ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0328.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cytochrome oxidase; thyroid hormones; steroid hormones; Bile Acids Binding Site; regulation
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:36:04 CET)
Thyroid hormones regulate tissue metabolism establishing an energy balance in the cell, in particular by affecting oxidative phosphorylation. Their long-term impact is mainly associated with changes in gene expression, while the short-term effects may differ in mechanism. Our work is devoted to short-term effects of hormones T2, T3, and T4 on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) mediated by a direct contact with the enzyme. The data obtained indicate the existence of two separate sites of CcO interaction with thyroid hormones differing in location, affinity and specificity to hormone binding. It is shown that T3 and T4 but not T2 inhibit oxidase activity of CcO in solution and on membrane preparations with Кi≈100–200 M. In solution, T3 and T4 compete in a 1:1 ratio with the detergent dodecyl-maltoside for binding to the enzyme. Peroxidase and catalase partial activities of CcO are not sensitive to hormones while electron transfer from heme a to the oxidized binuclear center is affected. We believe that T3 and T4 are ligands of the Bile Acid Binding Site found in the 3D structure of CсO by Ferguson-Miller’s group, and hormone induced inhibition is associated with dysfunction of the K- proton channel. Similar conclusion we made recently with regard to steroid-like compounds. It is found that T2, T3, and T4 inhibit superoxide generation by oxidized CcO in the presence of excess Н2О2. Inhibition is characterized by Ki values of 0.3 – 5 M and apparently affects the formation of О2• at the protein surface. The second binding site for thyroid hormones presumably coincides with the point of tight T2 binding on the Va subunit described in the literature.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0293.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: skin; gut; microbiome; hormones
Online: 19 March 2020 (02:23:21 CET)
Recently scientific research began to shift their focus on looking at both the gut and the skin microbiota as having a reciprocal and integral relationship with one another, rather than assessing them as separate and unrelated fields. In the past five years, the field of microbial endocrinology emerged, which examines how our gut microbiota influences and modulates hormones. We’ve known for decades that hormones greatly affect the condition of the skin, and many skin conditions are often treated with oral hormonal therapy as means to internally treat skin conditions visible on the dermis. Now, a growing body research and discourse examining this triad of biological spheres – gut microbiota, skin microbiota, and the endocrine system – as interconnected rather than binary and unrelated. While there is ample research established and being conducted examining the gut-skin axis, the gut-brain axis, and the gut-hormone axis, through this paper I will review and synthesize some of the significant advancements in this emerging and inclusive field of science to suggest that the fields need to expand the axis and their modality for researching these fields as a connected whole in order to better understand the role of the microbiota in disease prevention as a whole.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: oligodendrogenesis; remyelination; hormones; steroids; peptides
Online: 15 January 2021 (08:25:46 CET)
Alterations in myelin, the protective and insulating sheath surrounding axons, affect brain function, as is evident in demyelinating diseases where the loss of myelin leads to cognitive and motor dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that changes in myelination, including both hyper- and hypo-myelination, may also play a role in numerous neurological and psychiatric diseases. Protecting myelin and promoting remyelination is thus crucial for a wide range of disorders. Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are the cells that generate myelin, and oligodendrogenesis (OLgenesis), the creation of new OLs, continues throughout life and is necessary for myelin plasticity and remyelination. Understanding the regulation of OLgenesis and myelin plasticity within disease contexts is therefore critical for the development of novel therapeutic targets. In our companion manuscript , we review literature demonstrating that multiple hormone classes are involved in the regulation of OLgenesis under physiological conditions. The majority of hormones enhance OLgenesis, increasing oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and inducing maturation and myelin production in OLs. Thus, hormonal treatments present a promising route to promote remyelination. Here, we review literature on hormonal regulation of OLgenesis within the context of disorders. We focus on steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids and sex hormones, peptide hormones such as insulin-like growth factor 1, and thyroid hormones. For each hormone, we describe whether they aid in OL survival, differentiation, or remyelination, and we discuss their mechanisms of action, if known. Several of these hormones have yielded promising results in both animal models and in human conditions; however, a better understanding of hormonal effects, interactions, and their mechanisms will ultimately lead to more targeted therapeutics for myelin repair.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0281.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: oligodendrogenesis; hormones; mechanisms; steroids; peptides
Online: 15 January 2021 (07:47:37 CET)
The brain’s capacity to respond to changing environments via hormonal signaling is critical to fine-tuned function. An emerging body of literature highlights a role for myelin plasticity as a prominent type of experience-dependent plasticity in the adult brain. Myelin plasticity is driven by oligodendrocytes (OLs) and their precursor cells (OPCs). OPC differentiation regulates the trajectory of myelin production throughout development, and importantly, OPCs maintain the ability to proliferate and generate new OLs throughout adulthood. The process of oligodendrogenesis (OLgenesis), the creation of new OLs, can be dramatically influenced during early development and in adulthood by internal and environmental conditions such as hormones. Here, we review the current literature describing hormonal regulation of OLgenesis within physiological conditions, focusing on several classes of hormones: steroid, peptide, and thyroid hormones. We discuss hormonal regulation at each stage of OLgenesis and describe mechanisms of action, where known. Overall, the majority of hormones enhance OLgenesis, increasing OPC differentiation and inducing maturation and myelin production in OLs. The mechanisms underlying these processes vary for each hormone but may ultimately converge upon common signaling pathways, mediated by specific receptors expressed across the OL lineage. However, not all of the mechanisms have been fully elucidated, and here, we note the remaining gaps in the literature, including the complex interactions between hormonal systems and with the immune system. In the companion manuscript in this issue , we discuss the implications of hormonal regulation of OLgenesis for neurological and psychiatric disorders characterized by white matter loss. Ultimately, a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of hormonal regulation of OLgenesis across the entire lifespan, especially in vivo, will progress both basic and translational research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0089.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Signalling, rhizosphere microbiome, plant hormones
Online: 7 March 2019 (11:58:15 CET)
Signalling is a strongly influenced area trending to be applied in almost every focus of biological sciences. The part of signalling or communication from cellular level to a whole organism including plant as well as animal drags a vast diversity of wealthy structural compounds. There is immense demand for new bioactive compounds for the pharmaceutical, agro and food industries. Plant-associated microbes present an attractive and promising source. The concept of the microbiome and the significance it has to host health, diseases state, and the role of immune have been the hub of research that has led to advances in our understanding of the massive power of the small unseen majority of the microbes (Peterson Andrew H., 2013). Before we say about microbiome—plant relation, it is important to first understand the working concept of the microbiome. Every organism on earth counts on their neighbours to sustain life. Microbiome can be considered a community of microorgasims who can prove to be loveable and hateful. The analysis of microbiome structure and function was protagonise in studies of human hosts and has been extensively documented as essential to genetic and functional capacity attributed to the host, comprehending aspects of metabolism and physiology. Plants are crowded with microbial organisms, counting those that colonize internal tissues, also those that adhere to external surfaces. The wide diversity of microorganisms in the soil rhizosphere is collectively plant–soil-associated microbes cover the plant microbiome. The intricate involvement of microbiome serves to plant health and as a tank of additional genes that plants can access when needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0983.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: bioestimulant; flavonoids; tomato; hormones; RNA-seq
Online: 16 October 2023 (15:36:48 CEST)
The exogenous application of phenolic compounds is increasingly recognized as a valuable strategy for promoting growth and mitigating the adverse effects of abiotic stress. However, the biostimulant effect under optimal conditions have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, we investigated the impact of foliar application of flavonoids, specifically Crop Bio Life (CBL), on tomato plants grown under controlled conditions. Our study focused on determining growth parameters, such as cell size, and assessing the concentration of hormones. Principal component analysis (PCA) from all physiological variables were determined. Additionally, we utilized high-throughput mRNA sequencing technology and bioinformatic methodologies to robustly analyze the transcriptomes of tomato leaves regulated by flavonoids. The findings revealed that CBL primarily influenced cells enlargement, leading to increased growth. Furthermore, CBL-treated plants exhibited higher concentrations of the hormone zeatin but lower concentrations of IAA. Moreover, RNAseq analysis indicated that CBL-treated plants required increased mineral transport and water uptake, as evidenced by gene expression patterns. Genes related to pathways such as fatty acid degradation, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and ABC transporters showed regulatory mechanisms governing internal flavonoid biosynthesis, transport, and tissue concentration, ultimately resulting in higher flavonoid concentrations in tomato leaves.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0222.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Gaia theory; biometeorology; magnetism; ions; hormones
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:41:04 CET)
Living organisms with developed endocrine systems react in a complex way to environmental changes. Changing atmospheric pressure causes different blood pressures or hormone levels; carcinogenic radiation modifies the structure of DNA. Charged particles and ions act as neurotransmitters and block certain types of protein channels and receptors. A high concentration of carbon dioxide has an indirect effect on both blood pressure and neuron activity. The bioelectric nature of living tissues highlights the complexity of the connection between the dynamic physical environment and biological systems. Recent results from studies on the interactions and connections mentioned above are reviewed in this paper.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: hypothalamus; endocrine; gangliocytoma; neurocytoma; pituicytoma; hormones
Online: 28 September 2019 (00:24:48 CEST)
The hypothalamus is the site of synthesis and secretion of a number of endocrine peptides that are involved in the regulation of hormonal activity of the pituitary and other endocrine targets. Tumors of the hypothalamus have been recognized to have both structural and functional effects including hormone hypersecretion. The classification of these tumors had advanced over the last few years and biomarkers are now available to classify these tumors and provide accurate structure-function correlations. This review provides an overview of tumors in this region that is critical to metabolic homeostasis with a focus on advances in the diagnosis of gangliocytomas, neurocytomas and pituicytomas that are unique to this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1751.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biosorption; Bacterial Cellulose; Biosurfactant; Hormones; micropollutants; Drug
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:24:29 CET)
The contamination of aquatic environments by pharmaceutical products consistently takes the attention of researchers due to the compounds' toxicity even at low concentrations. In response, we have developed an ecologically sustainable biosurfactant derived from a microorganism and incorporated into the bacterial cellulose. This bioproduct, along with the bacterial cellulose itself, was employed as a sorbent for pharmaceuticals (hormones and paracetamol) present in water. Bacterial cellulose membranes were generated through the cultivation of Gluconacetobacter xylinus ATCC 53582. The biosurfactant was produced by pre-inoculating Bacillus subtilis in a synthetic medium, followed by immersing the bacterial cellulose membranes in the biosurfactant solution, for incorporation. Tests were conducted using water experimentally contaminated with parace-tamol and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), evaluating the biosurfactant's effect on bacterial cellulose sorption. Paracetamol levels were analyzed using spectrophotometry, and EE2 levels were as-sessed using high-performance liquid chromatography. In summary, bacterial cellulose exhibited superior adsorption for EE2 compared to paracetamol. The incorporation of biosurfactant onto bacterial cellulose reduced hormone adsorption but enhanced paracetamol sorption. Our findings indicated that adsorption is more effective with bacterial cellulose in its original and freeze-dried forms, without the incorporation of biosurfactant. Notably, we achieved more promising results in remediating the hormone EE2 compared to the paracetamol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1286.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: 24-epicastasterone; salicylic acid; auxin; hormones; soybean
Online: 17 August 2023 (10:18:25 CEST)
Brassinosteroids (BR) are key phytohormones involved in the regulation of major processes of cell metabolism guiding plant growth. In the past decades, new evidence made it clear that BRs also play a key role in the orchestration of plant responses to many abiotic and biotic stresses. In the present work we analyzed the impact of foliar treatment with 24-epicastasterone (ECS) on the endogenous content of major phytohormones (auxins, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid) and their intermediates in soybean leaves 7 days following the treatment. Changes in the endogenous content of phytohormones have been identified and quantified by LC/MS. Obtained results point to a clear role of ECS in the upregulation of auxin content (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) and downregulation of salicylic, jasmonic, and abscisic acid levels. These data confirm that under optimal conditions ECS in tested concentrations of 0,25 µM and 1 µM might promote growth in soybean by inducing auxin contents. Benzoic acid (a precursor of salicylic acid (SA)), but not SA itself, has also been highly accumulated under ECS treatment which indicates an activation of the adaption strategies of cell metabolism to possible environmental challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0571.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: rainbow trout; rearing system; stress factors; hormones
Online: 10 July 2023 (09:43:51 CEST)
The general desire of the world's population is to eat as healthily as possible, an aspect that has a direct impact on the technological complex aimed at animals raising (proper breeding systems, microclimate factors with implications for the welfare of animals, etc.), as well as on the quality of the finished products that will enter the food supply. Therefore, the authors set out to study how the growth system influences the health status of rainbow trout raised in different systems. The observed experimental factors did not undergo significant changes. However, differences were generated by the applied growth system. For the amount of glucose in the blood, no statistically significant differences were identified between the groups. In contrast, comparison of the amount of glycogen led to obtaining very distinctly significant statistical fluctuations (the mean for P-si was 2.314±0.638 and for P-i 1.980±0.822). Growth hormone varied between 0.504±0.46 in the case of P-si and 0.694±0.22 ng/ml for P-i. The values obtained for cortisol showed a significant influence of stress factors on the studied trout. The general conclusion of the present study is that various technological factors influence the health status of livestock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0512.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Thyroid hormones; Mixture; Neurodevelopment; Xenopus laevis; EDC
Online: 28 November 2022 (10:44:37 CET)
Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for normal brain development, influencing neural cell differentiation, migration, and synaptogenesis. Multiple endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are found in the environment, raising concern for their potential effects on thyroid hormone signaling and the consequences on neurodevelopment and behavior. While most research on EDCs investigates the effects of individual chemicals, human health may be adversely affected by a mixture of chemicals. Many compounds belonging to a wide range of chemical classes have been identified as EDCs, notably those affecting thyroid hormone signaling. We hypothesized that embryonic exposure to a mixture of chemicals (containing phenols, phthalates, pesticides, heavy metals, perfluorinated -, polychlorinated, and polybrominated compound) commonly found in the human amniotic fluid could lead to altered brain development to assess its effect on thyroid hormone signaling and neurodevelopment in an amphibian model (Xenopus laevis), highly sensitive to thyroid disruption. Newly hatched tadpoles were exposed for eight days to either TH (thyroxine, T4 10nM) or the amniotic mixture (1x concentration) and gene expression was analyzed in the brains of exposed tadpoles using both RT-qPCR and RNA sequencing. Results indicate that whilst some overlap on TH-dependent genes exist, T4 and the mixture have different gene signatures. Immunohistochemistry showed increased proliferation in the brains of T4-treated animals whereas no difference was observed for the amniotic mixture. Further, we demonstrated diminished tadpoles’ motility in response to T4 and mixture exposure. As the individual chemicals composing the mixture are considered safe, these results highlight the importance of examining the effects of mixtures to improve risk assessment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0465.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Mulberry; Cuttings; Adventitious roots; Endogenous hormones; Oxidase activity
Online: 7 July 2023 (07:09:48 CEST)
Adventitious roots play a crucial role inr the nourishment and propagation of arboreal vegetation. In order to shed light on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the challenging-to-propagate mulberry tree species, an investigation was conducted. This study aimed to compare the responses of various root morphological indicators, endogenous hormones, and oxidase activities in the "Yueshenda 10" fruit mulberry, at different stages of treatment. The ultimate objective was to identify the factors influencing the process of root development. The findings revealed a distinct '/\' pattern in the levels of IAA and JA within the cuttings. Conversely, the changes in ABA, ZR and GA3 exhibited a '/\/' pattern. The fluctuation of IAA/ABA values followed a '\/\' mode, whereas the IAA / ZR values initially increased, followed by a subsequent decrease. The correlation between the initial concentrations of these five endogenous hormones and the rooting rate displayed variations. Notably, IAA demonstrated the strongest association with the rooting rate, exhibiting a positive correlation with both IAA and ZR. Regarding the activity of three antioxidant enzymes (IAAO, POD and PPO), a '/\' trend was observed, wherein the enzyme activity increased under ABT1 treatment. However, the peak activity levels of the enzymes appeared during different periods: germination, induction, and expression, respectively. Overall, the most effective treatment for promoting root development and significantly enhancing the root growth parameters of mulberry was found to be 800mg/L ABT1. Exogenous hormone treatment expedited the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby shortening the rooting time and facilitating root formation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0691.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Root length; MtTGA1; Antioxidant Enzyme; hormones; salt stress
Online: 9 June 2023 (09:18:28 CEST)
The TGACG motif-binding factor1 (TGA1) transcription factor, a significant protein in the bZIP transcription factor family, exhibits a myriad of functions, contributes to numerous biological events, and holds substantial application potential. In this study, our analysis revealed a diverse range of photoregulatory and hormone regulatory elements within the MtTGA1 promoter region. The expression profile of MtTGA1 indicated its highest expression in the root, with its regulation influenced by SA, ABA, BR, and GA. Under salt stress conditions, transgenic plants demonstrated significantly longer root lengths and heightened activities of antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbic acid catalase (APX), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in their roots and leaves compared to control plants. Simultaneously, the levels of endogenous hormones ABA and BR escalated in transgenic plants, with a marked change in the morphology of their leaf cells. Transcriptome analysis identified a total of 193 differentially expressed genes, implicating a wide array of biological processes. Furthermore, we found that MtTGA1 is able to interact with Medicago truncatula SPX domain containing protein 1 (SPX1). In conclusion, the MtTGA1 transcription factor plays a crucial role in enhancing salt tolerance, which provides new insights for improving plant survival under salt stress conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: pheromones; androstenone; mouse deer; metabolic pathway; reproduction; hormones
Online: 18 October 2022 (02:44:00 CEST)
Two putative boar pheromones (Androstenone and Androstenol) were discovered in endangered mouse deer during captive breeding program. This study further examined the molecular characteristics, pheromone synthesis pathway, and the functional role of these pheromones in reproduction of mouse deer. CYP17A1 and CYB5 genes were cloned and expressed in HEK-293, COS-7 cell lines and gonads of mouse deer to investigate CYP17A1 gene’s andien-β-synthase activity towards synthesis of sex pheromones in mouse deer. An enzyme immunoassay was also developed and standardized to measure the fecal androstenone during reproductive cycles of mouse deer. Results showed that mouse deer’s CYP17A1 gene possesses andien-β-synthase activity and could transform pregnenolone into 5,16-androstadien-3β-ol. The expression of CYP17A1 gene upregulated in the testis and ovary, compared to other tissues in mouse deer. Significantly elevated pheromones and estrogens were recorded prior to delivery and postpartum estrus / mating in mouse deer. Further, there were weak correlations between fecal pheromones and estrogens/ androgens in mouse deer during breeding season. The findings suggest that the boar pheromones might play a direct role in the reproductive activities of mouse deer which might be used for breeding of mouse deer elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: hormones; Carpathian Indigenus Buffalo; FTAI; sexed semen; OvSynch
Online: 4 August 2021 (10:02:50 CEST)
Although artificial insemination can mean a slow and progressive improvement of animal genetics, in buffalo-cow its practical application is difficult the results are incomparably lower then cattle. The purpose of this article is to develop a new methodology, a well-known technique to make AI biotechnology more applicable to the buffalo, in order to improve the conception rate. The protocol we follow is to stimulate hormonal ovarian activity, inducing the dominant follicle, causing ovulation and scheduling the moment of sexed artificial insemination deep in the uterine horn only ipsilateral to the ovary that will ovulate. The experiment was performed on 40 primiparous buffaloes-cows in two groups for AI separated by two bulls whit 2 Millions female sperm straws. The groups was compiled after a thorough gynecological examination, and subsequently the OvSynch therapeutic protocol was started. The results were 82,5% buffaloes (33/40) had dominant follicle (DF) and inseminated, on hot/cold seasons the distribution was 75%vs90%. The conception rate was 63,6% (21/33), on hot/cold seasons 60%vs66,6%, and after calving 92.5% (20/21) female cattle were obtained. Thus, by implementing UcFTAI protocol, we state that the goal of increasing the genetic potential of CIB by becomes achievable and can be extended to a larger scale. Our Improved Protocol (UcFTAI) aims to reduce waste and maximize OvSynch hormone therapy.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: trichomes; transcription factors; hormones; endoreduplication cycle; epigenetic mechanisms
Online: 8 June 2019 (11:36:02 CEST)
Plant trichomes are specialized unicellular structures that originate and project from above ground epidermal tissues on the surfaces of leaves, petals, stems, petioles, peduncles, and seed coats depending on species. Trichomes (also called ‘hairs’) play well-recognized roles in defense against insect herbivores, both as a physical barrier that obstructs herbivore movement and by mediating chemical defenses. By virtue of their physical properties (size, density), trichome hairs can directly operate to protect buds of plants from insect damage, reduce leaf temperature, increase light reflectance, prevent water loss, and decrease leaf abrasion. Great variety of trichomes and their accessibility makes them a useful model for studying the molecular processes of cell fate determination, cell cycle control and cellular morphogenesis. In leaves, the developmental control of the trichomatous complement has highlighted a regulatory network based on four fundamental elements: (i) genes that activate and/or modify the normal cell cycle of epidermal cells (i.e. endoreduplication cycles); (ii) transcription factors that create activator/repressor complexes with a central role in determining cell fate, initiation and differentiation of an epidermal cell in trichome; (iii) evidences that point out the interplay of the aforesaid complexes with various phytohormones; (iv) epigenetic mechanisms involved in trichome development. Here, we describe trichome development in leaves, commonly subjected to environmental injury, and where most genetic regulators have been characterized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: horse; castration; steroid hormones; cartilage; bone; in vivo metabolism
Online: 29 September 2023 (05:25:34 CEST)
Castration of stallions is traditionally performed after puberty around the age of 2 years old. No studies have focused on the effects of early castration on osteoarticular metabolism. Thus, we sought to compare early castration (3 days after birth) with traditional castration (18 months of age) in horses. Testosterone and estradiol levels were monitored from birth to 33 months in these two groups. We quantified the levels of biomarkers of cartilage and bone anabolism (CPII and N-MID) and catabolism (CTX-I and CTX-II), of osteoarthritis (HA and COMP) and inflammation (IL-6 and PGE2). We revealed a lack of parallelism between testosterone and estradiol syntheses after birth and during puberty in both groups. An extra-gonadal synthesis of steroids was observed around the 28 month-mark, regardless of the castration age. We found the expression of estrogen receptor (ESR1) in cartilage and bone, whereas androgen receptor (AR) expression appeared to be restricted to bone. Nevertheless, with regards to osteoarticular metabolism, steroid hormone deprivation resulting from early castration showed no discernable impact on the levels of biomarkers related to bone and cartilage metabolism, nor on those associated with OA and inflammation. Consequently, our research demonstrated that early castration does not disrupt bone and cartilage homeostasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0458.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: plant hormones; Citrus reticulata; shelf life; antioxidants; phenols content
Online: 8 May 2023 (05:37:55 CEST)
‘Arrayana’ mandarin fruits have a short postharvest life and are sensitive to chilling injury (CI) during cold storage. Brassinosteroids (BR) have been used as a sustainable technology to alleviate CI in fruits and improve postharvest quality. This study evaluated the effect of applying the 24-epibrasinolide analogue (EBR), at doses of 5 mg L-1; DI-31 analogue, at 5 and 10 mg L-1; and control, on the main physical and biochemical characteristics of 'Arrayana' mandarin stored at 4°C for 40 days and, subsequently, 7 days at room temperature (shelf life). The application of EBR and DI-31 analogues reduced the appearance of CI in the exocarp of 'Arrayana' mandarin fruits by reducing electrolyte leakage, maintaining membrane integrity, and increasing antioxidant activity and phenol content at the end of cold storage and shelf life. This was especially pronounced with 5 mg L-1 of EBR. Similarly, the BR maintained the postharvest quality of mandarins by reducing weight loss, respiratory intensity and chlorophyll degradation; increasing β-carotene; and maintaining titratable acidity, and soluble solids. Our research reports for the first time CI tolerance in Arrayana mandarin using natural (EBR) and spirostanic (DI-31), analogues and illustrates the tolerance functionality of the DI-31 analog on CI in fruit postharvest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0454.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer, losing weight, interventions, physical activity, dietary restrictions, hormones.
Online: 24 November 2022 (06:30:03 CET)
(1) Background: Loss of weight is one of the practices which have been identified as key in reducing the risk of various forms of cancer. Therefore, this study is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies related to the topic of loss of weight and risk of cancer and addresses the question, ‘does losing weight reduce the risk of cancer?’ Its purpose is to identify current high-quality evidence on such a question and synthesize such evidence before summarizing it given specific data attributes to improve decision-making processes on cancer management. (2) Methods: Research studies were identified from four main databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar, and Medline. A systematic review and meta-analysis of such studies were then conducted to reveal the most current evidence on the research topic. (3) Results: The studies showed that losing weight reduces cancer risk. Nonetheless, such intervention is not necessarily effective, especially in cases where patients may be at risk of developing cancer due to other risk factors. (4) Conclusions: The current study concludes that there is a need to implement effective interventions such as physical exercise, dietary restrictions, or both that can be effective in reducing weight to reduce the risk of cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; bariatric surgery; metabolic surgery; hormones; adipokines; microRNA; metabolomic
Online: 14 October 2022 (03:12:00 CEST)
This review aimed at synthesizing the mechanisms and outcomes of metabolic surgery on hormones, adipokines, metabolomics, and at the molecular level. We reviewed the endocrine, microRNA, and metabolomics changes in human and animal models following metabolic surgery for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched up to February 2022. The most relevant studies in the area over the past 17 years have been considered for this review. In most cases, metabolic procedures especially those that include intestinal bypass components, showed remission of type 2 diabetes. This involves a variety of weight-independent mechanisms to improve glucose homeostasis, improving insulin sensitivity, and secretion. The miRNAs’ dysregulated expressions have essential roles in metabolic processes. Metabolic surgery is a potentially sustainable treatment that can modify a patient’s physiology and glucose regulation mechanism. The feasibility and role of miRNA are important for potential targeted genetic pathways in future obesity with type 2 diabetes management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: indole-3-acetic acid; abscisic acid; plant hormones; crosstalk; signaling
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:36:32 CET)
Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of different environmental stresses, including drought, salinity, and elevated temperatures. These stress cues are assumed to aggravate in the future driven by the global climate change scenario which we are currently experiencing. These stressors have largely detrimental effects on plant growth and development and, therefore, put global food security in jeopardy. For this reason, it is necessary to expand our understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which plants respond to abiotic stresses. Especially boosting our insight into the ways by which plants balance their growth and their defense programs appears to be of paramount importance, as this may lead to novel perspectives that can pave the way to increase agricultural productivity in a sustainable manner. In this review, our aim was to present a detailed overview of different factettes of the crosstalk between the antagonistic plant hormones abscisic acid (ABA) and auxin, two phytohormones that are the main drivers of plant stress responses, on the one hand, and plant growth, on the other.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: coronavirus; TMPRSS2; ACE2; SARS-CoV-2; androgens; sex hormones; antiandrogens
Online: 3 November 2022 (09:21:09 CET)
COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2), is estimated to have caused over 6.5 million deaths to date worldwide. The emergence of fast-evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern alongside increased transmissibility and/or virulence as well as immune and vaccine escape capabilities highlight the urgent need for more effective antivirals to combat the disease in the long run along with regularly updated vaccine boosters. One of the early risk factors identified during the COVID-19 pandemic was that men are more likely to get infected by the virus, more likely to develop severe disease and exhibit higher likelihood of hospitalisation and mortality rates compared to women. An association exists between SARS-CoV-2 infectiveness and disease severity with sex steroid hormones and in particular androgens. Several studies underlined the importance of the androgen-mediated regulation of the host protease TMPRSS2 and the cell entry protein ACE2 as well as the key role of these factors in the entry of the virus into target cells. In this context, modulating androgen signalling is a promising strategy to block viral infection and antiandrogens could be used as a preventative measure at the pre- or early-hospitalisation stage of COVID-19 disease. Different antiandrogens, including commercial drugs used to treat metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer and other conditions, have been tested as antivirals with varying success. In this review, we summarise the most recent updates concerning the use of antiandrogens as prophylactic and therapeutic options for COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Helmholtz-Kohlrausch effect; luminance; brightness; saturation; contraception; menstrual cycle; hormones
Online: 12 July 2022 (03:53:09 CEST)
Saturated lights appear brighter than white lights of the same luminance. This phenomenon is known as the Helmholtz-Kohlrausch (H-K) effect and can be estimated by modeling achromatic luminance and saturation to total brightness. These models have been shown to differ between women and men and are more variable in women. The variation in brightness models among women may be due to hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle. To test this, total brightness and achromatic luminance were measured across blue, green, yellow-green, yellow, and red hues. These data were measured along with salivary hormone levels for nine cycling women at points representing the menstrual, peri-ovulation, and luteal phases. These data were also collected for seven oral contraceptive (OC) users. There were no main effects of OC use nor menstrual cycle phase on B/L ratios, but ratios were higher for the red stimulus in cycling women than OC users. Red B/L ratios were also higher for cycling women than OC users during the luteal phase. Estrogen, progesterone, and their interaction predicted 18% of the variation in brightness for cycling women. These models could not be fit for OC users, and estrogen only accounted for 5% of brightness variance with progesterone terms omitted. These findings and potential mechanisms are discussed in the context of previous results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mast cells; Leishmania mexicana; sand fly salivary proteins; sexual hormones
Online: 22 November 2021 (10:51:24 CET)
Mast cells (MCs) play a crucial role during infections with Leishmania, that is transmitted through the bite of an infected sand fly that injects saliva together with the parasite. Sand fly saliva is a complex fluid that modulates the host immune response. In addition, hormonal factors modulate the host immune response, impacting the susceptibility to infections. Thus, to assess the impact of androgens and salivary proteins of sand fly vectors on the mast cell (MC) response to Leishmania infections, we infected orchiectomized male mice with the parasite in the presence or absence of sand fly salivary proteins and analyzed the inflammatory response of MCs. Our results showed a differential MC response to the parasite and to vector salivary proteins in mice deprived of gonadal hormones, as compared to sham-operated mice. Orchidectomy induced a different pattern of activation in MC of animals infected with Leishmania and vector-salivary proteins. Our results show that during Leishmania infection, androgens modulate the innate immunity response against the parasite and salivary proteins of the sand fly vector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Arabidopsis; developmental pathways; environmental responses; HD-Zip transcription factors; hormones
Online: 2 November 2018 (12:33:38 CET)
HD-Zip proteins are unique to plants, and contain a homeodomain closely linked to a leucine zipper motif, which are involved in dimerization and DNA binding. Based on homology in the HD-Zip domain, gene structure and the presence of additional motifs, HD-Zips are divided into four families, HD-Zip I–IV. Phylogenetic and bioinformatics analysis of HD-Zip genes using transcriptomic and genomic datasets from a wide range of plant species indicate that the HD-Zip protein class was already present in green algae. Later, HD-Zips experienced multiple duplication events that promoted neo- and sub-functionalizations. HD-Zip proteins are known to control key developmental and environmental responses, and a growing body of evidence indicates a strict link between members of the HD-Zip II and III families and the auxin machineries. Interactions of HD-Zip proteins with other hormones such as brassinolide and cytokinin have also been described. However, it is striking that among the genes regulated by REV, a HD-Zip III protein playing a key role in apical development, are genes that mediate ABA signaling. Furthermore, HAT1 and HAT3, two HD-Zip II proteins involved in key developmental processes, repress ABA biosynthesis and signaling, indicating an essential role of these factors in adjusting development to changing environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: β-glucans; entero-endocrine system; intestinal hormones; microbiota; nutritional intervention
Online: 23 December 2016 (13:37:44 CET)
Recent interest in intestinal hormones has risen with the idea that they modulate glucose tolerance and food intake through a variety of mechanisms, and such hormones like peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and 2, and cholecystokinin (CKK) are therefore excellent therapeutic candidates for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Furthermore, in the recent years, multiple studies suggest that the microbiota is critically important for normal host functions, while impaired host microbiota interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of numerous common metabolic disorders. In this study, we considered the nutraceutical effects of β-glucans added to pasta at the concentration of 6g\100g. Ten participants have been recruited and hematochemical analyses and intestinal hormones tests have been performed before and after 30 days of pasta intake. Stool specimens have been studied for Lactobacillus Fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium presence before and after 30 days of nutritional intervention. After 30 days of regular intake of pasta enriched by β-glucans results have been evaluated. In conclusion, pasta prepared from barley flour enriched with β-glucans at 6% exhibit promising responses on glucose metabolism, on intestinal hormones responses and on microbiota modification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0853.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Azerbaijani chestnut; nutrient medium; hormones; micro-shoots in vitro; root induction
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:55:20 CEST)
Castanea sativa Mill., an indigenous species of the mountainous Gabala region of Azerbaijan, where its local variety is now facing the danger of extinction. The preservation of this variety of European chestnut requires the development of effective strategies for reliable in vitro regeneration systems as an alternative to traditional methods, which has become the main objective of this study. In solving this problem, the generally accepted technique of micro-multiplication of axillary shoots was mainly used. First, a phased sterilization of was carried out using liquid soap, Previkur fungicide and mercury (II) chloride. DKW (Driver and Kuniyuki Walnut) nutrient medium was used for germination of explants, into which growth stimulants BAP (Benzilamunapurine), IBA (Indole - 3 butyric acid), IAA (Indole Acetic acid), NAA (Naphthalene Acetic Acid) and GA3 (Gibberelic acid) were introduced in various combinations and quantities. The test of the above-mentioned sterilization model revealed significant shortcomings in terms of the acceptability of the results obtained (16-77%). It was also found that the germination of explants takes 14 days and it is better to conduct it in a DKW environment containing hormones BAP (0.6 mg), IBA (0.1 mg) and GA3 (0.1 mg) / 1 L DKW. A mixture of BAP (0.1mg) + IBA (0.35 mg) is more suitable for the reproduction of grown explants + GA3 (0.2 mg) / 1 l DKW (the result is 3 new micro-plants for each explant), and for good root formation (it takes 30 days) – a mixture of IBA 1.0 mg + NAA 0.5 mg + IAA 0.5 mg / l L DKW. After the shoots have acquired a certain length (at least 1.5 cm), it is required to transfer them for 22 days to a DKW medium containing IBA (1 mg), IAA (0.5 mg) and NAA(0.5 mg) / l L DKW so that the root splitting process begins and ends.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0180.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: BMP; TGF-β; signaling; sex; chromosomes; XIST; genomic imprinting; hormones; fibrosis
Online: 11 May 2018 (09:49:48 CEST)
Crosstalk between the BMP and TGF-β signaling pathways regulates many complex developmental processes from the earliest stages of embryogenesis throughout adult life. In many situations, the two signaling pathways act reciprocally. For example, TGF-β signaling is generally pro-fibrotic whereas BMP signaling is anti-fibrotic and pro-calcific. Sex-specific differences occur in many diseases including cardiovascular pathologies. Differing ratios of fibrosis and calcification in stenotic valves suggests that BMP/TGF-β signaling may vary in men and women. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the interplay between sex and BMP/TGF-β signaling and pose several unanswered questions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0653.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase; POR; gnomAD, CAH; drug metabolism, steroid hormones; SNV; bioinformatics
Online: 9 November 2023 (15:09:12 CET)
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential redox partner for steroid and drug-metabolizing cytochromes P450 located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in POR lead to metabolic disorders, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and affect the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and xenobiotics. In this study, we examined approximately 450 missense variants of the POR gene listed in the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) using eleven different in silico prediction tools. We found that 64 novel variants were consistently predicted to be disease-causing by most tools. To validate our findings, we conducted population analysis and selected two variations in POR for further investigation. The human POR wild type, along with the R268W and L577P variants, were expressed in bacteria and subjected to enzyme kinetic assays using model substrate. We also examined the activities of several cytochrome P450 proteins in the presence of POR (WT or variants) by combining P450 and reductase proteins in liposomes. We observed a decrease in enzymatic activities (ranging from 35% to 85%) of key drug metabolizing enzymes, supported by POR variants R288W and L577P compared to WT-POR. These results validate our approach of curating a vast amount of data from genome projects and provide an updated and reliable reference for diagnosing POR deficiency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0430.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ethylene biosynthesis; ethylene inhibitors; in vitro culture; plant hormones; S-adenosylmethionine; stress responses
Online: 19 May 2021 (07:50:29 CEST)
Ethylene is a plant hormone controlling physiological and developmental processes such fruit maturation, hairy root formation and leaf abscission. Its effect on regeneration systems, such as organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis (SE), has been studied and progresses in molecular biology techniques have contributed to unveil mechanisms behind its effects. This compound affects regeneration differently, depending on the species, genotype and explant. In some species, ethylene seems to revert recalcitrance in genotypes with low regeneration capacity. However, its effect is not addictive, since in genotypes with high regeneration capacity this ability decreases in the presence of ethylene precursors, suggesting that regeneration is modulated by ethylene. Several lines of evidence have shown that the role of ethylene on regeneration is markedly connected to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as to hormonal-crosstalk, in particular with key regeneration hormones and growth regulators of the auxin and cytokinin families. Transcriptional factors of the ethylene response factor (ERF) family are regulated by ethylene and strongly connected to SE induction. Thus, an evident connection between ethylene, stress responses and regeneration capacity is markedly established. In this review the effect of ethylene and the way it interacts with other players during organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Toxicology Keywords: biotoxins; Lagocephalus sceleratus; silver-cheeked toadfish; Lessepsian species; pufferfish toxicity; steroid hormones; Eastern Mediterranean
Online: 6 September 2023 (15:03:38 CEST)
Given the dramatic increase of L. sceleratus population in southeastern Aegean Sea, there is growing interest in assessing the toxicity of this pufferfish and the factors controlling its tetrodotoxin (TTX) content. In the present study, liver, gonads, muscle and skin of L. sceleratus specimens from Rhodes island, Greece were subjected to multi-analyte profiling using liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to quantitate TTX and evaluate whether this biotoxin interrelates with hormones. TTX and its analogues 4-epiTTX, 11-deoxyTTX, 11-norTTX-6-ol, 4,9-anhydroTTX and5,11-6,11-dideoxyTTX were detected in all tissue types. Liver and gonads were the most toxic tissues, with the highest TTX concentrations being observed in the ovaries of female specimens. Only 22% of the analyzed muscle samples were non-toxic according to the Japanese toxicity threshold (2.2 μg TTX eq g-1), confirming the high poisoning risk from from the inadvertent consumption of this species. Four steroid hormones (i.e., cortisol, testosterone, androstenedione and β-estradiol) and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were detected in the gonads. Androstenedione dominated in female specimens, while GnRH was more abundant in males. A positive correlation of TTX and its analogues with β-estradiol was observed. Though, a model incorporating sex rather than β-estradiol as independent variable was proved more efficient in predicting TTX concentration, implying that other sex-related characteristics are more important than specific hormone-regulated processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: gender differences; cancer; oxidative stress; oestrogens; testosterone; antioxidant; reactive oxygen species; sex hormones; mitochondria.
Online: 10 May 2023 (03:44:32 CEST)
Genetic, developmental, biochemical, and environmental variables interact intricately to produce sex differences. The significance of sex differences in cancer susceptibility is being clarified by numerous studies. Epidemiological research and cancer registries have revealed over the past few years that there are definite sex variations in cancer incidence, progression, and survival. However, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction also have a significant impact on the response to treatment of neoplastic diseases. Young women may be more protected from cancer than men because most of the proteins implicated in the regulation of redox state and mitochondrial function are under the control of sexual hormones. In this review, we describe how sexual hormones control the activity of antioxidant enzymes and mitochondria, as well as how they affect several neoplastic diseases. The molecular pathways that underlie the gender-related discrepancies in cancer that have been identified may be better understood, which may lead to more effective precision medicine and vital information on treatment options for both males and females with neoplastic illnesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0191.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: BDNF; CRP; C-peptide; leptin; pregnancy; skinfold thickness; thyroid hormones; type-1 diabetes mellitus
Online: 11 January 2023 (02:57:33 CET)
The study aimed to determine the relationship between glucose, C-peptide, BDNF, and leptin between mother and fetus and neonatal weight. Methods: In the prospective observational cohort study, we included 66 women with T1DM. According to the z-score for neonatal weight, patients were divided into Healthy weight neonates (n=42) and Overweight neonates (n=24). The maternal blood samples were taken during pregnancy and cesarean section when the umbilical vein blood sample was also withdrawn. The maternal vein sera were analyzed for fasting glucose, CRP, leptin, BDNF, TSH, FT3, and FT4. The umbilical vein sera were analyzed for glucose, C-peptide, leptin, TSH, FT3, FT4, and BDNF concentration. The neonatologist measured the skinfold thickness on the third day of neonatal life. Results: A strong correlation was confirmed between maternal and umbilical vein glucose concentration and maternal glucose and C-peptide in umbilical vein blood. A negative correlation was found between the concentration of BDNF in the umbilical vein and glucose in maternal blood. A strong correlation was seen between BMI and maternal blood leptin concentration, neonatal fat body mass, and umbilical vein blood leptin concentration. Increased odds for Overweight neonates were BMI, BDNF, and TSH in the first trimester of pregnancy. Maternal leptin concentration decreased the odds of Overweight neonates. Conclusions: Maternal glucose concentrations affect the fetus’s glucose, C-peptide, and BDNF concentrations. Leptin levels increase in maternal blood due to increased body mass index, and in the neonate, its fat body mass is responsible for increased leptin concentrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: alcohol use disorder; gut-dysfunction; gut-thyroid axis; pro-inflammatory cytokines; thyroid-associated hormones
Online: 19 September 2022 (03:09:51 CEST)
(1) Background: Heavy and chronic alcohol intake causes altered gut-permeability and dysfunction; and exhibits a unique pro-inflammatory state. Thyroid-associated hormones and proteins may be dysregulated by alcohol administration; however, the impact of altered gut-derived changes on thyroid function is unclear. This study investigated the role of gut-dysfunction and pro-inflammatory activity on thyroid function in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). (2) Methods: Male and female AUD patients (n=44) were grouped as Gr.1 with normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (n=28, 0.8≤TSH≤3 mIU/L); and Gr.2 with clinically elevated TSH levels (n=16, TSH> 3 mIU/l). Demographics, drinking measures, comprehensive metabolic panel, and candidate thyroid markers (TSH, circulating triiodothyronine [T3] and free thyroxine [fT4]) were tested. Plasma-derived gut-dysfunction associated markers (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], LPS-binding protein [LBP], and LPS-induced pathogen-associated protein [CD14]), and cytokine profile (IL1-β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, PAI-1) were analyzed and compared with the thyroid, demographic, and drinking markers. (3) Results: Both groups presented with a borderline overweight category of BMI. Gr.2 presented with numerically higher level of chronic and heavy drinking patterns vs Gr.1. fT4 levels were elevated while T3 was within normal limits in both the groups. Gut-dysfunction markers LBP and CD14 were numerically elevated in Gr.2 vs Gr.1 suggesting subtle ongoing changes; however, the difference was not statistically significant. All pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in Gr.2 among IL1-, MCP-1, and PAI-1. Gr.2 showed a strong and statistically significant effect of gut-immune-pituitary response (r=0.896, p=0.002) on TSH levels in a multivariate regression model with LBP, CD14, and PAI-1 levels as upstream variables; this assessment was not significant in Gr.1. In addition, AUROC analysis demonstrated that many of the cytokines strongly predicted TSH in Gr.2, including IL-6 (area=0.774, p<0.001) and TNF- (area=0.708, p=0.017) among others. This was not observed in Gr.1. Gr.2 demonstrated elevated fT4 as well as TSH, which suggests that there was subclinical thyroiditis with underlying CNS dysfunction and lack of a negative feedback loop. (4) Conclusions: These findings reveal the toxic effects of heavy and chronic drinking that play a pathological role in thyroid gland dysregulation employing the gut-brain axis. These results also strongly emphasize potential directions to strongly consider thyroid dysregulation in the overall medical management of AUD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ATP synthase; cancer cell; mitochondria; glioblastoma; integrin αvβ3; NADH dehydro-genase; tetrac; thyroid hormones
Online: 9 March 2022 (01:55:26 CET)
Chemically modified forms of tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), an L-thyroxine derivative, have been shown to exert their anticancer activity at plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 of tumor cells. Via a specific hormone receptor on the integrin, tetrac-based therapeutic agents modulate expression of genes relevant to cancer cell proliferation, survival and energy metabolism. P-bi-TAT, a novel bivalent tetrac-containing synthetic compound has anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo against Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and other types of human cancers. In the current study, microarray analysis was carried out on a primary culture of human GBM cells exposed to P-bi-TAT (10-6 tetrac equivalent) for 24 h. P-bi-TAT significantly affected expression of a large panel of genes implicated in cancer cell stemness, growth, survival, and angiogenesis. Recent interest elsewhere in ATP synthase as a target in GBM cells caused us to focus attention on expression of genes involved in energy metabolism. Significantly downregulated transcripts included multiple energy metabolism-related genes: electron transport chain genes ATP5A1 (ATP synthase 1), ATP51, ATP5G2, COX6B1 (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1), NDUFA8 (NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] FA8), NDUFV2I and other NDUF genes. The NDUF and ATP genes are also relevant to control of oxidative phosphorylation and transcription. Qualitatively similar actions of P-bi-TAT on expression of energy metabolism-linked genes were also detected in established human GBM and pancreatic cancer cell lines. In conclusion, acting at αvβ3 integrin, P-bi-TAT caused downregulation in human cancer cells of expression of a large number of genes involved in electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation. These observations suggest that cell surface thyroid hormone receptors on αvβ3 regulate expression of genes relevant to tumor cell stemness and energy metabolism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0495.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: appetite; energy intake; appetite-related hormones; energy balance; exercise; physical activity; energy compensation; weight control
Online: 25 July 2018 (16:20:17 CEST)
Exercise facilitates weight control, partly through effects on appetite regulation. Single bouts of exercise induce a short-term energy deficit without stimulating compensatory effects on appetite, whilst limited evidence suggests that exercise training may modify subjective and homeostatic mediators of appetite in directions associated with enhanced meal-induced satiety. However, large variability in responses exists between individuals. This article reviews the evidence relating to how adiposity, sex and habitual physical activity modulate exercise-induced appetite, energy intake and appetite-related hormone responses. The balance of evidence suggests that adiposity and sex do not modify appetite or energy intake responses to acute or chronic exercise interventions, but individuals with higher habitual physical activity levels may better adjust energy intake in response to energy balance perturbations. The effect of these individual characteristics and behaviours on appetite-related hormone responses to exercise remains equivocal. These findings support the continued promotion of exercise as a strategy for inducing short-term energy deficits irrespective of adiposity and sex, as well as the ability of exercise to positively influence energy balance over the longer term. Future well-controlled studies are required to further ascertain potential mediators of appetite responses to exercise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1793.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: fluoxetine 1; antidepressant activity 2; chronic unpredictable mild stress 3; 4-phenylpyrrolidinone-2 derivative 4; hormones 5
Online: 27 October 2023 (12:53:20 CEST)
This study investigates the therapeutic potential of new compound, potassium 2-[2-(2-oxo-4-phenylpyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamido]ethanesulfonate (Compound I), in depression. Willner's chronic unpredictable mild stress model of depression in 48 male Wistar rats was used a depression model. The rats were randomized into four groups, including an intact group, a Compound I group, a Fluoxetine group, and a control group receiving saline. Behavioral tests, such as the Porsolt forced swim test, hole-board test, elevated plus maze test, and light-dark box, were used to assess the animals' conditions. Our results demonstrated that Compound I effectively reduced the immobilization time of rats in the forced swim test, increased orientation and exploratory behavior, and decreased the latency period of going into the dark compartment compared to the control group. Hippocampal and striatal serotonin concentrations were increased in the Compound I group, and the compound also reduced the level of corticosterone in the blood plasma of rats compared to intact animals. These results suggest that Compound I has a reliable antidepressant activity, comparable to that of the reference antidepressant Fluoxetine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1747.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: extraglandular steroidogenesis; de novo steroidogenesis; steroid hormones; bone metabolism; osteoclast; osteoblast; osteocyte; bone tumors; bone metastasis; pregnenolone derivates
Online: 26 October 2023 (18:54:46 CEST)
Steroid hormone production by adrenal cortex, gonads and placenta (so called glandular steroidogenesis) is responsible for the endocrine control of the body’s homeostasis and organized by a feedback regulatory mechanism based on the hypothalamus-pituitary-steroidogenic gland axis. On the other hand, recently discovered extraglandular steroidogenesis occurring locally in different tissues is rather linked to paracrine or autocrine signaling and it is independent of the control by the hypothalamus and pituitary. Bone cells, such as bone-forming osteoblast, osteoblast-derived osteocytes and bone-resorbing osteoclasts respond to steroid hormones produced by both glandular and extraglandular steroidogenesis. Recently, new techniques to identify steroid hormones as well as synthetic steroids and steroidogenesis inhibitors have been introduced, which greatly empowered steroid hormone research. Based on recent literature and new advances in the field, here we review the local role of steroid hormones in regulating bone homeostasis and skeletal lesion formation. The novel idea of extraglandular steroidogenesis occurring within the skeletal system raises the possibility of the development of new therapies for the treatment of bone diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0369.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: depression; gut-brain axis; motilin; serotonin; gamma-aminobutyric acid; gonadal hormones; hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis; antidepressants; macrolide antibiotics
Online: 18 August 2021 (07:39:37 CEST)
Recent research has identified the gut-brain axis as a key mechanistic pathway and potential therapeutic target in depression. In this paper, the potential role of gut hormones as potential treatments or predictors of response in depression is examined, with specific reference to the peptide hormone motilin. This possibility is explored through two methods: (a) a conceptual review of the possible links between motilin and depression, including evidence from animal and human research as well as clinical trials, and (b) an analysis of the relationship between a functional polymorphism (rs2281820) of the motilin (MLN) gene and cross-national variations in the prevalence of depression. It was observed that (a) there are several plausible mechanisms, including interactions with diet, monoamine, and neuroendocrine pathways, to suggest that motilin may be relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of depression, and (b) there was a significant correlation between rs2281820 allele frequencies and the prevalence of depression after correcting for multiple confounding factors. These results suggest that further evaluation of the utility of motilin and related gut peptides as markers of antidepressant response is required, and that these molecular pathways represent potential future mechanisms for antidepressant drug development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: androgens; athletic performance; cross-hormone therapy; gender dysphoria; muscle; sex hormones; sporting policies; strength; transgender men; transgender women
Online: 13 May 2020 (11:25:23 CEST)
Sex dimorphism starts during early embryogenesis and is further manifested in response to hormones during puberty. As this leads to physical divergence that is measurably different between sexes, males enjoy physical performance advantages over females within competitive sport. While this advantage is the underlying basis of the segregation into male and female sporting categories, these sex-based categories do not account for transgender persons who experience incongruence between their biological sex and their experienced gender identity. Accordingly, the International Olympic Committee determined criteria by which a transgender woman may be eligible to compete in the female category, requiring total serum testosterone levels to be suppressed below 10 nmol/L for at least 12 months prior to and during competition. Whether this regulation removes the male performance advantage has not been collectively scrutinized. Here, we aim to review how differences in biological characteristics between biological males and females affect sporting performance and assess whether evidence exists to support the assumption that testosterone suppression in transgender women removes the male performance advantage. In this review, we report that the performance gap between males and females amounts to 10-50% depending on sport. The performance gap is more pronounced in sporting activities relying on muscle mass and strength, particularly in the upper body. Longitudinal studies examining the effects of testosterone suppression on muscle mass and strength in transgender women consistently show very modest changes, where the loss of lean body mass, muscle area and strength typically amounts to approximately 5% after 1 year of treatment. Thus, current evidence shows that the biological advantage enjoyed by transgender women is only minimally reduced when testosterone is suppressed. Sports organizations may therefore be compelled to reassess current policies regarding participation of transgender women in the female category of sport.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0602.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Thyroid hormones; thyroid hormone transporters; MCT8; OATP1C1; human; monkey; basal ganglia; motor thalamus; MSN cells; nucleus basalis of Meynert
Online: 20 April 2023 (03:25:07 CEST)
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1C1 (OATP1C1) are thyroid hormones (TH) transmembrane transporters relevant for the availability of TH in neural cells, crucial for their proper development and function. Mutations in MCT8 or OATP1C1 result in severe disorders with dramatic movement disability related to alterations in basal ganglia motor circuits. Mapping the expression of MCT8/OATP1C1 in those circuits is necessary to explain their involvement in motor control. We studied the distribution of both transporters in the neuronal subpopulations that configure the direct and indirect basal ganglia motor circuits using immunohistochemistry and double/multiple labeling immunofluorescence for TH transporters and neuronal biomarkers. We found their expression in the medium-sized spiny neurons of the striatum (the receptor neurons of the corticostriatal pathway), and in various types of its local microcircuitry interneurons, including the cholinergic. We also demonstrate the presence of both transporters in projection neurons of intrinsic and output nuclei of the basal ganglia, motor thalamus and nucleus basalis of Meynert, suggesting an important role of MCT8/OATP1C1 for modulating the motor system. Our findings suggest that a lack of function of these transporters in the basal ganglia circuits would significantly impact motor system modulation, leading to clinically severe movement impairment.