ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: secondary organic aerosol; isoprene epoxydiol; aqueous aerosol; cloudwater
Online: 29 September 2019 (02:50:17 CEST)
Chemical processing of organic material in aqueous atmospheric aerosols and cloudwater is known to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA), although the extent to which each of these processes contributes to total aerosol mass is unclear. In this study, we use GAMMA 5.0, a photochemical box model with coupled gas and aqueous-phase chemistry, to consider the impact of aqueous organic reactions in both aqueous aerosols and clouds on isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) SOA over a range of pH for both aqueous phases, including cycling between cloud and aerosol within a single simulation. Low-pH aqueous aerosol, in the absence of organic coatings or other morphology which may limit uptake of IEPOX, is found to be an efficient source of IEPOX SOA, consistent with previous work. Cloudwater at pH 4 or lower is also found to be a potentially significant source of IEPOX SOA. This phenomenon is primarily attributed to the relatively high uptake of IEPOX to clouds as a result of higher water content in clouds as compared to aerosol. For more acidic cloudwater, the aqueous organic material is comprised primarily of IEPOX SOA and lower-volatility organic acids. For both cloudwater and aqueous aerosol, pH is the most significant factor considered in this study in determining the mass of aqueous phase organic acids and IEPOX SOA. Other factors, such as the time of day or sequence of aerosol-to-cloud or cloud-to-aerosol transitions, contribute to less than 15% difference in the final aqSOA fractional composition. The potential significance of cloud processing as a contributor to IEPOX SOA production could account for discrepancies between predicted IEPOX SOA mass from atmospheric models and measured ambient IEPOX SOA mass, or observations of IEPOX SOA in locations where mass transfer limitations are expected in aerosol particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0397.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: aerosol profile; aerosol extinction coefficient; aerosol radiative effects; spectral solar radiation; solar radiation profile
Online: 26 January 2022 (12:52:00 CET)
Default aerosol extinction coefficient profiles are commonly used instead of measured profiles in radiative transfer modelling, increasing the uncertainties in the simulations. The present study aims to determine the magnitude of these uncertainties and contribute towards the understanding of the complex interactions between aerosols and solar radiation. Default, artificial and measured profiles of the aerosol extinction coefficient are used to simulate the profiles of different radiometric quantities in the atmosphere for different surface, atmospheric, and aerosol properties and for four spectral bands: ultraviolet-B, ultraviolet-A, visible, and near infrared. Case studies are performed over different areas in Europe and North Africa. Analysis of the results shows that under cloudless-skies, changing the altitude of an artificial aerosol layer has minor impact on the levels of shortwave radiation at the top and the bottom of the atmosphere, even for high aerosol loads. Differences up to 30% were however detected for individual spectral bands. Using measured instead of default profiles for the simulations leads to more significant differences in the atmosphere, which become very large during dust episodes (10 – 60% for actinic flux at altitudes between 1 and 2 km, and up to 15 K/day for heating rates depending on site and solar elevation).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0053.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: aerosol; PM2.5; forest fires; AERONET; aerosol optical depth; Angstrom exponent
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:07:12 CET)
Extraordinary high aerosol contamination observed in the atmosphere over Kyiv city, Ukraine, during the March – April 2020 period. The source of contamination was the large grass and forest fires in the northern part of Ukraine and the Kyiv region. The level of PM2.5 load investigated using newly established AirVisual sensors mini-network in five areas of the city. The aerosol data from the Kyiv AERONET sun-photometer site analyzed for that period. Aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent, and the aerosol particles properties (particles size distribution, single-scattering albedo, and complex refractive index) were analyzed using AERONET sun-photometer observations. The smoke particles observed at Kyiv site during the fires in general correspond to aerosol with optical properties of biomass burning particles. The variability of the optical properties and chemical composition indicates that the aerosol particles in the smoke plumes over Kyiv were produced by different burning material and phases of vegetation fires at different time. The case of enormous PM2.5 aerosol contamination in Kyiv city reveals the need to accept strong measures for forest fire control and prevention in Kyiv region, especially in the north-west region where radioactive contamination from Chornobyl disaster is still significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0163.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: black carbon aerosol; aerosol layer; vertical distribution; numerical simulation; WRF-Chem
Online: 13 February 2020 (10:13:31 CET)
Studies on the detection of layers with elevated black carbon aerosol (BC) concentrations and the formation conditions of these layers help understand the vertical distribution of BC concentrations, which will provide a basis for the assessment of climate effects and early BC pollution warnings. By using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) numerical model, we performed a numerical simulation analysis on the authenticity of strong elevated BC concentration layers that were detected by an aircraft in the mixing layer over Harbin, China, which is a high-emission area, on a clear sunny afternoon in the early heating period of 2016. We then discuss possible problems and solutions when non-vertical paths are used to detect the vertical distribution of BC concentrations. Finally, we discuss the favorable conditions for the formation of elevated BC concentration layers by weak vertical flow. The results show that the horizontal variability of BC concentration in the mixing layer in the observation area in Harbin was sufficiently large during the measurement. This produced a false elevated layer, as detected by the aircraft during one round of spiral flight in the mixing layer. The root mean square of the horizontal distribution of BC concentration did not change with height in the mixing layer during the daytime, but it decreased with the thickness of the mixing layer and was higher in the mixing layer than in the free atmosphere. Therefore, the thinner the mixing layer, in which the vertical distribution of the BC concentration is detected in an inclined path, the stronger interference of the horizontal variability on the detected results. When a spiral flight detection path is used, the aircraft should fly at least two rounds in the mixing layer. In the daytime, due to strong turbulence in the mixing layer, weak vertical uplift is not favorable for the occurrence of elevated BC concentration layers in the mixing layer. In the nighttime, if weak vertical uplift is well matched with the BC concentration or its vertical gradient, elevated BC concentration layers can be formed in the atmosphere. Compared with upper layers far from the ground, nighttime elevated layers are easier to form in lower layers near the ground because high BC concentrations or large vertical gradients are more likely to occur in the lower layers. Both cases facilitate the occurrence of large vertical upward transport rates of BC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0049.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: solar UV radiation; aerosol absorption; SSA; AAOD; spectral measurements; aerosol optical properties
Online: 4 September 2019 (14:29:58 CEST)
The gap in knowledge regarding the radiative effects of aerosols in the UV region of the solar spectrum is large, mainly due to the lack of systematic measurements of the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) and absorption optical depth (AAOD). In the present study, spectral UV measurements performed in Thessaloniki, Greece by a double monochromator Brewer spectrophotometer in the period 1998 - 2017 are used for the calculation of the aforementioned optical properties. The main uncertainty factors have been described and there is an effort to quantify the overall uncertainties in SSA and AAOD. Analysis of the results suggests that the absorption by aerosols is much stronger in the UV relative to the visible. SSA follows a clear annual pattern ranging from ~0.7 in winter to ~0.85 in summer at wavelengths 320 – 360 nm, while AAOD peaks in summer and winter. The average AAOD for 2009 – 2011 is ~50% above the 2003 – 2006 average, possibly due to increased emissions of absorbing aerosols related to the economical crisis and the metro-railway construction works in the city center. A detailed analysis of the uncertainties in the retrieval of the SSA and the AAOD from the Brewer spectrophotometer has been also performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0064.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Downwelling surface longwave radiation (DSLR); dust aerosol; aerosol optical depth (AOD); MODIS
Online: 12 December 2016 (14:58:20 CET)
The variation of aerosols, especially dust aerosol, in time and space plays an important role in climate forcing studies. Aerosols can effectively reduce land surface longwave emission and re-emit energy at a colder temperature, making estimation of downwelling surface longwave radiation (DSLR) with satellite data difficult. Using the latest atmospheric radiative transfer code (MODTRAN 5.0), we simulate the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and DSLR under different land surface and atmospheric profile conditions. The results show that dust aerosol has an obvious “warming” effect to longwave radiation compared with other aerosols, that aerosol longwave radiative forcing (ALRF) increased with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD), and that the atmospheric water vapor content (WVC) is critical to the understanding of ALRF. A method is proposed to improve the accuracy of DSLR estimation from satellite data for the skies under heavy dust aerosols. The AOD and atmospheric WVC under cloud-free conditions with a relatively simple satellite-based radiation model that yields the high accurate DSLR under heavy dust aerosol are used explicitly as model input to reduce the effects of dust aerosol on the estimation of DSLR. Validations of the proposed model with satellites data and field measurements show that it estimates the DSLR accurately under heavy dust aerosol skies. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 20.4 W/M2 and 24.2 W/M2 for Terra and Aqua satellites, respectively, at the Yingke site, and the biases are 2.7 W/M2 and 9.6 W/M2, respectively. For the Arvaikheer site, the RMSEs are 23.2 W/M2 and 19.8 W/M2 for Terra and Aqua, respectively, and the biases are 7.8 W/M2 and 10.5 W/M2, respectively. The proposed method is especially applicable to acquire relatively high accurate DSLR under heavy dust aerosol using MODIS data with available WVC and AOD data.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0523.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: airborne; coronavirus; aerosol; transmission; lifetime
Online: 30 April 2020 (09:01:26 CEST)
There is a lot of discussion underway with conflicting opinions examining the airborne nature of the SARS-CoV2 virus. Surprisingly, important phenomena prevalent with respect to aerosols (suspended droplets) have not been considered. In this Technical Note, we propose a methodology for the coupling of aerosol phenomena (such as evaporation, particle transport accounting for drag) to accurately establish the lifetimes of the droplets. A characteristic time analysis illustrates the time scales for evaporation and settling: for example, the characteristic time for evaporation of a 10 µm droplet is 0.036 s at a relative humidity of 25%; compared to a settling time of about 500 s. For any particle smaller than ~ 100 µm, the evaporation of the emitted or exhaled droplet has to be considered. Coupling evaporation of the droplet as it settles, we estimate the horizontal distance traversed. Trajectories of a 10 µm and 100 µm particle emitted with a typical initial velocity of release associated with coughing and sneezing indicates the greater spread in the horizontal direction when evaporation is accounted for. The life time of the 10 µm particle increases from 8.3 min to 12 hours (will be intercepted prior and the actual airborne time will then be shorter); and for a 100 µm particle from 4.9 s to 39.4 s.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0667.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: COVID-19; air quality; nitrogen oxides; ozone; aerosol; source apportionment; aerosol profiles; models; Alps; Italy
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:37:17 CEST)
The effect of COVID-19 confinement regulations on air quality in the northwestern Alps is here assessed based on measurements at five valley sites in different environmental contexts. Surface concentrations of nitrogen oxides, ozone, particle matter, together with size, chemical, and optical (light absorption) aerosol properties, complemented by observations along the vertical column are considered. The 2020 concentration anomalies relative to previous years’ average are compared with the output of a machine learning algorithm accounting for weather effects and a chemical transport model, their difference being within 10–20 %. Even in the relatively pristine environment of the Alps, the «lockdown effect» is well discernible, both in the early confinement phase and in late 2020, especially in NOx concentrations (NO decreasing by >80 % and NO2 by >50 %). While ozone shows little variation, secondary aerosols increase due to enhanced transport from the neighbouring Po basin and coarse particles decrease due to missing resuspension by traffic and, in the city, to the shutdown of a steel mill. The NO2 vertical column density decreases by >20 %, whereas the aerosol profile is mainly influenced by large-scale dynamics, except a shallow layer about 500 m thick possibly sensitive to curtailed surface emissions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0694.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: H9N2; influenza; aerosol; interspecies; zoonotic; pandemic
Online: 30 July 2021 (10:13:42 CEST)
Influenza A viruses (IAV) are widespread viruses affecting avian and mammalian species worldwide. Outbreaks of IAV in poultry are usually associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, significantly affecting the poultry industry and food security. IAVs from avian species can be transmitted to mammals including humans and, thus, they are of inherent pandemic concern. Most of the efforts to understand the pathogenicity and transmission of avian origin IAVs have been focused on H5 and H7 subtypes due to their highly pathogenic phenotype in poultry. However, IAV of the H9 subtype that circulate endemically in poultry flocks in some regions of the world have also been associated with cases of zoonotic infections. As a result, the World Health Organization includes avian origin H9N2 IAV among the top in the list of IAVs of pandemic concern. In this review, we discuss the interspecies transmission of H9N2 between avian and mammalian species and the molecular factors that are thought relevant for this spillover. Additionally, we discuss factors that have been associated with the ability of these viruses to transmit through the respiratory route in mammalian species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0138.v1
Online: 7 May 2021 (10:36:00 CEST)
Cyprus plans to drastically increase the share of renewable energy sources from 13.9% in 2020 to 22.9% in 2030. Solar energy can play a key role in the effort to fulfil this goal. The potential for production of solar energy over the island is much higher than most of European territory because of the low latitude of the island and the nearly cloudless summers. In this study, high quality and fine resolution satellite retrievals of aerosols and dust, from the newly developed MIDAS climatology, as well as information for clouds from CMSAF are used in order to quantify the effects of aerosols, dust, and clouds on the levels of surface solar radiation (SSR) and the corresponding financial loss for different types of installations for production of solar energy. An SSR climatology has been also developed based on the above information. Ground-based measurements were also incorporated to study the contribution of different species to the aerosol mixture and the effects of day-to-day variability of aerosols on SSR. Aerosols attenuate 5 – 10% of annual GHI and 15 – 35% of annual DNI, while clouds attenuate ~25 – 30% and 35 – 50% respectively. Dust is responsible for 30 – 50% of the overall attenuation by aerosols.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ultraviolet; Ozone; Aerosol; Erythemal; UV Index
Online: 21 October 2020 (15:09:22 CEST)
In this study we focus on measurements and modeled UV index at the region of Athens, Greece, during a period of a low ozone event. During the period of 12 to 19 of May 2020, total column ozone (TOC) showed extremely low values 35-55 DU (up to 15%) decrease from the climatic mean (being lower than the -2σ). This condition favors the increase of UV erythemal irradiance, since stratospheric ozone is the most important attenuator at the UVB spectral region. A parallel intrusion of Saharan Dust aerosols in the region has masked a large part of the low ozone effect on UV irradiance. In order to investigate the event, we have used spectral solar irradiance measurements from the Precision Solar Radiometer (PSR), total column ozone from the BREWER spectrophotometer and Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) calculations. Model calculations of UV Index (UVI) showed an increase of ~30% compared to the long term normal UVI due to the low TOC while at the same time and for particular days, aerosols masked this effect by ~20%. The study points out the importance of accurate measurements or forecasts of both ozone and aerosols when deriving UVI under unusual low ozone-high aerosol conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: bio-aerosol; reduction; procedures; dentistry; review
Online: 25 June 2020 (12:24:48 CEST)
Microbe laden air particles, known as bio-aerosols, are routinely generated, in clinical dentistry due to the operative instrumentation within a milieu rich in salivary organisms. As the major mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 appears to be airborne aerosols and droplets, there has been an intense focus on such aerosol generating procedures (AGP). As there has been no systematic reviews on the efficacy of bio-aerosol reducing measure in dentistry, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the literature on three major AGPs, rubber dam application, pre-procedural oral rinse, and high-volume evacuation (HVE) aimed at reducing dental bio-aerosols. Method: PubMed via Ovid MEDLINE, EBSCO host, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases between January 01, 1985, and April 30, 2020, were searched.Results: A total of 156 records in the English language literature were identified, of which 17 clinical studies with 724 patients were included in the final analyses. The eligible reviewed articles revealed the inadequacy of the afore mentioned three principal AGPs used in contemporary dental practice to minimise bio-aerosols. HVE appears to be the most efficacious method, although no single approach provides total elimination of bio-aerosols. Conclusion:This, the first systematic review on methods of controlling bio-aerosols in dental operatory settings, indicates that employing combination strategies of rubber dam, with a pre-procedural antimicrobial oral rinse, and HVE can significantly minimize bio-aerosols. As the quality of the currently available data on dental bio-aerosols are rather poor, further, controlled, multi-centre studies are essential to address this critical issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0107.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric aerosol; chemical composition; secondary aerosol; source apportionment; ultrafine particles; oxidative potential; exposure; toxicology; forecasting; micrometeorology
Online: 12 April 2022 (09:54:57 CEST)
The RHAPS project was launched in 2019 with the major objective to identify specific properties of the fine atmospheric aerosol from combustion sources that are responsible for toxicological effects and can be used as new metrics for health-related outdoor pollution studies. In this paper, we present the overall methodology of RHAPS, and introduce the phenomenology and the first data observed. A comprehensive physico-chemical aerosol characterization has been achieved by means of high-time resolution measurements (e.g. number size distributions, refractory chemical components, elemental composition,) and low-time resolution analyses (e.g. oxidative potential, toxicological assays, chemical composition,…). Preliminary results show a high complexity in the relations observed, the link between air quality and toxicological endpoints being not obvious. We explore data from different points of view: source apportionment of PM1 and the role of source emissions on aerosol toxicity, the oxidative potential as a predictive variable for PM1 toxicity with focus on the secondary organic aerosol possessing redox-active capacity, exposure-response relationships for PM1, and air quality models to forecast PM1 toxicity. We provide a synthesis of results with the outlook to companion papers where data are analyzed in more detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0176.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: aerosol; AERONET; lidar; air pollution; sun-photometer
Online: 12 October 2022 (10:33:32 CEST)
The climate change impacts on some regions of the planet faster and stronger. These areas are known as the hot spots for climate change and Cyprus (Nicosia) in the Mediterranean is one of these spots. This paper aims to analyze the significant changes of atmospheric aerosol characteristics in 2019 and during the extreme event of 25 April 2019. We study the aerosol optical thickness (AOT), Ångström exponent, single scattering albedo, refractive index (imaginary and real parts), size, and vertical distribution of aerosol particles during the event of a high atmospheric aerosol contamination over Nicosia in details. For this purpose, we used the ground-based lidar, observations of the sun-photometer AERONET Nicosia station, satellite products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and back trajectories of air movements calculated using the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT). On 23–25 April, according to lidar and sun-photometer observations, strong aerosol pollution over Nicosia was detected. On April 25, 2019, the AOT value exceeds 1.0 at λ = 440 nm. Analysis of the optical and microphysical characteristics supported that the pollution consists of mainly Saharan dust and partly urban aerosols. This assumption was confirmed by HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS images where air masses containing dust particles came from North Africa and from the Eastern part of Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Atmospheric-Observing-System; Aerosol; High-Spectral-Resolution-lidar
Online: 13 December 2022 (09:51:59 CET)
In the context of the Atmospheric Observing System (AOS) international program, a new generation spaceborne lidar is expected to be in polar orbit for deriving new observations of aerosol and clouds. In this work, we analyze the added values of these new observations for characterizing aerosol vertical distribution. For this, synthetic observations are simulated using the BLISS lidar simulator in terms of backscatter coefficient at 532 nm. We consider two types of lidar instruments, an elastic backscatter lidar instrument and a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL). These simulations are performed with atmospheric profiles from a Nature Run (NR) modeled by the MOCAGE Chemical Transport Model. In three case studies involving large events of different aerosol species, the added value of the HSRL channel for measuring aerosol backscatter profiles with respect to simple backscatter measurements is shown. Observations independent from an a-priori lidar Ratio assumption, as done typically for simple backscattering instruments, allows probing the vertical structure of aerosol layers without divergence, even in case of intense episodes. Relative error in the backscatter coefficient profiles are observed to lay between +40% and -40% for low abudancies, with mean biases between +5% and -5%. A 5-day study in the case of desert dust completes the study of the added value of the HSRL channel with relative mean bias from the NR of the order of 1.5%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0609.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Aerosol; South Asia; WRF-Chem; Precipitation; CAPE; CIN.
Online: 27 July 2021 (14:45:24 CEST)
The Himalayan region is facing frequent cloud burst and flood events during the summer monsoon e.g., Kedarnath flood of 2013. It was one of the most devastating event which claimed thousands of human lives, heavy infrastructure and economic losses. Fast moving monsoon, pre-existing westerlies, and orographic uplifting was reported as the major reason for cloud burst over Kedarnath in previous research. Our study illustrates the vertical distribution of aerosols during this event and its possible role using Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) simulations. Model performance evaluation shows that simulations can capture the spatial and temporal pattern of observed precipitation during this event. Model simulation at 25km and 4km horizontal grid resolution without any changes in physical parameterization shows very minimal average difference in precipitation. Whereas simulation at convection permitting scale shows de-tailed information related to parcel motion compared to coarser resolution simulation. This indicates parameterization at different resolution needs to examine for better outcome. The result shows up to 20-50% changes in rain over area near Kedarnath due to the presence of aerosols. The simulation at both resolution shows significant vertical transport of natural (increases by 50%+) and anthropo-genic aerosols (increases by 200%+) during the convective event. Which leads to significant changes in cloud property, rain concentration and ice concentration in presence of aerosols. Due to aero-sol–radiation feedback, the important instability indices like convective available potential energy, convective inhibition energy, vorticity etc. shows changes near Kedarnath.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0185.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmosphere; aerosol; background; particle size; long term; Mediterranean
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:56:35 CET)
The Eastern Mediterranean is a highly populated area with air quality problems as well where climate change already is noticed by higher temperatures and changing precipitation pattern. The anthropogenic aerosol affects health and changing concentra-tions and properties of the atmospheric aerosol affect radiation balance and clouds. Continuous long-term observations are essential in assessing the influence of anthro-pogenic aerosols on climate and health. We present 6 years of observations from Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), a new station located at the south west tip of Pelo-ponnese, Greece. The two sites at NEO, were evaluated to show the influence of the local meteorology but also to assess the general background aerosol possible. It was found that the background aerosol was originated from aged European aerosols and was strongly influenced by biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion, and industry. When subsiding into the boundary layer, local sources contributed in the air masses moving south. Mesoscale meteorology determined the diurnal variation of aerosol properties such as mass and number by means of typical sea breeze circulation, giving rise to pronounced morning and evening peaks in pollutant levels. While synoptic scale meteorology, mainly large-scale air mass transport and precipitation, strongly influenced the season-ality of the aerosol properties.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0126.v1
Online: 7 May 2020 (13:20:42 CEST)
Evidence for the potential for airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-19 continues to accumulate, with important implications for healthcare workers, as well as the general public. Three lines of evidence support this conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0468.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: reactive gases; atmospheric aerosol; air sampling; smart technologies
Online: 24 September 2018 (16:47:52 CEST)
Nowadays a recognized need for accurate observations of atmospheric aerosols (AEs) and reactive gases (RGs) exists in the framework of regional, national and global near-surface networks based on permanent or mobile measurement stations. In this context, a paramount and not-trivial issue is related to the correct execution of continuous sampling of ambient air and its subsequent distribution to measurement analyzers hosted inside the stations. Sampling artifacts must be minimized for obtaining reliable pictures of ambient air composition. To respond to this need, a suite of novel “smart” and relatively low-cost systems for the continuous sampling of ambient air was developed in the framework of the Project I-AMICA (2012 – 2015, www.i-amica.eu). These systems were designed to execute AE and RG measurements according with WMO/GAW and ACTRIS recommendations and standard operation procedures. A particular attention was dedicated to the stabilization and control of the sampling flow rates and temperatures. The analysis of one full year of operations at the WMO/GAW regional station of Capo Granitola (GAW ID: CGR, Italy), allowed to conclude that these systems are effective in meeting the technical requirements for correct execution of AE and RG measurements
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0043.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: saccharides; biomass burning; haze; source apportionment; bio-aerosol
Online: 4 June 2018 (12:47:58 CEST)
The characteristics of biogenic aerosols in urban area were explored by determining the composition, temporal distribution of saccharides in PM2.5 in Shanghai. The total saccharides showed a wide range of 15.2 ng/m3 to 1752.8 ng/m3, with the averaged concentrations were 169.8 ng/m3，300.5 ng/m3，288.4 ng/m3，688 ng/m3 in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively. The concerned saccharides include anhydrosaccharides (levoglucosan and mannosan), which were higher in cold seasons due to the increased biomass burning, saccharide alcohols (mannitol, arabitol, sorbitol) and monosaccharides (fructose, glucose), which showed more abundant in warm seasons attributed to the biological emissions. By PMF analysis, four emission sources of saccharides were demonstrated, including biomass burning, fungal spores, soil suspension and plant pollens. Resolution of backward trajectory and fire points showed a process of high concentrations of levoglucosan. We found that concentrations of anhydrosaccharides showed relatively stable under different pollution levels while saccharide alcohols exhibited an obvious decrease, indicated that biomass burning was not the core reason of the heavy haze pollution, however, and high level PM2.5 pollution might inhibit effects of biological activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: aerosol; amine emission; CO2 capture; absorber; particle number concentration
Online: 5 July 2020 (04:41:13 CEST)
In this study, a monoethanolamine aerosol growth model was developed to investigate the aerosol growth factor. Interactions among the internal conditions in an absorber were considered in this aerosol model. Additionally, an experiment was conducted to measure aerosol particle size, for collecting in-house validation data. Sucrose was used as the aerosol nuclei instead of sulfuric acid to prevent the corrosion of equipment used in the experiment. Experimental results showed that the outlet aerosol sizes increased to the same size regardless of the sucrose concentrations. The aerosol growth model was validated using the in-house experimental data. The aerosol growth model efficiently predicted the aerosol size. For investigating aerosol growth effects, particle number concentration was determined to be the primary factor affecting aerosol growth and amine emissions. When the particle number concentration increased, the aerosol size decreased, whereas the MEA emission increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0104.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: COVID-19; dental care; infection control; universal precautions; aerosol
Online: 7 May 2020 (05:21:20 CEST)
Dental services are significantly impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Almost all dental procedures carry a high infection risk for providers and patients due to spread of aerosols. As a consequence, national public health agencies, and dental professional associations have issued guidelines for enhanced infection control, personal protection equipment and limiting care to urgent or emergency services. However, there is no dental service concept for disaster preparedness or response that might be applied. Similarly, pathways to care provision in a post-pandemic future are missing. We propose Safe Aerosol-free, Emergent Dentistry (SAFE Dentistry) as one approach to dental services during and emerging from pandemics. The concept’s starting point is the identification of the most common patient needs. The next step is to replace common treatments relating to the most common needs with alternative interventions with less infection risk because they do not generate aerosols. SAFE Dentistry is innovative, safe, and responds to the requirements of a pandemic and post-pandemic emergence where the risk of disease transmission remains high. SAFE Dentistry thereby ensures continuity of dental services while protecting providers and patients from infectious pathogens. Moreover, SAFE Dentistry allows dental service providers to remain operational and generate income even under pandemic conditions. Implementation and policy options for SAFE Dentistry include universal availability without co-payments by patients and a uniform bundled payment scheme for providers to simplify budgeting, reimbursement and to provide easier administration during a pandemic. Adaptations and adjustments of the concept are possible and encouraged, as long as the principle of avoiding aerosol-generation is maintained.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0090.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: COVID-19: hydroxychloroquine aerosol; pharmacotherapy; prevention; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:11:09 CEST)
Covid-19 is a new coronavirus disease first described in December 2019. This respiratory illness is severe and potentially fatal. Severe cases make up to 15%, lethality ranges between 1.5 and more than 10 %. What is urgently needed is an efficient pharmacological treatment for the treatment of severe cases. During the infection of alveolar epithelial cells of the lung, the ACE2 receptor has a central function. The antimalarial drugs chloroquine phosphate (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) impair in vitro the terminal glycosylation of ACE2 without significant change of cell-surface ACE2 and, therefore, might be potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Starting inhibition at 0.1 µM, CQ completely prevented in vitro infections at 10 µM, suggesting a prophylactic effect and preventing the virus spread 5 hours after infection. In a first clinical trial, CQ was effective in inhibiting exacerbation of pneumonia, improving lung imaging findings, promotion of virus-negative conversion, and shortening the disease. In addition, HCQ, which is three times more potent than CQ in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells (EC50 0.72 µM), was significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Theoretically, CQ and HCQ could thus be effectively used in the treatment of SARS-CoV pneumonia. From a pharmacological standpoint, however, the major problems of oral treatment with these drugs are possible severe side effects and toxicity. Concretely, this relates to (a) the inconsistent individual bioavailability of these drugs at the alveolar target cells, depending on intestinal resorption, hepatic first-pass metabolism and accumulation in liver, spleen and lung, and (b) the need for a relatively high concentration of 1-5 µM at the alveolar surface. Therefore, we propose in a first dose estimation the use of HCQ as an aerosol in a dosage of 2-4 mg per inhalation in order to reach sufficient therapeutic levels at the alveolar epithelial cells. By using a low-dose non-systemic aerosol, adverse drug reactions will markedly be reduced compared with oral application. This increase in tolerability enables a broader use for prevention and after contact with an infected person, which would be an advantage especially for the high-risk, often multi-morbid and elderly patients. Empirical data on self-medication with a one-week aerosol application by two of the authors is presented. Inhalation was well tolerated without relevant side effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0381.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sun photometer, Aerosols, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOT), New Orleans
Online: 30 April 2018 (12:28:29 CEST)
Aerosol optical depth (AOT) was measured at Xavier University of Louisiana (29.96ᵒ N, 90.11ᵒ W and about 3m above sea level) using a hand-held sun photometer. AOT was measured at two different wavelengths (green at 505nm and red at 625nm) during the period from Sept-2017 to Feb-2018. In this study, we investigate the relationship between AOT and temperature, precipitation, barometric pressure and relative humidity. The maximum monthly average value for green AOT was 0.176 (measured in September) and the minimum monthly value is 0.040 (measured in January). For the red AOT the maximum monthly average value was 0.123 (measured in September) and the minimum is 0.034 (measured in December). The AOT–temperature relationship was predominantly positive, meaning that high AOT values correspond to high temperatures and low AOT values correspond to low temperatures. Relationship between AOT and rainfall is negative, meaning high rainfall averages are associated with low AOT values. AOT and atmospheric pressure have a predominantly negative relationship. The relationship between relative humidity and AOT is a complicated one and is hard to qualify as relative humidity varies very little during the study period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: aerosol; CALIPSO; desert dust; Eastern Mediterranean; North Africa; Middle East
Online: 10 March 2022 (13:57:26 CET)
Turkey is located in the heart of complex transition geography between Eurasia and the Middle East. In the grand scheme, the so-called Eastern Mediterranean Basin is almost amidst the dusty belt and a hot spot of climate change. The downstream location of dust carrying winds from the closer desert sources reveals Turkey as an open plane to particulate matter exposure throughout the year. In order to clarify this phenomenon, it is aimed to find out the desert dust climatology of Turkey via CALIPSO onboard Lidar. This prominent instrument enables us to understand clouds, aerosols and their types and relatedly climatic systems with its valuable products. In this study, 9-year CALIPSO derived pure dust product is formed to explain horizontal and vertical distributions, transport heights and case incidences. Results indicated mass and conditional abundancy are higher with the location shifts from west to east. In the same direction, dominant spring months change to summer and autumn. Mountain range systems surrounding Anatolia are the main obstacles against lofted and buoyant dust particles travelling to northern latitudes. Even if high ridges accumulate mass load on the southern slopes, it also enables elevated particles to reach the ground level of the inner cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0195.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: airway model; DPI; inhalation; aerosol testing; drug delivery; porcine lung
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:09:20 CET)
Dry powder inhalers are used by a large number of patients worldwide to treat respiratory diseases. The objective of this work is to experimentally investigate changes in aerosol particle diameter and particle number concentration of pharmaceutical aerosols generated by five dry powder inhalers under realistic inhalation and exhalation conditions. The active respiratory system model (xPULM™) was used as a model of the human respiratory system and to simulate a patient undergoing inhalation therapy. A mechanical upper airway model was developed, manufactured and introduced as a part of the xPULM™ to represent the human upper respiratory tract with high fidelity. Integration of optical aerosol spectrometry technique into the setup allowed for evaluation of pharmaceutical aerosols. The results show that the upper airway model increases the resistance of the overall system and act as a filter for bigger particles (>3 µm). Furthermore, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean particle diameter between inhaled and exhaled particles with the majority of the particles depositing in the lung. The minimum deposition is reached for particle size of 0.5 µm. The mean particle number concentrations exhaled are 2.94% (BreezHaler®), 2.66% (Diskus®), 10.24% (Ellipta®) 2.13% (HandiHaler®) and 6.22% (Turbohaler®). In conclusion, the xPULM™ active respiratory system model is a viable option for studying interactions of pharmaceutical aerosols and the respiratory tract in terms of applicable deposition mechanisms. The model can support the reduction of animal experimentation in aerosol research and provide an alternative to experiments with human subjects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0181.v1
Subject: Keywords: Artificial Light at Night; Aerosol optical depth; Radiometry; Multispectral; Measurement
Online: 9 August 2021 (08:40:10 CEST)
The aerosol optical depth is an important indicator of aerosol particle properties and associated radiative impacts. AOD determination is therefore very important to achieve relevant climate modeling. Most remote sensing techniques to retrieve aerosol optical depth are applicable to daytime given the high level of light available. The night represents half of the time but in such conditions only a few remote sensing techniques are available. Among these techniques, the most reliable are moon photometers and star photometers. In this paper, we attempt to fill gaps in the aerosol detection performed with the aforementioned techniques using night sky brightness measurements during moonless nights with the novel CoSQM: a portable, low cost and open-source multispectral photometer. In this paper, we present an innovative method for estimating the aerosol optical depth by using an empirical relationship between the zenith night sky brightness measured at night with the CoSQM and the aerosol optical depth retrieved at daytime from the AErosol Robotic NETwork. Such a method is especially suited to light-polluted regions with light pollution sources located within a few kilometers of the observation site. A coherent day-to-night aerosol optical depth and Ångström Exponent evolution in a set of 354 days and nights from August 2019 to February 2021 was verified at the location of Santa Cruz de Tenerife on the island of Tenerife, Spain. The preliminary uncertainty of this technique was evaluated using the variance under stable day-to-night conditions, set at 0.02 for aerosol optical depth and 0.75 for Ångström Exponent. These results indicate the set of CoSQM and the proposed methodology appear to be a promising tool to add new information on the aerosol optical properties at night, which could be of key importance to improve climate predictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: aerosol generation; e-cigarette; coil resistance; e-liquid; manufacturing variation
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:50:14 CET)
This work investigated the effects of manufacturing variations including coil resistance, initial pod mass, and e-liquid color on coil lifetime and aerosol generation of Vuse ALTO pods. Random samples of pods were used until failure (where e-liquid was consumed, and coil resistance increased to high value indicating a coil break). Initial coil resistance, initial pod mass, and e-liquid net mass ranged between 0.89 to 1.14 , 6.48 to 6.61 [g], and 1.88 to 2.00 [g] respectively. Coil lifetime with light color e-liquid was (mean) = 149, (standard deviation) = 10.7 puffs while pods with dark color e-liquid was = 185, = 22.7 puffs with a difference of ~36 puffs (p <0.001). Total mass of e-liquid consumed until coil failure was = 1.93, = 0.035 [g]. TPM yield per puff of all test pods for the first session (brand new pods) was = 0.0123, = 0.0003 [g]. During usage, TPM yield per puff of pods with light color e-liquid was relatively steady while it was continuously decreasing for pods with dark e-liquid. Coil lifetime and TPM yield per puff were not correlated with either variation in initial coil resistance or variation in initial pod mass. The absence of e-liquid in the pod is an important factor in causing coil failure. Small bits of the degraded coil could be potentially introduced to the aerosol. There is a potential correlation of e-liquid color with both coil lifetime and TPM yield per puff. Change of e-liquid color might have been a result of oxidation which changed some nicotine into nicotyrine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0261.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: PM2.5; Aerosol Optical Depth; Data assimilation; MODIS; satellite data; Objective analysis
Online: 27 April 2022 (11:32:49 CEST)
We used the objective analysis method in junction with the successive correction method to assimilate MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data into Chimère model in order to improve the modeling of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and AOD field over Europe. A data assimilation module was developed to adjust the daily initial total column aerosol concentrations based on a forecast-analysis cycling scheme. The model is then evaluated during one-month winter period to examine how such data assimilation technique pushes the model results closer to surface observations. This comparison showed that the mean biases of both surface PM2.5 concentrations and AOD field could be reduced from -34 to -15% and from -45 to -27%. The assimilation however leads to false alarms because of the difficulty to distribute AOD550 over different particles sizes. The impact of the influence radius is found to be small and depends on the density of satellite data. This work, although preliminary, is important in terms of near-real time air quality forecasting using Chimère model and can be further developed to improve modeled PM2.5 and ozone concentrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0182.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: France; urban air quality; aerosol chemical composition; source apportionment; monitoring strategies
Online: 11 January 2021 (10:57:48 CET)
The CARA program has been developed since 2008 by the French reference laboratory for air quality monitoring (LCSQA) and the regional monitoring networks to gain a better knowledge at the national level on the particulate matter (PM) chemistry and its diverse origins in urban environments. It results of strong collaborations with international-level academic partners, allowing to bring state-of-the-art, straightforward and robust results and methodologies within operational air quality stakeholders (and subsequently, decision makers). Here, we illustrate some of the main outputs obtained over the last decade thanks to this program, regarding methodological aspects (both in terms of measurement techniques and data treatment procedures) as well as acquired knowledge on the predominant PM sources. Offline and online methods are used following well-suited quality assurance and quality control procedures, notably including inter-laboratory comparison exercises. Source apportionment studies are conducted using various receptor modeling approaches. Overall, the results presented herewith underline the major influences of residential wood burning (during the cold period) and road transport emissions (exhaust and non-exhaust ones, all along the year), as well as substantial contributions of mineral dust and primary biogenic particles (mostly during the warm period). Long-range transport phenomena, e.g., advection of secondary inorganic aerosols from the European continental sector and of Saharan dust into the French West Indies, are also discussed in this paper. Finally, we briefly address the use of stable isotope measurements (δ15N) and of various organic molecular markers for a better understanding of the origins of ammonium and of the different organic aerosol fractions, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0158.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: dust aerosol; Central Asia; remote sensing; seasonal variation; inter-annual variability
Online: 11 June 2018 (12:07:29 CEST)
Several long-term monitoring of aerosol datasets from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board Terra/Aqua, Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) are used to derive the dust aerosol optical depth (DOD) in Central Asia based on the Angstrom exponent parameter and/or the particle shape. All sensors agree very well on the interannual variability of DOD. The seasonal analysis of DOD and dust occurrences identified the largest dust loading and the most frequent dust occurrence in the spring and summer, respectively. No significant trend is found during the research period in terms of both DOD and the dust occurrence. Further analysis of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) aerosol products on a case-by-case basis in most dust months of 2007 suggested that the vertical structure is varying in terms of the extension and the dust loading from one event to another, although dust particles of most episodes have similar physical characteristics (the particle shape and size). Our analysis on the vertical structure of dust plumes, the layer-integrated color ratio and depolarization ratio indicates a varied climate effect (e.g., the direct radiative impact) by mineral dust, dependent on the event being observed in Central Asia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0087.v1
Subject: Keywords: Environmental molecular beam; molecular dynamics; phase transition; secondary organic aerosol; sorption kinetics
Online: 2 February 2021 (13:08:44 CET)
Organic-organic interactions play important roles in the secondary organic aerosol formation, but the interactions are complex and poorly understood. Here we use environmental molecular beam experiments combined with molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interactions between methanol and nopinone, as atmospheric organic proxies. In the experiments, methanol monomers and clusters are sent to collide with three types of surfaces, i.e., graphite, thin nopinone coating on graphite and multilayer surfaces, at temperatures between 140 K and 230 K. Methanol monomers are efficiently scattered from the graphite surface, whereas the scattering is substantially suppressed from nopinone surfaces. The desorption from the three surfaces is similar, suggesting that all the surfaces have weak or similar influences on the methanol desorption. The molecular dynamics results show that upon collisions the methanol clusters shatter, and the shattered fragments quickly diffuse and recombine to clusters. The desorption involves a series of processes, including detaching from clusters and desorbing as monomers. The experimental results also show that all trapped methanol molecules completely desorb within a short experimental time scale at temperatures of 180 K and above. At lower temperatures, the desorption rate decreases, and a long experimental time scale is used to resolve the desorption, where three desorption components are identified. The fast component is beyond the experimental detection limit. The intermediate component exhibits multi-step desorption character and has an activation energy of Ea = 0.18 ± 0.03 eV, in good agreement with simulation results. The slow desorption component is related to diffusion processes due to the weak temperature dependence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0075.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Vehicle Exhaust PM2.5, MOVES, Artificial Neural Network, Spatial Analysis, Aerosol Optical Depth
Online: 15 October 2020 (11:57:19 CEST)
This study aims to develop a hybrid approach based on backpropagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and spatial analysis techniques to predict particulate matter of size 2.5 µm (PM2.5) from vehicle exhaust emissions in the State of California using Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and several climatic indicators (relative humidity, temperature, precipitation, and wind speed). The PM2.5 data were generated using Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), the measured climatic variables and AOD were obtained from the California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS), and NASA’s Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The data were resampled to a seasonal format and downscaled over grids of 10 by 10 to 150 by 150, and precipitation was determined to be the most important independent variable. Coefficient of determination ( ), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) were used to assess the quality of the ANN prediction model. The model peaked at winter seasons with = 0.984, RMSE = 0.027, and MAPE = 25.311, whereas it had the lowest performance in summer with = 0.920, RMSE = 0.057, and MAPE = 65.214. These results indicate that the ANN model can accurately predict the PM2.5 concentration and can be used to forecast future trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0358.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Covid-19; HVE; Aerosol; Dentistry; Particle; Suction; External; PM1; PM2.5; PM10; Drilling
Online: 16 September 2020 (11:12:31 CEST)
(1) Introduction: External high volume extraction devices may offer a way to reduce any aerosol particulate generated. The aim of this study was to measure the particle count during dental aerosol procedures and compare the results to when a High Volume Extraction device is used; (2) Methods: A comparative clinical study measuring the amount of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol particulate with and without the use of an external High Volume Extraction device was undertaken. In total, 10 restorative procedures were monitored with an an industrial Trotec PC220 particle counter. The air sampler was placed at the average working distance of the clinicians involved in the study - 420mm.; (3) Results: In the present study aerosol particulate was recorded at statistically significantly increased levels during dental procedures without an external high volume extraction device versus with the device. The null hypothesis was rejected, in that significant differences were found between the results of the amount of aerosol particle count with and without a High Volume Extraction device.; (4) Conclusion: If the results of the present study are repeated in an in vivo setting, an external high volume suction device may potentially lower the risk of transmission of viral particulate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaic; energy yield; output forcasting; aerosol optical depth; precipitable water; incident angle
Online: 2 March 2020 (15:22:46 CET)
The outdoor field test of the 4-terminal III-V on Si tandem photovoltaic module (specifically, InGaP/GaAs on Si) was investigated and performance model, considering spectrum change affected by fluctuation of atmospheric parameters, was developed and validated. The 4-terminal III-V on Si tandem photovoltaic module had about 40 % advantage in seasonal performance loss compared with standard InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs 2-terminal tandem photovoltaic module. This advantage is expanded in (subarctic zone) < (temperate zone) < (subtropical zone).
Subject: Keywords: printed electronics; Aerosol Jet® printing; direct-write technology; embedded PTF resistors
Online: 4 February 2020 (05:44:32 CET)
Electronic designers nowadays are facing two challenging demands for various applications: miniaturization and increased functionality. To satisfy these seemingly opposed requirements, reducing the number of mounted components—and thus solder joints—in PCB designs becomes an attractive approach by directly printing passive components such as embedded resistors into the circuit. This approach can also potentially increase the reliability, such as “mean time between failures” (MTBF), while reducing the circuit board size. With its unique capabilities for non-contact precision material deposition, the Aerosol Jet® direct-write technology has been enabling additive manufacturing of fine-feature electronics conformally onto flexible substrates of complicated shapes. The CAD/CAM controlled relative motions between substrate and print head allows convenient adjustment of the pattern and pile height of deposited material at a given ink volumetric deposition rate. To date in the printed electronics industry, additively printing embedded polymer-thick-film (PTF) resistors has mostly been done with screen printing using carbon-based paste inks. Here we demonstrate results of Aerosol Jet® printed PTF resistors of resistance values ranging from ~50 W to > 1 kW, adjustable (among several variable parameters) by the number of stacked layers (or print passes with each pass depositing a fixed amount of ink) between contact pads of around 1 mm apart with footprint line typically < 0.3 mm. In principle, any ink material that can be atomized into fine droplets of 1 to 5 microns can be printed with the Aerosol Jet® system. However, the print quality such as line edge cleanliness can significantly influenced by ink rheology which involves solvent volatility, solids loading, and so on. Our atomizable carbon ink was made by simply diluting a screen printing paste with a compatible solvent of reasonable volatility, which can be cured at temperatures below 200 oC. We show that Aerosol Jet® printed overlapping lines can be stacked to large pile height (to reduce the resistance value) without significant increase of line width, which enables fabricating embedded resistors with adjustable resistance values in a limited footprint space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0145.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: biomass burning; residential wood combustion; aerosol mass spectrometry; potassium; chemical transport model
Online: 13 November 2019 (11:34:33 CET)
Alkali-containing submicron particles were measured continuously during three months, including late winter and spring seasons in Gothenburg, Sweden. The overall aims were to characterize the ambient concentrations of combustion-related aerosol particles and to address the importance of local emissions and long-range transport for the atmospheric concentrations in the urban background environment. K and Na concentrations in the PM1 size range were measured by an alkali aerosol mass spectrometer (Alkali-AMS) and a cluster analysis was conducted. Local meteorological conditions and some other data sets were obtained, and back trajectory analyses and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations were included for the evaluation. The Alkali-AMS cluster analysis indicated three major clusters: 1) biomass burning origin, 2) mixture of other combustion sources, and 3) marine origin. Low temperatures and low wind speed conditions correlated with high concentrations of K-containing particles, mainly due to regional emissions from residential biomass combustion; transport of air masses from continental Europe also contribute to cluster 1. The CTM results indicate that open biomass burning in the eastern parts of Europe may have contributed substantially to high PM2.5 concentrations (and to cluster 1) during an episode in late March. According to the CTM results the mixed cluster (2) is likely to include particles emitted from different source types and no single geographical source region seems to dominate for this cluster. The back trajectory analysis and meteorological conditions indicated that the marine origin cluster was correlated with westerly winds and high wind speed; this cluster had high concentrations of Na-containing particles, as expected for sea salt particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0121.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: alphavirus; vaccine; arbovirus; animal models; nonhuman primates; electrocardiography; ecg; aerosol; encephalitis; equine
Online: 11 October 2019 (03:32:33 CEST)
Eastern (EEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses (EEVs) are related, (+)ssRNA arboviruses that can cause severe, sometimes fatal, encephalitis in humans. EEVs are highly infectious when aerosolized, raising concerns for potential use as biological weapons. No licensed medical countermeasures exist; given the severity/rarity of natural EEV infections, efficacy studies require animal models. Cynomolgus macaques exposed to EEV aerosols develop fever, encephalitis, and other clinical signs similar to humans. Fever is nonspecific for encephalitis in macaques. Electrocardiography (ECG) metrics may predict onset, severity, or outcome of EEV-attributable disease. Macaques were implanted with thermometry/ECG radiotransmitters and exposed to aerosolized EEV. Data was collected continuously, and repeated-measures ANOVA and frequency-spectrum analyses identified differences between courses of illness and between pre-exposure and post-exposure states. EEEV-infected macaques manifested widened QRS-intervals in severely ill subjects post-exposure. Moreover, QT-intervals and RR-intervals decreased during the febrile period. VEEV-infected macaques suffered decreased QT-intervals and RR-intervals with fever onset. Frequency-spectrum analyses revealed differences in the fundamental frequencies of multiple metrics in the post-exposure and febrile periods compared to baseline and confirmed circadian dysfunction. Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses revealed diminished variability post-exposure. These analyses support using ECG data alongside fever and clinical laboratory findings for evaluating medical countermeasure efficacy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0076.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: bio aerosol; Photo Catalytic Oxidation (PCO); hydroxyl; hydrogen peroxide; SPICE; surface sanitizer
Online: 19 October 2016 (10:02:08 CEST)
In this research paper a novel Ultra Violet Photo Catalyst Oxidation (UVPCO) sensor for air and surface sanitization using Common Source (CS) amplifier is presented. The ultra violet photo catalysis is the process in which the highly reactive radicals like H+, OH-and peroxides ions are produced from air in the presence of the ultra violet radiation and photo catalyst. In this process, the free radicals outbreaks the bio aerosols like bacteria, fungus and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and destroy them. The proposed system is relies on the fast operation of PCS which operates under sub-threshold conditions and reduced computation time. The properties of common source amplifier like very high voltage gain and input output resistance increased the sensitivity as well as stability of the circuit. The system is more user friendly and the outcomes of simulation are fairly in agreement with the theoretical estimation. Keywords: bio aerosol, Photo Catalytic Oxidation (PCO), hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, SPICE, surface sanitizer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0529.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: tuberculosis; BCG vaccine; aerosol vaccination; non-human primate; macaque; bubble model; computed tomography scanner
Online: 29 November 2022 (03:29:53 CET)
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a worldwide major health problem and models using non-human primates (NHP) provide the most relevant approach for vaccine testing. In this study we have analysed CT images collected from cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, following exposure to ultra-low dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) aerosols, and monitored them for 16 weeks to evaluate the impact of prior intradermal or inhaled BCG-vaccination on the progression of lung disease. All lesions found (2553) have been classified according to their size and we have subclassified small micronodules (<4.4 mm) as ‘isolated’, or as ‘daughter’ when they are in contact with consolidation (described as lesions ≥ 4.5 mm). Our data links the higher capacity to contain Mtb infection in cynomolgus with the reduced incidence of daughter micronodules, thus avoiding the development of consolidated lesions and their consequent enlargement and evolution to cavitation. In the case of rhesus, intradermal vaccination has a higher capacity to reduce the formation of daughter. This study supports the ‘Bubble Model’ defined with the C3HBe/FeJ mice and proposes a new method to evaluate outcome in experimental models of TB in NHP based on CT images, which would fit a future machine learning approach to evaluate new vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Safety Interventions; Fire Engine; Vehicle, Aerosol; Fine Dust Measurement
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:24:53 CEST)
Physical distancing and wearing a face mask are key interventions to prevent COVID-19. While this remains difficult to practice for millions of firefighters in fire engines responding to emergencies, the delayed forthcoming of evidence on the physical effectiveness of such safety interventions in this setting presents a major problem. In this field experimental study, we provided initial evidence to close this gap. We examined total aerosol burden in the cabin of a fire engine whilst manipulating crew size, natural ventilation, use of FFP2 respirators and use of SCBA full-face masks during 15-minute driving periods. At the same time, we controlled for crew activity and speaking, vehicle speed, cabin air temperature, pressure and humidity. Limiting the crew size, using FFP2 respirators and not donning SCBA full-face masks was associated with a reduction of the arithmetic mean of total aerosol burden of up to 49%. Natural ventilation as tested in this study was associated with both an increase and a decrease of total aerosol burden. This study provided initial evidence on the physical effectiveness of safety interventions in fire engines to reduce potential airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosols. More research about the physical and clinical effectiveness of such safety interventions is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0546.v2
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; face masks; aerosol; infection transmission route; weather conditions; viral load; exposure; dose
Online: 21 May 2020 (04:05:50 CEST)
Effects of the convection flow, atmospheric diffusivity and humidity on evolution and travel distances of exhaled aerosol clouds by an infected person are considered. The aim of this work is to evaluate the importance of aerosol transmission routes and the effectiveness of the 2-metre separation distance policy. A potential impact of use of face masks on the infection transmission rate, and an opportunity to reduce infection in hospitals, care homes and other public spaces by appropriate monitoring and filtering of air are also considered. The results obtained demonstrate that aerosol particles generated by coughing and sneezing can travel over 30 m. Modelling of the evolution of aerosol clouds generated by coughing and sneezing enables us to evaluate the deposition dose of aerosol particles in healthy individuals. For example, a person in a public place (e.g. supermarket or car park) can accumulate in the respiratory system up to 200 virus copies in 2 min time by breathing in virus laden aerosols. Wearing face mask considerably reduces the deposited load down to 2 virus copies per 2 min. The modelling also suggests that it should be possible to measure virus causing COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) within aerosol particles in hospitals and public places, e.g. care homes and supermarkets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0275.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: ultrafine particles; aerosol; urban street canyon; outdoor pollution; indoor air quality; respiratory doses; mppd
Online: 24 September 2019 (12:25:44 CEST)
The amount of outdoor particles that indoor environments receive depends on the particle infiltration factors (Fin), peculiar of each environment, and on the outdoor aerosol concentrations and size distributions. The respiratory doses received, while residing indoor, will change accordingly. This study aims to ascertain to what extent such doses are affected by the vertical distance from the traffic sources. Particle number size distributions have been simultaneously measured at street level and at about 20 m height in a street canyon in downtown Rome. The same Fin have been adopted to estimate indoor aerosol concentrations, due to the infiltration of outdoor particles and then the relevant daily respiratory doses. Aerosol concentrations at ground floor were more than double than at 20 m height and richer in ultrafine particles. Thus, although aerosol infiltration efficiency was on average higher at 20 m height than at ground floor, particles more abundantly infiltrated at ground level. On a daily basis, this involved a 2.5-fold higher dose at ground level than at 20 m height. At both levels, such doses were greater than those estimated over the period of activity of some indoor aerosol sources, therefore they represent an important contribution to the total daily dose.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0463.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: atmospheric correction; cloud mask; water vapor content; spectral radiance; surface spectral albedo; aerosol optical thickness
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:01:13 CET)
In this work, we propose simple and robust technique for the retrieval of underlying surface spectral albedo using spaceborne observations. It can be used to process both multispectral moderate resolution satellite data and also multi - zone high spatial resolution data. The technique can work automatically for different types of land surfaces without using huge databases accumulated in advance. The new cloud discrimination and retrieval of the water vapor content in atmosphere procedures are presented. The key point of the proposed atmospheric correction technique is the suggested single-wavelength method for determining the atmospheric aerosol optical thickness without reference to a specific type of underlying surface spectrum. The retrievals of spectral albedo for various land surfaces with developed technique, performed using computer simulation and experimental data, have demonstrated a high retrieval accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0391.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: snow characteristics; optical remote sensing; snow albedo; PROMICE; Sentinel 3; OLCI; atmospheric correction; Arctic aerosol
Online: 30 November 2019 (11:23:46 CET)
We present a simplified atmospheric correction algorithm for the snow/ice albedo retrieval using single view satellite measurements. The validation of the technique is performed using Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on board Copernicus Sentinel - 3 satellite and ground spectral or broadband albedo measurements from locations on the Greenland ice sheet and in the French Alps. Through comparison with independent ground observations, the technique is shown to perform accurately in a range of conditions from a 2100 m elevation mid-latitude location in the French Alps to a network of 15 locations across a 2390 m elevation range in seven regions across the Greenland ice sheet. Retrieved broadband albedo is accurate within 5% over a wide (0.5) broadband albedo range of the (N = 4,155) Greenland observations and with no apparent bias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0049.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: optical characteristics; chlorophyll-a concentration; ocean color; seawater; absorbing aerosol; dust; MODIS Aqua; AERONET; Black Sea
Online: 2 December 2022 (08:52:08 CET)
In the presence of absorbing aerosol in the atmosphere a number of systematic errors of standard Ocean Color algorithms were noted, for example, negative values of remote sensing reflectance in the short-wavelength region at 412 nm and 443 nm. The main goal of this work is to develop an algorithm for additional correction of remote sensing reflectance level 2 satellite data, taking into account the presence of absorbing aerosol over the Black Sea, where a large number of dust transfers from the Sahara are observed annually. To implement the algorithm, an analytical and experimental evaluation of the interpolation function is carried out, taking into account the optical effects caused by the stratification of the absorbing aerosol. This algorithm is based on the constancy of the color index value, characteristic of the selected region. For the Black Sea the average value of CI(412/443) = 0.80±0.08, a small standard deviation indicates that the sample is slightly variable. Therefore, CI(412/443) = 0.80 will be further considered as the reference value of the color index for calculating new restored Rrs(λ).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0450.v1
Subject: Keywords: 3Rs; replacement of animals; inhalation; in vitro; animal models; species differences; lung morphology; rodents; aerosol exposure
Online: 19 May 2021 (14:30:03 CEST)
Testing in animals is mandatory in drug testing and the gold standard for evaluation of toxicity. This situation is expected to change in the future because the 3Rs principle, which stands for replacement, reduction and refinement of the use of animals in science, is reinforced by many countries. On the other hand, technologies for alternatives to animals experiments have increased. The necessity to develop and use of alternatives is influenced by the complexity of the research topic and also by the fact, to which extent the currently used animal models can mimic human physiology and/or exposure. Rodent lung morphology and physiology differs markedly for that of humans and inhalation exposure of the animals are challenging. In vitro and in silico methods can assess important aspects of the in vivo action, namely particle deposition, dissolution, action at and permeation across the respiratory barrier and pharmacokinetics. Out of the numerous homemade in vitro and in silico models some are available commercially or open access. This review discusses limitations of animal models and exposure systems and proposes a panel of in vitro and in silico techniques that, in the future, may replace animal experimentation in inhalation testing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0194.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID19; Airborne transmission; Droplet transmission; Aerosol transmission; SARS-CoV-2; Heat Inactivation; Infection Prevention; Ventilation system
Online: 9 July 2020 (12:32:42 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has been confirmed in over 10,000,000 individuals worldwide and has resulted in more than 500,000 deaths in a few months since it first surfaced. With such a rapid spread it is no surprise that there has been a massive effort around the world to collectively elucidate the mechanism by which the virus is transmitted. Despite this, there is still no definitive consensus regarding droplet versus airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Public health officials around the world have introduced guidelines within the scope of droplet transmission. However, increasing evidence and comparative analysis with similar coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and middle eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS), suggest that airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 cannot be effectively ruled out. As the data supporting COVID-19 airborne transmission grows, there needs to be an increased effort in terms of technical and policy measures to mitigate the spread of viral aerosols. These measures can be in the form of broader social distancing and facial covering guidelines, exploration of thermal inactivation in clinical settings, low-dose UV-C light implementation, and greater attention to ventilation and airflow control systems. This review summarizes the current evidence available about airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2, available literature about airborne transmission of similar viruses, and finally the methods that are already available or can be easily adapted to deal with a virus capable of airborne transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0253.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: airborne pathogens; animal production; infectious animal disease; livestock health; mass balance; swine diseases; viral aerosol; virus isolation
Online: 10 February 2021 (11:41:43 CET)
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections cause significant economic losses to swine producers every year. Aerosols containing infectious PRRSV are an important route of transmission, and proper treatment of air could mitigate the airborne spread of the virus within and between barns. Previous bioaerosol studies focused on the microbiology of PRRSV aerosols; thus, the current study addressed the engineering aspects of virus aerosolization and collection. Specific objectives were to (1) build and test a virus aerosolization system, (2) achieve a uniform and repeatable aerosol generation and collection throughout all replicates, (3) identify and minimize sources of variation, (4) verify that the collection system (impingers) performed similarly. The system for virus aerosolization was built and tested (Obj. 1). The uniform airflow distribution was confirmed using a physical tracer (<12% relative standard deviation) for all treatments and sound engineering control of flow rates (Obj. 2). Theoretical uncertainty analyses and mass balance calculations showed <3% loss of air mass flow rate between the inlet and outlet (Obj. 3). A comparison of TCID50 values among impinger fluids showed no statistical difference between any two of the three trials (p-value = 0.148, 0.357, 0.846) (Obj. 4). These results showed that the readiness of the system for research on virus aerosolization and treatment (e.g., by ultraviolet light), as well as its potential use for research on other types of airborne pathogens and their mitigation on a laboratory scale.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0317.v2
Subject: Keywords: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); COVID19; Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; bioaerosol; aerosol
Online: 30 April 2020 (05:30:30 CEST)
A short review of the important studies was conducted to evaluate the potential of aerosol transmission of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The minimum size of droplets potentially carrying the SARS-CoV-2 was newly estimated and discussed in this review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0025.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: plasma-liquid interactions; water electrospray; aerosol microdroplet; bulk water, plasma-activated water; Henry’s law solubility; ozone; hydrogen peroxide
Online: 1 December 2020 (13:16:22 CET)
Production and transport of reactive species through plasma-liquid interactions plays a significant role in multiple applications in biomedicine, environment, and agriculture. We experimentally investigated the transport mechanisms of hydrogen peroxide H2O2 and ozone O3, as the typical plasma species, into water. We measured the solvation of gaseous H2O2 and O3 in airflow into water bulk vs. electrosprayed microdroplets while changing the gas and water flow rates, applied voltage that determines the gas-liquid interface area, and treatment time. The solvation rate of H2O2 and O3 increased with the treatment time and the gas-liquid interface area. The total surface area of the electrosprayed microdroplets was larger than that of the bulk, but their lifetime was much shorter. We estimated that only microdroplets with diameters below ~ 40 µm could achieve the saturation by O3 during their lifetime, while the saturation by H2O2 was impossible due to its depletion from air. Besides the short-lived flying microdroplets, the longer-lived bottom microdroplets substantially contributed to H2O2 and O3 solvation in water electrospray. This study contributes to a better understanding of the gaseous H2O2 and O3 transport into water as a function of different parameters and will lead to design optimization of the plasma-liquid interaction systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0059.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: fine particulate matter (PM2.5); aerosol optical depth; community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) model; data fusion; exposure assessment
Online: 16 February 2017 (08:58:09 CET)
Estimating ground surface PM2.5 with fine spatiotemporal resolution is a critical technique for exposure assessments in epidemiological studies of its health risks. Previous studies have utilized monitoring, satellite remote sensing or air quality modeling data to evaluate the spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations, but such studies rarely combined these data simultaneously. We develop a three-stage model to fuse PM2.5 monitoring data, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) simulations together and apply it to estimate daily PM2.5 at a spatial resolution of 0.1˚ over China. Performance of the three-stage model is evaluated using a cross-validation (CV) method step by step. CV results show that the finally fused estimator of PM2.5 is in good agreement with the observational data (RMSE = 23.00 μg/m^3 and R2 = 0.72) and outperforms either AOD-retrieved PM2.5 (R2 = 0.62) or CMAQ simulations (R2 = 0.51). According to step-specific CVs, in data fusion, AOD-retrieved PM2.5 plays a key role to reduce mean bias, whereas CMAQ provides all-spacetime-covered predictions, which avoids sampling bias caused by non-random incompleteness in satellite-derived AOD. Our fused products are more capable than either CMAQ simulations or AOD-based estimates in characterizing the polluting procedure during haze episodes and thus can support both chronic and acute exposure assessments of ambient PM2.5. Based on the products, averaged concentration of annual exposure to PM2.5 was 55.75 μg/m3, while averaged count of polluted days (PM2.5 > 75 μg/m3) was 81, across China during 2014. Fused estimates will be publicly available for future health-related studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0543.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Pandemic; Paramedic; Infection prevention and control; Aerosols; Aerosol Generating Procedures; Novel virus; Wellbeing
Online: 30 April 2020 (17:20:55 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that causes the new Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The symptoms range from mild to severe with a higher incidence of severe cases seen in patients with risk factors such as older age and comorbidities. COVID-19 is mainly spread through the inhalation of respiratory droplets from coughing or sneezing or via contact with droplet-contaminated surfaces. Paramedics should be aware that some aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) may put them at a higher risk of contracting the virus via possible airborne transmission. The use of remote triage clinical assessment is likely to increase as a result of the pandemic. There is no curative drug treatment for the virus and some medications may exacerbate its effects or make patients more susceptible to it. Paramedics should accept that feeling stressed by the pandemic is a natural response. Official guidelines and advice are evolving continually as the evidence on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 grows. Paramedics should keep up to date with the latest clinical guidance from their employers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0186.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: mineral dust; north African dust; Saharan dust; Bodélé depression; bias correction; machine learning; aerosol optical depth; chemistry-transport model; aerosols; particulate matter
Online: 14 September 2022 (03:02:59 CEST)
We develop a machine learning (ML) approach for improving the accuracy of the horizontal dis-tribution of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) simulated by the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model over Northern Africa using Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD satellite observations. These observations are used during the training phase of the ML method for deriving a regional bias correction of AODs simulated by CHIMERE. The results are daily maps of regional bias corrected AODs with full horizontal coverage over Northern Africa. We test four types of ML models: multiple linear regression (MLR), random forests (RF), gradi-ent boosting (XGB), and multiple layer perceptron networks (NN). We perform comparisons with satellite and independent ground-based observations of AOD that are not used in the training phase. They suggest that all models have overall comparable performances with a slight advantage of the RF model which expresses less spatial artifacts. While the method slightly underestimates the very high AODs, it significantly reduces biases and absolute errors, and clearly enhances linear correlations with respect to independent observations. This im-provement for deriving the AOD is particularly relevant for high dust pollution regions like the Sahara Desert, which dramatically lack ground-based measurements for validations of chemis-try-transport modeling which currently remains challenging and imprecise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: atmospheric aerosol; municipal and traffic emissions; natural sources; enrichment factor; coal and gasoline combustion; 24-h concentrations; diurnal variability; PX-375; XRF analysis
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:17:30 CEST)
The paper presents data from a monthly campaign for the elemental composition of PM10 in a specific receptor Kotórz Mały (Opole Voivodeship) located in the vicinity of a moderately inhabited rural area, measured in one-hour samples with the use of the PX-375 analyzer by the Horiba company. The hourly variability of SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3 concentrations as well as the variability of meteorological parameters were also determined. On average, during the entire measurement period, the elements related to PM10 can be arranged in the following order: As<V<Ni<Pb<Cr<Mn<Cu<Ti<Zn<K<Fe<Ca<Al<Si<S. Trace elements, including toxic elements, such as As, V, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mn, were present in low concentrations, not exceeding 10 ng/m3 (average daily value). These elements had fairly even concentrations, daily and hourly. The concentrations of the main elements in the PM10 in the receptor are subject to strong hourly changes related not only to changes in the structure of the sources identified in the statistical analysis but mainly to wind speed and direction changes (soil and sand particles pick-up and inflow of pollutants from coal combustion). It has been shown that the transport emission in the receptor can have an intense effect on PM10 in the afternoon.