterial consortium; marine sponge; PAHs
Online: 8 October 2021 (12:09:30 CEST)
Every petroleum processing industry produces sewage sludge containing several types of poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) components. The degradation of PAH components by physical, biological and chemical methods is not efficient. The use of marine sponge symbiont bacteria is considered an alternative method in the degradation and reduction of PAHs com-pared to the previous method. This study aims to explore the potential and performance of a consortium of sponge symbiont bacteria in degrading anthracene and pyrene. There are three types of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus strain GLB197, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain SLG510A3-8, Acineto-bacter calcoaceticus strain SLCDA 976) were mixed to form a consortium. The interaction between the bacterial consortium suspension and PAH components was measured at 5-day intervals for 25 days. The biodegradation performance of bacteria on PAHs samples was determined based on five biodegradation parameters. The analysis results showed a decrease in the concentration of anthracene (21.89%) and pyrene (7.71%), equivalent to a ratio of 3: 1. The data was followed by a decrease in the abundance of anthracene (60.30%) and pyrene (27.52%), an equivalent ratio of 2: 1. The level of degradation of the pyrene component is lower than that of the anthracene compo-nent, presumably due to the higher toxicity of pyrene and the more stable molecular structure, making it difficult for bacterial cells to destroy it. The biodegradation products are organic compounds of alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acids and a small proportion of aromatic hydrocarbon components. Keywords: performance; biodegradation; bacterial consortium; marine sponge; PAHs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0088.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: innovation; proactivity; financial literacy; economy business performance
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:06:35 CEST)
This study aims to determine the Implication of innovation, proactivity, risk-taking, artistic orientation, and financial literacy on creative economy businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was conducted on 120 creative economy businessmen in Bandar Lampung City, which is a miniature of Indonesia with multiethnic cultures. The results showed innovation is not significant, but proactive attitude, artistic orientation, and financial literacy have a significant implication on the performance of creative economic businesses during the Covid-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0259.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Financial constraints; corporate social responsibility; financial performance
Online: 15 September 2021 (12:43:05 CEST)
This study focuses on a sample of Chinese listed companies from 2019 to 2020 to explore the relationships among corporate social responsibility, financial constraints, and financial performance. In addition, we discuss five factors affecting financial constraints. We also analyze the types of enterprises that can improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility keeping in mind the factors that lead to a high degree of financial constraint. The results indicate that: 1. The degree of financial constraints has a negative and significant impact on financial performance; 2. There is a reverse relationship between the degree of financial constraints and the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility measures; 3. Enterprises with high financial constraints (due to lower financial slack and revenue growth rates) can significantly improve their financial performance through the implementation of effective corporate social responsibility programs. 4. Enterprises with high financial constraints, caused by financial slack and revenue growth rate, can significantly improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0168.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: lizard; autotomy; tail; locomotion; performance; temperature; predation
Online: 7 July 2021 (08:00:27 CEST)
Caudal autotomy is a dramatic adaptation used by many lizard species to evade predators. Most studies to date indicate that caudal autotomy impairs lizard locomotor performance. Surprisingly, some species bearing the longest tails show negligible impacts of caudal autotomy on sprint speed. Part of this variation has been attributed to lineage effects. For the first time, we model the effects of caudal autotomy on the locomotor performance of a gymnophthalmid lizard, Micrablepharus atticolus, characterized by a long and bright blue tail. To improve model accuracy, we incorporated the effects of several covariates. We found that body temperature, pregnancy, mass, collection site, and the length of the regenerated portion of the tail were the most important predictors of locomotor performance in Micrablepharus atticolus. However, sprint speed was unaffected by tail loss. Apparently, the long tail of M. atticolus is more useful when using undulation amidst the leaf litter and not when using quadrupedal locomotion on a flat surface. Our findings highlight the intricate relationships among physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits. We suggest that future studies about the impacts of caudal autotomy among long-tailed lizards should consider the role of different microhabitats/substrates on locomotor performance, using laboratory conditions that closely mimic their natural environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Functional fitness training; athletic performance; exercise testing
Online: 1 June 2021 (12:32:59 CEST)
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years; 70.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed, on separate weeks, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), maximal oxygen consumption (2km row test), muscle strength (1RM back and front squat, isometric peak torque), and muscle power (1RM snatch and clean & jerk), and muscle endurance (Tibana test), which were compared with performance during the CrossFit® Open 2020. Multiple linear regression showed that for the CrossFit Open 2020.1 and 2020.2 workouts, the score in the Tibana test was the only variable that explained the outcomes (Beta = -0.78, p < 0.01 for 2020.1 workout and Beta = 0.82, p < 0.01 for 2020.2 workout). Performance in the CrossFit Open 2020.3 and 2020.4 workouts were explained through the relative strength (Beta = 0.58, p = 0.02 for 2020.3 workout and Beta = 0.50, p = 0.04 for 2020.4 workout). Lastly, Tibana test had the greatest influence on CrossFit Open 2020.5 workout (Beta = -0.75, p < 0.01). A local muscle endurance and muscle strength may be used to predict CrossFit® open workout performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0181.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: physical activity; sleep; inhibitory performance; mediating effects
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:51:54 CEST)
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) level and inhibitory control performance and then determine whether this association was mediated by multiple sleep parameters (i.e., subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance). Methods. 180 healthy university students (age: 20.15 ± 1.92 years) from the East China Normal University were recruited in the present study. PA level, sleep parameters, and inhibitory control performance were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), and a Stroop test, respectively. Data were analyzed using structual equation modeling. Results. A higher level of PA was linked to better cognitive performance. Furthermore, higher subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency were associated with better inhibitory control performance. The mediation analysis revealed that subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediated the relationship between PA level and inhibitory control performance. Conclusion. Our results are in accordance with the literature and buttress the idea that a healthy lifestyle that involves a relatively high level of regular PA and adequate sleep patterns is beneficial for cognition (e.g., inhibitory control performance). Furthermore, our study adds to the literature that sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediates the relationship of PA and inhibitory control performance expanding our knowledge in the field of exercise-cognition.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: digestible energy; growth performance; microbiome; metabolome; donkey
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:28:35 CET)
Little information is available regarding the impacts of dietary energy level on the gut microbiota and metabolites of donkeys. This studied aimed to explore the effects of dietary energy content on growth performance, intestinal microbiome and metabolome of Dezhou donkeys. Thirty-six 9-month-old male Dezhou donkeys were assigned to two groups fed low or high content energy diets (LE or HE). Results showed that donkeys fed HE had improved (P < 0.05) the average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G/F), compared with those receiving LE diet. Compared to the LE group, feeding HE specially increased the abundances of unidentified_Prevotellaceae (P = 0.02) while decreased the richness of unidentified_Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.05) of donkeys. Compared to LE group, feeding HE diet significantly (P < 0.05) affected the metabolic pathways involving the aspartate metabolism and urea cycle. In addition, the increased bacteria and metabolites in the HE-fed group exhibited a positive correlation with improved growth performance of donkeys. Taken together, feeding HE diet increased the richness of some specific bacteria and upregulated growth-related metabolic pathways, which contributed to the augmented growth performance of donkeys. Thus, it is a recommendable dietary strategy to feed HE diet to fattening donkey for superior production performance and feed efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0225.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Repeated Sprint Training; Speed Performance; Physiology; Sports
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:20:00 CET)
Background: Interventions with the performance of sessions with sprints in different intensity manipulations, can be a great alternative to improve physical performance. Objective: To verify the influence of different break times between sprints on the performance of amateur futsal athletes Methods: 10 individuals, men, amateur futsal athletes (Age: 21.5 ± 1.6; Weight: 72.4 ± 6.88; Height: 1.72 ± 0.05; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.2; Fat%: 13.7 ± 3.3, VO2peak: 49.1 ± 10.5) participated in the study. For the intervention, individuals were randomly selected to perform sessions with sprints (10 sets 20 meters) with different pause times, being 15 (S15), 30 (S30) and 60 (S60) seconds. For performance analysis, the speed (km / h) applied to each sprint was used, monitored by a device with a photocell (CEFISE Biotecnologia Esportiva®, Nova Odessa, São Paulo) and the statistical treatment of all data was through the software Statistica 7.0 (Statsoft ™, Tulsa, OK, USA) using a significance level of p≤0.05. Results: There was an interaction between speed and interval time (p = 0.000). For condition S15, a greater reduction in performance was observed (p≤0.05), while for S30 and S60, no significant reduction in performance was observed (p> 0.05). The data for the area under the curve showed a significant difference (p = 0.000), where the interval of 60 seconds (S60) was longer compared to the values of 30 (S30) (p = 0.000) and 15 seconds (S15) (p = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences between the 30 and 15 second data (p = 0.248). Conclusion: Shorter time (15 seconds) of interval between repeated sprints can significantly affect performance when compared to longer breaks (30 and 60 seconds). But, all the conditions tested here, can be positive for the improvement of the performance, mainly in sports that demand fast and efficient motor actions, as for example, futsal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Islamic Bank; Banking Performance; Bibliometric Analysis; Cluster
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:51:16 CET)
Islamic banks (IBs) have been criticized as not being genuinely Islamic, and the methods in measuring their performances have been debatable. While the literature on IBs performance has been emerging, such studies precisely assess its recent development remains absent. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the development of scholarly articles that measure IBs’ performances. We employ bibliometric analysis and sample related articles from the Scopus database. We find that the development of IBs performance literature may be understood by 111 peer-reviewed journal articles, 4 conference papers, 1 book, and 1 book series. We analyze these materials based on publication sources, country and institution affiliation, keywords association, and cluster dendrogram. Our model that quantifies the keywords association and cluster dendrogram provides a novelty in assessing IBs performance literature development. Future studies may replicate our model to cluster and identify the keyword associations from the unstructured data sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: beef cow welfare; reproductive performance; New Zealand
Online: 6 November 2020 (15:38:20 CET)
One key area where animal welfare may relate to productivity is through reproductive performance. Welfare was assessed on 25 extensively managed pastoral New Zealand beef farms and the relationship between welfare and reproductive performance was explored. Relationships between welfare measures and key reproductive performance indicators (pregnancy rate, weaning rate, mating period and bull: cow ratio) were investigated using an exploratory Principal Components Analysis and linear regression model. Seven welfare measures (thinness, poor rumen fill, dirtiness, blindness, mortality, health checks of pregnant cows and yarding frequency/year) showed potential influence on reproductive performance, and lameness was retained individually as a potential measure. Mean pregnancy rates in both 2018 (PD18) and 2017 (PD17) were ~91% and mean weaning rate was 84%. Of the welfare measures, only lameness had a direct association with pregnancy rate, as well as confounding effect on the association between mating period and pregnancy rate. The bull: cow ration (mean 1:31) and reproductive conditions (dystocia, abortion, vaginal prolapse) did not influence pregnancy and weaning rates. In the study population there was no clear association between welfare and reproductive performance, except for the confounding effects of lameness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0651.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pre-exam anxiety; Poor academic performance; GPA
Online: 30 October 2020 (15:49:21 CET)
Introduction: Exams are a relatively stressful period for all students, especially undergraduate medical students. Exams bring anxiety and stress for the students. Some students experience such high stress that it hinders their academic productivity and reduces their exam performance. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of pre-exam anxiety on the academic performance of medical students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-five final year medical students completed Westside Test Anxiety (WTA) Scale one month before their exams. Grade Point Average (GPA) of these students was noted when the results were announced. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS v 22.0Results: The mean anxiety score on WTA scale was 3.46 ± 0.87. All students (100%) who scored ≤ 2.50 GPA were highly-extremely highly anxious. In the 2.51-3.00 GPA group, 46% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 32% were moderately anxious, and 21% had low to normal anxiety. In the 3.01-3.50 GPA group, 30% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 30% were moderately anxious, and 39% had low to normal anxiety. In the 3.51-4.00 GPA group, 29% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 23% were moderately anxious, and 47% had low to normal anxiety. The correlation coefficient between GPA and test anxiety of students was -.314 which shows inverse relationship.Conclusion: Pre-exam anxiety and stress imparts negative effects on the exam performance of final year medical students. Poor academic performance was associated with high to extremely high pre-exam anxiety while high achievers had relatively lower anxiety levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: combustion engines; thermal efficiency; fuel performance catalysts.
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:09:50 CEST)
The results from laboratory tests and field tests, available in the open literature for over ten years, despite the announcement of high efficiency translating into increased energy efficiency and such significant ecological advantages, have not so far resulted in widespread use of fuel performance catalysts (FPC) on a global scale. Wishing to explain why the above situation occurred and to verify the operation of catalytic additives for fuels; this article presents the results of research on the effect of using catalytic additives for fuel in a brand new diesel engine. The article contains an analysis of the results of exhaust gas emission tests from the Doosan MD196TI engine. During the tests, the engine was fueled with a typical diesel fuel and the same fuel with the a catalyst additive. The catalyst was added to the liquid fuel in the form of a commercially available product distributed by ProOne company under the name FMAX. The research was carried out in the form of a test, much more developed than the approval test on a stationary braking station in accordance with the requirements of ISO 8178. The article is concluded with a comparative analysis of exhaust gas emission results illustrating the effects of a catalyst in the form of reduction of solid particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and a slight increase in nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, the effect of the catalyst depends on the product of thermal (brake) efficiency of the engine and the calorific value (CV) of the fuel used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0419.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: artificial sweeteners; zebrafish; Daphnia; cardiac performance; toxicity
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:47:33 CEST)
Artificial sweeteners are widely used food ingredients in beverages and drinks to lower calorie intake which in turn prevent lifestyle diseases such as obesity. Epidemiological evidences suggest that an overdose of artificial sweeteners could result to adverse effects after consumption. Thus, our study aims to systematically explore the potential adverse effects of eight commercial artificial sweeteners, including acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin and sucralose on cardiac performances of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Daphnia as model animals. Embryonic zebrafish and Daphnia were exposed to eight artificial sweeteners at 100 ppb concentrations and their cardiac performance (heart rate, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity) were measured and compared. Saccharin significantly increased the heart rate of zebrafish larvae while a significant decrease was observed in Daphnia. Significant increase was also noted in zebrafish heart rate variability after incubation in acesulfame K, dulcin, sodium cyclamate, and sucralose. However, a significant increase in Daphnia was only observed after incubation in dulcin. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering results, several artificial sweetener samples were species-specific to zebrafish and Daphnia. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse physiological effects of artificial sweeteners in cardiovascular systems of zebrafish larvae and Daphnia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0130.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: academic performance; COVID-19; veterinary; online learning
Online: 21 August 2020 (02:25:37 CEST)
Many universities and colleges worldwide suspended classroom teaching due to the novel coronavirus pandemic and switched to online teaching. The current cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the impact of lockdown due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the academic performance of veterinary medical students and researchers. Veterinary medical students and researchers were invited to answer an online google form questionnaire. A total of 1398 participants were from 92 different countries answered the questionnaire with response rate of 94.52%. The data showed that COVID-19 pandemic lockdown affected the academic performance of most participants (96.7%) with varying degrees. The mean evaluation scores for the online education in general was 5.06 ± 2.43 while that for the practical parts was 3.62± 2.56. Although online education provides an opportunity for self-study. The main challenge online education faces in veterinary medical science is how to give practical lessons. Since most of the subjects are practical; therefore, it is not easy to learn it online. Students think that it is difficult to fulfill the veterinary competencies only with online education system. Online education can be improved by making it more interactive, showing medical procedures in real situations, giving concise information, and providing 3D virtual tools to mimic the real situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Acupuncture; lactate; heart rate; physical performance; sustainability
Online: 2 August 2020 (14:46:22 CEST)
Studies have demonstrated the positive effects of acupuncture on athletic performance. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of acupuncture on heart rate, the perceived exertion scale and lactate levels in recreational athletes. Fifteen competitive males engaged in HIIT. The characteristic was 29.86±2.51 years old, heart rate reserve 59.00±3.33, lactate 3.17±0.50 mM/DL. The subjects were submitted to two exercise sessions. Both training sessions consisted of 10 burpees, 12 thrusters and 14 box jumps (75 cm high) for 12 minutes. Activity intensity was between 85 and 95% of maximum heart rate. Acupuncture points: ST36, L3, LI11. The student’s t-test was adopted, Shapiro-Wilk test was applied for normality, and Pearson correlation. There was a positive correlation of r = 0.69 between lactate levels and heart rate. Lactate: Lac1 15.00±1.18 – Lac2 19.59± 1.46 p= 0.0001*; Heart 1rate: HRF 163.71±7.27 – HRF2 177.60±6.99 p=0.0001*; Blood pressure: SBP1 174.86±1.57 – SBP2 180.86±1.77 p= 0.0001*; PES1: 19.4±1.14; PES2 16.8±0.84 p= 0.0001*; weight1 – 182,57±12,05; weight 2 206,43±11,39 p=0.0325*. Acupuncture increased lactate accumulation, heart rate and blood pressure, suggesting that the exertion reached after acupuncture is higher than without acupuncture. The acupuncture technics improved the athlete performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; serological diagnostic test; performance evaluation
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:58:20 CEST)
In only a few months after initial discovery in Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 and the associated COVID-19 disease has become a global pandemic causing significant mortality and morbidity. In the absence of vaccines and effective therapeutics, reliable serological testing can be a key element of public health policy to control further spread of the disease and gradually ease quarantine measures. However, prior to launch of large-scale seroprevalence studies to assess herd immunity, it is critical to understand the limits and potential of current SARS-CoV-2 serological tests on the market. In this study, we provide an overview of serological testing and conduct a systematic review of independent evaluations of SARS-CoV-2 serological tests performance. Our findings show significant variability in the accuracy of marketed tests and highlight several lab-based and point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests with high performance level in detecting SRAS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. The findings of this review highlight the need for ongoing independent evaluations of commercialized COVID-19 diagnostic tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0131.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Saqez; Copper; Physical properties; Biological resistance; Performance
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:08:51 CEST)
There is an increasing interest in applying environmentally-friendly materials in wood protection technology. This include the use of less toxic active ingredients, as well as better fixation. This study investigates the formulation based on the combination of copper and Saqez resin on the physical and biological resistance properties of poplar wood. Samples were treated by either copper-ethanolamine (Cu/MEA) and/or Saqez resin at various treatment levels. A vacuum pressure procedure was applied. The retention, weight percent gain, water absorption, volumetric swelling, and decay resistance of the samples were then determined. The highest retention and weight percent gain were obtained at the samples treated with the combination of copper-based system and Saqez resin. Additionally, the combination of the copper and Saqez improved the physical properties and decay-resistance against white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: supersonic combustion; vent mixer; mixing; combustion performance
Online: 16 April 2019 (12:14:14 CEST)
This work focuses on forced combustion with regards to the relationship between vent mixer models and several injection locations in unheated supersonic flow. A plasma jet torch was used to ignite the hydrogen–air mixture in a laboratory-scaled combustor duct. The flow field of the combustion was visualized with pressure and gas-sampling measurements. The vent mixers indicate good dispersion characteristics of the mixture for both parallel and normal 1 injections. However, forced combustion is dominantly governed by the injection rate toward the plasma jet (hot source) because the combustible region is restricted under the cold main flow. For this reason, the parallel injection, which provides the hydrogen–air mixture directly toward the plasma jet, shows good combustion performance. The normal 1 injection interacted with the vent mixers and shows slightly good combustion performance. Lastly, the normal 2 injection is little affected by the vent mixers and has poor combustion performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: mortar; aerial lime; aggregates; experimental testing; performance
Online: 22 August 2018 (14:36:31 CEST)
In order to fully perform their functions and be durable, mortars for renders and plasters are requested to have a set of characteristics that can vary with the type of exposure to external environmental actions and the type of substrate. Generally, they need moderate strength, high deformability, some water protection capability, good adhesion to the substrate, and compatibility with the pre-existent materials. The presence of water and its movement inside the pore structure of the mortars are among the most significant causes of degradation. Moreover, several authors consider that the main factors for durability and good performance of lime-based mortars are mostly related with the good quality of the binder and the use of adequate aggregates. This paper intends to study the effect of ageing on the properties and durability of air lime mortars, using aggregates of different mineralogy. For this purpose, different mortars compositions are exposed to an accelerated weathering test under defined conditions. The obtained characteristics are discussed and compared with the results obtained with the same mortars tested in laboratory conditions. The effects of the aggregate type on the durability of mortars seem to be linked to their effects on the mortars porous structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0080.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: high-intensity functional training; work capacity; performance
Online: 12 March 2018 (05:33:23 CET)
High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a novel exercise intervention that may test body systems in a balanced and integrated fashion by challenging individuals’ abilities to complete mechanical work. However, research has not previously determined if physical work capacity is unique to traditional physiologic measures of fitness. Twenty-five healthy men and women completed a six-week HIFT intervention with physical work capacity and various physiologic measures of fitness assessed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, these physiologic measures of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) were significantly associated with physical work capacity and this relationship was even stronger at post-intervention assessment. Further, there were significant improvements across these physiologic measures in response to the delivered intervention. However, the change in these physiologic measures failed to predict the change in physical work capacity induced via HIFT. These findings point to the potential utility of HIFT as a unique challenge to individuals’ physiology beyond traditional resistance or aerobic training. Elucidating the translational impact of increasing work capacity via HIFT may be of great interest to health and fitness practitioners ranging from strength/conditioning coaches to physical therapists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: performance evaluation; poultry meat; ergonomics; injuries; industry
Online: 2 January 2018 (06:36:04 CET)
Injuries of repetitive efforts constitute one of the prime causes of absenteeism in the workplace, have bear a considerable cost for the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company. The objective of this paper is to build, in the researchers, the needed knowledge to choose a set of relevant scientific articles about repetitive strain injuries in the poultry meat industry, aiming identify characteristics in those scientific publications that have the potential to contribute on the topic of this paper. The research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive, draws on primary and secondary data sources. The study involves the application of a method for selection and analysis of the selected articles. To this end, the method utilized was the Knowledge Development Process – Constructivist (Proknow-C) as theoretical intervention instrument. Within the process development, it was obtained a portfolio of 16 articles aligned to the research and scientifically recognized with the main periodicals, papers, authors and keywords. The ProKnow-C process allowed identify opportunities in the literature about injuries in the poultry meat industry and showed opportunities for research future. This paper, under the constructivist perspective, presents a structured process to build, in the researcher, the necessary knowledge to identification, selection and analysis of relevant scientific articles relating to research context and, for these articles, find prominences and opportunities for a research theme without similar publications.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: microbiome; skin microbiome; sports recovery; sports performance; cosmetics
Online: 10 October 2022 (11:13:00 CEST)
This short communication reports on the initial results of a much larger, ongoing project, the aim of which is to investigate the question: could the skin microbiome, just like the gut microbiome, play a role in sports recovery and performance – and if so, could this role be as significant a one as that played by the gut microbiome? 17 high performance college athletes addressed their skin microbiome by minimizing contact with synthetic chemicals and by using topical skin supplements, shown previously to significantly increase skin microbiome biodiversity, for two weeks after training. 76% said their skin softness improved, 35% said their muscle stiffness and recovery after sport improved, 12% said their sleep quality improved, and 100% said they would be likely to use skin supplements again. Future work will use hundreds of athletes.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0406.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete; Fresh properties
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:50:18 CEST)
UHPC is a cement-based composite that is used in new construction and/or renovation of existing structures to increase their service life. It is a unique composite material that may be used as an alternative to concrete in harsh conditions. Following decades of research and development, a wide range of commercial UHPC compositions are now accessible across the world to fulfill the growing number of applications and demand for high-quality construction materials. Although UHPC has significant advantages over conventional concrete, its use is limited because of rigid design restrictions and excessive pricing. As a consequence, a detailed analysis of UHPC's durability qualities is necessary to provide critical information for material testing requirements and methods, as well as to widen its practical applications. The goal of this study is to learn more about UHPC and to encourage more research and use of UHPC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrogen propulsion; aircraft design; conceptual integration; performance assessment
Online: 23 June 2022 (15:59:12 CEST)
The present paper deals with the investigation, at conceptual level, of the performance of short-medium-range aircraft with hydrogen propulsion. The attention is focused on the relationship between figures of merit related to transport capability, such as passenger capacity and flight range, and the parameters which drive the design of liquid hydrogen tanks and their integration with a given aircraft geometry. The reference aircraft chosen for such purpose is a box-wing short-medium-range airplane, object of study within a previous European research project called PARSIFAL, capable to cut the fuel consumption per passenger-kilometre up to 22%. By adopting a retrofitting approach, non-integral pressure vessels are sized to fit into the fuselage of the reference aircraft, under the assumption that the main aerodynamic, flight mechanic and structural characteristics are not affected. A parametric model is introduced to generate a wide variety of fuselage-tank cross-section layouts, from a single tank with the maximum diameter compatible with a catwalk corridor to multiple tanks located in the cargo deck , and an assessment work-flow is implemented to perform the structural sizing of the tanks and analyse their thermodynamic behaviour during the mission. This latter is simulated with a time-marching approach that couples the fuel request from engines with the thermodynamics of the hydrogen in the tanks, which is constantly subject to evaporation and, depending on the internal pressure, vent-ed-out in gas form. Each model is presented in detail in the paper and results are provided through sensitivity analyses to both the technology parameters of the tanks and the geometric parameters influencing their integration. The guidelines resulting from the analyses indicate that light materials, such as the Aluminium alloy AA2219 for tanks’ structure and polystyrene foam for the insulation, should be selected. Preferred values are also indicted for the aspect ratios of the vessel components, i.e. central tube and endcaps, as well as suggestions for the integration layout to be adopted depending on the desired trade-off between passenger capacity, as for the case of multiple tanks in the cargo deck, and achievable flight ranges, as for the single tank in the section.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Utility; Reforms; Governance; Regulation; Incentives; Agency; Liberalization; Performance
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:02:29 CET)
The power sectors in most African countries face an enduring problem of utility performance – electricity utilities have failed to deliver adequate, reliable and competitively priced electricity to support economic growth and improve the welfare of their populations. Despite more than two decades of power sector re-forms, outcomes have been varied and often disappointing. Using a case study de-sign, we explore the five key enduring power challenges. The research utilizes a more powerful analytical framework that combines power sector reform theory and principal-agent theoretical lens to explore the experience of power sector reforms in Kenya and provides a deeper understanding of drivers of utility performance and reform impacts. Empirical findings show that the structural, governance and regulatory reforms that previously created incentives for improved utility performance are increasingly threatened by political influence. Kenya Power’s financial viability has deteriorated in recent years and the regulator has been undermined. One of our major conclusions is that when the relationship between the principal (government) and agent (utility) is well understood and the agent is properly incentivized, performance improvements are possible. However, when the government undermines or muddies those incentives through conflicting political interventions, performance improvements can be reversed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0123.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Cnaphalocrocis medinalis; rearing temperatures; development; reproduction; flight performance
Online: 7 October 2021 (15:20:38 CEST)
Understanding how species that follow different life-history strategies respond to stressful temperature can be essential to efficient treatments against agricultural pests. Here we focus on how the development and reproduction of C. medinalis is influenced by exposure to different rearing temperatures in the immature stage. We found that low (18 or 22 °C) or high (30 and 34 °C) rearing temperatures negatively affected the immature development and flight performance compared to the normal temperature 26 °C, with higher larval and pupal mortality, lower pupation and eclosion rates and shorter flight duration and distance. Low rearing temperatures significantly slowed down the immature process, but accelerated adult reproduction. However, high rearing temperatures had the opposite impacts. Interestingly, the flight of adults with un-mature rearing low temperatures (18 and 22 °C) significantly decreased their lifetime fecundity and mating frequency, but increased pre-oviposition period of females compared to the control; On contrast, high rearing temperatures (30 and 34 °C) significantly accelerated onset of oviposition and enhanced synchrony of spawning. These results indicate high rearing temperatures in the immature stage are more likely to trigger the onset of migration, but low rearing temperatures induces adults to have a greater resident propensity with stronger reproductive ability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0014.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Beta-alanine; supplementation; nutrition,; aerob and anaerob performance
Online: 2 August 2021 (10:18:40 CEST)
: Supplement the use of ergogenic aids in cyclist’s directly have been improved the body metabolism and hemodynamic factors that are micro supplement in chancing reactions on the body muscle mass and limb muscle. Mostly knowing that, muscle power development progressive fast glycolytic and short time oxidative systems reactions. Sport competition intervals, therefore, during periods has been used specific drinks supported to cyclists. But, be obtained during should be long race times. Athletes directly needed some drug and fluid intake to prevented from metabolic breakdown rapidly the dynamic physiologic performance factors. Beta-alanine supplementation can be direct muscle performance development affects the anaerobic metabolism and capacity. It should be de-termined how the cyclists will use the competitive and training period intervals can increase the cyclists specific sprint and endurance race performance. Science cyclist International Road doses will be created in which, intervals can random effectively the investigate. This study random a cohort studies is examined the effects of beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic power output in specific cyclists. Therefore, we have been databases PubMed, Scopus and Medline initial search 10 August 2020 were created prospective effect the quality of bias work concluded effect size (ES) 95% confidence interval (CI) were used in participant. Participations (N=66) have age range 25 to 38 of the using beta-alanine in training periods to endurance muscle performance, aerobic power, anaerobic power, and sprint time trials. As a result of beta-alanine improved an-aerobic and aerobic power output on 4-week time-dependent trial performance condition. Signifi-cant values are obtained level factor alpha <0.05 and p-value analysis pre-post interactive stand-ardization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0588.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: thermoregulation; personal protective equipment; smart textiles; performance; productivity
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:15:51 CEST)
The exposure to extreme temperatures in workplaces involves physical hazards for workers. A poorly acclimated worker may have lower performance and vigilance and may therefore be more exposed to accidents and injuries. Due to the incompatibility of the existing standards implemented in some workplaces and the lack of thermoregulation in many protective equipment, thermal stress remains one of the most frequent physical hazards in many work sectors. However, many of these problems can be overcome with the use of smart textile technologies that enable intelligent thermoregulation in personal protective equipment. Smart textiles can detect, react and adapt to many external stimuli. Interconnected sensors and actuators that interact and react to existing risks can provide the wearer with increased safety, protection and comfort. Thus, the skills of smart protective equipment can contribute to the reduction of errors and the number and severity of accidents in the workplace, and thus promote improved performance, efficiency and productivity.This review provides an overview and opinions of authors on the current state of knowledge on these types of technologies by reviewing and discussing the state of the art of commercially available systems and the advances made in previous research works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0183.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: phenylpyruvate; growth performance; intestinal morphology; immunity; cecal microbiota
Online: 8 July 2021 (09:52:23 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to see how dietary supplementation with phenylpyruvate affected broiler chicken growth, slaughter performance, gut health microbiota, and immunity. A total of 288 day old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to one of four groups (6 replicates each with 12 chicken). NC (basal diet), PC (basal diet plus antibiotic virginiamycin 15ppm), LCP and HCP (basal diet plus phenylpyruvate 1kg/t and 2kg/t, respectively). Results showed that PC had higher ADFI during the first 21 days, and better FCR than the NC, the LCP and HCP also improved broilers’ FCR 0.001 and 0.037% in relation to NC respectively. HCP has a higher all-eviscerated ratio than NC and less abdominal fat than LCP. HCP has increased villus length and crypt depth in the ileum compared to the NC. Bursa was lower in HCP and thymus was lower in LCP and PC. In contrast HCP have lower pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1, as well as lower TLR4. The phenylpyruvate improved family Selenomonadaceae, genus Megamonas Bacteroides species that are known for beneficial effects like for maintenance of the cell surface structure, regulating aromatic amino acids and C. jejuni-suppressive treatment respectively. Finally, phenylpyruvate feed supplement can be utilized to improve growth performance and positively modulate gut microbiota, however this is less efficient than antibiotics in improving growth performance, although more efficient in improving productive performance and gut morphology. Moreover, high dose of phenylpyruvate is more effective than low dose
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0719.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: biodiesel; engine performance; emissions; natural feedstocks; production method
Online: 30 March 2021 (09:42:11 CEST)
Biodiesel has caught the attention of many researchers because it has great potential to be sustainable fossil fuel substitute. Biodiesel has non-toxic and renewable nature and has been proven to emit less amount of environmentally harmful emissions such as hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon monoxide (CO), as well as smoke particles during combustion. Problems related to global warming caused by greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could also be solved by utilizing biodiesel as a daily energy source. However, the expensive cost of biodiesel production, mainly because of the cost of natural feedstock, holds the potential of biodiesel commercialization. The selection of natural sources of biodiesel should be made with observations from economic, agricultural, and technical perspectives to obtain one feasible biodiesel with superior characteristics. This review paper presents a detailed overview of various natural sources, their physicochemical properties, as well as the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of biodiesel when used in a diesel engine. The recent progress in studies about natural feedstocks and manufacturing methods used in biodiesel production were evaluated in detail. Finally, the findings of the present work reveal that transesterification is currently the most superior and commonly used biodiesel production method compared to other methods available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: anthropometry; height; somatotype; body mass; soccer; sports performance
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:03:33 CET)
The aim of this article was to examine if there are position-specific differences in the morphological characteristics of sub-elite female football players and to establish normative standards for this level of female football players. The morphological features of 101 sub-elite female football players (age: 21.8±2.7 years) were assessed. Twenty anthropometric sites were used in the measurements of body composition and somatotype. The average value of body fat percentage was 20.8±5.7%. The somatotype of the overall group was 4.0–2.4–2.1. Positional significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were found between goalkeepers and outfield players in morphological characteristics. Goalkeepers were taller, heavier, possessed the highest body fat percentage and showed higher values for all skinfolds, breadth, girth and length measurements. However, there were very few practically worthwhile differences between the outfield positions. Positional groups did not differ (p ≤ 0.05) in somatotype characteristics either. The study suggests that at sub-elite level there are mainly differences between goalkeepers and outfield players, but outfield players are homogeneous when comparing morphological characteristics. These results may serve as normative values for future comparisons regarding the morphological characteristics of female football players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Soybean biodiesel; Engine performance; Engine emission; Nano-additives
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:45:16 CET)
The present study examines the effect of SiO2 nano-additives on the performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with soybean biodiesel. Soybean biofuel was prepared using the transesterification process. Nano-additives characterisations were done using different tests such as FESEM, XRD, EDS, etc., to study the morphology of nano-additives. For proper blending of nano-additives with biodiesel, the ultrasonication process was used. Surfactant was used for the stabilisation of nano-additives. After making all the combinations of nano fuel blends, physicochemical properties were measured as per ASTM standards. Performance and emissions readings were taken at different load conditions. It was found that with the addition of SiO2 nano-additives, brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) was increased by 3.48-6.39% and 5.81-9.88%, respectively. Significant reduction of CO, CO2, NOx, and smoke emissions were also observed compared to baseline fule due to better combustion efficiency with the use of SiO2 nano-additive.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Prognosis; prosthodontics; dental implant; clinical performance; risk factor.
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:34:49 CET)
Background: The treatment plan of prosthetic restorations supported by dental implants require comprehensive scientific knowledge to deliver prostheses with good prognosis, even before the implant insertion. This review aims to analyze the main prosthetic determinants of the prognosis of implant-supported prostheses. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted with a PICO question: "For partially or complete edentulous subjects treated with implant-supported prostheses, which prosthetic factors could affect clinical outcomes?". A literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Cochrane Library with the following equation [PROGNOS* OR RISK] FACTOR IMPLANT DENTAL, and by hand search in relevant journals and throughout the selected papers. Results: This revision was carried out based on 50 papers focused on several prosthodontics-related risk factors that were grouped as follows: implant-connection, loading protocol, transmucosal abutments, prosthetic fit, provisionalization, type of retention, impression technique, fabrication technique, and occlusion. More than a half of the studies were systematic reviews (30%), meta-analysis (16%) or prospective evaluations of prosthesis with various kinds of events (18%). But also narrative reviews of literature (14%) and in vitro/animal studies (16%) were found. Conclusions: The current literature provides insufficient evidence for most of the investigated topics. However, based on the accumulated data, it seems reasonable to defend that the best treatment approach is the use of morse taper implants with transmucosal abutments, recorded by means of rigidly splinted copings through the pick-up technique, and screwed by milled prosthesis occlusally adjusted to minimize functional overloading.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: pig; NREP; gene expression; polymorphism; SNP; meat performance
Online: 1 December 2020 (08:48:46 CET)
The expression microarray technique was performed to investigate the differences in gene expression between Czech Large White pigs and wild boars in the longissimus lumborum et thoracis and biceps femoris muscle tissues. The NREP gene (neuronal regeneration related protein homolog) was selected for detailed study as an expressional and functional candidate gene. NREP plays a role in the transformation of neural, muscle and fibroblast cells and in smooth muscle myogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR results confirmed that the porcine NREP gene was expressed in both skeletal muscles and significantly overexpressed in Czech Large White pigs compared to wild boars (P < 0.05). We identified 9 polymorphic sites in genomic DNA of NREP gene. Six of these polymorphisms were in complete linkage disequilibrium and therefore only 4 polymorphisms were informative. Associations of these 4 polymorphisms (HF571253:g.103G>A, HF571253:g.134G>A, HF571253:g.179T>C and HF571253:g.402_409delT) with meat performance traits were assessed in Czech Large White pigs. New polymorphisms in NREP gene were significantly associated with parameters of daily weight gain, lean meat and backfat thickness in Czech Large White pigs. Our primary study suggested that porcine NREP may play an important role in skeletal muscle growth, fat metabolism and meat performance traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: zero waste; plastic waste; circular economy; recycling performance
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:45:14 CET)
Despite the increase in popularity of Zero Waste (ZW) concept, the successful implementation of this concept in waste management is still facing many challenges. The plastic recycling rate in Australia is currently only about 9.4%, which could leave up to 90.6% of plastic consumption being sent to landfills. The state of Victoria (in Australia) has proposed an ambitious plan to upgrade its waste and recycling system and to divert about 80% of waste from landfills by 2030. The aim of this research is to study Victoria’s current waste management plan and to develop a simulation model to assess the feasibility of it achieving zero plastic waste by 2035. In this direction, a fundamental knowledge of global ZW implementation needs to be acquired in order to understand the challenges, obstacles, and uncertainties in achieving ZW target. A simulation model is established using a method called double baselines. This method was developed as an improvisation to address the limitation of data availability for the model development. The model will run on 4 scenarios including one from Victoria’s current plan. Outcomes from the model are produced in comparative charts covering 6 key considerations including the rates of plastic consumption, waste to landfill, diversion, recycling, relative accumulative cost and effort. The findings of this study pointed out that Victoria’s current plan are feasible for its goal and presented with opportunities for improvement especially towards zero plastic waste. Besides, study results also reveal that the Victoria’s current plan to achieve 80% diversion rate by 2030 is possible but the zero plastic waste target by 2035 is less likely to happen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0597.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: pilgrimage; ritual; power; agency; performance; entrepreneurs; institutional religion
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:43:52 CEST)
During the last twenty years around the world there has been a rapid increase in the number of people visiting long established religious shrines as well as the creation of new sites by those operating outside the boundaries of institutional religion. This increase is intimately associated with the revival of traditional routes, the creation of new ones and the invention of new rituals (religious, spiritual and secular). To examine this process I will focus on the European region and two contrasting destinations in particular – the Catholic shrine of Lourdes, France, and the pre-Christian shrine of Avebury, England – drawing on my personal involvement in travelling to both destinations and being involved in ritual activities along the route and at the two destinations. In the discussion section of the paper I will explore the relevance of these two case studies to the analysis of power, agency and performance and the ways in which they expose (a) the role of institutions and entrepreneurs in creating rituals and sacred places and (b) the relationship between people and the domesticated landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: performance-based building design; PBBD; high-rise residential.
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:46:46 CEST)
The complexity of the design in high-rise residential projects is a challenge for the construction industry in completing projects that fit the needs of users. Performance-Based Building Design (PBBD) appears as a design concept that can describe these needs into performance requirements. In this case designing a building can be considered as an iterative process of exploration, where desired functional properties can be created, the shapes are suggested, and evaluation processes is used, so as to bring together the shapes and functions of the building. This concept is a container for designers to produce high-performance buildings. This study aimed to identify the performance-based building design factors applied by architect designers and engineers in high-rise residential building in Surabaya. As part of this study, primary data was collected based on surveys conducted through observation and questionnaire distributed to designers who had or were involved in the high-rise residential design process in Surabaya. A total of sixty-eight respondents were included in this study. Descriptive analysis through a mean and standard deviation scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used in the analysis of PBBD application factors. From the results of the analysis, four factors were obtained for the application of PBBD in high-rise residential buildings in Surabaya, namely; the interests of occupants, the sustainability of building operations, the design collaboration process, and the risk of loss. Future research is the influence relationships and measure the success model of PBBD at a higher level into BIM (Building Information Modeling) interoperability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Discrete Event Simulation; Performance Analysis; WIP; Model; Healthcare
Online: 4 June 2020 (13:46:19 CEST)
This paper deals with the service performance analysis and improvement using discrete event simulation has been used. The simulation of the heath care has been done by arena master development 14-version software. The performance measurement for this study are patients output, service rate, service efficiency and it is directly related to waiting time of patients in each service station, work in progress, resource utilization.Simulation model was building for Bahir Dar clinic and then, prepared the proposed model for the system. Based on the simulation model run result, the output of the existing healthcare service system is low due to presence of bottlenecks on the service system. Moreover, the station with the largest queue and high resource utilization are identified as a bottleneck. The bottlenecks, which have identified are reduced by using reassigning the existing resources and add new resources and merging the similar services, which has under low resource utilization (nurses). Finally, the researchers have proposed a developed model from different scenarios. Moreover, the best scenario is developed by combining scenario 2 and 3. And then, service efficiency of the healthcare has increased by 9.86 percent, the work in progress (WIP) are reduced by 3 patients from the system and the service capacity of the system is increased 34 to 40 patients per day due to the reduction of bottleneck stations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0404.v1
Online: 31 December 2019 (10:10:57 CET)
Motivated by Autonomous vehicle idea and driving safety issues, driver assistance system such as Active braking, Cruise Control, Lane departure warning lane keeping and etc. has become a very active research area. However, this paper presents the performance and robustness analysis of a model predictive control and proportional integral derivative control for lane keeping maneuvers of an autonomous vehicle using computer vision simulation studies. A simulation study was carried out where a vehicle model based on single tracked bicycle model was developed in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment together with a vision dynamic system. Both PID controller and MPC were simulated to maintain the desired reference trajectory of the vehicle by controlling steering angle. Further performance and robustness analysis were carried out and the simulation results show that the proposed control system for the PID control achieved its objective even though it was less robust in maintaining its performance under various conditions like vehicle load change, different longitudinal speed and different cornering stiffness. While in the case of MPC the optimizer made sure that the predicted future trajectory of the vehicle output tracks the desired reference trajectory and was more robust in maintaining its performance under same conditions as in PID.
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Leader-Member Exchange; Characteristics of Task; Employee Performance
Online: 15 May 2019 (12:16:12 CEST)
This study aims to examines three elements shape leadership in Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory as a relationship and process. LMX quality is important for the company, because it relates to employee behavior and attitudes, including improving employee performance. The research method applied literature review using description logic and systematics. In this article the theory will be observed specially the effect of LMX on employee performance and antecedents of LMX. The results of the study found that the effect of LMX quality on performance is determined by the characteristics of the task as antecedent LMX in the company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Market risk, Financial performance, Non-financial firms, Morocco
Online: 16 January 2019 (13:10:11 CET)
This study examines the effect of market risk on the financial performance of 31 non-financial companies listed on the Casablanca Stock Exchange (CSE) over the period 2000-2016. We utilize three alternative variables to assess financial performance, namely return on assets, return on equity and profit margin. Next, we use the degree of financial leverage, the book-to-market ratio, and the gearing ratio as market risk variables. Besides, we employ the pooled OLS model, the fixed effects model, the random-effects model, the difference GMM and the system GMM models. The results show that market risk indicators have a negative and significant influence on the companies' financial performance. The elasticities are greater following the book-to-market ratio compared to the degree of financial leverage and the gearing ratio, respectively. In most cases, the firm size, the tangibility ratio, and the cash holdings ratio have a positive effect on financial performance, whereas the firms' age, the debt-to-income ratio, stock turnover, and leverage hurt the performance of these non-financial companies. Therefore, decision-makers and managers should mitigate market risk through appropriate strategies of risk management, such as derivatives and insurance techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: EBPR; side-stream; performance comparison; microbial ecology; activity
Online: 14 August 2018 (06:24:23 CEST)
In this study, a full-scale pilot testing was performed with side-by-side operation of a conventional enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process and a side-stream EBPR (S2EBPR) process. A comparison of the performance, activities and population dynamics of key functionally relevant populations between the two configurations were carried out. The results demonstrated that, with the same influent wastewater characteristics, S2EBPR configuration showed more effective and stable orthophosphate (PO4-P) removal performance (up to 94% with average effluent concentration down to 0.1 mg P/L) than conventional EBPR, especially when the mixers in side-stream reactor were operated intermittently. Mass balance analysis illustrated that both denitrification and EBPR performance have been enhanced in S2EBPR configuration through diverting primary effluent to anoxic zone and producing additional carbon (~40%) via fermentation in side-stream reactor. Microbial characterization showed that there was no significant difference in the relative abundances of Ca. Accumulibacter (~5.9%) and Tetrasphaera (~16%) putative polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) between the two configurations. However, lower relative abundance of known GAOs was observed in S2EBPR configuration (1.1%) than the conventional one (2.7%). A relatively higher PAO activity and increased degree of dependence on glycolysis pathway than TCA cycle was observed in S2EBPR configuration using P release and uptake batch test. Adequate anaerobic solid retention time (SRT) and conditions that generate continuous and slow feeding/production of volatile fatty acid (VFA) with higher composition percentage of propionate in the side-stream reactor of S2EBPR process likely provide a competitive advantage for PAOs over GAOs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0481.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: waste mineral oil; Mn additive; engine performance; emission
Online: 31 May 2018 (13:27:48 CEST)
The heat values of waste mineral oils are equal to the heat value of the fuel oil. However, heat value alone is not sufficient for the use of waste mineral oils. as fuel. However, the critical physical properties of fuels such as density and viscosity need to be adapted to the system in order to be used. In this study, the engine oils used in the first 10,000 km of the vehicles were used as waste mineral oil. An organic-based Mn additive was synthesized to improve the properties of the waste mineral oil. It was observed that mixing the Mn additive with the waste mineral oil at different doses (4, 8, 12 and 16 ppm) improves the viscosity of the waste oil and the flash point. The resulting fuel was evaluated for emission using different loads in a 5 kW capacity generator to compare the fuel with standard diesel fuel and to determine the effect of Mn addition. In the experimental study, it was observed that the emission characteristics of the fuel obtained from waste mineral oil were worse than diesel fuel, but some improvement with Mn addition. As a result, we found that the use of waste mineral oils in engines in fuel standards was not appropriate, but may be improved with additives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0269.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wind energy; wind turbines; SCADA; retrofitting; performance evaluation
Online: 20 April 2018 (14:11:15 CEST)
Full-scale wind turbine technology has been widely developing in the recent years and condition monitoring techniques assist at the scope of making 100\% technical availability a realistic perspective. In this context, several retrofitting techniques are being used for further improving the efficiency of wind kinetic energy conversion. This kind of interventions is costly and, furthermore, the estimation of the energy enhancement is commonly provided under the hypothesis of ideal conditions, as for example absence of wakes between nearby turbines. A precise quantification of the energy gained by retrofitting is therefore precious in real conditions, that can be very different from ideal ones. In this work, three kinds of retrofitting are studied through the operational data of test case wind farms: improved start-up through pitch angle adjustment near the cut-in, aerodynamic blade retrofitting by means of vortex generators and passive flow control devices, extension of the power curve by raising cut-out and high wind speed cut-in. SCADA data are employed and reliable methods are formulated for estimating the energy improvement from each of the above retrofitting. Further, an insight is provided about wind turbine functioning under very stressing regimes, as for example high wind speeds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0181.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: stormwater; biofilter; de-icing chemicals; nutrients; filtration performance
Online: 20 March 2018 (16:28:04 CET)
Biofilter application for treatment of stormwater containing de-icing chemicals commonly applied in airports, propylene glycol and potassium formate, was investigated. Lab-scale adsorption tests using filter media made of crushed clay (Filtralite) and granular activated carbon showed that adsorption was unsuitable for removal of propylene glycol and potassium formate. Column filtration experiment testing two different crushed clay size ranges was conducted. The results showed that DOC removal was dependent on a number of factors. This study investigated the impact of filter depth, nutrients addition, and filtration rate. DOC removal suggested that DOC degradation occurred on the top filter layer. It was shown that the most active separation occurred in the first ~20 cm of filter depth. This was confirmed by results from water quality analysis (i.e. DOC removal and ATP measurement) and calculations based on a filtration performance analysis (Iwasaki model) and filter hydraulic evaluation (Lindquist diagram). It was shown that for the highest C:N:P ratio tested (molar ratio of 24:7:1), 50-60% DOC removal was achieved. Addition of nutrients was found important and determining the biofilter performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0090.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: streamflow; runoff model GR4J; performance; simulation; watershed; Bonou;
Online: 12 March 2018 (14:03:11 CET)
The study aims to analyze the performance criteria of the GR4J model to reproduce high water flows in the Ouémé watershed at Bonou's outlet which has been vulnerable to climate change in recent decades. The methodology focused on the use of daily climatological and hydrometric data extracted from files of National Directorate of Meteorology, and General Directorate of Water; they were supplemented by those of SIEREM/HSM dataset over the period 1961-2015. The rainfall was regionalized using Thiessen method. The performance of the GR4J model was assessed with NSE, RMSE and KGE criteria. The results indicate that the study area is marked by rainfall variabilities and detection of two breakpoints (1968 and 1987) which divide the series into three sub-periods; these discontinuities have repercussions on the streamflow. It's found that GR4J model overestimates the streamflow during the low water period and underestimates them in high water. However, the efficiency and performance criteria NSE, RMSE and KGE calculated on high water flow rates are better in calibration than in validation. The KGE values are range between 83-85% in calibration and 56-68% during validation, which gives to GR4J model the efficiency and performance to reproduce high flow rates in the study area
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: critical success factors; organisational performance; shipping industry; digitalisation; digitisation
Online: 4 August 2022 (16:15:36 CEST)
The global shipping industry faces many uncertainties which impact on how organisations within this sector will perform in the future. Research in the critical success factors which impact global shipping industry in the digital era is lacking. This study plugs the gap in the literature by identifying four key critical success factors which are innovation capability, risk governance capability, leadership and strategic capability and technological capability. In addition, this study also found three organisational performance measures that are useful for senior management teams within the industry, namely, financial performance, operational performance and marketing performance. The findings establish a set of critical success factors and the corresponding relationships between the identified critical success factors and the identified organisational performance measures. The paper also provides managerial insights for industry practitioners for defining, prioritising and allocating resources in order to improve organisational performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: PEM fuel cell; optimization; CFD; modeling; neural network; performance
Online: 18 April 2022 (06:19:49 CEST)
This article presents new PEM fuel cell models with hexagonal and pentagonal designs. After observing cell performance improvement in these models, we optimized them. Inlet pressure and temperature were used as input parameters, and consumption and output power were the target parameters of the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Then we used artificial intelligence techniques, including deep neural networks and polynomial regression, to model the data. Next, we employed the RSM (Response Surface Method) method to derive the target functions. Furthermore, we applied the NSGA-II multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the targets. Compared to the base model (Cubic), the optimized Pentagonal and Hexagonal models averagely increase the output current density by 21.819\% and 39.931\%, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0056.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Electrospinning; ZnSnO3/ZnO nanofibers; Sensing performance; n-n heterojunction
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:51:23 CET)
In this work, a novel heterojunction based on ZnSnO3/ZnO nanofibers was prepared using electrospinning method. The crystal, structural and surface compositional properties of sample based on ZnSnO3 and ZnSnO3/ZnO composite nanofibers were investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Compared to pure ZnSnO3 nanofibers, the ZnSnO3/ZnO heterostructure nanofibers display high sensitivity and selectivity response with fast response towards ethanol gas at low operational temperature. The sensitivity response of sensor based on ZnSnO3/ZnO composite nanofibers were 19.6 towards 50 ppm ethanol gas at 225°C, which was about 1.5 times superior than that of pure ZnSnO3 nanofibers, which can be owed mainly to the presence of oxygen vacancies and the synergistic effect between ZnSnO3 and ZnO.