ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0769.v1
Subject: Keywords: Indigenous peoples, Latin American, Covid 19, indigenous rights, health culture, government agencies.
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:15:25 CEST)
Background: and objectives: Covid-19 is a global pandemic that requires a culturally integrated response in all Latin American government systems. In this study, we investigate the multidimensional associations of actions in Latin American indigenous peoples against Covid-19 Methods: We performed a data mining analysis of scientific literature records from 19 academic journals, using the topics Covid-19, mortality, indigenous peoples, and future measures, rights and actions. The literature is analyzed in a multidimensional way, either isolated or combined. It uses switchable statistical methods, the R Studio, worddj, Gephi, and Iramuteq for both textual and multidimensional analysis. Results and Conclusions: In this analysis, the literature is classified into 4 linked groups which are the indigenous people, the rights of territorial protection, the indigenous health culture, the Covid-19 pandemic with its protection efforts. Taking the indigenous peoples as an axis, we observe that the covid pandemic and the protection of their territories do not have the same force in the current context, the indigenous people are more linked to the protection of their territory. Indigenous peoples have a link of cultural strength in traditional health independent of Covid treatment. It should be noted that government agencies are taking measures regarding the covid pandemic with an effort not marked within the health culture of indigenous peoples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0222.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mortality; Indigenous; Logistic Regression
Online: 11 August 2022 (12:00:20 CEST)
Aim. To identify factors associated with mortality with tuberculosis diagnosis in the indigenous population in Peru 2015-2019. Methods. Case-control study nested in a retrospective cohort, using the registry of persons belonging to indigenous peoples of the National Tuberculosis Prevention and Control Strategy of the Ministry of Health of Peru. A descriptive analysis was applied, and then bivariate and multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between the variables and the outcome (live-deceased), the results were presented as OR with their respective 95% confidence intervals. Results. The mortality rate of the total indigenous population of Peru was 1.75 deaths per 100,000 indigenous people diagnosed with TB. The community of Kukama kukamiria - Yagua reported 505 (28.48%) individuals. The final logistic model showed that indigenous men (OR=1.93; 95% CI: 1.001-3.7), with a history of HIV prior to TB (OR=16.7; 95% CI: 4.7-58.7) and indigenous people in old age (OR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.5-5.7), are factors associated with a greater chance of dying from TB. Conclusions. It is important to reorient health services among indigenous populations, especially those related to improving the timely diagnosis and early treatment of TB-HIV co-infection, to ensure comprehensive care for this population, considering that they are vulnerable groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0396.v1
Online: 14 April 2021 (17:51:47 CEST)
In recent years, many libraries and archives have started digitizing their collections thus making maps by Indigenous peoples more easily available for scholars to study. While a number of these maps were discussed by G. Malcolm Lewis in the History of Cartography series (volume 2, book 3, Chapter 4: 1984), more have since been found and disseminated. These maps are critical in understanding the historic and current land tenure of Indigenous groups. Further, Indigenous claims to land can be seen in their connections via toponymy. European concepts of territory and political boundaries did not coincide with First Nation/American Indian views resulting in the mistaken view that Natives did not have formal concepts of their territories. Further, Tribes/First Nations with cross-border territory have special jurisdictional problems. This paper will illustrate how many Native residents were very spatially cognizant of their own lands, as well as neighboring nations’ lands, overlaps between groups, hunting territories, populations, and trade networks. Currently, the Sinixt First Nation provides a perfect example of how an Aboriginal people are inputting and using a GIS representation of their territory with proper toponymy and use areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0415.v1
Online: 16 November 2020 (11:43:12 CET)
The Kenya Forestry Service permits rental of low-density national forest areas for use as common farmland, but public access to such areas is restricted to prevent deforestation against a background of rising demand for fuel wood. This study was conducted to clarify characteristics relating to the production of indigenous bamboo (a useful wood resource) by the approximately 23% of locals who work on common farmland in central Kenya’s Kamae forest management area, with estimation to determine above-ground biomass. The results showed that bamboo still represents 60% of such biomass, indicating sustainability in the industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0202.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Indigenous knowledge; water literacy; students
Online: 9 October 2020 (13:02:54 CEST)
Water literacy is the ability to feel familiar with and get actively involved in water to face issues about it. This study aims to analyze the water literacy of students who come from areas that have indigenous knowledge related to water conservation and do not have indigenous knowledge but have come from the same province with a similar abundance of water. The samples of this study were 439 people consisting of 184 boys and 255 girls aged 11-18 years from junior and senior high school students in Palembang Municipality and three sub-districts in Muara Enim Regency, namely Semende Darat Laut, Semende Darat Tengah, and Darat Ulu and both are indonesian. There were 39 questions for measuring water literacy in the form of a Likert scale (1-5) to measure practical and living literacy with Cronbach alpha values of 0.692 and 0.773, respectively, and were analyzed with SPSS version 21 through the Mann-Whitney (u) and Cronbach alpha statistical tests. The total alpha was 0.838. Social literacy was measured in the open-ended question instrument and analyzed descriptively. The results showed that practical water literacy in Palembang was significantly different from Semende's but not with living water literacy. Students' social water literacy in the Semende had two different answer patterns, while, in Palembang, it was more diverse with six different response patterns. Meanwhile, when asked to describe a diagram of the flow of water in nature in Semende, no students think that it is the neglect of customs that results in reduced water in Semende as understood by some students in Palembang who are not involved with these customs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0402.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: cultural space; indigenous community; Indonesia; methodology
Online: 21 December 2022 (11:53:49 CET)
Indigenous knowledge is proven to be one of the foundations of sustainable land and marine management. While indigenous knowledge is acknowledged as of important factors on maintenance of biodiversity of the planet, it also ensures the sustenance of social and economic system of indigenous community. To facilitate the application of indigenous knowledge on management of customary forest in Indonesia, since 2012, the Government of Indonesia has been providing formal access for indigenous communities to their forests to maintain forest sustainability and to enhance the welfare of indigenous community. Nonetheless, the achievement of sustainable development goals in the scope of forest and conservation area management is threatened by various competing interests and power imbalance, which mostly leads to conversion of naturally vegetated area, as well as the inability of the community to integrate new economic opportunities to its institution. Moreover, the Government of Indonesia has not been regulating the involvement of indigenous community on the management of conservation area. Most importantly, such a program provides no reference on indigenous community, especially on the assessment of authenticity of indigenous community’s forest. Cultural space methodology may fill the aforementioned gaps. The methodology was developed based on the notion of cultural space and land administration, particularly the people-and-land/marine space relationship. Moreover, such a methodology was also constructed based on the experiences of agricultural and maritime communities in Indonesia on the administration of their territories. The methodology provides a procedure to convert information on the interrelation of indigenous community, its cultural space in forest and conservation area, and indigenous knowledge into geospatial information and data that represent the cultural space unit as a geographic feature. Therefore, such methodology may be utilised to assess the authenticity of a long-existing relationship between a community, especially an indigenous one, and its land, particularly that serves conservational function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0175.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: biopesticides, ethnobotany; survey; indigenous people; Nigeria
Online: 9 August 2022 (06:11:42 CEST)
The quest for sustainable health, environmental protection and conservation of beneficial organisms makes the use of biopesticides a desirable option. This research aimed to identify botanicals used in the management of farm and household pest in Plateau State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out using semi-structured questionnaires and on the spot face-to-face interviews. The main issues captured include the pest, plants used to managed the pest, parts used, cultivation status, availability, effect on pest, formulation methods and modes of application. The quantitative data were analyzed using the Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation RFC (%) and Use Value (UV). A total of 45 plant species belonging to 42 genera, 20 orders and 30 families were found to be useful in the management of 15 different pests. The FC, RFC(%) and UV values identified the most popularly used plants as: Hyptis suaveolens, Vernonia amygdalina, Azadirachta indica, Canarium schweinfurthii and Euphorbia unispina and Erythrophloem africanum. Plants that showed broad activity include Azadirachta indica (7 uses), Erythrophloem africanum, Khaya senegalensis and Vernonia amygdalina. The perception of the respondents indicated that most of the biopesticides are available, affordable, effective, eco-friendly and safe. This survey provides a pathway for formulation of biopesticides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Bullying; Oral health; Indigenous; Children; Australia
Online: 23 February 2022 (05:26:35 CET)
Making life better for Indigenous peoples is a global priority. Although bullying and oral health have always been a topic of concern, there is limited information regarding the impact of this problem in the general population, with no evidence in this regard among the Australian Indigenous population. Thus, we aimed to quantify the relationship between bullying victimization and oral health problems by remoteness among 766 Australian Indigenous children aged between 10–15-year-olds using data from the LSIC study. Bivariate and multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression analyses were employed. Findings indicated children self-reported bullying more than parents reported their children were being bullied (44% vs 33.6%), with a higher percentage from rural/remote areas than urban areas. Parents reported oral health problem increases the probability (OR 2.20, p<0.05) of being bullied in Indigenous children living in urban areas. Racial discrimination, lower level of parental education and poor child oral hygiene increase the risk of bullying victimization. Parental happiness with life and a safe community was associated with a lower risk of bullying. Dental problems are linked with Australian Indigenous children experiencing bullying victimization. Cultural resilience and eliminating discrimination maybe two modifiable paths to ameliorating health issues associated with bullying in the Australian Indigenous community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0251.v1
Online: 9 April 2021 (09:48:31 CEST)
The objective of this study was to develop the least-cost starter’s diet and evaluated its effect on the growth performance of Sasso breeds and Indigenous ecotype of chicks under the local condition of the South Gondar Zone. The effects of substitution of different levels of commercial starters ration with homemade diet on the growth performance of Sasso and Indigenous chicks were studied in Hiruy Abaregay village of Farta district. The research area is 586km distant from the capital city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 510 Sasso T-44 and 90 Indigenous local ecotypes day-old chicks were randomly divided into five groups, each with 102 and 18 chicks, respectively. These were assigned into five treatments in which 100 (T1), 75 (T2), 50 (T3), 25 (T4), and 0% (T5) of commercial starter’s diet in factorial completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 replications for 60 days feeding period. The results obtained indicated that increased levels of substitution of a commercial diet with a homemade diet significantly depressed (p<0.001) mean daily feed consumption and retention of dry matter, nitrogen, and metabolizable energy. Growth rate as measured by mean daily weight gain, mean final body weight, and total feed consumption and feed cost were significantly miserable (p<0.001) in an increased homemade diet. On the contrary, there was an increase in feed conversion ratio and fiber content in high-level dilution of starter’s commercial diet with a homemade diet. However, the groups of chicks on 0, 25, and 50% commercial starters diets replaced by homemade diet were significantly higher (p<0.001) in mean daily feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and final body weight attained. The results of this study indicated that up to 50% of expensive commercial starter’s diet could economically be replaced with the least cost homemade diet without adversely affecting the growth performance of chicks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0654.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: fertility; indigenous; NDVI; paddy; remote sensing
Online: 25 November 2020 (16:57:17 CET)
Paddy field is an old agriculture practice that very common especially in Asia. The earliest paddy field found dated back to 4330 BC. Most paddy fields in the world are having rectangular shapes. Whereas, in Flores island, indigenous people have developed a spider web or circular paddy field instead of regular rectangular shape and this driven by culture and local wisdom. In here, the objectives of this study are to assess the characteristic, ecology and fertility of circular paddy field compared to common rectangular shape. Fertility values were assessed using Landsat 8 remote sensing with RGB combination of NIR, SWIR 1 and blue. The study site was paddy field within Flores island. The result shows that spider web paddy field appeared in many sizes, number, altitude, ecosystem and terrain. Remote sensing result confirms that the fertility of circular paddy field is similar to the rectangular shape. Likewise, circular field has higher NDVI than rectangular field. Considering semiarid environment, limited labor and resources in Flores island, circular paddy field shape can allow the use of pivot irrigation that more efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0327.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: productive, reproductive, breed, indigenous, traits, chicken
Online: 14 November 2018 (09:12:57 CET)
A survey study was conducted to analyze the reproductive and productive performances of four indigenous chicken breeds under different rearing system. Six villages located in Eastern Cape, South Africa were used for the study from July 2017 to June 2018. Data on clutch per year (CPY), hatchability (HATCH), egg per clutch (EGC), survivability at 10-12 weeks (SURV), egg per year (EPY), recovery period (RP), average age at production (AA), duration of rearing (DR), mortality, egg laying length (EGL), natural brooding period (NBP) and natural incubating period (NIP) were obtained from Seven thousand, five hundred and thirty eight (7538) indigenous chicken. Potchefstroom Kooekok is observed to be a good egg producing breed with 15.11±0.25eggs per clutch. Venda breed possess good mothering ability (hatchability) and high survivability with 86.03±0.31days and 82.70±0.26 days respectively. Naked Neck is known to be more prone to diseases with least (survivability) 60.08±0.25days. Village was positively correlated with EGC and HATCH, EGY and SURV at p≤0.01 and p≤0.05 respectively. Rearing system was positively correlated with EGC. Rearing system was positively correlated at p≤0.05 on EGC than CPY, HATCH, EGY and SURV. Breed and village interactions were significant at p≤0.05 on RP, AA, DR, EGL, NBP and NIP. Therefore, productive and reproductive traits of indigenous chicken differ across different rearing systems, breeds and villages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0335.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Amah Mutsun Tribal Band; Indigenous archaeology; Collaborative archaeology; Community-based participatory research; California archaeology; Indigenous stewardship
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:43:15 CET)
This paper summarizes over a decade of collaborative eco-archaeological research along the central coast of California involving researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, tribal citizens from the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band, and California Department of Parks and Recreation archaeologists. Our research employs remote sensing methods to document and assess cultural resources threatened by coastal erosion and geophysical methods to identify archaeological deposits, minimize impacts on sensitive cultural resources, and provide tribal and state collaborators with a suite of data to consider before proceeding with any form of invasive archaeological excavation. Our case study of recent eco-archaeological research developed to define the historical biogeography of threatened and endangered anadromous salmonids demonstrates how remote sensing technologies help identify dense archaeological deposits, remove barriers, and create bridges through equitable and inclusive research practices between archaeologists and the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band. These experiences have resulted in the incorporation of remote sensing techniques as a central approach of the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band when conducting archaeology in their traditional territories.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0519.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: inherited; retinal; dystrophy; indigenous, black, Africa; genetics
Online: 27 December 2022 (10:45:25 CET)
Inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) are a global problem that is largely unaddressed, especially in Africa. Black indigenous Africans are rarely represented in research that develop genetic tests and genetic therapies for IRDs yet their genomes are more diverse. The aim of this literature review is to synthesize information on the IRD genetic research conducted among indigenous black Africans to identify challenges and opportunities for progress. PubMed was searched to identify empirical publications reporting the genetic analysis of IRDs among indigenous Africans. A total of 10 articles were selected for the review. Based on the information in the articles, the main genetic testing methods in use include next-generation, whole exome, and Sanger sequencing. The main IRDs characterized by the genetic tests include retinitis pigmentosa, Leber Congenital Amaurosis, Stagardt disease, and cone dystrophy. Examples of implicated genes include MERTK, GUCY2D, ABCA4, and KCNV2 for the four IRDs respectively. Research activities on the genetics of IRDs are generally scanty in Africa. Even in South Africa and North Africa where some research activities were noted, only a few indigenous black Africans were in the study cohorts. There is an urgent need for genetic research on IRDs, especially in East, Central, and West Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0010.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Indigenous health; smoking; social marketing; tobacco; messaging
Online: 4 January 2022 (15:08:35 CET)
Background: Smoking is disproportionately prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian peoples, with 39% of Indigenous Australians aged over 15 years smoking daily. Efforts to reduce this high prevalence include culturally focused media campaigns, designed using community consultation, highlighting the need to determine how such health messaging is received by smokers. This study aimed to examine Indigenous Australian smokers’ reactions to a culturally focused anti-smoking mass media campaign—'Give up Smokes’. Methods: Intercept surveying across health services and events used recorded demographics, smoking status, quit attempts, smoking health effects, anti-smoking campaign recall, social support, and campaign reactions. Participants rated campaign images in five domains: 1) whether it made them stop and think; 2) personal relevance; 3) believability of design and message; 4) prompting concern about smoking; and 5) motivation towards quitting. Cluster analysis was used to segment smoker types. Results: Smoking health effects knowledge was high, and did not differ by quit readiness, attempts, or social support. Cessation support access was higher among those with greater readiness to quit. Social smoking behaviour and confidence to support others quitting did not significantly differ between participants, however importance of others quitting did. Quit readiness, attempts, and social support were associated with reaction to campaign design, but not message recall. Four types of smokers were described, using smoking characteristics, who differed in campaign message reactions. Conclusions: Strategies using campaign-exposed smoker characteristics to inform culturally focused health promotion are discussed in relation to four identified types of smokers.
PROJECT REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0026.v1
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:32:32 CEST)
This research project was funded by the Masterplan for Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development (MP3EI). The objective of this study was to examine the role of indigenous people of Marind in the agricultural development of rice cultivation in Merauke. A survey was conducted in three villages in Merauke using stratified random sampling. The finding suggest that indigenous people of Marind have a crucial role in the agricultural development of rice cultivation in Papua.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Andean agriculture; Indigenous communities; Lluta Valley; Chilean Precordillera
Online: 4 March 2021 (14:04:47 CET)
The Region of Arica and Parinacota is characterized as an agricultural region located in Atacama Desert at the extreme north of Chile. Its agriculture has allow developing the economy of pre- and post-Hispanic communities, which have been settled since colonial times at different locations in the region. This article is focused on how Aymara communities of Lluta Valley and Precordillera of Arica and Parinacota Region have been included as part of Chilean population, particularly, from social and economic point of view. Furthermore, a characterization of agronomic aspects of the main towns of this zone, and commercialization of agricultural and livestock is included. It must be considered that the evolution of this region would have an important impact in the safeguard on endemic flora and fauna so that it is imperative to protect the genetic heritage of local species and to promote new technologies which allow the production of commercial products from Arica and Parinacota Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Adaptation; Indigenous knowledge; CD production; paddy; hilly Nepal
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:44:11 CEST)
Climate change is a buzzword in the world. Scientist has approved it as global warming with its projection of undesired and unpredicted frequent extreme events and their vulnerabilities not only at present but also at future. There is an assumption of occurrence of adaptive capacity and behavior of farmers in agriculture production activity at some extent to neutralize climate change vulnerabilities of flood and landslides on paddy production. This paper empirically examines the effects of climate change in paddy production and farmer’s adaptive behaviors to neutralize such climatic shocks and events in paddy production by employing CD production function based econometric model. The study employed primary data collected through 642 household surveys. The study finds that climatic shocks and events have huge loss (60%) in paddy production and revenue income in such plot where farmers have not indigenous knowledge and practices. But both small and larger farmers who have adaptive capacity and behavior with their indigenous knowledge have less loss in paddy production and revenue income, although they have heterogeneity in their socio economic characteristics (income, asset holding, literacy, experience, land holding and age). The farmers who have used adaptive behavior have indigenous knowledge and experiences including bamboo wall construction to control flood and landslides and seed change to resist climatic shocks and events. In hilly region, the farmers have not sufficient alternative measures, except both adaptive measures because of their poverty, illiteracy and remote locations. The study finds their higher effective level to minimize vulnerabilities to paddy production and revenue per farm plot, although these adaptive behaviors are cost effective and local entity. Comparatively, bamboo wall construction is more effective measure in the paddy production than others are (seed switch) to minimize the flooding materials from the flood and the landslides. Thus, low cost indigenous adaption behavior of farmers is effective measure to climate change and climate change induced disasters and events vulnerability in paddy production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0526.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Landraces, indigenous, accession, seed characters, diversity, faba bean
Online: 30 August 2018 (12:01:36 CEST)
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the popular pulse crops grown for traditional consumption, not only in Oman but also in Arabian Peninsula and other countries. In Oman, the famers living in and around high altitude mountain areas mostly grow it. This paper highlights features of variation in seed color and diversity in seed traits found in collected accessions from the joint collecting missions of 2008-2010 between the staff of College of Agriculture, Sultan Qaboos University and the Ministry of Agriculture & Fisheries throughout all the governorates of the Sultanate of Oman. 41 seed samples/accessions were collected from 38 sites. Of these, the highest number of accessions was collected from Batinah South governorate (38) represented mostly by the mountains of Rustaq, followed by the mountains of Interior/Al-Dakhliyah (8), and Dhahira & Buraimi (4). Only one accession was collected from mountains of the Eastern/ Al-Sharqiyah governorates. The seed accessions were found diverse with respect to all seed characters studied, i.e. seed length (cm) and width (cm) and 1000-seed weight (g) besides seed color. The faba bean accessions were classified into 9 genetically diverse clusters based on the Principal Component Analysis, which indicated that the contribution of seed width and 100-seed weight to the total variation existing in indigenous germplasm collected from all the governorates of Oman. It was found from the critical analysis of seed colors that 38 accessions were homogenous (pure) with one color and three were heterogeneous with combinations of colors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0373.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: archaic human genes; obesity; diabetes mellitus; Indigenous Australians
Online: 25 June 2018 (08:13:36 CEST)
Indigenous Australians have been particularly affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus due to their genetic susceptibility and a range of environmental risk factors. Recent genetic studies link predisposition to some diseases, including diabetes, to archaic humans, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, suggesting persistence of ancient alleles in the genomes of modern humans. In this review we discuss the evolutionary role of the negative genetic selection associated with an adopted Western lifestyle as well as DNA variants influencing predisposition to obesity and diabetes in the Australian Indigenous population. We review the contribution of the ancient gene/pathways to the modern human phenotypes including the Neanderthal haplotype-tagging SNPs in NTRK2 gene, which may continue to play a role in obesity in Indigenous Australians.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0095.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: indigenous goats; free range; milk production; milk composition
Online: 11 May 2017 (07:52:28 CEST)
This study was conducted to evaluate the yield and quality parameters of milk from 60 indigenous South African goats of different genotypes namely Nguni, Boer and Non- descript reared under a free ranging system. Milk yield and quality parameters (milk fat, protein, lactose, solid non-fat and minerals) from Nguni (10), Boer (10) and Non-descript (10) goats was measured and analysed per week at each stage of lactation. Result showed that, Nguni goats produced (1.2±0.09, 1.3±0.11 and 1.2±0.07 litres per day) more milk (P ˂ 0.05) at early, mid and late stages of lactation than Boer (0.6±0.10, 1.0±0.17 and 0.6±0.09 litres per day) and Non-descript (0.3±0.10, 0.3±0.12 and 0.3±0.09 litres per day) goats, respectively. The mean value of milk fat, protein and lactose content from Nguni goat was (3.98, 3.54 and 5.31); Boer goat (2.9, 3.59 and 5.04) and Non-descript goat (4.05, 3.39 and 5.02), respectively. There was significant effect (P ˂ 0.05) of genotypes on milk fat, milk magnesium and sodium contents of Nguni, Boer and Non-descript goats. It could be concluded that, Nguni goat produced more milk than Boer and Non-descript goats, but the Non-descript goat had higher mean percentage of milk fat compared to Nguni and Boer goats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0396.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: non-indigenous species; ballast water; Greek seas; Mediterranean Sea
Online: 23 August 2022 (05:28:17 CEST)
The Greek seas as a part of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, have been considered as a hotspot for the entrance of non-indigenous species (NIS). Ballast water functions as a major pathway for the spread of NIS in new environments, posing significant threats to both the ecosystems and human health. Nine non-indigenous fish species, originating from the Red Sea, have been introduced to the Greek seas since 1925. Despite the implemented laws for limiting the spread of NIS and the subsequent impacts, current global environmental issues, such as climate change and micro-plastic pollution, could result in a rapid spread and establishment of NIS in hot-spot regions, including the Greek seas. A more systematic use of advanced tools for the systematic monitoring of all NIS in the Mediterranean Sea is necessary.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0556.v1
Online: 22 November 2020 (11:40:54 CET)
There has been very widespread contagion of covid-19 in Kichwa indigenous communities in Ecuadorian Amazonia, but the peak of contagion has already passed, and total mortality has been remarkably low. The Kichwa people themselves typically attribute this to the widespread use of medicinal plants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; Indigenous Tribes; Co-morbidities; Corona Virus; Navaho
Online: 14 April 2020 (08:43:11 CEST)
Introduction The COVID-19 virus was initially reported in Dec 2019 as the causative agent of a pneumonia breakout in Wuhan China. This virus rapidly spread from China to Europe and the East Coast of the United States eventually reaching the South West United States and indigenous tribes in mid -March. Since, then the indigenous tribes have been devasted by the virus which the Governor of New Mexico has likened as an existential threat. Methodology A PubMed search was performed utilizing the words: Navajo Indian, Indigenous Indian, Wuhan Virus, COVID-19, SARs coronavirus, ACE2, S protein, virulence, clinical presentation, epidemiology, genome, treatment, structure, MERs, pathogenesis and/or pathology alone and in combination with other terms. Each paper was evaluated by three content experts for quality, reproducibility, credibility and reputation of the journal Results: Navajo’s and other indigenous peoples may have elevated levels of ACE2 receptors in their lungs and other tissues allowing greater susceptibility to the COVID-19 virus. Increased levels of diabetes and protein nutrition are directly related to increased morbidity and mortality in this group while obesity, COPD, and heart diseas are not. The increased morbidity and mortality is exasperated by an inability to test for COVID-19 Conclusion: The infectivity rate of Navaho’s on the reservation is 22 times higher than the national average with a death rate near 4%. Comorbidites account for some of the increased morbidity and mortality while lack of access to adequate health care unnecessarily magnifies the poor outcome. The threat to indigenous tribes in the Southwest of COVID-19 is dire.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0286.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: diversity; conservation; animal genetic resources; indigenous pigs; southern Africa
Online: 24 November 2019 (14:47:39 CET)
Pig genetic resources in Africa originate from different regions. Genetic analysis has shown a strong phylogeographic pattern with the pigs on the eastern parts showing a high frequency of alleles from the Far East while the ones on the western parts show a strong European influence. This highlights the influence of trade routes on the genetic legacy of African pigs. They have, however, since adapted to the local environments to produce unique populations with unique attributes. Most of the pigs are now reared in resource-constrained smallholdings under free-range conditions. They are largely owned by women who spread ownership of the resource through kinship networks. Very little work has been done to characterize, conserve and sustainably utilize pig genetic resources in Southern Africa. The risk status of the breeds together with population numbers, distribution and other attributes are largely unknown. This paper proposes several strategies for the sustainable utilization of the pig genetic resources: a market-driven in situ conservation program and two complementary ex situ strategies. In addition, the possibility of community-based breed improvement programs is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0442.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: bison; restoration; socio-ecological processes; indigenous harvest; maximum entropy modelling
Online: 29 September 2022 (10:58:10 CEST)
The historic western edge of bison (Bison bison) range and the ecological processes that caused its formation are frequently debated with important implications for bison restoration across North America. We test the hypothesis that a combination of bottom-up habitat suitability and top-down harvest pressure from humans were important processes in forming the western edge of bison distribution. Using 9,384 historical journal observations from 1691 – 1928, we employ MaxEnt ecological niche modelling to identify suitable bison habitat across the Western Cordillera from bottom-up climatic, land cover, and topographic factors. We then use mixed-effect logistic regression to test if bison occurrence in journal records can be in part explained by the abundance of Indigenous humans, wolves, or grizzly bears, in addition to MaxEnt-derived habitat suitability. We find support for our hypothesis because of the limited suitable habitat in the Rocky Mountains that likely prevented westward bison dispersal from core habitat, and there was a negative relationship between bison occurrence and human harvest pressure. On this basis, we propose that intensive human harvest from large populations in the Western Cordillera, subsidized by other wildlife, salmon, and vegetation resources, is an underappreciated socioecological process that needs to be restored alongside bison populations. Co-managing bison with Indigenous people will also mitigate the adverse effects of overabundant bison and maximize the ecological and cultural benefits of bison restoration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0001.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sacred groves; biodiversity conservation; Community-based conservation; Indigenous People; Nigeria.
Online: 1 September 2021 (08:42:18 CEST)
Globally, sacred groves represent a traditional form of community-based conservation system, recognized for their capacity to preserve areas that are of cultural and religious importance to local people. In most cases, the entire community takes on a watchdog role to guard against encroachment and unauthorized access either by its members or outsiders who might desecrate such sites. Our paper investigates the effects of different governance arrangements on three sacred groves in southwest Nigeria⎯Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove (UNESCO World Heritage Site); Idanre Hills (Nigerian National Monument) and Igbo-Olodumare (local cultural site)⎯on their socio-economic and religio-cultural benefits and contribution to biodiversity conservation. Using a mixed-methods design of a semi-structured questionnaire (n=167), key informant interviews (n=2), and focus groups (n=7), we collected data from local community members, traditional priests, sacred grove devotees and tourism officials. We found that customary institutions have guided reverence for sacralized spaces and wise utilization of their unique resources. The growing recognition of sacred groves has paved the way for socioeconomic rewards for individuals and government as cultural tourism increases. We found that the involvement of formal institutions alongside customary institutions in sacred grove management reinforces compliance with conservation laws within the sacred groves, especially where traditional norms are weak or may be disregarded. We discuss the implications of these observations and offer suggestions to improve community engagement, uphold traditional ecological knowledge, and develop ecotourism within the groves. We conclude that the co-existence of community-based conservation through a system of established traditional norms and prohibitions as well as formal government legislation and management, offers assurance for the long-term preservation of sacred groves and their biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0568.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Participatory mapping; Ecosystem services; Forest degradation; Deforestation; Indigenous communities; Vulnerability.
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:11:07 CET)
Agricultural expansion is altering the provision of ecosystem services and seriously affecting the well-being of the indigenous communities still living in forests. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of forest loss and degradation on the indigenous forest dependent communities of Eastern Salta, Argentina, between 2001 and 2015. First, we identified the demand area of ten final ecosystem services for 202 indigenous communities using participatory mapping data. Second, we calculated the remaining usage area using a deforestation geodatabase based on Landsat images. Third, we analyzed the significance of trends in forest productivity processing vegetation spectral indices from MODIS products. By last, we detected changes in the growing season length by evaluating monthly trends in spectral indices. Our results show a reduction of 21% in the area used by indigenous communities for capturing final ecosystem services, and significant negative trends in forest productivity for the demand area of 64% of the communities, indicating that the area of use is not only being reduced, but also remnant forest area is being degraded and the growing season is being shortened. These aspects indicate an important loss in the provision of ecosystem services that deeply affects the wellbeing of indigenous communities.
Subject: Keywords: human papillomavirus; attitude; knowledge; belief; Indigenous; male; North America; Oceania
Online: 3 May 2020 (09:31:38 CEST)
We have surveyed peer-reviewed literature on the awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among Indigenous males in North America and Oceania. Using keywords HPV plus male, men or boy, and ethnical filters such as Indigenous, Aboriginal or First Nations, we retrieved 47 articles based on titles of which we kept 14 after reading the abstracts. Reported HPV awareness was generally low in Indigenous males in North America with no peer-reviewed data from Oceania. The lower understanding by males compared to females was largely attributable to misconceptions about HPV-related diseases, their transmission, and prevention. Lack of awareness and concern toward the risk of contracting HPV infection in Indigenous males suggests an impediment in disseminating health information about this cancer-causing virus. Culturally sensitive education, with emphasis on Indigenous males, is needed to improve this group’s HPV knowledge. Researchers should also engage meaningfully with Indigenous communities by building rapport to achieve a positive change in attitude.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0094.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: economic sustainability; environment conservation; food security; income diversity; indigenous fruit.
Online: 7 December 2018 (17:15:43 CET)
Kei-apple (Dovyalis caffra L) is an indigenous fruit tree of southern Africa. It is currently found in the dry, wooded grassland and forest edges of the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Existing literature have mainly focused on the medicinal and nutritional as well as phytochemical characterization of Kei-apple. Thus, this review highlights beneficial economic prospects of Dovyalis caffra and its contribution to the economic prosperity. It is a drought tolerant plant with diverse uses such as income from the sale of the fruit, cultivated as a fence or to form an impenetrable hedge while the leaves are used for nutrient leaching prevention, fodder and compost making. The trunk of Dovyalis caffra serves as a good source of hard wood for fuel, house building and furniture making. It is also a good apicultural fruit tree and an excellent habitat and fertilizer derivation agent for farming activities. Considering the multidimensional effect of poverty and the food insecurity on many rural communities globally, there is a need to explore the potentials by encouraging the cultivation of Dovyalis caffra to assist with reducing unemployment, food insecurity and income-poverty problems in the arid and semi-arid areas of the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0299.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Biomass; Carbon pool; Indigenous agroforestry system; Coffee; Enset; South-eastern Ethiopia
Online: 22 March 2022 (10:51:01 CET)
The role of agroforestry systems in providing ecosystem services is very crucial. The most significant increase in carbon (C) storage is often achieved by moving from lower biomass land-use systems to tree-based systems like agroforestry (AF). However, estimation of carbon stocks in indigenous agroforestry systems of South-eastern Rift- valley landscapes, Ethiopia the data are scarce. The study was aimed to investigate the biomass, biomass carbon (BC), and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock of Enset based, Enset-Coffee based, and Coffee-Fruit tree-Enset based agroforestry systems. Comparison of SOC stock of agroforestry systems against their adjacent monocropping farms was also investigated. The study was conducted in three selected sites of the Dilla Zuria district of Gedeo zone. Twenty farms (total of 60) representative of each AF system were randomly selected, inventoried and biomass C stocks estimated. Ten adjacent mono-cropping farms which were related to each AF system were selected in a purposive manner for comparison of SOC stock. Inventory and soil sampling were employed in the 10×10 m farm plot. The mean aboveground biomass ranged from 81.1 t ha-1 to 255.9 t ha-1 and for belowground biomass from 26.9 t ha-1 to 72.2 t ha-1. The highest C stock was found in Coffee-Fruit tree-Enset based (233.3±81.0 t ha-1), and the lowest was in Coffee-Enset based agroforestry system (190.1±29.8 t ha-1). The result showed that SOC stocks were not statistically significant between the three AF systems, although they showed a significant difference in their BC stock. The AF systems' C stocks are substantially higher than those reported for tropical forests and other AF systems. The SOC of AF systems was significantly higher than the ones for the adjacent monocropped farms. Therefore, it is possible to deduce that AF systems are storing significant amount of C and contributing to climate change mitigation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0258.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: feral cat; Felis catus; Australia; Indigenous Protected Area; 1080; camera; tracking
Online: 15 November 2021 (11:57:03 CET)
Feral cats are both difficult to manage and harder to monitor. We analysed the cost-efficacy of monitoring the pre- and post-bait abundance of feral cats via camera-traps or track counts using four years of data from the Matuwa Indigenous protected Area. Additionally, we report on the recovery of the feral cat population and the efficacy of subsequent Eradicat® aerial baiting programs following 12 months of intensive feral cat control in 2019 that consisted of aerial baiting and leg-hold trapping. Significantly fewer cats were captured in 2020 (n = 8) compared to 2019 (n = 126). Pre-baiting surveys for 2020 and 2021 suggested that the population of feral cats on Matuwa was very low, at 5.5 and 4.4 cats/100 km respectively, which is well below our target threshold of 10 cats/100 km. Post-baiting surveys then recorded 3.6 and 3.0 cats/100 km respectively, which still equates to a 35% and 32% reduction in cat activity. Track counts recorded significantly more feral cats than camera traps and were cheaper to implement. We recommend that at least two methods of monitoring cats be implemented to prevent erroneous conclusions.
Subject: Keywords: indigenous peoples; local communities; resilience; cultural heritage; socio-ecological systems; networks
Online: 31 May 2020 (15:57:36 CEST)
Global environmental and societal changes threaten the cultures of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLC). Despite the importance of IPLC worldviews and knowledge systems to human well-being and biodiversity, risks to these cultural resources are commonly simplified or neglected in environmental impact assessments, in part because cultural impacts are often indirect and therefore difficult to demonstrate. Here, we show that dependency of a culture on the environment can be mapped through human connections with biophysical elements in their environment. We illustrate a rich variety of cultural values that connect an indigenous Māori tribe in New Zealand with their local environment, then evaluate the resilience of this socio-environmental value system to environmental changes. Our results detail how loss of access to key environmental elements can have extensive direct and cascading impacts on multiple facets of indigenous cultural heritage. Consequently, considering only direct effects of environmental change on cultural heritage, or treating the richness of IPLC environmental relations simplistically, can severely underestimate the seriousness of environmental impacts on IPLC culture. Thus, protecting Earth’s cultural and biological diversity requires inclusion of human-environment relationships in environmental impact assessments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0224.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Marx; Theses on Feuerbach; Indigenous Paradigm; decolonising methodology; Hegel; Linda Smith
Online: 13 May 2020 (05:27:33 CEST)
This article aims to reflect upon the relevance of Decolonization methodologies with the Theses on Feuerbach. Somehow, all the Indigenous scholars started from new Marxist like Paulo Freire, Frantz Fanon, but not from classic Marx. To us, the German Ideology of young Marx only resembles the pioneering sources of Indigenous methodology. This discussion is thus a reflection of our studies and a philosophic endeavor to talk about the marginal people of the world, and the scholars who engaged in and with the oppressed. However, we are not prepared to turn our attention away from all the vastness of Marx to a collection of potentially equally relevant to Indigenous methodology. This article concludes that the Theses on Feuerbach is the core of Marxist archaeology of knowledge or philosophy as a whole and has been wading in the Indigenous paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0207.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: tomb; religious heritage; cultural heritage; Sheikh Zahed Gilani; indigenous architecture; dome
Online: 12 March 2020 (09:16:57 CET)
Tombs and mausoleums as a cultural-religious heritage have a key role in attracting cultural tourists, as a result, they have been of great interest to researchers and academics in recent years. This paper argues the tomb of Sheikh Zahed Gilani, who was once a great mystic and is reputable due to his influence on the formation of the Safavid dynasty. Through a qualitative evaluation, this paper assesses the history, indigenous architecture, brick decorations and the significant geometry of Sheikh Zahed’ tomb. The results indicate that the dome has eight diverse geometric levels with dissimilar decorations, which is a unique design in the region. The paper also investigates the construction inscriptions and preservation projects to better comprehend the history of the tomb. Examination and understanding the characteristics of this monument alongside assessing the typology in comparison to other historical buildings can support the development of a local structure of the tomb as well as the geometric dome in similar climates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0406.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: cultures; heritage; indigenous knowledge; local people; losers; management; rural stakeholders; tourism; winners
Online: 6 January 2023 (10:06:05 CET)
Rural tourism plays an increasing role in maintaining sustainable rural development. In-11 tegrating culture into rural tourism is multifaceted. Local communities have often been regarded as 12 homogeneous, and different voices within them are selectively presented or re-interpreted by pow-13 ers. A better understanding of how and why cultures are integrated into rural tourism is urgently 14 needed. This paper aims to investigate (1) the aims and motives of tourism managers to integrate 15 cultural concepts into rural tourism; (2) who has participated in the cultural integration process; and 16 (3) how cultures have been integrated into rural tourism. Based on a scoping literature review, we 17 found that cultures could add more attractions, such as historical heritage, artwork, cultural land-18 scape, customs, food, and language, to the natural landscape and bring more tourists to rural areas. 19 However, integrating cultures into rural tourism is not always successful. Conflicts of interest 20 among different stakeholders are also often found. Some of the worst cases of cultural integration 21 have even destroyed the original natural landscape and local cultures. While cultural integration is 22 complicated, injustice and perverse effects do not have to be a consequence of integrating cultures 23 into rural tourism. Multi-way communication among tourism providers, managers, and consumers 24 can mitigate disruptive outcomes and unlock positive social outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0412.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Aboriginal; Indigenous; contact patterns; household structure; disease transmission; household model, human mobility.
Online: 24 August 2022 (05:21:00 CEST)
Cultural practices and development level can influence a population’s household structures and mixing patterns. Within some populations households can be organized across multiple dwellings. This likely affects the spread of infectious disease spreads through these communities, however, current demographic data collection tools do not record these data. Methods: Between June–October 2018, the Contact And Mobility Patterns in remote Aboriginal Australian communities (CAMP-remote) pilot study recruited Aboriginal mothers with infants in a remote northern Australian community to complete a monthly iPad-based contact survey. Results: Thirteen mother-infant pairs (participants) completed 69 study visits between recruitment and the end of May 2019. Participants reported they and their other children slept in 28 dwellings during the study. The median dwelling occupancy, defined as people sleeping in the same dwelling on the previous night, was nine (range: 3.5–25). Participants who completed at least three responses (n=8) slept in a median of three dwellings (range: 2–9). Each month a median of 28% (range: 0%–63%) of the participants travelled out of the community. Including these data in disease transmission models amplified estimates of infectious disease spread in the study community, compared to models parameterized using census data. Conclusions: The lack of data on mixing patterns in populations where households can be organized across dwellings may negatively impact the accuracy of infectious disease models for these communities and the efficacy of public health actions they inform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Fanconi anemia; Chromosome instability; FANCG; splicing; founder pathogenic variant; Mixe indigenous group.
Online: 29 December 2021 (19:28:49 CET)
Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by pathogenic variants (PV) in at least 22 genes, which cooperate in the FA/BRCA pathway to maintain genome stability. PV in FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG account for most cases (~90%). This study evaluated the chromosomal, molecular, and phenotypic findings of a novel founder FANCG PV, identified in three patients with FA from the Mixe community of Oaxaca, Mexico. All patients presented chromosomal instability and a homozygous PV, FANCG: c.511-3_511-2delCA, identified by next-generation sequencing analysis. Bioinformatics predictions suggest that this deletion disrupts a splice acceptor site promoting the exon 5 skipping. Analysis of Cytoscan 750K arrays for haplotyping and global ancestry supported the Mexican origin and founder effect of the variant, reaffirming the high frequency of founder PV in FANCG. The degree of bone marrow failure and physical findings (described through the acronyms VACTERL-H and PHENOS) were used to depict the phenotype of the patients. Despite having a similar frequency of chromosomal aberrations and genetic constitution, the phenotype showed a wide spectrum of severity. The identification of a founder PV could help for a systematic and accurate genetic screening of patients with FA suspicion in this population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Community Engagement; Needs Assessment; Digital Tools; Indigenous Health; Data Sovereignty; Evaluation Framework.
Online: 22 December 2021 (16:25:57 CET)
In community-based participatory projects, needs assessments are one of the first steps to identify priority areas. Access-related issues often pose significant barriers to participation for rural and remote communities, particularly Indigenous communities which have a complicated relationship with academia due to a history of exploitation and trauma. In order to bridge this gap, work with Indigenous communities requires consistent and meaningful engagement. The prominence of digital devices (i.e., smartphones) offers an unparalleled opportunity to ethically and equitably engage citizens across jurisdictions, particularly in remote communities. We propose a framework to guide needs assessments which embed digital tools in partnership with Indigenous communities. Guided by this framework, a needs assessment was conducted with a subarctic Métis community in Saskatchewan, Canada. This project is governed by a Citizen Scientist Advisory Council which includes Traditional Knowledge Keepers, Elders, and youth. An environmental scan of relevant programs, key informant interviews, and focus groups were conducted to systematically identify community priority areas. Given the timing of the needs assessment, the community identified the Coronavirus pandemic as a key priority area requiring digital initiatives. Recommendations for community-based needs assessments to conceptualize and implement digital infrastructure are put forward, with an emphasis on self-governance and data sovereignty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0051.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Guadiana estuary; salt marsh; non-indigenous species (NIS); anthropogenic pressures; habitat degradation
Online: 13 September 2017 (09:25:30 CEST)
This work updates the characterization of winter fish communities in salt marsh areas of Guadiana estuary (SE-Portugal) and discusses the potential risks of habitat dominance by a non-indigenous species (NIS). To this effect, six field campaigns were carried out during winter season targeting the collection of fish species. Individuals from seven different families (marine and estuarine) were collected although the community was dominated by two estuarine species – the native Pomatoschistus sp. (goby) and the NIS Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichog). Goby controlled the majority of salt marsh habitats, except one specific, marsh pool, where extreme environmental conditions were registered, namely high temperature and salinity. Such conditions may have boosted the intrusion of mummichog in this area. This species is well adapted to a wide range of abiotic factors enabling them to colonize habitats where no predators inhabit. Impacts of mummichog intrusion in the Guadiana salt marsh area are still unpredictable since this is the first recorded in such high density. Nevertheless, in scenarios of increased anthropogenic pressure and, consequently, habitat degradation, there is a potential risk of mummichog spread to other habitats and therefore compete for space and food resources with native species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0773.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ethnic beer; borde; shamita; keribo; korefe; indigenous drinks; fermented beverages; probiotics; Farsoo; moringa
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:50:33 CEST)
This study was designed to improve Ethiopian traditional beer – tella with the substitution of gesho by moringa leaves to enhance micronutrients. Substation of gesho by moringa from 50 – 100% against the biochemical dynamics, nutritional and sensorial profiles of tella was assessed. Incorporation of moringa suppressed the activities of yeast and favored that of lactic acid bacteria, which shifted the property of the product from mild alcoholic nature to low alcoholic and mild acidic nature, revealing the probiotic potential of tella. Moringa leaves at 100% substitution for gesho resulted in to the least yeast count compared to the other formulations. The storage of tella samples over periods of 10 days also strengthened the probiotic nature of tella by drastically reducing the yeast cell counts (from 5 logs to <1). This corresponded to the slow increase in the acidity (0.63 to 0.99%), indicating comparatively higher activities of lactic acid bacteria. The best nutritional contents (dietary minerals) and sensorial acceptance of the product was attained at the 50% substitution of gesho by moringa. The implication of the present study is that ethnic foods and beverages can be innovated to meet the nutritional needs of the community
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gut microbiome; Western and indigenous/traditional cultures; gut health; disease; lifestyle; novel microbials
Online: 6 April 2021 (12:40:04 CEST)
The mammalian gut ecosystem plays critical roles in multiple functions related to health and homeostasis. In many cases, disturbances in the gut ecosystem are associated with a large number of metabolic and chronic diseases and disorders such as diabetes, cancer, and obesity. A diverse community of microorganisms ranging from viruses to bacteria comprise the gut microbiota, which is often considered as an organ in itself. Recent studies have profiled the influence of lifestyles and dietary behavior by comparing the gut microbiome of populations with different cultural underpinnings. In this review, we provide an overview of the studies which report the influence on the gut microbial composition of dietary and lifestyle patterns in different contexts such as western industrialized countries and indigenous cultures (corresponding to different lifestyle gradients such as hunter-gatherers and pastoralists) and how this association may influence health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0089.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Asparagopsis armata; Biodiversity; Intertidal assemblages; Invasive exotics; Marine invasion; Non-indigenous species (NIS)
Online: 5 October 2020 (13:28:46 CEST)
Biological invasions represent a threat to ecosystems, through competition and habitat destruction, which may result in significant changes of the invaded community. Asparagopsis armata is a red macroalgae (Rodophyta) globally recognized as an invasive species. It is found from the intertidal to shallow subtidal areas, on rock or epiphytic, forming natural vegetation belts on exposed coasts. This study evaluated the variations on native intertidal seaweed and macroinvertebrate assemblages inhabiting rock pools with and without the presence of the invasive macroalgae A. armata. To achieve this, manipulation experiments on Atlantic (Portugal) rock pools were done. Three rock pools were maintained without A. armata by manual removal of macroalgae, and three others were not experimentally manipulated during the study period and A. armata was freely present. In this study the variations between different rock pools were assessed. Results showed different patterns in the macroalgae composition of assemblages but not for the macrobenthic communities. Ellisolandia elongata was the main algal species affected by the invasion of A. armata. Invaded pools tended to show less species richness, showing a more constant and conservative structure, with lower variation of its taxonomic composition than the pools not containing A. armata, where the variability between samples was always higher. Despite the importance of the achieved results, further data based on observation of long-term series are needed, in order to further understand more severe effects of the invader A. armata on native macroalgal assemblage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0338.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Indian; Sentiment Analysis; Indigenous Languages; Machine Learning; Deep learning; Data; Opinion Mining; Languages.
Online: 27 November 2019 (09:30:07 CET)
An increase in the use of smartphones has laid to the use of the internet and social media platforms. The most commonly used social media platforms are Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp and Instagram. People are sharing their personal experiences, reviews, feedbacks on the web. The information which is available on the web is unstructured and enormous. Hence, there is a huge scope of research on understanding the sentiment of the data available on the web. Sentiment Analysis (SA) can be carried out on the reviews, feedbacks, discussions available on the web. There has been extensive research carried out on SA in the English language, but data on the web also contains different other languages which should be analyzed. This paper aims to analyze, review and discuss the approaches, algorithms, challenges faced by the researchers while carrying out the SA on Indigenous languages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0349.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: humanity; culture; development and language; globalization; indigenous capabilities; knowledge creation and technological development
Online: 19 July 2018 (06:34:37 CEST)
Humanity, culture, societal development and language issues are mutually reinforcing much as they are intricately interwoven in a non-ceasing dynamic interrelationships within the matrix defined by language standardization or development, acquisition and use that mostly take up central place as unifying and propelling forces in language discourse. Within the confines of globalization which is neither homogenization nor convergence; but the beginning of drawing on the strength of indigenous capabilities to create knowledge ecology that would enliven socio-economic and scientific development of the world in far reaching interconnectivities and relationships across every clime, issues pertaining to language development, acquisition and use become imperative. It is against this background that this paper examines the development/standardization, acquisition and use of Esan language as one of several Nigerian indigenous languages to promote scientific and technological development through knowledge creation, preservation and dissemination. The obsession of using western model and epistemological outlook to achieve appropriate scientific and technological development to the utter neglect of home grown and culturally distilled efforts were also examined. In the light of the dare consequences and the harsh conditions globalization imposes on developing nations, this paper highlights standardization and use of indigenous languages in chatting appropriate trajectory for effectual developmental efforts in fast shrinking contemporary world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0286.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: sustainable energy; renewable energies; energy transitions; transformation to sustainability; policy analysis; grass-root movements; indigenous communities
Online: 10 June 2021 (09:37:36 CEST)
The energy sector plays an important role in Mexico’s development trajectory. Mexico makes an interesting case study, because it shows how difficult it is to reduce fossil energy dependence despite geographic and climatic conditions that favour renewable energy deployment and use. Resolving path dependencies and the related carbon lock-in are key to Mexico’s sustainable energy transition. This case study aims to identify and discuss how carbon lock-in affects Mexico’s sustainable energy transition. Mexico’s carbon lock-in involves oil and oil-run power plants that are costly to build but relatively inexpensive to operate. This case study identifies potential entry points for transitioning towards sustainable energy in Mexico – resources that can promote the use of clean energy despite carbon lock-in. For example, focusing on electrification – particularly of the carbon-intensive sectors – can help Mexico transit towards sustainable energy despite institutional constraints. Complementing this case study is a teaching guide with recommendations for using Mexico’s energy transition in courses on sustainability. It introduces a “learning activation framework” to identify emerging opportunities that can advance sustainable energy transitions in different cases of carbon lock-in. Finally, the framework also gives students a chance to help dismantle or cope with carbon lock-ins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0443.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Climate change; Nationalism; Anthropocene; Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK); Geoethics; Sustainable communities; Subsistence societies; Indigenous peoples; Anthropocene
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:33:37 CET)
This article argues that we need to look at living examples provided by non-state communities in various regions of the world that are, perhaps unwittingly, contributing to the maintenance of the Earth's optimal thermal balance. These fully sustainable communities have been living outside the mainstream for centuries, even millennia, providing examples in the global struggle against the degradation of social–ecological systems. They have all, to varying degrees, embraced simple forms of living that make them ‘exemplary ethical communities’ (EECs) – human communities with a track record of sustainability related to forms of traditional knowledge and the capacity to survive outside the capitalist market and nation-state system. The article proceeds in three steps: First, it condenses a large body of research on the limits of the existing nation-state system and its accompanying ideology, nationalism, identifying this institutional–ideological complex as the major obstacle to tackling climate change. Second, alternative social formations that could offer viable micro-level and micro-scale alternatives are suggested. These are unlikely to identify with existing nation-states as they often form distinct types of social communities. Taking examples from hunter-gatherer societies and simple-living religious groups, it is shown how the protection and maintenance of these EECs could become the keystone in the struggle for survival of humankind and other forms of life. Finally, further investigation is called for, into how researchers can come forward with more examples of actually existing communities that might provide pathways to sustainability and resistance to the looming global environmental catastrophe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Indigenous; First Nations; Health Services Accessibility; Health Services Administration; Trust; Communication; Primary Health Care; Health Policy
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:22:45 CET)
Background: Australia’s healthcare system is complex and fragmented which can create challenges in healthcare, particularly in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal people experience inequalities in healthcare treatment and outcomes. This study aimed to investigate barriers and enablers to accessing healthcare services for Aboriginal people living in rural and remote Australia. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare delivery staff and stakeholders recruited through snowball sampling. The communities were selected for their high proportion of Aboriginal people and geographical representation (coastal, rural, and border). Thematic analysis identified barriers and enablers. Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted (n =5 coastal, n=13 remote, and n=13 border) and six themes identified: 1) Improved coordination of healthcare services; 2) Better communication between services and patients; 3) Trust in services and cultural safety; 4) Importance of prioritizing health services by Aboriginal people; 5) Importance of reliable, affordable and sustainable services; 6) Distance and transport availability. These themes were often present as both barriers and enablers to healthcare access for Aboriginal people. They were also present across the healthcare system and within all three communities. Conclusions: This study describes a pathway to better healthcare outcomes for Aboriginal Australians by providing insights into ways to improve access.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0163.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ethnobotany; paleoethnobotany; biocultural heritage; digital heritage; online database; Indigenous data sovereignty; Open Access; research accessiblity; digital reference collection
Online: 9 December 2021 (20:01:36 CET)
Biocultural heritage preservation relies on ethnobotanical knowledge and the paleoethnobotanical data used in (re)constructing histories of human-biota interactions. Biocultural heritage, defined as the knowledge and practices of Indigenous and Local peoples and their biological relatives, is often guarded information, meant for specific audiences and withheld from other social circles. As such, these forms of heritage and knowledge must also be included in the ongoing data sovereignty discussions and movement. In this paper we share the process and design decisions behind creating an online database for ethnobotanical knowledge and associated paleoethnobotanical data, using a content management system designed to foreground Indigenous and local perspectives. Our main purpose is to suggest the Mukurtu content management system, originally designed for physical items of cultural importance, be considered as a potential tool for digitizing and ethically circulating biocultural heritage, including paleoethnobotanical resources. With this database, we aim to create access to biocultural heritage and paleoethnobotanical considerations for a variety of audiences while also respecting the protected and sensitive natures of Indigenous and local knowledges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0043.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ethnobotany; traditional ecological knowledge; Waorani; indigenous communities; Ecuadorian Amazon; medicinal plants; loss of knowledge; globalization; global change; acculturation; socio-cultural changes
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:59:53 CEST)
This paper explores how the medicinal plant knowledge of the Waorani indigenous society in Ecuador varies in accordance with both socio-economic and demographic factors. Medicinal plant knowledge was compared at both individual and community levels. Fifty-nine semi-structured interviews (men n = 30, women n = 29) were performed with people between fifteen and seventy years old in five Waorani communities located within the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. Results show a positive correlation between an individual’s medicinal plant knowledge and age, a negative correlation between medicinal plant knowledge and the years of schooling, and differences among isolated and easily accessible communities. Reasons behind these findings are seen in the rapid socio-cultural changes of the Waorani society due to globalization processes. Increased accessibility to health centers, improved transportation infrastructure and changes in how knowledge is transmitted to young people all result in a loss of ethnobotanical knowledge. Policymakers need to take action in order to ensure the maintenance of ethnoecological knowledge among the Waorani.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0378.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: therapeutic landscapes; therapeutic environments; Indigenous knowledge; Mātauranga Māori; Rongoā Māori; traditional healing; health and well-being; cultural landscapes; cultural geography; landscape architecture
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:12:15 CET)
Although research has long established that the interaction with the natural environment is associated with better overall health and well-being outcomes, the Western model mainly focuses on treating the symptoms. In Aotearoa-New Zealand, the Indigenous Māori have long demonstrated significantly more negative health outcomes than non-Māori. Little research has examined the causes compared to Western populations or the role of the natural environment in health outcomes for Māori. An exploration of rongoā Māori (traditional healing system) was conducted to ascertain the importance of landscape in the process of healing. Eight rongoā healers or practitioners took part in semi-structured narrative interviews from June to November 2020. Transcribed interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis and Kaupapa Māori techniques. The findings show how rongoā is underpinned by a complex set of cultural values and beliefs, drawing from the connection to wairua (spirit), tinana (body), tikanga and whakaora (customs and healing), rākau (plants), whenua (landscape) and whānau (family). Incorporating such constructs into the landscape can foster our understanding of health and well-being and its implications for conceptualising therapeutic environments and a culturally appropriate model of care for Māori and non-Māori communities.