ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Lean Construction; Construction Management; Manufacturing; Construction Industry; Optimization; Projects
Online: 17 January 2023 (09:48:58 CET)
The move to lean construction is a lengthy process that may call into question established ways of construction management delivery. The objective of this article is to help businesses take the first step on this route by introducing a few lean manufacturing techniques and practices that may be used on projects over the next few weeks. Although the construction industry has come a long way since its start, the essential technology to change it has not yet found a home. The digital switch has now entered the construction industry to boost production. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a discipline of computer science described as the potential of machines to mimic intelligent human behavior by modelling traditionally complicated problems using human-inspired techniques. Due to its complexity, AI distinguishes itself from lower degrees of digitalization. The complexity of artificial intelligence involves the formation of new circumstances for human collaboration and trust. This dissertation investigates the application of artificial intelligence and the suitable interaction between humans and AI-based technologies. This study attempts to shed light on how the construction industry may close the gap between the potential and actual benefits of artificial intelligence deployment. Comparing the prospective benefits of AI implementation to the present benefits and challenges of AI deployment in the construction industry revealed the disparity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1033.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Drone; Laser Scanning; Drone Curriculum; Construction Operation Monitoring; Smart Construction; Construction 4.0
Online: 27 April 2023 (04:27:35 CEST)
Both drones and laser scanners digitally take the as-built context of an object into the computer and the data taken is transmitted to a Building Information Modeling (BIM) world to create ac-curate 3D models. Although the laser scanner is the leading method of the Scan-to-BIM proce-dure, many professionals indicate drawbacks of the technology and point out the drone is an al-ternative that can improve the shortcomings, leading to the UAV-to-BIM process. Korean con-struction industry plans to implement the drone technology for scrutinizing as-built construc-tion quality by 2025. However, the drone is not popular in the construction projects. Korean universities where Construction Engineering and Management program have been implement-ed are requested to develop a drone curriculum for construction professionals. Since the majori-ty of the professionals are not familiar with drone operation, in order for the schools to be suc-cessful in developing the curriculum, it is very necessary to perform a preliminary experimental study for identifying the essential education contents that are appropriate to drone beginners. The main objective of this paper is to perform the study for the drone beginners and recognize the recommendations and the framework of drone curriculum that will be beneficial for the schools to develop a comprehensive curriculum later on.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1761.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: reused wood; building construction; architecture; circular construction
Online: 27 October 2023 (06:52:16 CEST)
This study explores the perspectives and practices of architects regarding the reuse of wood in construction across five South-Central European countries: Slovenia, Serbia, North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), and Montenegro. Based on a survey of architectural professionals, the research explores their attitudes, challenges, and motivations for using reclaimed wood, with a focus on circular construction principles. Key findings reveal unanimous agreement among re-spondents that both their profession and government entities inadequately support or promote wood reuse within the context of circular construction. While architects value reclaimed wood, there are country-specific variations. Environmental benefits, unique aesthetics, historical value, and sustainability are cited as primary motivators for reclaimed wood use. Additionally, re-spondents emphasize the ecological aspect as the most important consideration in wood product reuse, followed by economic and technological factors. Common concerns revolve around the long-term quality and maintenance of wood products. This research provides insights into the challenges and opportunities surrounding reclaimed wood use in South-Central Europe, high-lighting the need for support mechanisms and increased awareness to advance circular construc-tion practices in the region. These findings can have implications for architects and investors by identifying market opportunities, promoting eco-friendly practices, and providing valuable in-sights for future building designs with a focus on reclaimed wood elements within circular con-struction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0368.v2
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Drone; Laser Scanning; Drone Curriculum; Lessons Learned; Construction Operation Monitoring; Smart Construction; Construction 4.0; Sustainability
Online: 24 January 2023 (13:15:08 CET)
A drone performs comparable function to a laser scanner in the construction quality monitoring, following Scan-to-BIM process. Both technologies digitally capture the as-is environment into the computer and the data captured is transferred to a BIM world to create accurate as-built models. Although the laser scanner is the dominant method of the Scan-to-BIM process, a number of digital professionals point drawbacks of the method and present the drone is an alternative that can improve the drawbacks thereby leading to UAV-to-BIM process in parallel with the Scan-to-BIM. Korean construction industry plans to utilize the two technologies for monitoring construction operation quality in major public projects by 2025. While contractors need competent engineers to be competitive in the projects, the two technology applications are not so popular to the construction projects in Korea and very few experts skillful and knowledgeable of the technologies are available. Korean universities are requested to develop the curriculum of the technologies for the contractors. To be successful in progressing the curriculum, it is very essential to implement a preliminary study with the technologies minimizing the potential failure in operating the curriculum later on. This study performs empirical research on the technologies and identify valuable lessons beneficial to develop the UAV-to-BIM curriculum for the construction engineers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0955.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: construction industry; construction companies; investment and construction projects; sustainable activity; destabilizing factors; SEM-PLS; Smart PLS.
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:23:20 CEST)
Failure to meet the deadlines for the implementation of investment and construction projects is a problem in all countries of the world, and leads to unstable activity of construction companies. The article studies the most important destabilizing factors affecting the main indicator of sustainable activity of construction companies-the duration of the implementation of an investment and construction projects. To determine and assess the impact of destabilizing factors on the duration of implementation of selected investment and construction projects, a survey was conducted, in which a number of customers, consultants and contractors involved in construction projects took part. Questionnaires developed on the basis of a cluster sample were sent to respondents, 48 responses were received in response to the assessment of destabilizing factors. To analyze the received and grouped information, structural equation modeling using the Smart-PLS program was used. As a result of modeling, a number of results were obtained, the most important of which are the identification of the main reasons that lead to an average (20% - 50%) increase in the duration of projects in the construction sector. The most significant were: the lack of an appropriate procurement program for materials; inefficient scheduling by contractors and instability of construction production; poor-quality processing of incoming information and untimely deci-sion-making due to changes in projects during their implementation. Destabilizing factors con-tribute to an increase in the duration of construction sector projects, which leads to time overruns, cost overruns, and an increase in the negative impact on the overall use of resources. As a result of the study, a set of recommendations was formed, the most important of which is the use of possible compensatory measures that can allow construction companies to eliminate the risks of disrupting construction deadlines for sustainable activities. These compensatory measures include: - recommendations to customers of the construction project; - recommendations to contractors; - recommendations to the consultant. Moreover, the control of destabilizing factors that can cause delays, the improvement of contracts and the precise and clearer definition of all elements of the project can help to reduce the duration of construction, and will allow companies to maintain sustainable activities in the construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1924.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: construction production; construction companies; sustainable functioning; risk factors; uncertainty; TOPSIS
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:02:59 CEST)
Sustainability is a characteristic manifested in the ability to maintain the necessary level of performance for construction companies when risk factors arise during the implementation of investment and construction projects. The risk factors that arise during the implementation of in-vestment and construction projects differ in nature, degree of influence, and other characteristics. Ignoring these factors and measures to manage them often leads to critical consequences in the form of disruptions in the timing of work. Risk is a combination of the probability and consequences of the occurrence of adverse events. The article considers the concept of risk as a potential possibility of occurrence of adverse situations and related consequences when exposed to these factors. Risk factors are characterized by surprise, discreteness of changes, the presence of threshold values, upon reaching which a transition to a different mode of operation is required. The article discusses the risk factors arising at the construction stage, their classification. A methodology has been developed that includes conducting a survey in the form of a questionnaire in order to collect information about risk factors that affect the implementation of investment and construction projects. Experts with experience in the construction sector were involved in the survey. The processing of the survey results made it possible to assess the significance of various risk factors in investment and construction projects. Thus, statistical and expert methods were used in the study. The results showed that financial, technical, legal, economic, managerial and natural factors have the greatest impact on investment and construction projects. It is recommended to pay special attention to the listed factors when developing measures aimed at preventing risks and their consequences. The methodology described in the study can be used by construction companies in strategic planning. The analysis of the stability of construction companies, depending on their use of various ways to counteract risk factors, allowed us to develop a number of practical recommendations to reduce the impact of the studied factors on achieving the goals of investment and construction projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0286.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Frame Construction; Multiple Buildings; Construction Period; Uncertainty Factors; Queue Model
Online: 10 March 2021 (13:24:10 CET)
The frame construction of an apartment complex that consists of multiple buildings encounters various uncertainties, owing to the complex relationships among units of work. Currently, the period of such a construction is calculated based on the number of floors of the highest building in the complex. This study quantitatively analyzes an apartment frame construction period using a queue model and evaluates the validity of the estimated period. In this regard, a methodology is proposed for analyzing the construction period by applying the concept of a customer and a server. A case study on the duration of an apartment frame construction is conducted with Korea Land and Housing Corporation, which has supplied the largest number of apartments in South Korea. It was found that the stable state of a queue system was observed when the rate of server utilization was applied to the basement and aboveground floors. However, a stable state was not reached on the ground floor. This study includes non-working days in its calculation and quantitatively analyzes uncertainty factors during construction. Therefore, the findings can be practically utilized to quantitatively plan the durations of work units in an apartment frame construction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0627.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bio-cementation; Sustainable Construction Materials; Building Construction; Soil Stabilization; Sporosarcina Pasteurii
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:54:56 CEST)
With the development of bioinspired green solutions for sustainable construction over the past two decades, bio-cementation, which exploits the naturally occurring phenomenon of calcium carbonate precipitation in different environments, has drawn a lot of attention in both building construction and soil stabilization. Various types of microorganisms, along with specific enzymes derived from these microorganisms, have been utilized to harness the benefits of bio-cementation. Different application methods for incorporating this mechanism into the production process of the construction material, as well as a variety of experimental techniques for characterizing the outcomes of bio-cementation, have been developed and tested. Despite the success of bio-cementation as a sustainable method to construction has been demonstrated in a significant body of literature at the laboratory scale, the expansion of this strategy to construction sites and field application remains a pending subject. The issue may be attributed to two primary challenges. Firstly, the complexity of the bio-cementation phenomenon is influenced by a variety of factors. Secondly, the extensive body of literature examines various types of microorganisms under different conditions, leading to a wide range of outcomes. Hence, this study aims to examine the recent advancements in utilizing the most commonly employed microorganism, Sporosarcina Pasteurii, to emphasize the significance of influential factors identified in the literature, discuss the findings that have been brought to light, and outline future research directions toward scaling up the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0267.v2
Online: 8 December 2022 (03:52:39 CET)
In Korea’s air pollutant inventory, construction machinery is a major emission source in the non-road sector. Since 2004, the Korean government has introduced and reinforced emission regulations to reduce the air pollutants emitted from their diesel engines. Since the engine dynamometer test method used in emission regulations has limitations in reflecting emission characteristics under the diverse working conditions of construction machinery, it is necessary to examine the effectiveness of emission regulations and the validity of the emission factors applied as inputs to the air pollutants inventory. This could be done by evaluating engine operation and emission characteristics under real-world working conditions. In this study, 14 units were selected among the excavators, wheel loaders, and forklifts that represent approximately 90% of the registered construction machines in Korea. They were equipped with a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) to measure gaseous emissions and collect engine data under various real-world working conditions. With the reinforcement of emission regulations for the construction machinery from K-tier3 to K-tier4 in Korea, exhaust after-treatment technologies, such as selective catalytic reduction and diesel oxidation catalyst, were applied. Real world NOx were reduced by approximately 83%, and THC 77% and CO by 73%, respectively. Real world NOx + THC of the K-tier3 machines exceeded the laboratory emission limit, but the K-tier4 machines considerably improved despite some differences. The emission factors applied to the air pollutant inventory have been developed using the engine dynamometer test method, but they were considerably underestimated compared with emissions under real-world working conditions. The difference was even larger for the K-tier4 machines. In this study, the possibility of developing emission factor equations that use the engine load factor as a parameter was confirmed by using the engine work 1 g/kW·h segment moving averaging window (MAW) method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1821.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: risks; project stakeholders; construction; project; interfaces; interface risks; construction projects; interface risk management
Online: 27 July 2023 (03:40:07 CEST)
Abstract: Interface risks are inherent in every construction project from start to finish. Identifying and managing these risks effectively in every project phase is crucial for actualising project objectives. This paper shows a comprehensive framework showing several relationships between project stakeholders and how the interface risks between them that influence project execution are identified and managed for the overall construction project success. Firstly, literature review on interfaces and interface risks were car-ried out and how organisations managed interface risks were discussed and secondly, the collection of quantitative data was conducted by means of structured online questionnaires. The sample consisted of 205 construction project professionals who were selected randomly. This group included individuals with various roles in the construction industry, The data was analysed using descriptive statistical methods, including factor analysis, reliability assessment, and calculations of frequencies and percentages. Finally, the results showed all the factors, work culture and organisational approaches that influence interface risk management and ways to identify and manage interface risks effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: decision-making; Fuzzy-DEMATEL-ISM; highway construction companies; driving influences; intelligent construction technology
Online: 23 November 2022 (07:37:59 CET)
This study aimed to identify the influencing factors that drive the adoption of smart construction technologies by highway construction companies. Using expert interviews and expert scoring, interview data were collected from 25 experts in the field, and the TOSE framework was proposed based on the TOE framework, identifying four dimensions and fourteen influencing factors. The results were analyzed using the Fuzzy-DEMATEL-ISM method, and the findings were then summarized according to the evaluation criteria to determine the validity of the fourteen hypotheses and the extent to which they drive the adoption of intelligent construction technologies by motorway construction companies. The findings of this paper will be of great value to decision-makers and participants in highway construction companies, as well as to other companies in the construction industry, in their decision to adopt smart construction technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0371.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: economic regions; regional classification; classification methodology; construction industry; cluster analysis; accidents in construction
Online: 28 April 2018 (12:14:29 CEST)
The article presents the methodology for classifying economic regions with regards to selected factors that characterize a region, such as: the economic structure of the region, and thus the share of individual sectors in the economy; employment; the dynamics of the development of individual sectors expressed as an increase or decrease in production value; the population density in the region and also the level of occupational safety. Cluster analysis, which is a method of multidimensional statistical analysis available in Statistica software, was used to solve the task. The proposed methodology was used to group Polish voivodships with regards to the speed of economic development and occupational safety in the construction industry. Data published by the Central Statistical Office was used for this purpose, such as the value of construction and assembly production, the number of people employed in the construction industry, the population of an individual region and the number of people injured in occupational accidents.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0740.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Food waste, recycling, construction materials
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:01:15 CEST)
Highlights: A new material with a bending strength higher than that of concrete was developed using vegetable or fruit waste. The new material maintains the color, taste, and flavor of the original vegetable or fruit. Without water resistant treatment, the material is edible and can be conditioned with seasonings
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: construction; rainwater harvesting; simulation; solar
Online: 10 March 2020 (10:26:12 CET)
This publicly available simulation analysis compares baseline construction options versus sustainable options and evaluates both break-even costs as well as environmental effects. The simulation (https://rminator.shinyapps.io/sustain4/) provides users with comparative estimates based upon existing research on costs. This is the first simulation of its type that quantifies multiple sustainable construction options, associated break-even points, and environmental considerations for public use. Results estimate that a 100% solar solution for the baseline 3,000 square foot / 279 square meter house with 2 occupants results in a break-even of 9 years. The simulation includes options for rainwater harvesting or wells, Icynene foam, engineered lumber, Energy Star windows and doors, low flow water fixtures, aerobic / non-aerobic waste treatment or municipal services, and many other options. This is the first simulation of its type to provide publicly available sustainable construction analysis based on research, and it illustrates that sustainable construction might be both green for the environment and green for the pocketbook.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0053.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Building Information Modelling; Construction safety; Planning; Safety Elements; Construction Site Management; Falls from height.
Online: 2 November 2021 (22:23:31 CET)
As is known, the construction industry has one of the highest occupational accidents incidence rates among all economic sectors. Currently, Building Information Modeling (BIM) appears as a tool that addresses occupational safety issues throughout the construction life cycle projects, avoiding hazards and risks and, consequently, increasing safety. This work investigates BIM methodology and related technologies application for building safety planning in construction and demonstrates the potential of this technology for the integrated implementation of safety measures during the design phase and the construction site management. The first step consisted of a literature review on the application of BIM in safety in the design and planning phases. Following, to show the potentialities of construction simulation, a case study based on BIM 4D to prevent falls from height was developed. With BIM 4D, it is possible to follow the construction process over time, giving the construction safety technicians’, designers, supervisors and managers the capability to analyse, in each phase, the potential risks and which safety measures should be implemented. BIM can effectively integrate safety measures from the design phase to the construction and use phase and do integrated safety planning within construction planning, leading to reliable safety management throughout the construction process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0289.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: South Africa; fourth industrial revolution’s biological drivers; health and safety; construction occupations; construction-related diseases
Online: 15 November 2022 (11:25:43 CET)
The persistence of diseases that affect construction workforce as a result of activities on construction sites poses a danger to the sustainable development of the industry. This resulted to a huge loss of skilled labour and economic development of the industry and the entire country. The arrival of the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) technologies urges an urgent need to assess the effect of the technology’s biological driver on the construction occupation related diseases. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the effect of 4IR on the construction occupation related diseases in Gauteng, South Africa. The study is quantitative in design and questionnaire survey were administered to project and Health and Safety (H&S) managers in Gauteng, South African construction sector using a proportionate simple random sampling technique. For data analysis, the Warp PLS-SEM 8.0 software algorithm was used for the analysis of the collated data. The study found that the effects of the 4IR’s biological driver variables ranges between moderate to high effects for genome sequencing (GENSE) and Neurotechnology (NEURO) respectively. The combined predictive relevance of the two (2) variables predicts 64% of the construction occupation related diseases. This implies that the adoption of the driver would help reduce the causes of construction-related diseases. Hence, implies that continuous deployment of 4IR technologies would ensure that construction occupation related diseases are easily identified and put on alert.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0865.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: MEvAR; work environment; construction; certainty; risks
Online: 6 May 2023 (02:49:43 CEST)
Aspects are presented on the interpretation of certainties by assessing risks with maximum level in order to establish reasonable limits of acceptance, tolerance or assumption of risks, supplementing environmental risk factors with external, social, financial elements and introducing a category in the work system analysis.Comparative aspects between INCDPM and MEvAR methods are presented as proposals in the associated tables.The conclusions highlight the current aspects implemented in the method and their usefulness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0253.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: interpretation; state construction; entropy reduction; observer
Online: 14 December 2022 (08:44:57 CET)
The validity of our universe as a three-dimensional space (3+1 in relativity) is considered a fundamental fact in physics. In this study, we show that our observed world is thus the output of a prior fundamental operator referred to as an organizer. The organizer is an expansion of projecting operators. It is been shown that identical weighted projecting operators, which are associated with identical particles, generate subspaces of entangled states, whereas groups of unequal weighted coefficients are responsible for finite-size subspaces that are associated with unidentical particles. Considering 3D-subspaces as evidence of the coefficients’ arrangement in our universe, we implement our formalism to describe the implacable vectors, location, momentum, and force within each 3D subspace. By implementing the Heisenberg relation, we drive both the classical and quantum expressions for the laws of motion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0161.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Interpretation; State construction; Entropy reduction, Observer
Online: 8 December 2022 (11:13:37 CET)
Quantum mechanics introduces the concept of an observer who selects a measuring device and reads the outputs. This measurement process is irreversible. Lately, scholars on quantum collapse phenomena have presented a quantum-like formalism describing the measurement results as an interpretation of the measured object. Note that an observer must read the interpretation results after the interpretation process. Therefore, we propose that the definition of the concept of life should be expanded based on the following concept: A living system decreases entropy, measured results are interpreted, and an internal observer reads the commentary.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: offsite construction; housing associations; strategic management
Online: 10 December 2021 (09:02:12 CET)
Offsite construction is increasingly being presented as a way to increase housing delivery and reduce the housing crisis. Housing Associations play a pivotal role in the delivery of affordable homes and therefore offsite construction could be beneficial in alleviating the crisis. For offsite construction uptake to increase, the conceptual and pragmatic advantages and challenges surrounding offsite housing in relation to evolving social domestic needs to be explored and understood. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the viability of offsite construction as not only a full-service solution to social housing provision, but an integral strategic partner for meeting the range of specialised fabrication needs for these new properties. A literature review is carried out to explore the conceptual and pragmatic advantages and challenges encountered by HAs adopting offsite construction methods. The paper also investigates which the housing tenures are most suited to offsite construction technology. The paper highlighted that whilst individual case studies and example homes offer one mode of justification for Housing Associations to move forward, it is the cumulative effect of cost savings, sustainability, specialised skill sets, labour reduction, structural innovation, and rate of construction that should be weighed and incorporated into this consideration-making process.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: waste management; civil construction waste; sustainability
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:26:32 CET)
Given the importance of the development of urban infrastructure and environmental impacts produced by the civil construction waste (CCW), it is important to correct the handling of CCW with objective solutions that are more environmentally friendly. In that sense the present study aimed to determine indicators that make it possible to estimate the amount of CCW generated from construction sites in the city of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil. The generation of CCW was estimated in a general way, regarding the composition of its mixture, correlated to the gross areas of the buildings studied and their generated volumes of RCC. This generating rate was evaluated in a general way and specifies two types of sites: the new residential and new non-residential constructions. The data required for the development of these indicators was obtained through extensive survey and interviews carried out at the environment secretariat of the City Hall. The generating rate of CCW obtained for non-residential buildings was 0.2052m3/m2 or 170.44kg/m2, for new residential sites was 0.2054m3/m2 or 170.60kg/m2 and for new commercial or non-residential construction sites, it was 0.20453 m3/m2 or 169.85kg/m2. It was also possible to estimate the amount generated annually per inhabitant in the municipality, which is 0.60m3/inhabit.year or 498.55kg/inhabit.year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: construction industrialization; dimensions; index system; evaluation
Online: 24 March 2017 (11:21:31 CET)
In recent years, there have been concerns raised about construction industrialization in China, which have initiated a wave of policy change in both governmental and industrial organizations in order to change the mode of conventional construction. However, the current development level of regional construction industrialization (RCI) in China has not been well-characterized. This study screened preliminary index systems in five dimensions: technical, economic, sustainable, enterprise development and development environment. Based on the data gathered from the questionnaire surveys and subsequently analyzed, twenty-two critical evaluation indicators were identified. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was then employed to determine the weighting of each indicator. The evaluation method of the development level was formulated on the basis of the evaluation criteria. Jiangsu Province was used as an example in this study, with the development level of this province being comprehensively examined using a combination of the index system and evaluation method. The results show that Jiangsu has a relatively high RCI development level. The data from analysis scores of five dimensions and twenty-two indicators show that the index system is feasible, with evaluation results being consistent with actual practice. These findings provide a good practical reference for making decisions about how best to guide the development of RCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: construction and demolition waste; renovation; demolition; waste disposal; pre-renovation audit; waste audit; construction; comparison; costs
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:20:49 CET)
The issue of sustainability has long been the subject of interest of the architecture engineering and construction sector. All three aspects of sustainability - economic, environmental and social - can be affected through appropriate construction waste management. Construction and demolition waste (CDW) is one of the largest worldwide waste streams, therefore it is given great attention by all stakeholders (investors, contractors, authorities, etc.). Researches have shown that one of the main barriers to insufficiency CDW recovery is inadequate policies and legal frameworks to manage CDW. It is also one of the EU's environmental priorities. Aim of the article is to confirm the economic potential of construction and demolition waste audit processing through case study. A pre-demolition waste audit has been processed for unused building of shopping center in the town Snina in Slovakia. Subsequently, a comparison of economic parameters (waste disposal costs and transport costs) of recommended CDW management was performed. This comparison confirmed the economic benefits of environmentally friendly construction waste management methods according to the waste audit results, which will also increase the sustainability of construction projects. In addition, the cost parameters of selected waste disposal methods could be another dimension of building information modelling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: engineering procurement and construction project (EPC); project management; design changes; infrastructure development projects; construction management; New Zealand
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:06:44 CEST)
Design changes seem inevitable in engineering, procurement and construction EPC projects. Such changes create a need for a proactive approach to adjusting project scope, cost and time (the triple constraints) for efficiency and effectiveness in overall delivery. This study investigates the causes and implications of design changes in order to improve design change management practices. Data for the study was obtained through online interviews with New Zealand industry practitioners. Thematic analysis was used to collate the results into meaningful data. The study found that design changes were predominantly caused by clients' inadequate strategic planning, insufficient attention to design, EPC contractors' inadequate design ability, and on-site variations. There were three categories of such design changes: direct impact on the project, the reciprocal and complementary effect on stakeholders, and the far-reaching impact on the community. The study concludes by suggesting improvements, such as strengthening the integration of project teams to enhance design quality, strategic alignment of stakeholders at the planning stage, early contractor involvement (ECI) between the planning and design phases, and improving collaboration between design and construction teams. Further, a combination of high technical skills (e.g. design ability) and soft skills (can-do attitude, interpersonal skills, problem-solving skills, documentation skills, etc.) are needed to effect the desired improvement in design change management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: double-skin facade perforation; environmental design; robotics in construction; VR/AR for monitoring; digital twin in construction
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:42:05 CEST)
In contemporary design practices, there is a disconnect between the design techniques used for early-stage design experimentation and performance analysis, and those used for the manufacture and construction. This study addresses the problems in developing an integrated digital design workflow and provides a research framework for integrating environmental performance requirements with robotic manufacturing processes on a construction site. The proposed method enables the user to import a design surface, identify design parameters, set several environmental performance goals, and thereafter simulate and select a robotic building strategy. Based on these inputs, design alternatives are developed and evaluated, considering their robotically simulated constructibility, in terms of their performance criteria. To validate the proposed method, the design is evaluated in an experiment wherein a double-skin facade perforation is generated using the proposed methodology. The results suggest a heuristic feature to improve the simulated robotic constructibility. Moreover, the functionality of the prototype is demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0086.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: double-skin facade perforation, environmental design, robotics in construction, VR/AR for monitoring, digital twin in construction.
Online: 6 May 2021 (13:11:51 CEST)
In contemporary design practices, there is a disconnect between the design techniques used for early-stage design experimentation and performance analysis, and those used for the manufacture and construction. This study addresses the problems in developing an integrated digital design workflow and provides a research framework for integrating environmental performance requirements with robotic manufacturing processes on a construction site. The proposed method enables the user to import a design surface, identify design parameters, set several environmental performance goals, and thereafter simulate and select a robotic building strategy. Based on these inputs, design alternatives are developed and evaluated, considering their robotically simulated constructibility, in terms of their performance criteria. To validate the proposed method, the design is evaluated in an experiment wherein a double-skin facade perforation is generated using the proposed methodology. Initial results suggest a heuristic feature to improve the simulated robotic constructibility. Moreover, the functionality of the prototype is demonstrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0320.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Residuated lattices; Idempotent semigroup; Chain; Construction; Amalgamation
Online: 6 September 2023 (05:27:17 CEST)
In this paper, we study semiconic idempotent commutative residuated lattices. After giving some properties of such residuated lattices, we obtain a structure theorem for semiconic idempotent com- mutative residuated lattices. As an application, we make use of the structure theorem to prove that the variety of strongly semiconic idempotent commutative residuated lattices has the amalgamation property.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0378.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: tunnel; smart construction; environment; communication; worker monitoring
Online: 12 July 2023 (04:35:37 CEST)
Due to the inherent risks associated with tunnel construction, including potential collapse, various types of work activities, and challenging visibility and communication conditions, safety management in tunnel projects requires significant investment in terms of cost and time. In this research, we propose and demonstrate a novel smart construction system that utilizes worker location monitoring technology to enhance safety in tunnel construction. The system comprises a wearable beacon integrated into safety helmets, scanners strategically placed at regular intervals inside the tunnel, environmental sensors for monitoring temperature, pressure, and air quality, and mobile devices for collecting and analyzing data on workers and the environment. Through a field demonstration conducted in a Korean tunnel construction site, we validated the effectiveness of the proposed system, which demonstrated real-time monitoring of workers and reliable communication capabilities, leading to improved safety and cost-efficiency in tunnel construction. By implementing the proposed system, we achieved a significant reduction of 37% in monthly construction costs and 77% in annual construction costs compared to conventional methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0517.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Commitment; Collaboration; Trust; Construction projects; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 28 November 2022 (13:42:19 CET)
The construction sector has begun to embrace the digital revolution, intending to improve efficiency. How, on the other hand, should the industry adopt digital tools? And how should the connection between humans and technology function? This study aims to shed light on how the construction sector may bridge the gap between AI deployments’s potential and realized advantages. This article presents research based on a comprehensive review of the literature, case studies of Speller Metcalfe, a design-build and refurbishment project in Malvern, England, Jacobsen Construction, a project digitizing the planning process in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, and Menkes Development Inc., real-time visibility to construction site insights and data-driven decision-making in Toronto, Canada. The experiences gained via this study show that it is feasible to acquire expertise while adopting sophisticated technologies, such as artificial intelligence, by installing fundamental digital tools (AI). However, when it comes to AI, the level of trust between humans and machines will be the deciding element in its success. This article is a pioneering effort in examining the deployment of AI and how people and technology should interact. This study is limited to three case studies and three digital technologies. To further the study, it is suggested to debate the adaptation of AI on the user's premises, gather more empirical data, and examine case studies from different sectors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0010.v3
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: beneficiation; slag; flotation; construction material; soil remediation
Online: 12 August 2022 (06:20:08 CEST)
Mining is an important industry, accounting for 6.9% of global GDP. However, global development promotes accelerated demand, resulting in the accumulation of hazardous waste in land, sea, and air environments. It reached 7 billion tonnes of mine tailings generated yearly worldwide, and 19 billion solid tailings will be accumulated by 2025. Adding to this, the legacy of environmental damage from abandoned mines is worrying; in Canada there are around 10,000 abandoned mines, 50,000 in Australia, 6,000 in South Africa, and 9,500 coal mines in China, reaching 15,000 by 2050. In this scenario, restoration techniques from mining tailing have become increasingly discussed among scholars due to their potential to offer benefits towards reducing tailings levels, thereby reducing environmental pressure for the correct management and adding value to previously discarded waste. This review paper explores available literature on the main techniques of mining tailing recycling and reuse and discusses leading technologies, including the benefits and limitations, as well as emerging prospects. The findings of this review serve as a supporting reference for decision-makers concerning the related sustainability issues associated with mining, mineral processing, and solid waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: smart primary healthcare; building; Construction; South Africa
Online: 15 July 2022 (06:32:30 CEST)
Smart primary healthcare building facility services capture a new level of process and operational data through advanced monitoring, enabling experts to use the building facilities to produce significant and efficient healthcare service delivery within the individual spheres of influence. This study assessed the impact of IoT services on achieving smart primary healthcare building facilities in the rural area of South Africa to enhance primary healthcare delivery. The study identified three (3) basic constructs of IoT services that comprised the application of IoT location recognition and tracking services, the application of the IoT high-speed communication network-based services, and the application of IoT-based services. The study is quantitative, and a questionnaire was used to collect data from the project managers and healthcare practitioners working with the primary healthcare agency in South Africa. The study found a variable degree of impact between the three (3) IoT constructs and the achievement of primary healthcare building facility services in South Africa. The study recommends adopting IoT essential services for achieving smart primary healthcare building facility services in the rural areas of South Africa and other developing countries facing similar primary healthcare delivery challenges.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: big data; data integration; EVMS; construction management
Online: 30 October 2020 (15:35:00 CET)
In the information age today, data are getting more and more important. While other industries achieve tangible improvement by applying cutting edge information technology, the construction industry is still far from being enough. Cost, schedule, and performance control are three major functions in the project execution phase. Along with their individual importance, cost-schedule integration has been a significant challenge over the past five decades in the construction industry. Although a lot of efforts have been put into this development, there is no method used in construction practice. The purpose of this study is to propose a new method to integrate cost and schedule data using big data technology. The proposed algorithm is designed to provide data integrity and flexibility in the integration process, considerable time reduction on building and changing database, and practical use in a construction site. It is expected that the proposed method can transform the current way that field engineers regard information management as one of the troublesome tasks in a data-friendly way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0232.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: concrete; construction history; Iceland; Reykjavík; Guðmundur Hannesson
Online: 13 September 2018 (10:11:59 CEST)
The quick modernisation of Iceland, that rapidly took place from the first decades of the 20th century onwards, did not only bring fishing trawlers and cars into the country. Among all the techniques of modernity, concrete [steinsteypa] was to become the key material that changed the built landscape of the island and was soon adopted by the first Icelandic architects, such as Rögnvaldur Ólafsson (1874–1914) and Guðjón Samúelsson (1887–1950). Interestingly, the main supporter of this material was Guðmundur Hannesson (1866–1946), a medical doctor and town planner who wrote several articles and even a guidebook published in 1921 and titled Steinsteypa. Leiðarvísir fyrir alþýðu og viðvaninga [Concrete. Guidebook for Common People and Beginners]. In a country that was seeking an architectural self-representation, he understood the technical and formal possibilities that concrete could offer: he claimed, “people [...] were trying to change, to build out of a new material with a new form” (Guðmundur Hannesson 1926, 14). This essay aims thus to retrace the rhetoric of Guðmundur Hannesson and his role in writing an Icelandic chapter of the history of concrete, from its early stage of unmodern trial-and-error to the definition of a modern Icelandic architecture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0541.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: anaerobic process; biogas; coffee wastewater; digester construction
Online: 31 August 2018 (05:47:42 CEST)
Wet coffee processing methods will produce wastewater containing organic matter. The high content of organic matter can be utilized as biogas through the anaerobic process. Anaerobic digesters construction can affect removal process of wastewater pollution and biogas quantity. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of digester construction between conventional digester, CSTR and UASB producing biogas from coffee wastewater. The conventional digester worked without temperature control system as control, a UASB digester, and CSTR digester worked with temperature control system. Biomass volume was about 5 L with 35 days incubation time. Temperature and pH for UASB and CSTR were set within the range 30 – 35oC and pH 6.0 – 8.0. Based on the feeding variations, UASB has a stable performance with 83.57 ml/day of average biogas production. It has also highest remediation efficiency of COD, BOD and C/N with 85.00±0.34 %, 84.40%± 5.66 and 97.78± 0.57.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0172.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: laser; construction monitoring; measurements; uncertainty; bridge inspection
Online: 27 October 2017 (16:17:23 CEST)
Recent researches proved that the underbridge geometry can be reconstructed by mounting a 3D laser scanner on a motorized cart travelling on a walkway located under the bridge. The walkway is moved by a truck and the accuracy of the bridge model depends on the accuracy of the trajectory of the scanning head with respect to a fixed reference system. In this paper, we describe the metrological characterization of a method that uses non-contact systems to identify the relative motion of the cart with respect to the walkway; the orientation of the walkway with respect to the bridge is determined using inclinometers and optical rails, while the position of the truck with respect to the bridge is measured using a conventional odometer. The measurement uncertainty of the proposed system was initially evaluated by numerical simulations and successively verified by experiments in laboratory conditions. The complete system has then been tested in operative conditions; the validity of the proposed approach has been demonstrated by comparing the geometry of buildings reconstructed with the proposed system with the geometry obtained with a static scan. Results evidenced that the errors are approximately 6 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0291.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: information technology; construction project management; cost management; impact factor model; progressive technology; construction industry, life cycle cost management.
Online: 11 December 2020 (16:12:55 CET)
Construction project management and cost management is a difficult process that affects the overall success of construction projects. The success of a construction project can be assessed according to key performance indicators (KPIs). Cost savings and cost optimization over the life of a construction project is one of these KPIs. Cost management is largely performed through intelligent information technology in the construction industry. Information systems and information technologies have seen an increase in use in the management of construction projects. The same goes for cost management. Several studies mentioned in the paper point to this increase in use in recent years also in the management of costs at various stages. Many studies point to the use of information technology and software applications in the field of cost management. Still, to a large extent, there are no surveys focused on the analysis of the impact and impact factor of information technology on cost savings or cost optimization in various phases of construction projects. The research discusses the issue of the impact of information technology on cost management in various phases of a construction project. The main goal of the research is to analyze the influence of information technology factors on cost savings and optimization in individual phases of a construction project. Several statistical methods were used in the research. The resulting model of information technology impact factor was created based on data processing and the use of the AHP method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0030.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsion (NME) stabilisation; identifying construction problems; preventing construction related problems; material related problems; constructability using nanotechnology applications; nano-silane stabilisation of granular materials; construction quality control problems; construction equipment problems; practical implementation of nano-silane stabilisation.
Online: 11 January 2022 (10:37:34 CET)
The use of New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME) for the stabilisation of marginal materials for use in the upper-pavement layers of roads have been proven in laboratories, through Accelerated Pavement Tests (APT) and in practice. In addition, material design methods have been developed based on the scientific analysis of granular material mineralogy and the chemical interaction with the binder to design a material compatible NME stabilising agent for naturally available (often marginal) materials. However, the introduction of any new disruptive technology in a traditionally well-established industry, such as the road construction industry, is usually associated with considerable resistance. This is especially relevant when the new technology enables the use of granular materials traditionally considered to be of an unacceptable quality in combination with relatively new concepts such as New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME). In practice, few road construction projects are without any problems. The introduction of new-technologies obviously makes it an easy target to blame for any non-related problem that may arise during construction. This article aims to assist in pre-empting, recognising, preventing and resolving material or non-material related construction problems through the correct identification of the cause of the problem and recommending the best, most cost-effective way to correct any deficiencies on site.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0554.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: decarbonization; circular economy; recycled materials; demolition wastes; low-carbon construction; building with earth; compressed earth; rammed earth; sustainable construction
Online: 19 April 2023 (07:13:35 CEST)
An inter- and transdisciplinary concept has been developed, focusing on the scaling of industrial circular construction using innovative compacted mineral mixtures (CMM) derived from various soil types (sand, silt, clay) and recycled mineral waste. The concept aims to accelerate the systemic transformation of the construction industry towards carbon neutrality by promoting the large-scale adoption and automation of CMM-based construction materials, which incorporate natural mineral components and recycled aggregates or industrial by-products. In close collaboration with international and domestic stakeholders in the construction sector, the concept explores the integration of various CMM-based construction methods for producing wall elements in conventional building construction. Leveraging a digital urban mining platform, the concept aims to standardize the production process and enable mass-scale production. The ultimate goal is to fully harness the potential of automated CMM-based wall elements as a fast, competitive, emission-free, and recyclable alternative to traditional masonry and concrete construction techniques. To achieve this objective, the concept draws upon the latest advances in soil mechanics, rheology, and automation and incorporates open-source digital platform technologies to enhance data accessibility, processing, and knowledge acquisition. This will bolster confidence in CMM-based technologies and facilitate their widespread adoption. The extraordinary transfer potential of this approach necessitates both basic and applied research. As such, the proposed transformative, inter- and transdisciplinary concept will be conducted and synthesized using a comprehensive, holistic, and transfer-oriented methodology.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1746.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: EEG; Construction; hazard identification; Worker safety; Adverse reaction
Online: 28 November 2023 (03:41:11 CET)
Construction safety is especially important because the construction industry is so important to a country's development. Significant research and practice have been conducted to mitigate potential risks during construction and improve worker efficiency. With the rapid advancement of cognitive neuroscience and the incorporation of medical technology in recent years, various wearable monitoring devices have been widely used in the construction field for real-time monitoring of workers' physical and mental status. Among these, the use of EEG (Electroencephalogram) in construction environment research allows researchers to gain insight into the physical and mental states of construction workers while performing construction tasks. This review introduces EEG technology and portable EEG devices, followed by an overview of their use in both monitoring workers' adverse reactions and identifying hazards on construction sites, providing an effective guide for EEG research in the construction field and on-site safety management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0030.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: By-laws; Construction; Ordinance; Regulations; Tradeoffs; Tree preservation
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:00:11 CEST)
Development and redevelopment are important drivers of tree removal and canopy loss in urban landscapes. Local ordinances are often used to curtail tree removal, but punitive regulations alone may not be enough to reduce urban tree canopy loss in land development. In Florida (US), efforts to balance trees and development have so far focused on fees and fines, but with a recent backlash against tree regulations and the fast pace of urban growth, we explored the possible role of incentives in urban tree policies. We interviewed 20 land developers across Florida to understand their perspectives on current barriers and potential incentives for tree preservation and planting. We collected data from developers, whose perspectives on tree preservation are often unknown or overlooked, despite their significant role in tree planting, removal, and retention in and around cities. Our results show that major barriers to tree preservation and planting include requirements to grade sites for stormwater management, site constraints, and monetary costs. Most developers did not know of any existing incentives beyond intrinsic motivations but said that financial incentives would be most appealing to them. Top incentive suggestions include increasing building density, reducing impact fees and tax liability, and changing tree mitigation policies. Another promising finding is that developers are willing to work with regulators to find solutions that benefit both parties. Future research should consider evaluating the level of support and viability of different incentives by gathering feedback from policymakers, land developers, and the public.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1596.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: machine learning; construction industry; electrical engineering; electronics engineering
Online: 25 September 2023 (09:55:05 CEST)
The construction enterprise is a essential zone that contributes considerably to the worldwide financial system. but it faces numerous challenges, together with inefficiency in electric and electronics engineering tasks. This inefficiency results in delays, expanded charges, and decreased productivity. Device learning strategies have the capacity to deal with those challenges through optimizing the making plans and execution of electrical and electronics engineering tasks within the construction industry. This study paper targets to discover using machines gaining knowledge of strategies to maximise efficiency in electrical and electronics engineering projects inside the production industry. Mainly, the paper will be conscious of developing and imposing gadget mastering algorithms to optimize project scheduling, fabric procurement, and system utilization. The paper will even look at the ability of using predictive analytics to identify and mitigate dangers related to electric and electronics engineering tasks. The study could be based on a combination of literature review and empirical analysis. The literature evaluation will provide a top-level view of the demanding situations going through the development industry and the capability advantages of the usage of system getting to know strategies to deal with those challenges. The empirical evaluation will involve the improvement and testing of device mastering models on real-world information from electrical and electronics engineering initiatives inside the construction industry. The predicted results of this research are the development of a fixed of sensible recommendations for the use of machine gaining knowledge of strategies to optimize electric and electronics engineering projects within the construction industry. These suggestions will be beneficial for venture managers, engineers, and other stakeholders within the creation enterprise who're inquisitive about maximizing performance and decreasing charges of their tasks. Ordinary, this studies paper aims to contribute to the continued efforts to enhance the efficiency and productiveness of the development enterprise via exploring the ability of system studying techniques to optimize electrical and electronics engineering tasks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: earth buildings; residential construction; awareness; education; New Zealand
Online: 15 July 2022 (05:48:48 CEST)
The construction of earth buildings, both throughout history and in the current day, is well-established worldwide. Despite New Zealand's pre- and post-colonial history of earth construction, earth buildings as residential homes have not been well-received or popularised throughout present-day New Zealand. This research aims to identify the reasons for this lack of awareness and to determine methods that promote earth buildings in New Zealand. This research is based on data collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with subject matter experts and via an online questionnaire completed by members of the Earth Building Association New Zealand (EBANZ). The data collected revealed the experiences and perceptions of all participants regarding the advantages, challenges and promotion of earth buildings specific to New Zealand. Upon analysing these responses, key reoccurring themes were identified and compared. Regarding New Zealand's lack of awareness of earth buildings, interview and questionnaire participants responded that this shortcoming was due to earth construction being a very niche market and lacking commercial marketing. Education was the most frequently reoccurring theme raised by all participants as the top promotional tool for raising awareness of earth buildings. The results of this research can be applied to future work regarding obstacles that limit the growth of New Zealand's earth building industry, as well as research on the role of New Zealand's education system in exposing the next generation of builders, designers, and consumers to earth construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: adaptive design; sustainability of construction; BIM environment; formwork
Online: 29 December 2020 (16:44:42 CET)
Progressive technologies and practices are shifting the possibilities of building design and improving work efficiency. Constantly changing site conditions require different procedures and designs that take into account these changing conditions, whether it is a design solution, a change in environmental conditions, or just sustainability factors. Adaptive building design offers opportunities to cope with changing factors to achieve the highest possible level of building quality. This case study deals with the topic of adaptive formwork design for building renovation, taking into account sustainability. Aim of the article is an investigation and demonstration of the building information modelling (BIM) environment used for the adaptive design of formwork elements for the building renovation in the context of sustainability. The object of the case study is a building in the center of Kosice, Slovakia. BIM environment allows prompt and correct adaptation of the formwork design to changing conditions of lighting, ventilation, heating and temperature during the design of the building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0034.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainability; MIVES method; tunnels; construction materials; M-30
Online: 2 October 2020 (09:27:51 CEST)
In 2007, the excavation of the M-30 ring road located in Madrid and the creation of a green corridor either side of the Manzanares river brought significant change to the metropolitan area. The corridor and linear park which it provided were designed to contribute to the regeneration of the fluvial ecosystem, establish links among residents on each side of the river and promote cultural and leisure activities. This paper provides a sustainability analysis of the excavation of the M-30 (involving the socio-economic and environmental impact) 14 years after its construction. In order to show such an impact, an analysis of the area both prior to the project and after completion, as well as a hypothetical solution that uses improved materials, has been performed. This entails use of the multi-criteria decision-making model named MIVES (initials in Spanish, modelo integrado de valor para una evaluación sostenible). The MIVES method is based on the application of value functions of sustainability indicators selected by socio-economic and environmental criteria, chosen by experts. Results from analysis showed that the excavation of the M-30 considerably improved the sustainability of the area (sustainable index 3.43 and 6.26 both before and after the excavation works). However, use of improved materials in contrast with the application of conventional materials slightly improved the sustainability of the work (Sustainability Index 6.26 and 6.74, respectively, of the conventional materials).
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: construction engineering; lean supply chain; target cost management
Online: 13 November 2019 (08:57:42 CET)
The lean supply chain of construction engineering projects is to achieve the maximum satisfaction of the owners' needs in order to effectively achieve the goal of supply chain management. This paper explores an effective method of lean supply chain cost management for construction engineering projects with target cost management, so that each participating unit on the supply chain node can fully utilizes its core competencies to minimize internal consumption and waste, and achieve the optimal overall efficiency of the supply chain. According to the requirements of the goal planning theory of the construction project company, establish a lean supply chain cost planning system for the construction project, realize the basic model of the lean supply chain cost management of the construction project, and set the target cost from the lean project of the construction project. The technical decomposition is established by the process of cost decomposition and cost pressure transmission and sub-target cost planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: accident; construction project; causes; Bangladesh; RII based rank
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:29:17 CET)
Bangladeshi construction industry suffers a lot of safety and accidental issues than other developing countries in the world. Among many of these, accident of construction project goes far beyond and shape a horrific figure of death for every year. The aims of this study is that analysis and discussion of causes of accident at construction project in Bangladesh. A widespread statistical data collection and data analysis take place to identify the causes and design the questionnaire. The questionnaire-based survey was used to elicit the attitude of four stakeholders as workers, owners, consultants, and contractors towards passive causes of fatal accident at construction site. These study also identify 77 passive causes under 14 major groups and ranked them based on Relative Importance Index (RII). The top 5 major group of causes are (1) Management related, (2) Consultant related, (3) Technology related, (4) Labour related and (5) Contractor related. The top 5 passive causes are: (1) Unaware of safety-related issue, (2) Lack of personal protective equipment, (3) Lack of safety eliminating/ avoiding design, (4) Unfit equipment, (5) Lack of knowledge and training on equipment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0272.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: past participle construction, auxiliaries, resultatives, exaptation, refunctionalisation, capitalisation
Online: 12 October 2018 (14:40:04 CEST)
The chapter presents the current state of research concerning the development of the BE + past participle constructions from Latin to Spanish. Starting from the description in Rosemeyer (2014) and the theoretical background collated in Kailuweit & Rosemeyer (2015), it will be shown that the functional change does not follow traditional grammaticalisation paths. Several concepts that deal with cases contradicting traditional grammaticalisation theory will be discussed. ‘Exaption’ (Lass 1990, 1997) focussing on total defunctionalisation does not account for the fact that the resultative value of the BE + past participle construction, marginal in Latin, becomes central in Mediaeval Spanish. ‘Refunctionalisation’ Smith (2008) captures this aspect in a more appropriate way. However, the development of the construction could be also conceived as the opposite of what Pountain (2000) describes as ‘capitalisation’: a process of ‘decapitalisation’ by which a feature is exploited not for wider, but for more restricted purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: digital construction; 3D-concrete-printing; buildabiltiy; additive manufacturing
Online: 27 August 2018 (06:37:13 CEST)
Buildability, i.e. the ability of a deposited material bulk to retain its dimmensions under increasing load, is an inherent prerequisite for formwork-free digital construction (DC). Since DC processes are relatively new, no standard methods of characterization are available yet. The paper at hand presents practice-oriented buildabilty criteria by taking various process parameters and construction costs into consideration. In doing so, direct links between laboratory buildability tests and target applications are established. A systematic basis for calculating the time interval (TI) to be followed during laboratory testing is proposed for the full-width printing (FWP) and filament printing (FP) processes. The proposed approach is validated by applying it to a high-strength, printable, fine-grained concrete. Comparative analyses of FWP and FP revealed that to test the buildability of a material for FP processes, higher velocities of the printhead should be established for laboratory tests in comparison to those needed for FWP process, providing for equal construction rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cement; Multicriteria analysis; Life Cycle Analysis; Construction industry
Online: 12 May 2017 (17:45:58 CEST)
The attention to sustainable-related issues has grown fast in recent decades. The experience gained with these themes reveals the importance of considering this topic in the construction industry, which represents an important sector in the world. This work consists on conducting a multicriteria analysis of four cement powders, with the objective of calculating and analysing the environmental, human health and socio-economic effects of their production processes. The economic, technical, environmental and safety performances of the examined powders result from official, both internal and public, documents prepared by the producers. The Analytic Hierarchy Process permitted to consider several indicators (i.e. environmental, human health related and socio-economic parameters) and to conduct comprehensive and unbiased analyses which gave the best, most sustainable cement powder. As assumed in this study, the contribution of each considered parameter to the overall sustainability has a different incidence, therefore the procedure could be used to support on-going sustainability efforts under different conditions. The results also prove that it is incorrect to consider only one parameter to select the ‘best’ cement powder, but several impact categories should be considered and analysed if there is an interest for pursuing different, often conflicting interests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0165.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Regulation Effectiveness; Land Use Plan; Construction Land; China
Online: 20 March 2017 (18:42:46 CET)
Nowadays the relationship between planning land use and actual land use is not so clear in general. A lot of efforts have been put in the failures of regulation for the expansion of construction land. However, it still lacks an integrated approach to study the effectiveness of land use regulation in terms of different land use types. Furthermore, the existing evaluation of land use plan mainly focuses on a general level, a detailed research on the regulation effectiveness of each construction land use type is absent. Therefore, this research tries to evaluate regulation effectiveness of land use plan, which takes Cangwu country, Guangxi Province as an example. The finding by analysis is that the total area of construction land expansion was about 3494.73 ha, nearly 1.1 times of the plan quota. Moreover, the effectiveness differs greatly in various construction land use types. Town, industrial/mining sites can be well regulated through the quota of land use plan. While, the quota regulation system is not as effective for other type of construction land. Thus, we suggest to improve the regulation effectiveness of construction land through different plan instruments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0541.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Artificial neural network; Procurement management; Construction budgeting; Machine learning
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:55:35 CEST)
Big data technologies are disruptive technologies that affect every business, including those in the construction industry. The Thai government has also been affected, and attempted to use machine learning techniques with the analytics of big data technologies to predict which construction projects have a winning price over the project budget. However, this technology was never developed, and the government did not implement it because they had data obtained via a traditional data collection process. In this study, traditional data were processed to predict behavior in Thai government construction projects using a machine learning model. The data were collected from the government procurement system in 2019. There were seven input data, including project owner department, type of construction project, bidding method, project duration, project level, winning price over estimated price, and winning price over budget. A range of classification techniques, including an artificial neural network (ANN), a decision tree (DC), and K-nearest neighbor (KNN), were used in this study (ANN). According to the results, after hyperparameter tuning, ANN had the greatest prediction accuracy with 78.9 percent. This study confirms that data from the Thai government procurement system can be investigated using machine learning techniques from big data technologies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0167.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: bamboo culms; building Materials; Construction; codes and standards; MATLAB
Online: 2 August 2023 (07:48:01 CEST)
Bamboo is the building material of the past and future. It offers numerous properties that make it versatile for various applications, including construction. Its impressive strength-to-weight ratio enables it to bear substantial loads and stresses, while its good elasticity allows efficient energy absorption. However, its mechanical properties can vary based on factors such as species, age, locations, methods, and treatment. Treating bamboo is essential to enhance its properties and durability. The literature provides various natural and chemical treatments which enhanced some of the properties but also reported a drawbacks on higher temperature, content and duration. This paper reviewed 57 articles from Scopus database, specifically focusing on article-document type publications from the years 2003 to 2023. Additional references were also incorporated to address concerns in properties, treatment and standards to provide systematic understanding. MATLAB was utilized for data text analytics. With extensive assessment on the articles, the following gaps and concerns were observed and recommends for further study and assessment such as for bamboo properties, the development of centralized guidelines and procedures for the preparation and processing; exploration of alternative materials to reinforce bamboo without compromising its ductility; development of joint connections, and testing of mechanical properties considering seismic, wind and vibration. For treatment methods, the standardization of procedures using natural, chemical or combination. Lastly, for bamboo codes and standards, assessment of existing codes and standards for testing the mechanical properties of bamboo highlighting the potential limitations and areas, uniformity, differences with all existing similar standards. By filling these gaps, it can support the reliability and robustness of bamboo as a sustainable material, fostering its promotion and adoption in construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0450.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: workplace; health promotion; public health; health checks; education; construction
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:42:29 CEST)
Interprofessional learning (IPL) is essential to prepare healthcare trainees as the future public health workforce. WHIRL was an innovative IPL intervention that engaged multi-professional teams of volunteer healthcare trainees (n=20) to deliver health checks (n=464), including tailored advice and signposting, to employees in the UK construction industry (across 21 events, 16 sites, 10 organisations) as part of an ongoing research programme called Test@Work. Volunteers undertook a four-part training and support package of trainer-led education, observations of practice, self-directed learning and clinical supervision, together with peer mentoring. In a one-group post-test only design, IPL outcomes were measured using the Inventory of Reflective Vignette - Interprofessional Learning (IRV-IPL), and the psychometric properties of the IRV-IPL tool were tested. WHIRL demonstrably improved healthcare trainees’ interprofessional skills in all five areas of collaboration, coordination, cooperation, communication, and commendation. The IRV-IPL tool was found to be a valid and reliable measure of interprofessional competencies across three scenarios; before and after health promotion activities, and as a predictor of future health promotion competence. This industry-based workplace IPL programme resulted in attainment of health check competencies, and bridged the gap between research, education and clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: construction; rainwater harvesting; solar; spray foam; finger-jointed studs
Online: 3 February 2020 (03:04:44 CET)
The question of building sustainable in a geographical locality is inexorably linked to cost. In 2011, one of the authors built a sustainable house that was (at the time) the highest certified sustainable home based on the National Association of Home Builder’s standards for sustainable construction. This Texas house has been used for residential and research purposes for the past decade. In this case study, the authors evaluate components of the construction and their effectiveness as well as unseen secondary and tertiary effects. Some of the specific components discussed are home site placement; rainwater harvesting (100% of residential requirements); aerobic septic system; grid-tied solar array power; electric car charging; geothermal heating and cooling; reclaimed wood framing; spray foam installation; selection of windows, fixtures, and appliances; on-demand electric water heaters for guest areas; generator backups; and use of local items. Electric bills and water system improvements are discussed in detail, as improvements were made as part of residential and research requirements. This case study suggests that the financial outlay is worth the extra up-front costs if residents in this geographical area and climate will occupy the residence 7 years.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: risk assessment; BIM; supply chain management; prefabricated construction products
Online: 19 March 2019 (13:07:57 CET)
Improving the efficiency of the supply process in prefabricated components is challenging and requires accounting for a variety of risks involved in the management of the suppliers. The purpose of this study is to present a method to account for the systematic trade-offs between several supplier alternatives. A novel framework is presented for the whole assessment of supplier alternatives by taking advantage of the information extracted from customized building information modeling (BIM) and a database required for assessment of impacts. A data library related to assessment criteria for supply alternatives is built to facilitate the storage and sharing of information. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to select the optimal supplier that is able to provide the most satisfaction for the determined criteria. The proposed framework was also illustrated by the implementation in a mega project. The study implication is that BIM-enabled supplier selection can indeed lead to more benefits and higher values for all stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Construction project cost; influencing factors; Bayesian SEM; New Zealand
Online: 27 February 2019 (12:01:41 CET)
Construction projects are usually operating in a complex and dynamic environment in which the accumulation of many interrelated factors causes high uncertainty. Construction projects are complex and frequently involve substantial uncertainties including process complicatedness, intricate organization structure, dynamic environment, and financial strain. The study aims to categorize the influencing factors into three groups, namely construction project system, economic-market climate, and external environment. It attempts to adopt a novel analysis tool to examine the relationship between the project cost and multiple influencing factors by using Bayesian SEM. While the Bayesian SEM method has been receiving increasing attention in exploring the relationship between latent variables, construction studies still heavily rely on the covariance-based SEM approach. This study introduces several advantages of Bayesian SEM that make it more flexible and powerful than covariance-based SEM and provides the foundation of Bayesian SEM estimation and inference by illustrating this method in a project cost application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Construction project cost; influencing factors; Bayesian SEM; New Zealand
Online: 25 February 2019 (08:41:01 CET)
Construction projects are usually operating in a complex and dynamic environment in which the accumulation of many interrelated factors causes high uncertainty. Construction projects are complex and frequently involve substantial uncertainties including process complicatedness, intricate organization structure, dynamic environment, and financial strain. The study aims to categorize the influencing factors into three groups, namely construction project system, economic-market climate, and external environment. It attempts to adopt a novel analysis tool to examine the relationship between the project cost and multiple influencing factors by using Bayesian SEM. While the Bayesian SEM method has been receiving increasing attention in exploring the relationship between latent variables, construction studies still heavily rely on the covariance-based SEM approach. This study introduces several advantages of Bayesian SEM that make it more flexible and powerful than covariance-based SEM and provides the foundation of Bayesian SEM estimation and inference by illustrating this method in a project cost application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0162.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: machine learning; Counterparty Credit Risk; CDS Proxy construction; classification
Online: 22 May 2017 (08:21:59 CEST)
Regulators require financial institutions to estimate counterparty default risks from liquid CDS quotes for the valuation and risk management of OTC derivatives. However, the vast majority of counterparties do not have liquid CDS quotes and need proxy CDS rates. Existing methods cannot account for counterparty-specific default risks; we propose to construct proxy CDS rates by associating to illiquid counterparty liquid CDS Proxy based on Machine Learning Techniques. After testing 156 classifiers from 8 most popular classifier families, we found that some classifiers achieve highly satisfactory accuracy rates. Furthermore, we have rank-ordered the performances and investigated performance variations amongst and within the 8 classifier families. This paper is, to the best of our knowledge, the first systematic study of CDS Proxy construction by Machine Learning techniques, and the first systematic classifier comparison study based entirely on financial market data. Its findings both confirm and contrast existing classifier performance literature. Given the typically highly correlated nature of financial data, we investigated the impact of correlation on classifier performance. The techniques used in this paper should be of interest for financial institutions seeking a CDS Proxy method, and can serve for proxy construction for other financial variables. Some directions for future research are indicated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0181.v3
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Construction practices using nanotechnology applications; nano-modified emulsion stabilisation of granular materials; nano-modified emulsion stabilised layers in highway construction; central plant
Online: 23 December 2021 (10:52:06 CET)
The introduction of any new disruptive technology in a traditionally well-established industry, such as the road construction industry, is usually associated with considerable resistance. This is especially relevant when the new technology is based on the use of granular materials traditionally considered to be of an unacceptable quality in combination with relatively new concepts such as New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME). In such cases, the fact that the material design methods are based on fundamental scientific principles and have been proven in laboratories and through Accelerated Pavement Testing (APT), may be of little influence. However, the general acceptance of new disruptive technologies, e.g. telecommunications and Information Technologies (IT), have been based on the considerable advantages it presented. The same principles are applicable to the general acceptance and use of NME stabilisation/enhancement of materials in the road construction industry. This article is aimed at the practical cost-effective demonstration of the general application of the use of nanos-silane modified emulsions in the construction of the highest order roads, i.e. inter-city multi-lane highways, lower order roads (including Low-Volume-Roads (LVR)) and even local accesses to farms and in villages/townships. The implementation of NME technologies is directly associated with ease of use, time and cost savings and the addressing and reduction of risks applicable to the use thereof.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0281.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: construction technology adoption process; construction; mining; digital technology; diffusion; implementation; mix methods; grounded theory; thematic analysis; data and methodological triangulation techniques; AHP; NVivo
Online: 22 May 2018 (04:52:39 CEST)
Due to the complexity, high-risk, and conservative character of construction companies, advanced digital technologies do not become widely adopted in the short term, while vendors make determined efforts to overcome this and disseminate their technologies. This paper presents the methods of an investigation addressing the extremely complex issues related to the current practices of digital technology adoption in construction. It discusses how construction companies follow a specific logical process linked to need, project objectives, characteristics of the adopting organization, and the characteristics of the new technology to be adopted. The study aims to demonstrate a novel method of data collection and analysis including data and methodological triangulation techniques including the use of NVivo and AHP to explore how companies make the decision to uptake a new technology (e.g. advanced crane, tunnel boring machine or drones) by focusing on customer and vendor activities, their interactions, contributing factors, and people involved in the process. The major original contribution of this paper is to develop an innovative methodological Cube for investigating the Construction Technology Adoption Process (CTAP) covering technology adoption, acceptance, diffusion and implementation concepts. CTAP is a framework that delineates the phases of the process that customer organizations use when deciding to adopt a new digital technology and the parallel vendor activities. The significance of these contributions is that they enable vendors to understand how to match their strategies with customer expectations in each phase of the CTAP. It also provides a benchmark for new construction companies to use the current best practice of decision making. Future research is warranted to more clearly delineate any differences with developing nations or related industries such as mining and property management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1918.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: China construction industry; frontline workers; Unsafe behavior; Structural equation modeling
Online: 30 November 2023 (05:27:07 CET)
The unsafe behavior of frontline workers at construction sites is the most important cause of construction accidents. This study proposed a comprehensive model of frontline workers' unsafe behaviors based on a systems perspective and used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore the influence mechanisms between Objective Conditions (e.g., work environment, work climate, task complexity), Safety Management (e.g., safety education and training, safety reward and punishment regulations, safety inspection, safety technology disclosure, safety warning signs), Group Influence (propagation of unsafe behaviors among workers), Personal Perception (subjective judgment of operators on their safety knowledge and skills), and Unsafe Behaviors. Data from 460 frontline workers were collected through questionnaires and the correlation hypotheses were tested using SPSS 26.0 and Amos 26.0 software. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) Objective Conditions directly positively influence Safety Management, Group Influence, and Personal Perception, but indirectly negatively influence Unsafe Behavior; (2) Safety Management not only directly positively affects Personal Perception but also directly negatively affects Unsafe Behavior. However, the direct effect of Safety Management on Group Influence is not significant; (3) Group Influence has a direct positive effect on Unsafe Behavior, but the direct effect on Personal Perception is not significant; (4) The direct effect of Personal Perception on Unsafe Behavior is insignificant. These findings can be used as preliminary data to guide decision-makers or managers in construction companies to develop reasonable management plans to curb unsafe behaviors of frontline workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: MOS cement; rehydration method; carbonation; fiber cement boards; civil construction
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:59:56 CET)
During carbonation process, the presence of water is an important parameter to accelerate this phenomenon. The carbon dioxide (CO2) has been used as curing process production of fiber cement boards keeping the dimensional stability of cellulose fibers in cementitious matrix and promoting the CO2 capture of environment. In addition, magnesium oxysulfate (MOS) cement has been used as another alternative binder to reduce the amount of CO2 in the nature. The aim of this scientific paper is analysis the effect of rehydration method on the physical-mechanical properties of CO2-cured magnesium-based fiber cement boards. These boards were produced by Hatschek process simulation. The physical-mechanical performance and microstructural characteristics of MOS boards before and after carbonation were investigated by: water absorption (WA), apparent porosity (AP), and bulk density (BD); four-point bending test; X-ray diffraction (XRD); thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). According to the results, it was possible observe which the accelerated carbonation process resulted in improvements in the mechanical properties of the boards. The boards carbonated after 48 hours showed higher Modulus of Rupture values. The rehydration process of the composites before carbonation led to enhancements in the boards pre-cured for 48 and 72 hours, demonstrating that carbonation occurred more effectively after the supply of water through rehydration. The improvements in mechanical properties were associated with the formation of hydration products, which preferentially formed in the pores and voids of the fiber-cement. The presence of these carbonation products altered the physical properties of the materials, increasing the density of the boards and reducing the void volume. The decomposition of the formed carbonates was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis, which indicated that the rehydration process favored the carbonation of the materials
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1745.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: binocular vision; bridge swivel construction; brace displacement; mark point matching
Online: 26 October 2023 (18:56:36 CEST)
To solve the problem of complex sensor installation and easy damage in contact displacement measurement, a non-contact measurement method of brace displacement in bridge swivel construction based on binocular vision is proposed in this study. Combined with monitoring data in a swivel construction interchange project, binocular vision system was compared and analyzed with the traditional displacement meter and total station. Results showed that force versus displacement variation plots were obtained by binocular visual measurement in the weighing test, the inflection point can be clearly distinguished, and the position of the inflection point was the same as that of the displacement meter; monitoring data of binocular vision measurement and total station were compared and analyzed in the bridge swivel process, the average error was no more than 0.18 mm, the maximum error was no more than 0.42 mm, and the standard deviation was no more than 0.12. The method proposed in this study can be used as an alternative to displacement meter and total station measurement methods in bridge swivel construction, the problem of complex sensor installation and easy damage is solved in brace displacement measurement, equipment and labor costs can be effectively saved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0714.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Organizational climate; Safety climate; Multiple mediation; Construction personnel; Random sample
Online: 12 July 2023 (03:06:04 CEST)
Organizational climate is the ascribed psychological meanings and significance associated with the procedures, policies and practices that are recognized and rewarded in the workplace, and hence mediates the effects of environmental stimuli on individuals’ response. Safety climate is a specific organizational climate, i.e., organizational climate for safety. Previous research claimed that organizational climate provides foundation for safety climate, but without elaboration on the foundational mechanisms. This paper attempts to fill up this knowledge gap. As organizational climate is a multi-dimensional phenomenon, this paper chooses two dimensions, i.e., perceived organizational support (POS) and participative decision-making (PaDM), for illustrative purposes. Drawing on an interactive approach to forming climate perceptions, this paper introduces two interactive constructs, i.e., leader-member exchange (LMX) and team member exchange (TMX), and establishes a multiple mediation model depicting the foundational effect of organizational climate on safety climate. A random sample of Hong Kong based construction personnel is used to validate the model. The results show that both POS and PaDM are positively associated with perceived safety climate, both LMX and TMX fully mediate the effect of PaDM on safety climate, and only LMX partially mediates the effect of POS on safety climate. This study sheds light on the foundational effects of organizational climate on safety climate. POS can improve the quality of reciprocal exchange about safety matters between construction personnel and their supervisors, and hence raise construction personnel’s awareness of the priority of safety. PaDM can improve the quality of reciprocal exchange about safety matters vertically and horizontally, and hence have construction personnel aware the importance of safety. In practice, this paper suggests that project managers timely recognize and reward construction personnel’s contribution, genuinely cares about their well-being, and take their suggestions seriously in making decisions. In this way, the quality of both vertical and horizontal exchange about safety matters improves, and a sound and positive safety climate ensues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1166.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: devulcanization; transmission loss; transfer matrix method; rubber waste; multilayer construction.
Online: 17 May 2023 (02:19:34 CEST)
According to circular economy principles, the recycling and reuse of waste tyre rubber is one of the most advanced and ecological waste disposal technologies. Each year about 19 million tons of tyres are produced, and this amount is increasing each year. One of the most innovative ways to recycle rubber waste is devulcanization. There are many methods of rubber devulcanization, but the most popular are grinding and chemical. In this article devulcanized rubber granules were used for the preparation of rubber samples. Two of them were obtained by the grinding method and one by chemical devulcanization. 15 different rubber samples were produced for the experimental measurements. Multilayer constructions with two solid layers of plasterboard on both sides (GKB and GKFI) and porous acoustic material of rubber sample inside were produced. Measurements were made in an impedance tube and compared with the results of TMM analysis. The same trends of resonant frequencies were determined. According to the results, the resonant frequencies depended on the thickness of the material, since transmission loss values depended on the mass of construction. According to the test results of transmission loss, constructions with 50mm thick rubber samples had on average 3dB better results than the structures with 25mm samples and 5dB better results than structures with 12 mm thick rubber samples. In addition, it was found that higher density plasterboards (GKFI) increased the overall transmission loss value of the structure by 5 dB. The same trends were determined by the TMM method. The test results showed that multi-layered constructions with devulcanized waste rubber had high transmission loss result and could be used for sound insulating structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1133.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Distributed Manufacturing; Supply Chain; Multi-attribute decision support; Sustainability; Construction
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:07:56 CEST)
Distributed Manufacturing (DM) is becoming increasingly important in operations management due to its potential to support sustainability goals, reduce risks in global supply chains, and boost local economies. However, previous analyses of the advantages and disadvantages of DM have mainly focused on operations, overlooking additional benefits across the supply chain. For example, DM can enable local sourcing, better serve end-users, and tackle reverse supply chain challenges. While economies of scale are essential for reducing costs and improving productivity, highly centralised manufacturing can increase transportation costs, vulnerability, and supply chain disruptions, particularly during pandemics or other times of restricted transportation. To address these challenges, this study introduces a Multi-attribute Decision Support System (MADSS) and assessment process that considers impacts across the supply chain and guides stakeholders, academics, and decision-makers. The MADSS handles quantitative and qualitative information, missing data, and uncertainty, and a team of experts from academia and industry in New Zealand has developed the evaluation. The MADSS was used to analyse DM and traditional construction alternatives from economic, social, environmental, and resilience perspectives in New Zealand. The research contributes to a better understanding of the impacts of DM across the entire supply chain. Also, it proposes a flexible decision-making framework to engage with stakeholders and support decision-making in other industries and regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0356.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: sustainability; recycling; water treatment sludge; construction materials; environmentally clean materials
Online: 20 March 2023 (12:46:15 CET)
This study evaluated the grain size and high organic content from drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) in the properties of ceramics. Samples were studied using raw and oven dried DWTS at 110 °C in two granulometries (0.180 mm and 0.075 mm), with and without calcination (550 °C), as partial replacement of two soils commonly used in ceramic production. Specimens were prepared with 5, 10, and 20% DWTS and calcined at 950 °C to determine their chemical, physical, mineralogical and mechanical properties. The DWTS reduced the density and increased the absorption and shrinkage of the specimens after calcination. An increase in strength with up to 10% sludge, driven by the presence of fluxing agents, was verified. The processing method had little influence on the properties of ceramic with above 10% of sludge. In conclusion, the use of raw DWTS obtained better results with low energy usage for its reuse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: pile; sustainable construction; soft soil; compressive bearing capacity; carbon emission
Online: 15 March 2023 (02:47:13 CET)
To further explore the bearing capacity and sustainable construction of vacuum drainage pipe (VDP) piles, field tests were carried out to compare and analyze the ultimate single pile bearing capacity, pile side friction and pile end resistance of ordinary piles and vacuum drainage pipe piles. The effect of the VDP pile on energy conservation and emission reduction in practical projects is discussed. The results shows that the VDP pile basically eliminated the soil squeeze and did not cause excessive relative displacement of pile and soil after vacuum consolidation. The VDP pile enhances pile side friction resistance, resulting in a 17.6% increase in ultimate bearing capacity compared to traditional piles. The VDP pile method can reduce carbon emissions by 31.4% compared to traditional methods. This study provides guidance for the production and design of VDP piles in the future and demonstrates their potential for energy conservation and emission reduction benefits compared to traditional methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0077.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: inter-personal relationships; construction innovation; knowledge sharing; inter-organizational relationships
Online: 8 February 2019 (09:20:06 CET)
Abstract: Guanxi, a Chinese term that defines social networks of power and benefits, can be divided into inter-personal and inter-organizational relationships, and guanxi significantly influences construction innovation in China. Many studies have examined the relationship between guanxi and construction innovation at the project or organizational level. However, few of these studies explained how guanxi could affect an individual’s innovative behaviour from a double-level perspective. This paper builds on social capital theory and social exchange theory to examine guanxi’s role in motivating innovative behaviour in a China-specific construction context. It investigates the main effects of inter-personal relationships on innovative behaviour, the mediating effects of knowledge sharing, and the cross-level moderating effects of inter-organizational relationships. These elements were tested using a survey that received 178 responses from 35 different organizations. The results were analysed using Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) and revealed that inter-personal relationships have positive influences on innovative behaviour, thus highlighting the partial mediating effects of knowledge sharing. In addition, the analyses showed that inter-organizational relationships augment inter-personal relationships and knowledge sharing on innovative behaviour by cross-level interaction. The research findings enhance an understanding of guanxi and innovative behaviour in China-specific construction project settings, as well as verifying the significance of guanxi in stimulating innovative behaviour.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0272.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: construction industry; heart health; lifestyle behaviors; healthy eating; physical activity
Online: 20 April 2018 (14:59:45 CEST)
Objectives: 1) To describe the cardiovascular health of the construction workers in Hong Kong, 2) to examine the demographic differences in cardiovascular health, and 3) to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle behaviors and cardiovascular conditions. Methods: 626 registered construction workers were included in the analysis. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, weight and height were measured. Face-to-face questionnaire interview was conducted. T-tests and One-way ANOVAs were used to compare the cardiovascular health score, cardiovascular outcomes, and lifestyle behaviors by demographic characteristics. Logistic regressions were performed to assess the cardiovascular outcomes by lifestyle behaviors. Results: Two-thirds of the construction workers failed to achieve three out of the seven “ideal” cardiovascular health indicators. The younger, more educated, and female subjects had better cardiovascular health scores than their counterparts. The ideal fish and seafood consumption was associated with 1) ideal weight status and 2) ideal cholesterol level, whereas less soft drink consumption was associated with ideal cholesterol level. Conclusions: The findings highlighted the importance of promoting cardiovascular health in the construction industry. This study provided insights for future interventions, which should include increasing fish and seafood intake, decreasing soft drink consumption, and enhancing the health literacy amongst older, less educated, and male construction workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0054.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: construction industry; energy rebound effect; sustainability; solow remainder; ridge regression
Online: 10 April 2017 (07:35:45 CEST)
As the largest energy consumer and carbon emitter, China has made substantial efforts to improve energy efficiency for decrease energy consumption, while the energy rebound effect determines its effectiveness. The embodied energy consumption of construction projects accounted for nearly one-sixth of the total economy's energy consumption in China. This paper is based on the logical relationship among capital input, technological progress, economic growth, and energy consumption, adapting an alternative estimation model to estimate the energy rebound effect for the construction industry in China for the first time. Empirical results in our paper reveal that the energy rebound effect for the construction industry in China is about 59.5% for the period of 1990–2014. The results indicate that the energy rebound effect does exist in China’s construction industry and it presented a fluctuating declining trend. This implies that half of the energy savings by technological progress is achieved. In addition, China’s government should implement proper energy pricing reforms and energy taxes to promote the sustainable development of China’s construction industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: blockchain technology; hyperledger fabric; amazon web services; construction worker; privacy; safety
Online: 18 October 2023 (11:20:09 CEST)
The construction industry, characterized by its intricate network of stakeholders and diverse workforce, grapples with the challenge of managing information effectively. This study delves into this issue, recognizing the universal importance of safeguarding data, particularly amid rising concerns of unauthorized access and breaches. Aiming to harness the potential of blockchain technology to address these challenges, this study used a hypothetical biographical and safety data of construction workers and securely stored on a Hyperledger Fabric blockchain. Developed within the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud platform, this blockchain infrastructure emerged as a robust solution for enhancing data security and privacy. Anchored in the core principles of data security, the model emerges as a potent defender against the vulnerabilities of traditional data management systems. Beyond its immediate implications, this study exemplifies the marriage of blockchain technology and the construction sector, potentially reshaping workforce management, especially in high-risk projects, optimizing risk assessment, resource allocation, and safety measures to mitigate work-related injuries. Practical validation through transaction testing using Hyperledger Explorer validates the model's feasibility and operational effectiveness, serving as a blueprint for the industry's data management. Ultimately, this research not only showcases the promise of blockchain technology in addressing construction data security challenges but also underscores its practical applicability through comprehensive testing, heralding a new era of data management that harmonizes security and efficiency for stakeholders' benefit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1480.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Lean Construction; Last Planner system; Information flow; Project management; priority index
Online: 25 September 2023 (03:57:16 CEST)
This research describes a detailed analysis in the enactment of a Lean Tool, the Last Planner System during pandemic period which helps in optimizing the resources for better coordination among all stakeholders in pandemic period. LPS as it is known, focusses on minimizing the factors such as uncertainties, barriers and variability to make construction projects more flexible for better project management. These include variations and deviations, supervision, delays in approvals, change resistance, subcontractor dedication which are all related to various stakeholders in the project. Following that, a Design Science Research technique is used to evaluate the effect of applying LPS in buildings. An action strategy is being used to attain this goal, and four case studies were being documented which were concerned in the implementation of LPS in the building of the Boy's Hostel, Research Scholar Quarters, Faculty Housing, and Girls' Hostel at Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Data was gathered by observation of site activities, interviews, documentation analysis, and a questionnaire survey and grouped into various factors. While adopting the LPS tool in the research the factors affecting the implementation were found in the covid-19 pandemic period. Further these factors were anlayzed, measured, ranked and validated for adopting in projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Text mining; apriori algorithm; complex network model; subway construction; risk transfer
Online: 18 September 2023 (12:58:50 CEST)
Subway construction is often in a complex natural and human-machine operating environment, and that complicated setting leads to subway construction more prone to safety accidents, which can cause substantial casualties and monetary losses. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the safety risks of subway construction. The existing literature on the identification and assessment of subway construction safety risks(SCSR) is susceptible to the influence of subjective factors. Moreover, although existing studies have explored the interrelationships between different risks, these studies usually analyze the interrelationships of single risks, lack the study of risk chain transfer relationships, and fail to find out the key path of risk transfer. Therefore, this paper innovatively combines text mining, association rules and complex networks to deep mine subway construction safety incident reports and explore risk transfer process. Firstly, it uses text mining technology to identify subway construction safety risk; Then, association rules are introduced to explore the causal relationships among safety risk; Finally, the key safety risk and important transfer paths of subway construction safety accidents (SCSA) are obtained based on the complex network model. Research results show that (a) improper safety management, unimplemented safety subject responsibilities, violation of operation rules, non-perfect safety responsibilities system and insufficient safety education and training are the key safety risk in SCSA; (b) two shorter key risk transfer paths in the subway construction safety network can be obtained: insufficient safety education and training→lower safety awareness→violation of operation rules→safety accidents; insufficient safety checks or hidden trouble investigations→violation of operation rules→safety accidents; (c) in the process of risk transfer, the risk can be controlled by controlling the key nodes or cutting off the transfer path. The results of the study provide new ideas and methods for SCSR identification and influence element mining, which help safety managers propose accurate subway construction safety risk control measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Cold Formed Steel; Residential construction; material characteristics; durability; design philos-ophy.
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:23:55 CEST)
According to a recent estimate by UN Habitat, approximately 3 billion individuals will require suitable housing by the year 2030. This staggering demand translates to the need for around 96,000 affordable housing units to be constructed each day. However, the conventional construction methods that rely on cement-based concrete and masonry are outdated, lacking innovation, efficiency, and sustainability. In light of these challenges, cold-formed steel emerges as an appealing alternative to traditional construction materials like masonry and concrete. It offers numerous advantages, including easy fabrication, lightweight properties, energy efficiency, the ability to reuse the material at the end of its service life, and a higher level of recyclability. Cold-formed steel buildings are also recognized for their superior insulation and lower energy consumption during operation. Cold-formed steel (CFS) members are created by rolling structurally sound steel sheets into the required shapes using a forming machine, without the need for heat as in the case of hot-rolled steel. While the thickness of these members can range from 0.01 mm to 7 mm, commercial construction of load-bearing walls, roof trusses, and floor joists typically utilizes steel thicknesses of 0.7 mm to 1.2 mm. This paper tries to illustrate the materials and methods employed in the construction of cold-formed steel modular buildings in Sri Lanka. It delves into the material and durability characteristics of cold-formed steel, the design philosophy behind these structures, the development of the building envelope, and the energy efficiency features of the building elements. The findings of this study demonstrate that cold-formed steel buildings can be a highly sought-after alternative for residential construction, offering faster construction timelines, cost-effectiveness, and energy-efficient practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1193.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: SLAM; multi-sensor fusion; tight coupling; factor graph optimization; construction machinery
Online: 16 June 2023 (11:08:13 CEST)
Unmanned construction machinery vehicles mostly carry work in bridges, tunnels, and outdoor open spaces. Obtaining accurate pose estimation of the entire vehicle and establishing a map of the surrounding environment is of great significance for path planning and control in the later stage. Traditional simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) schemes, which mostly use a single sensor, but there are problems with localization drift and mapping failure in scenarios where there are few geometric features and the environment is prone to degradation. Currently, the multi-sensor fusion strategy has been proven to be an effective solution and widely used in the field of unmanned vehicle localization and mapping. This paper proposes a SLAM framework that tightly couples a LiDAR, IMU and camera to achieve accurate and reliable pose estimation. The framework is based on LiDAR-inertial system(LIS) and factor graph optimization theory. Texture information provided by vision is integrated into the LiDAR-inertial odometry to generate a new visual-inertial subsystem(VIS).The two subsystems, VIS and LIS, can assist each other and work jointly. Through real vehicle tests, the system can perform incremental, real-time state estimation, reconstruct dense 3D point cloud maps,and effectively solve the problems of localization drift and mapping failure in the lack of geometric features or challenging construction environments. Meanwhile, the system has a safety redundancy mechanism. When any subsystem fails, the system can also operate normally, to ensure the reliability and robustness of vehicle positioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1378.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Building Information Modeling; BIM Adoption; Construction Business; Developing Countries; Re-Engineering.
Online: 19 May 2023 (04:39:32 CEST)
Building Information Modelling (BIM) has been more popular in the construction industry as a consequence of the many advantages it offers, such as increased productivity, improved project outcomes, and reduced expenses. However, there are many obstacles that must be overcome before BIM can be widely used. This research uses a poll of construction industry experts to investigate the challenges associated with using BIM in projects. Cost of implementation, inadequate standards and procedures, and a lack of knowledge with BIM were some of the hurdles that were measured in the study. Statistical techniques were used to examine the data, and the findings indicate that the high cost of implementation and the absence of sufficient standards and procedures are the two main obstacles to the widespread adoption of BIM. Problems with supply chain management and a lack of experience with BIM are also mentioned as obstacles. The report also suggests solutions, such as a more focused teaching effort on BIM-related issues and the creation of a specialised BIM curriculum. Professionals in the construction industry may utilise the study’s results to their advantage by expanding their knowledge of the obstacles standing in the way of widespread adoption of BIM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0638.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Agile project management; Agile construction; Building adaptation; Built environment; Scaling agile
Online: 9 May 2023 (10:28:45 CEST)
The Agile Building Adaptation (AgiBuild) framework is the adoption and adaptation of the large-scale agile framework for building adaptation projects. The agile methodology is proven to drive innovation by focusing on adaptation to change and user centricity. Similarly, the authors envision that the AgiBuild framework can fundamentally change the way that buildings are re-designed, refurbished, and operated. The AgiBuild framework is developed from the need of the building adaptation industry to manage uncertainties, overcome communication barriers, and improve innovation. In this study, a literature review of Agile and its impact on building adaptation projects is undertaken. Based on this systematic literature review, this paper defines the AgiBuilt framework and provides its benefits and barriers to implementation. A key finding of the literature review is that leadership influence, and adequate training form the key foundation for the implementation of the AgiBuild Framework. In defining the AgiBuild framework, the paper describes its components and how its implementation is likely to proceed. The authors propose that by adopting the AgiBuild framework, the industry can transform itself into a highly innovative and user-centred industry to improve productivity and performance of the construction industry..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Visualization techniques; Virtual Reality (VR); Augmented Reality (AR); Construction industry; BIM
Online: 13 March 2023 (14:15:50 CET)
Visualization techniques are a powerful communication tool between construction stakeholders. The advancement of technology from 2D drawings to 3D models, Virtual Reality (VR), and Augmented Reality (AR) has emphasized the crucial role of efficient communication of ideas, designs, and concepts in preventing project delays and other issues in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. Contemporary innovations such as web-based virtual reality cloud platforms that facilitate collaborative AEC projects and Head-mounted Displays that enable the viewing of VR environments are some of the latest technological developments that are emerging in the construction industry. These technological advances have the potential to improve communication, increase project efficiency, and enhance the quality of construction work. The purpose of this research is to identify existing trends and potential future directions by appropriating the state of the art of the intellectual growth of Virtual reality and Augmented Reality. The study used scientometric analysis in reviewing existing publications to scientifically map the evolution of VR and AR in the AEC sector. The study observed an emerging but little amount of publications on VR and AR in construction. While Africa contributes little significance, advancement in VR and AR research is led by United States and America. The study expresses concern over the dearth of research and the low amount of collaborations amongst institutions in diverse countries. The study concludes that VR and AR research in the AEC sector must be afforded the needed focus and attention. In recent times, the global Coronavirus pandemic has shown that technology such as VR and AR is inevitable in the success of a project.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0290.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: design for manufacture and assembly; digital fabrication; additive manufacturing, construction, review
Online: 11 January 2023 (11:42:43 CET)
Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DfMA) in architectural, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry is attracting the attention of designers, practitioners, and construction project stakeholders. Digital fabrication (Dfab) and design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) practices are found in current needs for further research and development. The DfMA's conceptual function is to maximize the process efficiency of Dfab and AM building projects. This work reviewed 171 relevant research articles over the past few decades. The concept of DfMA and the fundamentals of DfMA in building and construction were explored. In addition, DfMA procedures associated with Dfab and DfAM, as well as its AM assembly process, were discussed. Lastly, the current machine learning research on DfMA in construction was also highlighted. Large research gaps in the DfMA for Dfab and DfAM can be filled to increase operational efficiency and sustainable practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate; construction waste; shear strength; shear provision; design equation
Online: 5 August 2021 (09:41:27 CEST)
The brittle shear failure of reinforced concrete beams is complexed and unfavorable. For decades, research on the mechanical properties and durability of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) to make recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) has been widely investigated. However, test results on the shear strength of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams are still limited and contradictory. This paper reports the shear strength of reinforced recycled aggregate concrete beams without stirrups. Eight RAC beams and two controlled beams with natural coarse aggregate (NCA) were tested under the four-point flexural test with the shear span-to-effective depth ratio (a/d) of 3.10. Parameters in this study were the replacement percentage of RCA (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) and longitudinal reinforcement ratio (w) of 1.16% and 1.80%. It was found that the normalized shear stresses of RAC beams with w = 1.80% at all levels of replacement percentage were quite similar to that of the NAC counterparts. Normalized shear stress of the beam with 100% RCA and w = 1.16% was lower than that of the NAC beam by 5%. Database of 128 RAC beams without shear reinforcement from literature was analyzed to evaluate the ability of the most recent ACI 318-19 shear provisions in shear strength prediction. A reduction factor of 0.75 is proposed to the current ACI code provision to account for the physical variations of RCA such as replacement percentage, RCA source and quality, density, amount of residual mortar, and physical irregularity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: sustainable concrete; wastewater; industrial waste management; sustainable development; sustainable construction materials
Online: 19 February 2021 (10:04:58 CET)
Concrete, as one of the essential construction materials is responsible for a vast amount of emissions. Using recycled materials and gray water can considerably contribute to the sustainability aspect of concrete production. Thus, finding a proper replacement for fresh water, in the production of concrete, is significant. The usage of industrial wastewater, instead of water in the concrete can is considered in this paper. In this study, 450 concrete samples are produced with different amounts of wastewater. The mechanical parameters such as slump, compressive strength, water absorption, tensile strength, electrical resistivity, rapid freezing, half-cell potential, and appearance are investigated. The results showed that the usage of industrial wastewater does not significantly change the main characteristics of concrete. Although, increasing the concentration of the wastewater can decrease durability and strength features nonlinearly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0703.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: quark matter; NJL model; RMF theory; deconfinement phase transition; Maxwell construction
Online: 27 November 2020 (20:18:36 CET)
We study the hadron-quark hybrid equation of state (EOS) of compact-star matter. The Nambu—Jona-Lasinio (NJL) local SU(3) model with vector-type interaction is used to describe the quark matter phase, while the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory with scalar-isovector $\delta$-meson effective field adopted to describe the hadronic matter phase. It is shown that the larger the vector coupling constant, the lower the threshold density for the appearance of strange quarks. For a sufficiently small value of the vector coupling constant, the functions of the mass dependence on the baryonic chemical potential have regions of ambiguity which leads to a phase transition in non-strange quark matter with an abrupt change in the baryon number density. We show that within the framework of the NJL model, the hypothesis on the absolute stability of strange quark matter is not realized. In order to describe the phase transition from hadronic matter to quark matter, the Maxwell's construction is applied. It is shown that the greater the vector coupling, the greater the stiffness of the EOS for quark matter and the phase transition pressure. Our results indicate that the infinitesimal core of the quark phase, formed in the center of the neutron star, is stable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: autonomous rammed earth construction; red clay; epoxy emulsion; mechanical properties; microstructure
Online: 10 August 2020 (06:21:39 CEST)
Existing rammed earth construction methods have disadvantages such as increased initial costs for manufacturing the large formwork and increased labor costs owing to the labor-intensive construction techniques involved. To address the limitations of existing rammed earth construction methods, an autonomous rammed earth construction method is introduced herein. As this autonomous rammed earth construction method uses a modular formwork, alternative materials must be used in the construction to satisfy the requirements for the early-age binder performance. Accordingly, this study evaluates the use of an epoxy emulsion composed of epoxy and a hardener to enhance the performance of the binder. Preliminary experiments were conducted to determine the optimal formulation of the epoxy emulsion, following which the compressive strength, water loosening, shrinkage, rate of mass change, and microstructure of several red clay binder specimens with and without epoxy emulsion were analyzed at early ages. The results confirmed that the epoxy emulsion can be applied to satisfy the performance requirements for autonomous rammed earth construction by improving the durability and strength of the binder at early ages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0022.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design; LEED; sustainable construction cost; Iran
Online: 3 January 2020 (04:42:10 CET)
Buildings use 30-40 % of all energy resources and are thus their main consumers in modern society. Moreover, buildings require a vast amount of different raw materials. During the last two decades, several green building certifications have been created in order to consider social, economic and environmental aspects of sustainability of buildings. One of the most famous and widely used of these certifications is Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). So far, the use of LEED has concentrated in the US and other developed countries. One reason that restricts the use of this point-based system certification in developing countries is the limited data about its costs. In this study, the extra cost of the certification process will be evaluated besides the changes needed in the design of the building to reach the points required by LEED. At the first stage, the number of points the case study earns in its current format (Scenario 1) were found out, then the cost difference of getting either the Certified (Scenario 2) or Silver (Scenario 3) level LEED certification for the building was studied. It was found that besides some technical considerations, filling the criteria of the Certified and Silver level increases the total costs of construction by 3.4% and 5.9%. Further improvement of the building’s energy efficiency would enable the attainment of a higher-level certification. The results of the study could help to promote the use of green building certifications in Western Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Construction, worker safety, safety helmet, three-axis accelerometer sensor, data mining
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:03:21 CET)
In the Korean construction industry, legal and institutional safety management improvements are continually being pursued. However, there was a 4.5% increase in the number of workers’ deaths at construction sites in 2017 compared to the previous year. Failure to wear safety helmets seems to be one of the major causes of the increase in accidents, and so it is necessary to develop technology to monitor whether or not safety helmets are being used. However, the approaches employed in existing technical studies on this issue have mainly involved the use of chinstrap sensors and have been limited to the problem of whether or not safety helmets are being worn. Meanwhile, improper wearing, such as when the chinstrap and harness fixing of the safety helmet are not properly tightened, has not been monitored. To remedy this shortcoming, a sensing safety helmet with a three-axis accelerometer sensor attached was developed in this study. Experiments were performed in which the sensing data were classified whether the safety helmet was being worn properly, not worn, or worn improperly during construction workers’ activities. The results verified that it is possible to differentiate among wearing status of the proposed safety helmet with a high accuracy of 97.0%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0571.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Suspension bridge; Girder construction; RCS process; Form-finding analysis; Model test
Online: 28 September 2018 (15:06:34 CEST)
The determination of the non-loading condition of the rail cable shifting (RCS) system, which consists of main cables, hangers and rail cables, is the premise of the girder erection for the long-span suspension bridges. An analytical form-finding analysis model of shifting system is established according to the basic assumptions of flexible cable structures. Herein, the rail cable is discretized into segmental linear cable elements and the main cable is discretized into segmental catenary elements. Moreover, the calculation and analysis equation of each member and their iterative solutions are derived by taking the elastic elongation of the sling into account. In addition, by taking the girder construction of Aizhai suspension bridge as engineering background, a global scale model of the RCS system is designed and manufactured; also the test system and working conditions are established. The comparison between the test results and analytical results shows the presented analytical method is correct and effective. The process is simplified in the analytical method, and the computational results and precision can satisfy the practical engineering requirements. In addition, the proposed method is suitable to apply to the computation analysis of similar structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: post disaster housing; rapid assembly systems; foam filled sandwiches; modular construction;
Online: 21 June 2018 (12:52:55 CEST)
In this paper the development process of a deployable modular sandwich panelized system for rapid assembly building construction is presented, and its structural performance under some different action effects is investigated. This system, which includes an innovative sandwich panel and its integrated connections, can be used as structural walls and floors in quickly assembled post-disaster housing, as well as load bearing panels for pre-fabricated modular construction and semi-permanent buildings. Panels and connections are composed of a pneumatic fabric formwork, and two 3-D high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets as the skins, filled with high-density rigid Polyurethane (PU) foam as the core. HDPE sheets manufactured with a studded surface considerably enhance the stress distribution, buckling performance and delamination strength of the sandwich panel under various loading conditions. The load-carrying behaviour of the system in accordance with some ASTM standards is presented here. The results show the system satisfies the codes criteria regarding semi-permanent housing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: virtual information modeling; project management knowledge areas; construction projects; communication management.
Online: 2 May 2018 (11:40:14 CEST)
In the contemporary construction management, poor project performance, cost overrun, and low-quality construction have become a central point of attention for improving project performance including information, interaction and communication management. virtual design and construction and building information modelling play indispensable role in improving the project performance. The aim of this study is to propose a Virtual Information Modeling as a novel information and communication technology method with potential to overcome problems in the construction industry. Using one-sample t test with Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, we analysed data collected from structured questionnaire survey involving project managers working at architecture, engineering and construction industries in Tehran, Iran. The results suggest that the most important benefits and challenges of using Virtual Information Modeling are related to the area of integration, and implementation of Virtual Information Modeling has the greatest impact on this area of project management knowledge. Thus, integration should be considered a top priority for construction companies implementing Virtual Information Modeling in their projects. Policymakers should understand that careful management of virtual information is essential for improving the performance of projects and enhancing the process efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0196.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: natural environment; construction sector; sustainable development; energy performances; existing buildings; heating demand
Online: 5 December 2023 (07:41:23 CET)
The present state of the natural environment is significantly influenced by the construction sector. Due to the large amounts of consumed natural resources and materials as well as the high volume of emitted pollutants, the building industry is considered to have a key influence in achieving a global sustainable development. A considerable part of the ecological impact of the built environment is influenced by the energy consumed for creating appropriate indoor conditions as well as by the greenhouse gases that are emitted during the operation stage of a building’s life cycle. Therefore, the energy performances of existing buildings must be significantly improved in the near future. This paper analyzes the influence of the thermal insulation thickness of walls on the linear thermal transmittances and the heating demand of an existing building. The resulted values show that while increasing the insulation of the walls leads to a serious heat demand reduction, a deep renovation of the building cannot be achieved solely by using this solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1914.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: knowledge graph construction; knowledge point extraction; pre-trained language model; relationship extraction
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:02:59 CET)
Based on the teaching material of "Robotics" course, this paper studied the automatic knowledge graph construction, including knowledge points extraction and knowledge point relation extraction. We proposed a new method of extracting the first-level, second-level, and third-level knowledge points as well as their prerequisite relations of knowledge points in the textbook. For the problem of insufficient knowledge of the pre-trained language model in the specific field, methods such as incremental pre-training and optimization of cost functions are employed to integrate subject knowledge into the pre-trained language model, thus improving its effectiveness. To overcome the problem that the traditional method of relationship extraction can not be applied directly to the extraction of teaching materials, a new scheme for knowledge point relationship extraction based on keyword relationship is proposed. The experimental data from textbooks shows that the F1 score of knowledge point extraction reaches 93%, considerably improved compared to the traditional model. Consequently, the knowledge point entity extraction and relationship extraction methods based on the pre-trained model can effectively extract structured information and facilitate the automatic construction of knowledge graphs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1762.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: apprentices; construction industry; group membership; mental health; social identification; suicide; workplace bullying
Online: 25 August 2023 (08:17:11 CEST)
Background: There is a lack of literature specifically examining the workplace bullying of apprentices and trainees in traditional, male-dominated sectors such as the Australian building and construction industry. Using social identity theory (SIT), the aim of this study was to gather the attitudes, thoughts, and feelings of construction industry leaders to better understand how social identification (i.e., group membership) impacts bullying on targets and perpetrators, and the willingness to report bullying for targets and bystanders. Method: One-on-one, semi-structured interviews using a purposive sample of eight leaders from construction and blue-collar industries. Qualitative data were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis. Results: Four overarching themes were identified: difficulties for apprentices transitioning into industry, the need for continued improvement to industry culture, reluctance to report bullying, and rethinking apprenticeships to empower. Each theme provides insight into the psychosocial phenomenon of the bullying of trade apprentices and suggests that an apprentices’ level of social identification with work groups shapes how bullying is identified, interpreted, and prevented. Conclusion: Findings from this study will be important for tailoring evidence-based interventions, human resource policies and initiatives for education and awareness training. Themes also highlight systemic inadequacies impacting apprentices’ mental health and skill development, with implications for the future sustainability of apprenticeship training agreements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: station-city integration; Chongqing East station; combined construction; Evacuation (quasi) safety zone
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:52:15 CEST)
In response to the fire protection design challenges faced by the integrated station-city engineering under the new model of station-city fusion, such as large building volume, diverse traffic types, functional integration, spatial complexity, and inapplicable standards, this paper selects Chongqing East Station as a typical engineering case. The fire safety engineering methods and performance-based fire protection design ideas were used. The paper summarized the fire protection difficulties, such as multifunctional combination construction, large fire protection distance, large fire protection zoning area, long evacuation distance, and design of evacuation (quasi) safety zones. Combining with the actual situation of the engineering, this paper analyzed the basic technical measures taken to address these design challenges. By adopting the method of fire safety engineering, the safety of the design scheme is verified, which can provide a solution approach for the current fire protection design challenges in the integrated station-city engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1178.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: construction machinery leasing; Industrial Internet platform; closed-loop supply chain; coordination contract
Online: 17 May 2023 (04:07:15 CEST)
Leasing and recycling are important issues to achieve low-carbon sustainable development of construction machinery industry, however there are some dilemmas bothering which is caused by excessive restriction of product service life. Focusing on the problem of pricing and coordination, a two-stage model of leasing closed-loop supply chain based on the Industrial Internet platform practical application was proposed. Under the centralized and decentralized decision-making scenarios, the price of leasing and selling, maintenance effort and recovery rate are calculated respectively. By using the Shapley value method to optimize the selling price, and the two-part pricing contract to calculate the compensation fee, the global profit is reasonably distributed, while the supply chain achieving Pareto optimality. The performance of different contracts on the improvement of supply chain profit was investigated. And the correlation among parameters was also explored through sensitivity analysis and numerical simulation. The findings showed that maintenance and recycling of construction machinery can be improved with the advantage of the Industrial Internet platform, while achieving the supply chain coordination by contracts. The enhancement of maintenance effort can decrease the remanufacturing cost which is positively correlated to the selling price and leasing price of product, furthermore promoting the recovery rate of used products. In the future, reasonable control of platform cost can help improve the recycling of construction machinery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0197.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: construction; safety; risk; hazard; critical control risk management; critical control; fatality prevention
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:18:21 CEST)
Across the global construction industry, fatalities continue to occur from high-risk activities where the risk controls have been defined, however were unreliable. In the mining industry, Critical Control Risk Management has provided positive results in reducing major accidents, which raises the question, could the Critical Control approach reduce the fatality rate in the construction industry? This study analysed 10 years of serious and fatal incident investigation reports from four international construction companies to i) assess the reliability of their Critical Controls (CCs) and ii) assess the factors which affect the reliability of CCs. The results show the reliability of CCs, measured by implementation and effectiveness, averaged just 42%. Human performance factors including risk identification, decision-making and competency together with supervision, job planning, communication organisational factors were identified as affecting the reliability of CCs. The study used bow-tie diagrams with real event data to find the actual CC effectiveness. This gave actionable findings directly related to individual CCs enabling the participating organization to focus resources on improving specific verification processes. The results confirm the applicability of CCs for the Major Accident Event hazards analyzed and highlights further review is required of the factors which need to be considered when implementing a CC program. This paper details our methodology and results, to assist others apply CCs as a risk management tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0228.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: concrete frames; modules; gridshell structures; 3D concrete printing; digital construction; SHCC; ECC
Online: 16 March 2022 (09:33:46 CET)
Despite all their advantages, load-bearing concrete shell structures with double curvatures are not frequently in use. The main reason is the complexity of their construction. In such a context, this article starts with a brief, critical review of existing technologies while their pros and cons are highlighted. Against that background the authors then propose a new approach for the highly automated fabrication of gridshell structures from variable modules. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a new technology, a demonstrator called ConDIT 1.0, a sphere-like shell structure composed of several frames was designed and built. The frame modules were fabricated automatically using extrusion-based 3D printing and a printable, strain-hardening cement-based composite (SHCC). This article presents the design of ConDIT 1.0, the mechanical material characterization of printed SHCC, the technology of module production, the results of geometry verification for print modules using 3D scanning, and the procedure for the demonstrator’s assembly.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: physical modelling; numerical modelling; construction works; growing risks; safety requirements; hybrid modelling
Online: 26 August 2020 (08:54:55 CEST)
We are witnessing a progressive divestment of some institutions with strong traditions and skills in physical modelling and their consequent impoverishment, to the detriment of numerical modelling. For many reasons, the economic imperatives and the exponential growth of computational means and numerical methods should certainly not be excluded. In this work, we aimed to highlight the new requirements of the recent sophisticated developments in physical modelling, precisely due to the new needs imposed on them by mathematical and numerical modelling and the growing risks in civil construction works. In this context, reflections are reported, justified by scientific and real-world examples, on the need for maintenance and reinforcement of investments in physical modelling, both to support the scientific community and to design buildings of significant economic, social and environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0276.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: risk perception; safety; construction; workers; working at height; manual handling; workload; Malawi
Online: 27 August 2019 (03:54:38 CEST)
This study employed a deductive research approach and a survey strategy to assess risk perception and its influencing factors among construction workers in Malawi. Three specific construction hazards and their associated risks were selected. The hazards were ‘working at height (WAH) ‘manual handling of loads (MHL)’ and ‘heavy workload or intense pressure to be more productive (HWP)’. The study engaged multistage sampling of 376 subjects. Univariate analysis, factor analysis and multiple linear regressions were performed in order to determine the main influencing factors among the independent variables. The study established that workers were aware of risks posed by their work. They perceived the risk associated with WAH, MHL and HWP as very high (62.7%, = 8.80 ± 1.95); (48.5%, = 8.10 ± 2.38); (57.9%, = 8.49 ± 2.22) respectively. The study identified six factors as variables that showed significant effect on workers’ perception of risk (p < 0.05). These factors were “dreaded factor”, “avoidability and controllability”, “expert knowledge”, “personal knowledge”, education level and age. It is concluded that contractors in the Malawian construction industry should integrate analysis of behaviors and risk perception of the workers and other players to guide the identification of better health and safety interventions at their worksites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0004.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: civil engineering; construction contract; court strategy; conflict modelling; decision analysis; game theory
Online: 28 January 2019 (10:51:40 CET)
Recently there has been growing interest in the application of game theory (GT) to solve many diverse problems in the field of construction, including i.a.: tender preparation, selection of a contractor for construction works, negotiating terms and conditions of cooperation of the parties to the contract, analysis and modeling of investment risk. In the authors opinion, the use of GT by general contractor (GC) of construction works to indicate the best strategy leading to winning court proceedings in a situation of conflict with investor (IN), so far has not been the subject of research. Taking into account the above, the aim of the presented paper is to indicate the optimal strategy from the GC point of view in the conflict situation with IN. The article presents a list of the most common causes of conflicts between parties of the construction works' contract, defines the background of the problem and the cause of the dispute, and on its basis, the authors generate the theoretical model of the game. Based on the analyzed game model, expected payoffs for players were calculated and the probability border value at which GC should apply the indicated strategy determined. The results of the study show that in the case when the probability of issuing a judgment favorable for GC is at least equal to 69.23%, it is justified to use an aggressive strategy. The analysis also confirms that from the financial perspective, litigation in most cases of conflicts in the area of construction should be the last choice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Cognitive Presence, Reflective Writing, E-Portfolio, Community of Inquiry, Construction of Knowledge
Online: 17 January 2019 (12:12:27 CET)
Traditionally understood in reference to distance education, cognitive presence may be defined as "the extent to which the participants in any particular configuration of a community of inquiry can construct meaning through sustained communication. The purpose of this paper was to create a blueprint for the reflective ePortfolio as the capstone project for my graduate degree. The blueprint was accomplished by adapting for use cognitive presence as a tool for both analysis and framing, which has never been done to the best of my knowledge. I considered myself to be a participant in a “community of inquiry” model and substituted the result of my interaction with each of the required instructor-course content pairings I took to serve as fellow participants in this community model. The result of my participation was understood to be the knowledge and experience that I have gained, which was reflected in eight of my academic research papers. These selected papers were the artifacts around which my ePortfolio was ultimately developed and demonstrated my participation as an active member in this community of inquiry constructing meaning through sustained communication.