ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0255.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: dog theft; pet theft; dogs; pets, crime; animal geography; GIS
Online: 28 March 2019 (06:40:57 CET)
Dogs are considered property under UK law, while current discourses of pet ownership place canine companions as part of an extended family. This means sentences for those who steal dogs are not reflective of a dogs’ sentience and agency, rather reflecting the same charges for those who steal a laptop or wallet. This is particularly problematic as dog theft is currently on the rise in England and Wales and led to public calls to change the law. Recognizing that a more robust analysis of dog theft crime statistics is required, we gathered dog theft data for 2015, 2016 and 2017 from 37 of 44 police forces through FOI requests. This paper uses this data to examine how dog theft crime statistics are constructed; assesses the strengths and weaknesses of this data; and categorizes, maps and measures dog theft changes temporally per police force in England and Wales. Our findings reveal there has been an increase in dog theft crimes, 1,294 in 2015, 1,525 in 2016 (+17.85%), and 1,678 in 2017 (+10.03%); and a decrease in court charges related to dog theft crimes, 62 (4.7%) in 2015, 48 (3.14%) in 2016, 37 (2.2%) in 2017. There were police force inconsistencies in recording dog theft crime which meant some data was unusable or could not be accessed or analysed. There is a need for a qualitative study to understand dog theft crime in different areas, and standardised approach to recording the theft of a dog by all forces across England and Wales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0080.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: One Health; shelter dog; dog adoption; dog well-being; dog behavior
Online: 6 May 2022 (13:55:36 CEST)
Today, the kennel is considered one of the crucial concerns of the human-animal relationship, since it is very often regarded as animal dump where dogs exile, thus representing a burden on society. Therefore, drawing up strategies for a new “kennel conception”, as an added value for human society, environment, and dogs is still an unmet need. Here, we described the activities of a shelter dog in southern Italy, which faithfully meets criteria aimed at One Health perspective. It normally relies on an initial careful assessment by veterinary behaviorist, in order to guarantee the most suitable life conditions for the animals in the kennels, increase the chances of adoption and enroll them in projects tailored to their predispositions. Accordingly, dogs housed there are normally included in training courses to increase the skills to be used in different human social contexts, like support to the inmates, rescue in the rubble, animal-assisted interventions, as well as zooanthropology educational programs. The main strength for this groundbreaking shelter relies on the environmental protection schedule, where the purposes, employing technically and economically sustainable tools, point towards the continuous improvement and minimization of the environmental impact, promoting joint integrative projects for a sustainable One Health framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: dog-mediated rabies; transects; dog ownership; mass dog vaccination
Online: 5 July 2018 (08:59:58 CEST)
Estimates of dog population sizes are a prerequisite for delivering effective canine rabies control. However, dog population sizes are generally unknown in most rabies-endemic areas. Several approaches have been used to estimate dog populations but without rigorous evaluation. We compare post-vaccination transects, household surveys and school-based surveys to determine which most precisely estimates dog population sizes. These methods were implemented across 28 districts in southeast Tanzania, in conjunction with mass dog vaccinations, covering a range of settings, livelihoods and religious backgrounds. Transects were the most precise method, revealing highly variable patterns of dog ownership, with human: dog ratios ranging from 12.4:1 to 181.3:1 across districts. Both household and school-based surveys generated imprecise and sometimes inaccurate estimates, possible due to low sample size. Transect data were subsequently used to develop a predictive model for estimating dog populations in districts lacking transect data. We predicted a dog population of 2,316,000 (95% CI 1,573,000-3,122,000) in Tanzania and an average human: dog ratio of 20.7:1. Our modelling approach has the potential be applied to predicting dog population size in other districts where mass dog vaccination is carried out, given census and livelihood data. We recommend transects as a rapid and effective method to refine dog population estimates across large geographic areas and guide dog vaccination programs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0052.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: animal-assisted interventions; child development; dog bites; dog-borne zoonoses; dog ownership; dog welfare; human-animal interactions
Online: 6 October 2022 (08:13:49 CEST)
Our wellbeing is greatly influenced by our childhood and adolescence, and the relationships that we form during those phases of our development. The human-dog bond started thousands of years ago. The higher prevalence of dog ownership around the world, especially in households including children along with the growing number of people studying dogs most likely explain the growing literature focusing on child-dog interactions. We review the potential effects of child-dog interactions on the physical, mental, and social wellbeing of both species. A scoping search of the SCOPUS database found several hundred documents meeting selection criteria. It allowed us to define the numerous ways in which children and dogs can interact, be it neutral (e.g., sharing a common area), positive (e.g., petting), or negative (e.g., biting). Then, we found evidence for an association between interacting with dogs during childhood and an array of health and mental benefits like stress relief and the development of empathy. Walking a dog and playing with one are perfect physical activity opportunities. Additionally, interacting with a dog can help lower stress and may have a role in the development of empathy. Nonetheless, a number of detrimental outcomes have also been identified in both humans and dogs. Children are the most at-risk population regarding dog bites and dog-borne zoonoses, which may lead to a subsequent fear of dogs or even death. Moreover, pet bereavement is generally inevitable when living with a canine companion and should not be trivialized. In terms of dogs, children sometimes take part in caretaking behaviors toward them which include going on walks. They are opportunities for dogs to relieve themselves outside, but also to exercise and socialize. In contrast, a lack of physical activity can lead to the onset of obesity. Dogs may present greater levels of stress when in the presence of children. Finally, the welfare of assistance, therapy, and free-roaming dogs remains underexplored. Overall, the study of the effects, positive as well as negative, on both species still requires further development. We call for more longitudinal studies and hope for cross-cultural research in the future in order to better understand the impact child-dog interactions might have.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0821.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antioxidant; cryopreservation; dog; resveratrol; sperm
Online: 31 December 2020 (15:31:06 CET)
Antioxidants have multiple protective roles in cells and can be used as a supplement to protect cells against cryopreservation-induced detrimental effects, including protecting sperm fertility quality. The antioxidant resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene; RSV) has been shown to be a protective supplement for the cryopreservation of animal sperm, including human sperm. In this study, we assessed the effect of RSV supplementation on canine sperm cryopreservation. Semen was collected from four dogs and the effect of different concentrations of RSV (0, 100, 200, and 400 µM) on post-thaw quality of sperm was examined. After thawing, sperm motility was assessed using computer aided sperm analysis, and the structural integrity of the plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin were examined, as well as mitochondrial activity and gene expression were assessed. Dog sperm cryopreserved with 200 µM RSV showed significant improvement in motility and viability following thawing compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, RSV-supplemented samples showed significantly higher numbers of sperm with an intact plasma membrane, active mitochondria, and structural integrity of acrosomes and chromatin than that of control samples (p < 0.05). Furthermore, gene expression showed that RSV supplemented samples showed lower expression of pro-apoptotic (BAX) oxidative stress-related (ROMO1) and oxidative induced DNA damage repair (OGG1) whereas higher expression levels of anti‐apoptotic (BCL2) protamine-2 (PRM2), protamine-3 (PRM3) and sperm acrosome‐associated (SPACA3) genes than control. Our results suggest that RSV, at its optimum concentration, can be efficiently used as an alternative antioxidant in the cryopreservation of dog sperm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0061.v3
Online: 2 February 2018 (07:27:47 CET)
While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analysed advertisements (ads) on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats, gumtree.com.au. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on February 7, 16 and 24, 2016 and cats on February 9, 19 and 26, 2016 with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on gumtree.com.au per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using gumtree.com.au. The dog owners used gumtree.com.au because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4), and; they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). For cat owners it was because they had originally got the cat on gumtree.com.au (n = 2); they use gumtree.com.au for other things, and it works (n = 2), and; they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). The data collected will be valuable for implementation of policy and interventions to protect the welfare of un-wanted dogs and cats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: intestinal organoids; dog; practical applications
Online: 9 August 2016 (11:38:04 CEST)
Recent technical advances in the stem cell field have enabled the in vitro generation of complex structures resembling whole organs termed organoids. Most of these approaches employ culture systems that allow stem cell-derived or tissue progenitor cells to self-organize into three-dimensional (3D)-structures. Since organoids can be grown from various species, organs and from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells, they create significant prospects for modelling development and diseases, for toxicology and drug discovery studies, and in the field of regenerative medicine. Here, we report on intestinal stem cells, organoid culture, organoid disease modeling, transplantation, current and future uses of this exciting new insight model to veterinary medicine field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: MicroRNAs; next generation sequencing; dog; melanoma
Online: 27 August 2019 (16:16:55 CEST)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation contribute the cancer pathogenesis. However, the miRNA profile of canine oral melanoma (COM), one of the frequent malignant melanoma in dog is still unrevealed. The aim of this study is to reveal the miRNA profile in canine oral melanoma. MicroRNAs profile of oral tissues from normal healthy dogs and COM patients were compared by next-generation sequencing. Along with tumour suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs), we report 30 oncogenic miRNAs in COM. Expression of miRNAs were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Pathway analysis showed that deregulated miRNAs impact on cancer and signalling pathways. Three oncogenic miRNAs targets (miR-450b, 301a, and 223) from human study also were down-regulated in COM and had significant negative co-relation with their respective miRNA. Furthermore, we found that miR-450b expression is higher in metastatic cells and regulated MMP9 expression through a PAX9-BMP4-MMP9 axis. In silico analysis indicated that miR-126, miR-20b, and miR-106a regulated the highest numbers of differentially expressed transcription factors in respect to human melanoma. Chromosomal enrichment analysis revealed the X chromosome was enriched with oncogenic miRNAs. We comprehensively analyzed the miRNA’s profile in COM which will be a useful resource for developing therapeutic interventions in both species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0370.v1
Online: 22 December 2021 (14:13:55 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of DìRelaxTM, a nutraceutical formulated to reduce anxiety in dogs. The CBARQ questionnaire, some clinical investigations, and the impossible task test were performed in dogs before and after the treatment. Results showed an ameliorative effect on the performances of treated dogs during the solvable phases, with a significant decrease of the time needed to solve the task. No behavioral difference was found between treated and untreated anxious dogs during the unsolvable phase. According to the results from the C-BARQ questionnaire, some of the behaviors appear improved. In general, this study suggests that DiRelaxTM can be safely administered with no adverse effects and can exercise a beneficial effect on anxious dogs by enhancing their cognitive abilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0302.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: overimitation; dogs; affiliation; relationship; dog-human interaction
Online: 20 December 2021 (10:07:01 CET)
Overimitation, the copying of causally irrelevant or non-functional actions, is well-known from humans but completely absent in other primates. Recent studies from our lab have provided evidence for overimitation in canines. Previously, we found that half of tested pet dogs copied their human caregiver's irrelevant action, while only few did so when the action was demonstrated by an unfamiliar experimenter. Therefore, we hypothesized that dogs show overimitation as a result of socio-motivational grounds. To test this more specifically, here we investigated how the relationship with the caregiver influenced the eagerness to overimitate. Given the high variability in the tendency to overimitate their caregiver, we hypothesized that not only familiarity, but also relationship quality influences whether dogs faithfully copy their caregiver. For this purpose, we measured on the one hand the overimitation tendency (with the same test as in the two studies before) and on the other hand the relationship quality between the dogs and their caregivers. Although not significant, results revealed that dogs who overimitated seemed to show more referential and affiliative behaviours towards the owner (like gazing, synchronization and greeting) than dogs who showed less or no copying of the irrelevant action. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0197.v1
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:53:05 CET)
Gelatinization of starch content in pet foods can be impacted by several factors including moisture, retention time, and ingredients used. Starch gelatinization has been associated with digestibility but isn’t well studied using ingredients common in non-traditional canine diets. The objective of this research was to examine the impacts of dietary ingredient profile (traditional vs non-traditional) and assess impacts to total starch content and starch gelatinization. Traditional diets (n = 10) utilizing meat-based ingredients including chicken, chicken by-product meal, meat and bone meal and plant-based ingredients including rice, barley, oats, and corn were examined in comparison with non-traditional diets (n = 10) utilizing meat-based ingredients including alligator, buffalo, venison, kangaroo, squid, quail, rabbit, rabbit and salmon along with plant-based ingredients including tapioca, peas, chickpeas, lentils, potato, and pumpkin. Representative samples were collected via grab sample technique (5 samples/diet) and were assessed for total starch content as well as percent starch gelatinization. Difference between ingredient type was assessed using a Students t-test in SAS 9.4. Significance was set at P < 0.05. Distribution of total starch content based on ingredient type (traditional vs non-traditional) revealed that mean total starch content was higher in traditional diets as compared to non-traditional diets (P <0.0001). Conversely, starch gelatinization was found to be higher in non-traditional diets (P < 0.0001). Total starch content and total gelatinized starch had a strong negative correlation (P < 0.01) in traditional diets, though no correlation was observed in non-traditional diets. This negative correlation indicates a decrease in total gelatinized starch associated with increased total starch content. These novel data reveal important differences between starch content and gelatinization and could impact manufacturing processes for ingredient types as well as feeding recommendations. Unpredicted variation between ingredient formulations could potentially lead to decreased digestibility and absorption and may result in nutrient deficiencies.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0715.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dog; ehrlichiosis; ELISA; Tick-borne; TRP19; TRP36
Online: 29 September 2020 (14:38:27 CEST)
Tandem repeat proteins of 36 kDa (TRP36) are major immunoreactive proteins of Ehrlichia canis, which have been used in the serological diagnosis of different genotypes of the microorganism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of the American (USTRP36), Brazilian (BrTRP36) and Costa Rican (CRTRP36) genotypes of E. canis in Brazil, using ELISA assays. Serum samples of 815 dogs from 49 cities from all over Brazil were analyzed. Our results showed that 33.9% of the samples were reactive to the USTRP36 genotype and 32.6% to the BrTRP36 genotype. The two genotypes appeared to occur equally throughout Brazil, although the frequency of seropositivity was lower in the south than in the country’s other regions. Co-positivity for the American and Brazilian genotypes was also observed in 16% of samples. A few dogs (n=5; 0.6%) reactive to E. canis-TRP36 genotype (CRTRP36) were also detected in the northeast and southern regions. We conclude that the American and Brazilian genotypes of E. canis are distributed evenly in Brazil, especially in the tropical region, while the temperate region in the south presented the lowest prevalence values. This study offers the first report of dogs seropositive for the Costa Rican genotype in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: dog; ST131; ESBL; fecal colonization; Escherichia coli
Online: 18 September 2020 (07:15:23 CEST)
Background: Most drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates in dogs come from diseased dogs. Prior to this study, the prevalence and risk factors of fecal carriage drug-resistant E. coli and epidemic clone sequence type (ST) 131 (including subtypes) isolates in dogs were unknown. Methods: Rectal swabs were used for E. coli isolation from 299 dogs in a veterinary teaching hospital in Taiwan. Antibiotic resistance and multiplex PCR analyses of E. coli for major STs were performed. Result: There were 43.1% cefazolin-resistant, 22.1% fluoroquinolone-resistant, and 9.4% extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli in our cohort. In the phylogenetic study, B2 was the predominant group (30.1%). The cefazolin-resistant group and ciprofloxacin-resistant group had greater antibiotic exposure in the last 14 days (P < 0.05). The age, sex, and dietary habits of the antibiotic-resistant and -susceptible groups were similar. In the seven isolates of ST131 in fecal colonization, the most predominant subtypes were FimH41 and FimH22. Conclusion: Recent antibiotic exposure was related to the fecal carriage of antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolates. Three major subtypes (FimH41, H22, and H30) of ST131 can thus be found in fecal carriage in dogs in Taiwan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0082.v3
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: dog; prostatic tissue; extracellular matrix; picrosirius; immunohistochemistry
Online: 21 February 2019 (06:52:00 CET)
This study aimed to investigate Coll-I, III, IV and elastin in canine normal prostate and PC, using Picrosirius red (PSR) and Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. Eight normal prostates and 10 PC from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were used. Collagen fibers area was analyzed with ImageJ software. The distribution of Coll-I and Coll-III was approximately 80% around prostatic ducts and acini, 15% among smooth muscle and 5% surrounding blood vessels, in both normal prostate and PC. There was a higher median area of Coll-III in PC, when compared to normal prostatic tissue (p=0.001 for PSR and p= 0.05 for IHC). Immunostaining for Coll-IV was observed in the basal membrane of prostate acini, smooth muscle, blood vessels, and nerve fibers of normal and PC samples. Although there was no difference in Coll-IV area between normal tissue and PC, tumors with Gleason score 10 showed absence of Coll-IV, when compared to scores 6 and 8 (p=0.0095). Elastic fibers were found in the septa dividing the lobules and around the prostatic acini of normal samples, and was statistically higher in PC, compared to normal tissue (p=0.00229). Investigation of ECM components brings new information and should be correlated with prognosis in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cat; cutaneous lymphocytosis; dog; immunohistochemistry; lymphoma; PARR; skin
Online: 14 December 2021 (13:01:19 CET)
Cutaneous lymphocytosis (CL) is an uncommon and controversial lymphoproliferative disorder described in dogs and cats. CL is generally characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation and histological features that may overlap with epitheliotropic lymphoma. Therefore, its neoplastic or reactive nature is still debated. Here, we describe clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and clonality features of a retrospective case series of 19 cats and 10 dogs with lesions histologically compatible with CL. In both species, alopecia, erythema and scales were the most frequent clinical signs. Histologically, a dermal infiltrate of small to medium-sized lymphocytes, occasionally extending to the subcutis, was always identified. Conversely, when present, epitheliotropism was generally mild. In cats, the infiltrate was consistently CD3+; in dogs, a mixture of CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes was observed only in 4 cases. The infiltrate was polyclonal in all cats, while BCR and TCR clonal rearrangements were identified in dogs. Overall, cats had a long-term survival (median overall survival=1080 days) regardless of the treatment received, while dogs showed a shorter and variable clinical course, with no evident associations with clinicopathological features. In conclusion, our results support a reactive nature of the disease in cats, associated with prolonged survival; despite a similar histological picture, canine CL was associated with a more heterogeneous lymphocytic infiltrate, clonality results, and response to treatment.
Online: 18 March 2021 (10:56:35 CET)
We report the first detection of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus from a dog in Connecticut during February 2021. Complete genome sequencing and phylo-genetic analysis of the hCoV-19/USA/CT-CVMDL-Dog-1/2021 (CT_Dog/2021) virus were con-ducted to identify the origin and lineage of the virus. The CT_Dog/2021 virus belonged to the GH/B1.2. genetic lineage and was genetically close to SARS-CoV-2 identified from humans in the U.S. during the winter of 2020-2021. However, it was not related to other SARS-CoV-2 identified from companion animals in the U.S. It contained both D614G in spike and P323L in nsp12 substitutions which have become the dominant mutations in the United States. The continued sporadic detections of SARS-CoV-2 in companion animals warrant public health concerns about their potential to become a new reservoir species of SARS-CoV-2.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: female dog; cell culture; mammary cancer; veterinary; oncology
Online: 15 April 2020 (07:59:18 CEST)
Mammary neoplasm affects a population of intact and elderly female dogs and 50% are malignant. In order to study this disease, cell culture is as a promising preclinical model, creating the opportunity to deposit cell lines at a cell bank, allowing a great reproducibility of the assays and making the validation of the results more reliable. Another important aspect is the possibility to establish models for better understanding tumour characteristics, such as vasculogenic mimicry. Due the importance of cancer cell lines in preclinical models, this study aimed to establish and characterize primary cell lines from canine mammary gland tumours according to immunophenotype and tumorigenicity, and with its ability to form vasculogenic mimicry-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Cell cultures were evaluated for morphology, phenotype, vasculogenic mimicry and tumorigenicity abilities. We collected 17 primary mammary carcinoma and 3 metastasis and had a satisfactory result in 10 of them. All cell lines presented spindle shape or polygonal morphology and expressed concomitant pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 8/18. Four cell lines had vasculogenic mimicry ability in vitro and two of them showed in vivo tumorigenic potential and forming VM in the xenotransplant tumour. Cell characterization of those lines will help to create a database for more knowledge of mammary carcinomas in dogs, including studies of tumour behaviour and new therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: antibody titre; vaccination; dog; canine distemper virus; Jos
Online: 20 September 2016 (10:14:26 CEST)
Determination of antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos North and South local Government Areas of Plateau State was carried out by collection of sera of vaccinated dogs and administration of well-structured questionnaires to dog owners. The samples collected were analyzed using the immune-blot ELISA Kit to determining the antibody titre (immunoglobulin G). It indicated that dogs vaccinated against the disease mounted adequate protective immunity. The result revealed that 54 (90.0%) of the sampled dogs have protective immunity, with those given more than one dose having higher level of protective antibody. Statistically, the result showed that the antibody titre did not differ significantly in relation to immunity and sex, breed, age and location but significant difference was seen in relation to number of primary vaccination. The result also revealed that those dogs that received booster doses (secondary vaccination) had more protective antibody. The study was aimed at evaluating the antibody titre of dogs vaccinated against canine distemper in Jos, Plateau State.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0617.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: refinement; pain; nociceptive threshold; horse; cat; dog; sheep; camel
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:20:22 CEST)
Nociceptive threshold (NT) testing is widely used for the study of pain and its alleviation. The end point is a normal behavioural response which may be affected by restraint or unfamiliar surroundings leading to erroneous data. Remotely controlled thermal and mechanical NT testing systems were developed to allow free movement during testing and were evaluated in cats, dogs, sheep, horses and camels. Thermal threshold (TT) testing incorporated a heater and temperature sensor held against the animal’s shaved skin. Mechanical threshold (MT) testing incorporated a pneumatic actuator attached to a limb containing a 1 - 2mm radiused pin pushed against the skin. Both stimuli were driven from battery powered control units attached on the animal’s back, controlled remotely via infra-red radiation from a hand held component. Threshold reading was held automatically and displayed digitally on the unit. The system was failsafe with a safety cutout at a preset temperature or force as appropriate. The animals accepted the equipment and behaved normally in their home environment enabling recording of reproducible TT (38.5 – 49.8°C) and MT (2.7 – 10.1N); precise values depended on species, the individual and the stimulus characteristics. Remote controlled NT threshold testing appears to be a viable refinement for pain research.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0368.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Raccoon dog parvovirus; Epidemiology; VP2 gene; NS1 gene; Evolutionary analysis.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:52:50 CET)
To understand the epidemiological status of parvovirus (RDPV) in raccoon dogs, intestinal tissues of raccoon dogs in Liaoning Province of China were collected and evaluated. Three strains of raccoon dog parvovirus were successfully isolated from 12 intestinal tissues. Nine samples were positive for RDPV, with a positive rate of 75%. The VP2 and NS1 genes of the viruses were cloned and subjected to sequencing for analysis. The nucleotide sequences of the VP2 gene showed 99.94% similarity to the CPV-2a/Racoon dog/QHD/2/19(MT183665) strain, and the nucleotide sequences of the NS1 gene showed 99.75% similarity to RDPV-DP1 NS1(MF996335) strain. The three isolates belonging to the CPV-2a cluster were further confirmed by amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. Our study enriched the epidemiological data of parvovirus in raccoon dogs in the investigating region, and the results will be helpful for future investigation of the variations and transmission of raccoon dog parvoviruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0488.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: neurodegeneration; serum; spinal cord; dog; Degenerative myelopathy; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:26:13 CEST)
Blood-based biomarkers are much-needed diagnostic and prognostic tools for ALS. Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is recognized animal disease model to study the biology of human ALS. Serum derived exosomes are potential carrier that transport intercellular hormone-like messengers, together with their stability as carrier of proteins and RNA, make them ideal as biomarkers for a variety of diseases and biological processes. We study exosomal TDP-43 pattern as a surrogate biomarker that reflects biochemical changes in central nervous system. We isolated exosomes from canine serum using commercial exosome isolation reagents. TDP-43 and SOD1 profile in spinal cord homogenate lysate and that of serum-derived exosomes were found elevated in dogs with DM. We conclude levels of spinal cord TDP-43 and serum-derived exomes were similar in TDP-43 profiling, which warrant further investigation of disease sensitivity and specificity for establishing as a blood-based biomarker in canine DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0561.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pseudomonas; antibiotic resistance; dog; infection; skin, otitis externa, perianal abscess.
Online: 21 April 2021 (09:02:48 CEST)
Treating infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is increasingly difficult due to high antimicrobial resistance, materialized through the presence of multiple resistance strains, as well as due to rapid development of resistance throughout treatment. The present survey was conducted to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogens, in two University Veterinary hospitals from different geographical regions of Romania (i.e., south-west - Timisoara county and north-east – Iasi county) involved in canine superficial infections. A total of 142 swab specimens were collected from dogs with superficial infections (superficial skin infections, otitis externa, perianal abscess), with the aim of assessing the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, based on phenotypic and molecular characterization. Fifty-eight samples (40.84%; 58/142) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (according to their confirmed morphological and molecular features). Susceptibility to usual antibiotics used in the treatment of canine skin conditions was tested for all Pseudomonas strains that were isolated from canine superficial infections, using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Drug resistance was observed in the case of all tested antibiotics. The susceptibility rate of P. aeruginosa strains that were tested in this study was in the following order: ampicillin sulbactam (55.17%; 32/58), followed by ceftazidime (53.44%; 31/58), aztreonam (51.72%; 30/58), amikacin (44.82%; 26/58), azithromycin (41.37%; 24/58), gentamycin (37.93%; 22/58), cefepime (36.20%; 21/58) meropenem (25.86%; 13/58), piperacillin-tazobactam (25.86%; 13/58) imipenem (22.41%; 13/158), ciprofloxacin (17.24%; 10/58) tobramycin (8.62; 5/58), and polymyxin B (1.72; 1/58) respectively. The results highlight the importance of antibiotic susceptibility testing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from dogs with superficial infections, in order to use an adequate treatment plan for the management of the skin condition, and other pathology (otitis externa and perianal abscesses).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0702.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dog; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; PD-1; PD-L1; RNAscope
Online: 28 May 2021 (13:26:41 CEST)
Immune checkpoints are a set of molecules dysregulated in several human and canine cancers and aberrations of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis are often correlated with a worse prognosis. To gain insight into the role of immune checkpoints in canine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (cDLBCL), we investigated PD-L1, PD-1 and CD8A expression by RNAscope. Results were correlated with several clinico-pathological features, including treatment, Ki67 index and outcome. A total of 33 dogs treated with CHOP (n=12) or CHOP plus APAVAC (n= 21) were included. PD-L1 signal was diffusely distributed among neoplastic cells, whereas PD-1 and CD8A were localized in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. However, PD-1 mRNA was also retrieved in tumor cells. An association between PD-L1 and PD-1 scores was identified and a higher risk of relapse and lymphoma-related death was found in dogs treated with chemotherapy alone and dogs with higher PD-L1 and PD-1 scores. The correlation between PD-L1 and PD-1 is in line with the mechanism of immune checkpoints in cancers, where neoplastic cells overexpress PD-L1 that, in turn, binds PD-1 receptors in activated TIL. We also found that Ki67 index was significantly increased in dogs with the highest PD-L1 and PD-1 scores, indirectly suggesting a role in promoting tumor proliferation. Finally, even if the biological consequence of PD-1+ tumor cells is unknown, our findings suggest that PD-1 intrinsic expression in cDLBCL might contribute to tumor growth escaping adaptive immunity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0238.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: dog domestication; human self-domestication; aggression; prosociality; language evolution; cognitive disorders
Online: 15 March 2020 (02:24:16 CET)
Different factors seemingly account for the emergence of present-day languages in our species. Human self-domestication has been recently invoked as one important force favouring language complexity mostly via a cultural mechanism. As a consequence, evolutionary changes impacting on aggression levels are expected to have fostered this process. Here we hypothesise about a positive effect of dog-human interactions on aggression management and more generally, on our self-domestication, ultimately, contributing to aspects of language evolution. We review evidence of diverse sort (ethological mostly, but also archaeological, genetic, and physiological) supporting a positive feedback loop between dog domestication and human-self domestication that might have favoured the mechanisms promoting structural complexity in human languages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: dog; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; IL-1R8; TLR7; TLR9; qRT-PCR
Online: 11 April 2022 (09:15:27 CEST)
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common haematological malignancy in humans and dogs. Several studies disclosed some similarities between the two species, including the constitutive activation of NF- κB pathway as a fundamental underlying pathogenetic mecha-nism. In humans, downregulation of IL-1R8 is implicated in DLBCL development, but its role in dogs has not been explored so far. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of this tumor in dogs, we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of IL-1R8 in 12 hyperplastic lymph nodes ob-tained from dogs not bearing tumors and from 50 dogs with DLBCL. Moreover, we analysed through qRT-PCR the expression of TLR7, TLR9, MYC, and p52 genes that are known to be in-volved in the IL-1R8 regulatory network. IL-1R8 and p52 were downregulated in DLBCLs com-pared to control lymph nodes (p<0.001), while a higher expression of TLR7, TLR9 and MYC was observed in tumors (p<0.01). Immunohistochemistry confirmed gene expression results, reveal-ing a significantly lower IL-1R8 staining score in DLBCLs compared to control lymph nodes (p<0.0001). Taken together, these results suggest that IL-1R8 downregulation may represent one of the mechanisms driving DLBCL pathogenesis in dogs, mainly through dysregulation of the Toll-like/Interleukin receptors signalling cascade and the aberrant activation of classical NF-κB pathway.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: mast cell tumor; dog; canine; proliferation indices; grade; prednisone; Ki67; AgNOR; mitotic count; mitotic index
Online: 9 May 2022 (05:22:20 CEST)
Glucocorticoid administration is a common clinical practice in attempt to decrease inflammation associated with, and improve resectability of, canine mast cell tumors (MCTs). However, the impact of neoadjuvant glucocorticoids on histological features and proliferation indices of canine MCTs is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in tumor grade, mitotic count, Ki67, AgNOR, and AgNORxKi67 scores following short-course, anti-inflammatory neoadjuvant prednisone in canine patients with MCTs. This was a prospective, single-arm pilot study. Client-owned dogs with treatment-naïve, cytologically-confirmed MCTs were enrolled. Patients underwent an initial incisional biopsy followed by a 10-14 day course of anti-inflammatory prednisone, and surgical resection. All histological samples were randomized, masked, and evaluated by a single pathologist. Unstained paired pre- and post-treatment samples were submitted to a commercial laboratory for Ki67 and AgNOR immunohistochemical analysis. There were 11 dogs enrolled with 11 tumors. There were no statistical differences between the pre- and post-treatment histological parameters of mitotic index, Ki67, AgNOR, or Ki67xAgNOR. There were no clinically-significant alterations between pre-treatment and post-treatment in the assignment of tumor grades. A short-course of anti-inflammatory prednisone does not appear to alter the histological parameters that affect grade-determination, nor significantly alter the proliferation indices in canine MCTs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0110.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: associative learning; molecular circuits; synthetic biology; mathematical modeling; Hill equation; Pavlov’s dog; reinforcement; dissociation; non-dimensionalization
Online: 7 July 2022 (04:38:20 CEST)
The development of synthetic biology has enabled us to make massive progress on biotechnology and to approach research questions from a brand new perspective. In particular, the design and study of gene regulatory networks in vitro, in vivo and in silico, have played an increasingly indispensable role in understanding and controlling biological phenomena. Among them, it is of great interest to understand how associative learning is formed at the molecular circuit level. Noticeably, mathematical models have been increasingly used to predict the behaviors of molecular circuits. The Fernando’s model, which is thought to be one of the first works in this line of research using the Hill equation, attempted to design a synthetic circuit that mimics Hebbian learning in the neural network architecture. In this article, we carry out in-depth computational analysis of the model and demonstrate that the reinforcement effect can be achieved by choosing the proper parameter values. We also construct a novel circuit that can demonstrate forced dissociation, which was not observed in the Fernando’s model. Our work can be readily used as reference for synthetic biologists who consider implementing the circuits of this kind in biological systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0584.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS); retinal degeneration; primary cilia; ciliopathy; dog; BBS8; TTC8; progressive retinal atrophy (PRA); retinitis pigmentosa
Online: 26 August 2020 (12:24:47 CEST)
In golden retriever dogs, a 1 bp deletion in the canine TTC8 gene has been shown to cause progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), the canine equivalent of retinitis pigmentosa. In humans, TTC8 is also implicated in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). To investigate if the affected dogs only exhibit a non-syndromic PRA or develop a syndromic ciliopathy similar to human BBS, we recruited ten affected dogs to the study. The progression of PRA for two of the dogs was followed for two years, and a rigorous clinical characterization allowed a careful comparison with primary and secondary characteristics of human BBS. In addition to PRA, the dogs showed a spectrum of clinical and morphological signs similar to primary and secondary characteristics of human BBS patients, such as obesity, renal anomalies, sperm defects, and anosmia. We used Oxford Nanopore long-read cDNA sequencing to characterize retinal full-length TTC8 transcripts in affected and non-affected dogs, the results of which suggest that three isoforms are transcribed in the retina, and the 1 bp deletion is a loss-of-function mutation, resulting in a canine form of Bardet-Biedl syndrome with heterogeneous clinical signs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: spinal disc herniation, dog, NADPH diaphorase, the aging-related NADPH diaphorase body, megaloneurite, homogeneous formazan globule, intermedial collateral pathway
Online: 19 February 2020 (11:47:26 CET)
Neuronal lesion or injury is a traditional approach to investigate neural circuit. Is any new neural pathway or new neurodegeneration related central nerve system injury? Spinal disc herniation can cause the spinal cord injury. However, the histological examination is still lack. It happened that a case of spinal disc herniation of a 10-year old dog was examined with NADPH diaphorase (N-d) histology. We did not find the N-d neurodegenerative aberrant in the tissue of the mid-rostral lumber segment besides the metamorphoses by the compression of the disc herniation. However, the severe neuropathological changes majorly occurred in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We found more diverse neurodegenerative alterations: the aging-related N-d body (ANB), megaloneurite and N-d homogeneous formazan globule in the lumbosacral spinal cord. We also found that a new circuit pathway (intermedial collateral pathway) showed by a megaloneurite between the lateral collateral pathway and the medial collateral pathway. The enormous notch caused by spinal disc herniation located at the mid-rostral lumber segments. The aging-related neurodegeneration occurred the specific lumbosacral segments. The homogeneous formazan globule was round or oval homogeneous N-d positivity which distributed in the gray matter and dorsal column. In the medulla oblongata, ANBs were revealed in the gracile nucleus, nucleus reticularis lateralis (ventrolateral spinal trigeminal nucleus) and middle of the spinal trigeminal nucleus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0311.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Animal study; beagle dog; β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP); immunohistochemistry; micro computed tomography (CT); periodontal tissue engineering; periostin; recombinant human collagen peptide (RCP); scaffold material; 3-wall intrabony defect
Online: 20 October 2022 (12:24:49 CEST)
Recombinant human collagen peptide (RCP) is a recombinantly created xeno-free biomaterial enriched in RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) sequences, with good processability that is being investigated for regenerative medicine applications. Recently, the biocompatibility and osteogenic ability of β-TCP/RCP (RCP granules combined with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) submicron particles) were demonstrated. In the present study, β-TCP/RCP was implanted into experimental periodontal tissue defects (three-walled bone defect) created in beagle dogs to investigate tissue responses and subsequent regenerative effects. Micro computed tomography image analysis at 8 weeks postoperatively showed that the amount of new bone after β-TCP/RCP graft was significantly greater (2.2 fold, P<0.05) than that of the control (no graft) group. Histological findings showed that the transplanted β-TCP/RCP induced active bone-like tissue formation including TRAP-positive and OCN-positive cells as well as bioabsorbability. Ankylosis did not occur, and periostin-positive periodontal ligament-like tissue formation was observed. Histological measurements revealed that β-TCP/RCP implantation formed 1.7-fold more bone-like tissue and 2.1-fold more periodontal ligament-like tissue than the control, and significantly suppressed gingival recession and epithelial downgrowth (P<0.05). These results suggest that β-TCP/RCP is effective as a periodontal tissue regenerative material.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0018.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD); CRISPR/Cas9; exon skipping therapy; gene editing; human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs); immortalized patient muscle cells; mdx mice; humanized dystrophic mouse models; deltaE50-MD dog model
Online: 2 November 2018 (05:14:23 CET)
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked recessive neuromuscular disease prevalent in 1 in 3500 to 5000 males worldwide. As a result of mutations that interrupt the reading frame of the dystrophin gene (DMD), DMD is characterized by a loss of dystrophin protein which leads to decreased muscle membrane integrity, which increases susceptibility to degeneration. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has garnered interest as an avenue for DMD therapy due to its potential for permanent exon skipping, which can restore the disrupted DMD reading frame in DMD and lead to dystrophin restoration. An RNA-guided DNA endonuclease system, CRISPR/Cas9 allows for the targeted editing of specific sequences in the genome. The efficacy and safety of CRISPR/Cas9 as a therapy for DMD has been evaluated by numerous studies in vitro and in vivo, with varying rates of success. Despite the potential of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing for the long-term treatment of DMD, its translation into the clinic is currently challenged by issues such as off-targeting, immune response activation, and sub-optimal in vivo delivery. Its nature as being mostly a personalized form of therapy also limits applicability to DMD patients, who exhibit a wide spectrum of mutations. This review summarizes the various CRISPR/Cas9 strategies that have been tested in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of DMD. Perspectives on the approach will be provided, and the challenges faced by CRISPR/Cas9 in its road to the clinic will be briefly discussed.