REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Western diet; oxidative stress; cardiomyocyte; micronutrients; dietary fat
Online: 20 June 2022 (03:38:07 CEST)
Heart failure (HF) has become a public health problem, but exact pathophysiology is still unknown. Western diet characterised with high sugar, high fat, red meat and processed meat, eggs, fried foods and sweetened beverages, may cause oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to oxidative dysfunction and adverse effects on cardiac-ultra-structure. However, only little is known about oxidative function of the of the myocardium and how oxidative dysfunction predispose Ca-overloading resulting in to physio-pathological remodelling leading to HF. Antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenolics, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals as well as essential and nonessential amino acids that are rich in Indo-Mediterranean type of diets, may have protective roles in maintaining oxidative functions of the heart. The cardiac cells use fatty acids and glucose for the metabolic functions depending upon physiological and metabolic requirements. Apart from glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity is also damaging to cardiac cells which worsen in presence of deficiency of endogenous antioxidants and lower exogenous antioxidants in the diet. There is increased production of ceramide, advanced glycation end products (AGE) and triamino-methyl-N-oxide (TMAO) due to high sugar and high fat diets, leading to oxidative dysfunction and Ca-overloading. The biological changes may begin with physiological remodelling to pathological remodelling due to oxidative damages. High fat diet in combination with inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOSi) via N-arginine methyl ester has been found to preserve ejection fraction in a mouse model of HF. It is possible that increased supplementation of High Exogenous Antioxidant Restorative Treatment (HEART) diet; polyphenolics and flavonoids, vitamins, minerals, arginine, with omega-3 fatty acids, and cessation of red meat and egg may further improve the oxidative function of cardiac cells, resulting in the prevention and improvement in the earliest of the Six Stages of HF. Cohort studies and randomised, controlled trials would be necessary for demonstration of the role of HEART diet in the management of HF.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0064.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: western diet; microbiome; food processing; inflammation; metabolic diasease
Online: 19 March 2018 (07:31:47 CET)
The dietary pattern that characterizes the Western diet is strongly associated with obesity and related metabolic diseases, but biological mechanisms supporting these associations remain largely unknown. We argue that the Western diet promotes inflammation that arises from both structural and behavioral changes in the resident microbiome. The environment created in the gut by ultra-processed foods, a hallmark of the Western diet, is an evolutionarily unique selection ground for microbes that can promote diverse forms of inflammatory disease. Recognizing the importance of the microbiome in the development of diet-related disease has implications for future research, public dietary advice as well as food production practices. Research into food patterns suggests that whole foods are a common denominator of diets associated with a low level of diet-related disease. Hence, by studying how ultra-processing changes the properties of whole foods and how these foods affect the gut microbiome, more useful dietary guidelines can be made. Innovations in food production should be focusing on enabling health in the super-organism of man and microbe, and stronger regulation of potentially hazardous components of food products is warranted.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: metabolomics; metabolite profiling; prudent diet; western diet; food provisions; diet records; nutritional epidemiology; mass spectrometry
Online: 22 September 2019 (15:20:34 CEST)
A large body of evidence has linked unhealthy eating patterns with an alarming increase in obesity and chronic disease worldwide. However, existing methods of assessing dietary intake in nutritional epidemiology rely on food frequency questionnaires or dietary records that are prone to bias and selective reporting. Herein, metabolic phenotyping was performed on 42 healthy participants from the Diet and Gene Intervention (DIGEST) pilot study, a parallel two-arm randomized clinical trial that provided complete diets to all participants. Matching urine and plasma specimens were collected at baseline and following 2 weeks of provision of either a Prudent or Western diet with a weight-maintaining menu plan designed by a dietician. Targeted and nontargeted metabolite profiling was conducted using three complementary analytical platforms, where 80 plasma metabolites and 84 creatinine-normalized urinary metabolites were reliably measured (CV < 30%) in the majority of participants (> 75%) after implementing a rigorous data workflow for metabolite authentication with stringent quality control. We classified a panel of metabolites with distinctive trajectories following 2 weeks of food provisions when using complementary univariate and multivariate statistical models. Unknown metabolites associated with contrasting dietary patterns were identified with high resolution MS/MS and/or co-elution after spiking with authentic standards. Overall, 3-methylhistidine and proline betaine concentrations increased consistently after participants were assigned a Prudent diet (q< 0.05) in both plasma and urine samples with a corresponding decrease in the Western diet group. Similarly, creatinine-normalized urinary imidazole propionate, hydroxypipecolic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, and enterolactone glucuronide, as well as plasma ketoleucine and ketovaline increased with a Prudent diet (p< 0.05) after adjustments for age, sex and BMI. In contrast, plasma myristic acid, linoelaidic acid, linoleic acid, a-linoleic acid, pentadecanoic acid, alanine, proline, carnitine and deoxycarnitine, as well as urinary acesulfame K increased among participants following a Western diet. Most metabolites were also correlated (r > ±0.30, p< 0.05) to changes in average intake of specific nutrients from self-reported diet records reflecting good adherence to assigned food provisions. Our study revealed robust biomarkers sensitive to short-term changes in habitual diet for accurate monitoring of healthy eating patterns in free-living populations, which is required for validating evidence-based public health policies for chronic disease prevention.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: lifestyle factors; chronic inflammatory diseases; treatment result; treatment response; diet; meat intake; dietary pattern; food; mucosa associated bacteria; epithelium-associated bacteria; microbiome; fibre intake; personalized medicine; mucus; sulphate-reducing bacteria; mucin-degrading bacteria; Western style diet; anti-TNF
Online: 15 March 2017 (07:29:13 CET)
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0492.v1
Online: 26 November 2021 (08:33:28 CET)
A new subspecies of Sideroxylon mascatense (A.DC.) T.D.Penn. in the Western Hajar Mountains, differing from the type subspecies in the colour of the mature fruit, is described. The two colour forms are genetically isolated, showing that these two are distinct taxa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0553.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: adenovirus, western palaearctic bats, phylogenetic analysis, Spain
Online: 30 July 2018 (03:57:27 CEST)
In the context of long-term screening for viruses on Western Palaearctic bats, we tested for the presence of adenovirus 1.392 oropharyngeal swabs and 325 stool samples taken from 27 bat species. Adenoviruses were detected in 12 species of the Vespertilionidae and the Rhinolophidae families. Fifty positive respiratory and 26 positive stool samples were studied. Phylogenetic analyses of partial hexon protein and partial DNA-dependent DNA polymerase genes, indicate all these bat adenoviruses belong to the genus Mastadenovirus but without constituting a monophyletic cluster. According to genetic identities, the new groups are distinct to the previously described Bat mastadenovirus A and B species, and contribute with potentially new members. Our data support that diversity of Bat mastadenovirus is host-dependent and increase the knowledge of potentially pathogenic virus from bats. For human concerns this knowledge is an important Public Health issue due to the active role of bats as viral reservoirs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0427.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Plankton; Monitoring; Harmful algae; microscopic; genetic; Western Channel
Online: 22 December 2022 (11:34:13 CET)
Plankton monitoring by microscopy offers long-term ecological perspective of plankton com-munities but different detection approaches are biased uniquely. Genetic identification of marine plankton has become standard but is still not used in routine monitoring. This study assessed the diversity of plankton taxa using 18S high throughput sequencing from 2011-2012 from small-volume (~200ml) samples from the Water and Microplankton Sampler (WaMS) deployed on the Continuous Plankton Recorder platform (CPR). The 18S-HTS survey revealed a bias towards heterotrophic taxa, and phototrophs under 10µm within the photosynthetic community. In comparison with phytoplankton microscopic counts from the CPR survey and Western Channel Observatory station L4, only 8-12 taxonomic families were common to all three surveys, with a bias towards larger diatoms and dinoflagellate taxa in microscopy surveys. The WaMS survey detected a contrasting but complementary taxa set to that of microscopic surveys. Additional Quantitative PCR was carried out on the picoeukaryotic pelagophyte, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and the nanoeukaryotic potential harmful algae, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, from 2011-2013. This confirmed the persistence presence of A. anophagefferens in the Western Channel and an elevated abundance of both species in 2011. Species specific seasonality were distinct from those of aggregrate phytoplankton groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0332.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Plankton; Monitoring; Harmful algae; microscopic; genetic; Western Channel
Online: 22 July 2022 (03:33:40 CEST)
Plankton monitoring by microscopy offers long-term ecological perspective of plankton communities but is biased towards those organisms that can be distinguished using the microscope. Genetic identification of marine plankton has become standard but is still not used. This study is a comprehensive study genetically measured taxa in the Western Channel of UK using a small-volume automated water sampler deployed on the CPR platform. The study present one year of high-throughput sequencing data focussing on smaller plankton and separate community to that measured by microscopy that can complement each other for a holistic view of plankton. Quantitative tests of two harmful algae show relatively high abundance of the Pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens during 2011 with low nitrite levels. Three years of Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima quantitative monitoring also shows a greater abundance of this potentially harmful taxa in 2011. Flow cytometry reveals distinct seasonal cycles with distinct timings.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0226.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: Arabic; Arabs; Language Maintenance; Language Shift; Western Countries
Online: 16 March 2022 (08:28:43 CET)
Arabic is present in the Arab world and beyond. It is used as an official (or co-official) language in the Arab World (this refers to the twenty-two member states of the Arab League). Also, Arabic has the status of a national language in Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Besides, it is spoken in linguistic enclaves in Nigeria, Cyprus, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Afghanistan. In addition, it is employed as the liturgical language in Muslim countries and countries with a Muslim minority all over Africa and Asia. As a result of the migration to Western countries since the end of the nineteenth century, Arabs and Arabic has been present in such countries. The presence of Arabs in Western countries raises the following question: Are these Arabs language maintainers or language shifters? The present article is an attempt to answer this question through reviewing a number of studies that have dealt with Arabic language maintenance among the Arabs living in Western countries (namely the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Sweden, Greece, and France), deducing from these studies the major trends in Arabic language maintenance among these Arabs, and providing a critique of the studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0200.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: farmland change; soybean; production potential; GAEZ; Western Jilin
Online: 12 June 2018 (16:01:54 CEST)
In recent 40 years, the quantity and spatial patterns of farmland in Western Jilin have changed dramatically, which had great impact on soybean production potential. This study used one of the most advanced crop production potential models, the Global Agro-cological Zones model, to calculate the soybean production potential in Western Jilin based on meteorological, terrain, soil and land use data, and analyzed impact of farmland change on soybean production potential during 1975-2013. The main conclusions were the following. First, the total soybean production potential in Western Jilin in 2013 was 89.22 thousand tons. The production potential of eastern area was higher than the other areas of Western Jilin. Second, farmland change led to a growth of 33.03 thousand tons in soybean production potential between 1975 and 2000, and a decrease of 10.30 thousand tons between 2000 and 2013. Third, taking account of two situations of farmland change, the conversion between dryland and other categories, and the change of irrigation percentage led to the total soybean production potential in Western Jilin increased by 23.13 and only 2.87 thousand tons respectively between 1975 and 2000, and increased by 1.13 and 2.81 thousand tons respectively between 2000 and 2013. In general, the increase of soybean potential production was mainly due to grassland and woodland reclamation. The results of this study would be a good reference for protecting safe baseline of farmland, managing land resources, and ensuring continuity and stability of soybean supply and food security.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0246.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: SISAL database, speleothem, cave, oxygen isotopes, Western Europe, palaeoclimate
Online: 13 September 2018 (15:32:34 CEST)
Western Europe is the region with the highest density of published speleothem δ18O (δ18Ospel) records worldwide. Here we review these records in light of the recent publication of the Speleothem Isotopes Synthesis and Analysis (SISAL) database . We investigate how representative the spatial and temporal distribution of the available records is for climate in Western Europe, and review potential sites and strategies for future studies. We show that spatial trends in precipitation δ18O are mirrored in the speleothems, providing means to better constrain the factors influencing δ18Ospel at a specific location. Coherent regional δ18Ospel trends are found over stadial-interstadial transitions of the last glacial, especially in high altitude Alpine records. Over the Holocene, regional trends are less clearly expressed, due to lower signal-to-noise ratios in δ18Ospel, but can potentially be extracted with the use of statistical methods. Overall, this first assessment highlights the potential of the European region for speleothem palaeoclimate reconstruction, while underpinning the importance of knowledge of local factors for a correct interpretation of δ18Ospel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; culture; politics; differentiation; historical process; Western European countries
Online: 24 January 2018 (10:27:11 CET)
The societies of Western Europe, following the territorial delimitation of the corresponding State, have gone through different historical processes of internal homogenization. After the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the application of the principle cuius regio eius religio induced the religious homogenization of the population. Then, due to the ethnic diversity of its population, the State tried to homogenize it from the cultural point of view; it was the process of nationalization and democratization of the State. This process lead to the separation of religion from politics and from culture. After the two world wars, national reconstruction needed a foreign population: this need for labor was filled in the most developed countries by population of the countries that were least (Portuguese, Spanish, Italian ...) and also by population flows coming from the old colonies. The cultural and religious homogeneity of these countries began to lose force. With the oil crisis of the 1970s, a period of major economic fluctuations began in Europe. In those years, the second generation of the population of immigrant origin began to go to a job market that was not in good health. The religion and culture of their predecessors became autonomous resources for the reconstruction of their identity and to achieve a personal and social esteem. This process is necessarily leading States to rethink the relations between politics, culture and religion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0494.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Anopheles funestus; western Kenya; mtDNA-COII; genetic diversity; gene flow
Online: 27 January 2023 (06:46:32 CET)
The mitochondrial marker, cytochrome oxidase subunits II gene (mtDNA-COII) was employed to assess the genetic structure and diversity of Anopheles funestus, a very important malaria vector in Africa, that adapt and colonize different ecological niches in western Kenya. Mosquitoes were collected using mechanical aspirators in four sites (Bungoma, Port Victoria, Kombewa and Migori) in western Kenya. Following morphological identification, PCR was used to confirm species. The mtDNA-COII gene was amplified, sequenced and analyzed to determine genetic diversity and population structure. A total of 126 (Port Victoria-38, Migori-38, Bungoma-22 and Kombewa-28) sequences of mtDNA-COII were used for population genetic analysis. Anopheles funestus had high haplotype diversity (Hd= 0.97 to 0.98) but low nucleotide diversity (π =0.004 to 0.005). The neutrality test revealed significant (p<0.05) negative Tajima’s D and Fs values indicating population expansion with an excess of low-frequency variation due to evolutionary forces across all sites. No genetic differentiation or structure was observed across the sites (Fst = -0.01) and a high level of gene flow (Gamma St, Nm = 17.99 to 35.22) was observed among the populations. Population expansion suggests the high adaptability of this species to various ecological requirements hence sustaining its vectorial capacity and malaria transmission.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0024.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: carnivore species; western Michoacán; actual species distribution; prioritization; conservation areas
Online: 1 November 2022 (09:02:43 CET)
The present study contributes to bridging the gap on research related to the presence and distribution patterns of carnivore mammals in the western state of Michoacán, highlighting the importance and need to increase efforts aimed at the study and monitoring of wildlife present in this region. The distribution of carnivore in western Mexico was modeled through the application a two-scale approach: a large, modeled region, corresponding to the western part of the country, for which models were obtained that represent the distribution potential of the species, and, the second modeled study area that includes only the western portion of the state of Michoacán, in which models of the current distribution of the species for this region were proposed. A series of predictive models were generated on the current distribution of 11 species of carnivore species (Canis latrans, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, Herpailurus yagouaroundi, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus wiedii, Puma concolor, Panthera onca, Conepatus leuconotus, Bassariscus astutus, Nasua narica, Procyon lotor), from which, prioritization exercises were carried out on important areas for the conservation of these species, as well as the comparison and analysis of the existing natural protected areas (NPA) in the study area. The different exercises for prioritizing areas for conservation yielded similar results and show the potential percentages of the landscape that can be subjected to protection and conservation programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0142.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: gold; fluid inclusions; quartz; stable isotopes; gold deposits; Western Tuva
Online: 10 March 2022 (09:26:02 CET)
We examined PT parameters, geochemical peculiarities, and fluid sources of the Ulug-Sair ore occurrence attributable to class of intrusion-related gold deposits and according to ore mineral assemblages corresponding to Au-Bi type with wide Bi minerals (AgBiTe, Bi2Te2Se, Cu3,07BiS3, Bi), tellurides (Au and Ag), Se-tellurides (Ag and Bi), and selenides (Au, Ag, and Hg). We identified that ‘pre-gold’ quartz-tourmaline veins were deposited using an aqueous Mg-Na-K-chloride fluid with a salinity of 8–10 wt % NaCl eq. At 325–370 °C; host breasts were formed due to a CO2-water fluid containing CH4 and N2, with a salinity of 0,18–6,1 wt % NaCl eq. at least 200–400 °C. Gold-bearing mineral assemblages were formed at P ~ 0,75–1,0 kbar (~ 2,3–3 km) due to CO2-water chloride (Na-K±Fe, Mg) fluid with CH4, Na2SO4, and Na2B2O5, and salinities 1,7–12,5 wt % NaCl eq. during the decreasing temperatures from 360 up to 115 °C (gold-sulfide-quartz veins – 360–130 °С, and gold-telluride-sulfide-quartz veins – 330–115 °C) and variations fO2, fS2, fSe2, and fTe2. The isotopic composition of δ34SH2S fluid (-0,7…+2,5 ‰) indicates the juvenile or magmatic origin of fluid and ore elements. The δ34OH2O fluid indicates that, at an early substage, the formation of ore occurrence involved a fluid of magmatic or metamorphic origin (+7,3…+11,4 ‰), and, in the later substage, it mixed with meteoric waters (-2,3…+9,1 ‰).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0037.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: machine learning; neural network; forecasting system; western Pacific subtropical high.
Online: 2 March 2022 (07:41:45 CET)
The ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSHRL) plays an important role in determining the shift of the summer rain belt in eastern China. In this study, we developed a forecast system for the June WPSHRL index based on the latest autumn and winter sea surface temperature (SST). Considering the adverse condition of the small observed sample size, a very simple neural network (NN) model was selected to extract the non-linear relationship between input predictors (SST) and target predictands (WPSHRL) in the forecast system. In addition, some techniques are used to deal with the adverse condition, enhance the stabilization of forecast skills, and analyze the interpretability of the forecast system. The forecast experiments show that the linear correlation coefficient between the predictions from the forecast system and their corresponding observations is around 0.6, and about three-fifths of the observed abnormal years (the years with an obviously high or low WPSHRL index) are successfully predicted. Furthermore, sensitivity experiments show that the forecast system is relatively stable in terms of forecast skill. The above evaluations suggest that the forecast system is valuable in a real application sense.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0134.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: HPV16; E7 variants; cervical cancer; transformation; wound healing; western blotting
Online: 8 November 2021 (12:28:30 CET)
The human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 oncogene is critical to carcinogenesis and highly conserved. Previous studies identified a preponderance of non-synonymous E7 variants amongst HPV16-positive cancer-free controls compared to those with cervical cancer. To investigate the function of E7 variants, we constructed full-length HPV16 E7 genes and tested variants at positions H9R, D21N, N29S, E33K, T56I, D62N, S63F, S63P, T64M, E80K, D81N, P92L, and P92S (found only in controls); D14E, N29H (CIN2), and P6L, H51N, R77S (CIN3). We determined the steady-state level of cytoplasmic and nuclear HPV16 E7 protein. All variants from the controls showed a reduced level of steady-state E7 protein, with 7/13 variants having deficient protein levels. In contrast, 2/3 variants from the CIN3 precancer group had near-normal E7 levels. We assayed the activity of representative variants in stably transfected NIH3T3 cells. The H9R, E33K, P92L, and P92S variants found in control subjects had lower transforming activity than D14E and N29H variants (CIN2); and the R77S (CIN3) had activity only slightly reduced from wildtype E7. In addition, R77S and WT E7 caused increased migration of NIH3T3 cells in a wound-healing assay as compared with H9R, E33K, P92L, and P92S (controls) and D14E (CIN2). These data provide evidence that the E7 variants found in HPV16-positive cancer-free women are partially defective for transformation and cell migration further demonstrating the importance of fully active E7 in clinical cancer development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0577.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Material culture, restitution, artefacts, antiquities, cultural objects, western museums, review
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:30:52 CEST)
Background: The saga of repatriating cultural artefacts continues as western museums face increasing pressure from claimants. Western museums that have been involved in the display of historical artefacts, most of which were acquired during the colonial period, have come under huge criticism. A heated discussion of late has been the legitimacy of retaining artefacts in western museums. This study aimed at investigating the ongoing debate regarding the restitution of artefacts. Objective: To investigate the arguments for and against the repatriation of artefacts in relation to diplomatic exchange, preservation, legitimacy and usefulness. Methods: Records will be searched in electronic databases including the University of Manchester Library for Social Anthropology, Scorpus and Project MUSE. Search terms will include "return of artefacts", “return of historical objects”, “return of cultural objects”, “western museums”, “restitution of artefacts”, “repatriation of artefacts”, “restitution of historical objects”, repatriation of historical objects”, “restitution of cultural objects”, “repatriation of cultural objects”, "material culture", "return of antiquities”, restitution of antiquities” and “repatriation of antiquities”. Coding and analysis will be done in SWIFT-Review. The deductive and inductive approaches will be used in synthesising results. Both tabular and graphical methods will be used to present results. Ethics and Results: This study did not need any ethical approval. Results on study characteristics, quality and risk of bias assessments as well as the synthesis of arguments for and against the restitution of artefacts will be presented. The review results will be reported according to appropriate guidelines and disseminated through publication in a relevant journal and presented to stakeholders where necessary. Conclusions: This review will be based on current protocols for systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis. The study will be the first review that seeks to pull together claims for and against the return of cultural artefacts. The conclusions that will be drawn and recommendations will provide the basis for further research into the debate and the way forward. This study will also help identify the existing gaps regarding the subject matter.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0590.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: sampling method; estimated richness; functional diversity; maritime cliffs; Western France
Online: 23 December 2020 (13:54:54 CET)
Whereas bait and pitfall trappings are two of the most commonly used techniques for sampling ant assemblages, they have not been properly compared in temperate open habitats. In this study, taking advantage of a large-scale project of heathland restoration (3 sites along the French Atlantic Coast forming a north-south gradient), we evaluated the relative efficiency of these two methods for assessing both taxonomic and functional diversities of ants while accounting for a north south diversity gradient. Ants were collected and identified to species level, and 6 traits related to morphology, behavior (including diet, dispersal and maximum foraging distance) and social life (colony size and dominance type) were attributed to all 23 species. Both observed and estimated species were significantly higher in pitfalls compared to spatially pair-matched bait traps. Functional diversity followed the same pattern, with consistent results for both community weighted mean (CWM) and Rao’s quadratic entropy. Taxonomic and functional diversities from pitfall assemblages increased from North to South locations, following a frequently reported pattern at larger spatial scales. Bait traps can hardly be considered a complementary method to pitfall traps for sampling ants in open temperate habitats, as it appears basically redundant with pitfall traps at least on maritime cliff-tops of the East-Atlantic coast.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0200.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Diet: Functional foods: Western foods: Mediterranean foods: Feeding, Plant breeding
Online: 29 May 2017 (17:38:59 CEST)
There is evidence that optimal nutrition is fundamental to human health and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) later in adult life. The identification, production and consumption of functional foods worldwide can increase health benefits for all who can access and afford such foods subject to advice from nutritionists. Recent meetings organized by the health agencies, give a crucial opportunity to make nutrition, a central part of the post-2015 sustainable human and agricultural development agenda. The aim of discussions in these meetings was to provide functional crops and foods to achieve optimal health by prevention of NCDs. It is possible that these efforts might ensure that the goals and targets set in the agenda are adequate to address the many challenges of global undernutrition as well as obesity which are major risk factors of NCDs. In many developing and middle income countries, food security provided by the governments, in one sense understandably, gave least consideration to functional foods supply and the prevention of obesity and metabolic syndrome, resulting in to emergence of NCDs. The Thailand Declaration reiterates that commitments to eradicate hunger and undernutrition as well as over-nutrition, and to increase investments in effective interventions; designers foods and designers crops. However, in planning coherent policies, our past experience on rapidly absorbed, energy-rich processed foods should be taken in to account while developing sustainable food systems. The food industry should be educated to exploit the expertise of food scientists and health professionals in designing functional foods taking cognizance of manufacturing and processing. Similarly, agriculture scientists may be actively involved in educating farmers so as to grow cash crops providing functional foods. The aim should be to achieve an increase in the availability of functional foods to an extent, or by a policy, by which such foods are available to poors, at affordable cost to prevent hunger and undernutrition and related diseases as well as NCDs. In addition our efforts might help in developing an international consensus on how to approach the development of new designer foods by farmers and food industry to produce low glycemic index foods. Such efforts may establish an international framework for the prevention of NCDs, so that human susceptibility to these diseases is substantially diminished.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0641.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Neurodegeneration; dopamine; L-DOPA; dopaminergic; DBA; Western; IR; TH; Parkinson disease
Online: 25 December 2020 (07:10:33 CET)
We present a robust, fresh-frozen approach to immunohistochemistry (IHC), without committing the tissue to IHC via fixation and cryopreservation while maintaining long-term storage, using LiCor-based infrared (IR) quantification for sensitive assessment of TH in immunoreacted mid-brain sections for quantitative comparison across studies. In fresh-frozen tissue stored up to 1 year prior to IHC reaction, we found our method to be highly sensitive to rotenone treatment in 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, and correlated with a significant decline in rotarod laten-cy-to-fall measurement by approximately 2.5 fold. The measured midbrain region revealed a 31% lower TH signal when compared to control (p<0.01 by t test, n=5). Bivariate analysis of in-tegrated TH counts versus rotarod latency-to-fall indicates a positive slope and modest but sig-nificant correlation of R2=0.68 (p<0.05, n=10). These results indicate this rapid, instrument-based quantification method by IR detection successfully quantifies TH levels in rat brain tissue, while taking only 5 days from euthanasia to data output. This approach also allows for the identifica-tion of multiple targets by IHC with the simultaneous performance of downstream molecular analysis within the same animal tissue, allowing for the use of fewer animals per study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0589.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Natural Hydrogen System; circular depressions; Archean iron-rich Craton; Western Australia
Online: 28 October 2020 (11:57:31 CET)
There is a marked momentum towards the use of clean hydrogen energy as an alternative for fossil fuels. Renewable energies such as solar and wind are being used to generate hydrogen from the water hydrolysis process. Indeed, this approach stores renewable energies in the form of combustible hydrogen for other energy uses. The other alternative that could be economically more cost-effective at the current technology stage is to explore the natural “Hydrogen System” where the natural hydrogen is generated and accumulated within the earth system, the same that stands for a “Petroleum System”. The Discovery of a large accumulation of relatively pure natural hydrogen (H2) in Mali has triggered the opportunity of searching for natural hydrogen accumulations in other countries. The generation of hydrogen from a circular depression in Mali and some other countries is linked to the presence of geologically very old iron-rich basement rocks. Solid-liquid redox reactions between iron-rich minerals and groundwater that split water are a possible source of H2 in deep basement rocks. It is believed that the hydrogen degassing may be detected by surface topographic circular to sub-circular shallow depressions. Chemical processes such as dissolution by hydrogen are considered to play the main role in the formation of the circular depressions through preferential vertical hydrogen migration channel. Archean iron-rich Yilgarn Craton that covers a vast area of Western Australia (WA) contains abundant iron-rich mafic-ultramafic rocks. The craton reveals many surficial circular depressions visible through satellite images. The area has abundant fault systems and is blanketed with Eocene sedimentary rocks containing high-quality reservoir rocks. All these characteristics seem to provide most of the required elements, such as hydrogen source, migration pathway, and reservoir rock for a “Hydrogen System” in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0144.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Western Anatolia 1; Geochronology 2; slab roll-back 3; Hellenic slab 4.
Online: 6 August 2020 (09:54:45 CEST)
Western Anatolia comprises a vast amount of various volcanic successions spanning from Eocene to Upper Miocene periods. These units mainly display southward younging in broad sense and display large amounts of chemical variation that spanned from basalt to rhyolite. The southward younging of magmatism and chemical variations have been largely attributed to the retreat and roll-back of the Hellenic slab and the western escape of the Anatolian microplate. However, there is still a lack of high precision data to pinpoint the exact nature of the magmatism and lithospheric tectonics. In this contribution we investigated a poorly known region along the Western Anatolia along Manisa district called Karakılıçlı volcanic field. We investigated two different volcanic sections (Kalpakkaya and Çamlık hill) that display the best volcano-sedimentary features in terms of geochronology and geochemistry. Samples acquired from the bottom, middle and upper portions of these sections display Early-Middle Miocene ages of 17.64±0.20, 17.22±0.15, 16.16±0.17 and 16.36±0.13, 15.79±0.71 and 13.61±0.20 Ma respectively. The results indicate that the volcanism in the region generated by the melting of the mantle and/or lithospheric mantle by slab retreat and roll-back of the Hellenic slab and evolved in the shallow magma chambers/mushes by fractional crystallization, magma mixing and crustal assimilation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0715.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Western South Atlantic continental margin; benthic Foraminifera; fresh water; nutrients; eutrophication; anoxic
Online: 30 October 2018 (08:51:08 CET)
The present work focuses on fresh water signatures at the sediment-water interface (1 cm) using foraminiferal species in both austral winter and summer in eleven longitudinal transects on the Western South Atlantic continental margin between 27° and 37° S, at water depths of 11.7 to 250 m. Here we show that depth, salinity, temperature, oxygen, grain size (mud and sand percentage), suspended matter, organic matter, SiO4, NO2, and NO3 in this order of importance are responsible for the distribution of foraminiferal species and thecamoebians. The presence of these microfossils indicate freshwater influx in four sectors over the continental shelf: Itajaí-Açu River, Laguna estuarine system, Patos Lagoon and RdlP (Rio de la Plata) will be explored further in detail. Our findings on freshwater signature on the continental shelf sediments through benthic species indicator are comparable to other continental systems worldwide, and a paleo record study would be useful for three South American countries (Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay). A freshwater signature in the continental shelf indicates deposition sites probably linked to anthropogenic impact since most of the pollutants and contaminants are dumped into water bodies that eventually reach and accumulate in the ocean. Therefore, the freshwater-related species on the continental shelf reflects exactly where the depositional sediment sites are, and where anthropogenic impacts accumulate. Foraminiferal microhabitat occupation within these zones is discussed in detail. And we conclude that together with the fauna, the abiotic parameters play an important role in determining the occurrence and degree of marine eutrophication induced by the input of polluted river waters, also showing possible anoxic environments on the shelf.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0365.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Fecal IgE; preterm birth; neonate; asthma; atopic dermatitis; cow’s milk allergy; Western Blot
Online: 20 December 2022 (10:15:32 CET)
Background: Little is known about the natural history of immunoglobulin (Ig) E-mediated diseases in preterm infants, further hampered by the lack of noninvasive investigations. We aimed at developing a non-invasive tool for the study of IgE and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) in neonatal fecal samples and evaluating its predictive value for the development of IgE-mediated diseases (cow’s milk allergy, asthma, or atopic dermatitis) during the first year of life. Methods: We developed a stool extraction protocol, followed by freeze-drying and solubilization. sIgE responses were investigated in neonatal fecal samples from 21 preterm infants with a 300-allergen multiplex containing whole and molecular allergens and confirmed by capillary Western blot with nano-immunoassay. The local eosinophilic component was investigated by measuring the concentration of EDN. Results: The multiplexed allergen assay detected sIgE in all samples. Confirmation was obtained with Western blot. Frequency and levels of sIgE in neonatal fecal samples differed between infants who developed IgE-mediated diseases and controls. Neonatal fecal sIgE directed to milk proteins predicted later development of cow’s milk allergy (specificity 88%, sensitivity 78%). Allergen specificity of neonatal fecal sIgE was associated with later development of cow’s milk allergy and asthma. Neonatal fecal EDN levels predicted the development of IgE-mediated diseases (sensitivity 100%, specificity 75%). Conclusion: Non-invasive investigation of neonatal fecal sIgE is a promising tool for the prediction of subsequent development of IgE-mediated diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Gut microbiome; Western and indigenous/traditional cultures; gut health; disease; lifestyle; novel microbials
Online: 6 April 2021 (12:40:04 CEST)
The mammalian gut ecosystem plays critical roles in multiple functions related to health and homeostasis. In many cases, disturbances in the gut ecosystem are associated with a large number of metabolic and chronic diseases and disorders such as diabetes, cancer, and obesity. A diverse community of microorganisms ranging from viruses to bacteria comprise the gut microbiota, which is often considered as an organ in itself. Recent studies have profiled the influence of lifestyles and dietary behavior by comparing the gut microbiome of populations with different cultural underpinnings. In this review, we provide an overview of the studies which report the influence on the gut microbial composition of dietary and lifestyle patterns in different contexts such as western industrialized countries and indigenous cultures (corresponding to different lifestyle gradients such as hunter-gatherers and pastoralists) and how this association may influence health and disease.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0507.v1
Subject: Keywords: neurodegeneration; protein misfolding; Western Pacific; Guam; montmorillonite; bentonite; clay; mineral; ALS; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:43:13 CEST)
Neurodegenerative diseases of protein misfolding affect humans and animals. In humans, these diseases include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Western Pacific amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC). Mineral exposure may be important in the pathogenesis of protein misfolding cascades. The possible association of bentonite, montmorillonite, and mineral risk factors with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, and Western Pacific ALS/PDC is analyzed and discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0109.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; Mediterranean Diet Score; Principal Component analysis; western diet; prudent diet
Online: 15 March 2018 (03:33:48 CET)
Specific foods and nutrients help prevent the progression from persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection to cervical cancer (CC). We aimed to focus on dietary patterns which may be associated with hrHPV status and risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Overall, 539 eligible women, including 127 CIN2+, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, and tested for hrHPV infection. Food intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were applied. Using the Mediterranean Diet Score, we demonstrated that, among 252 women with normal cervical epithelium, medium adherence to Mediterranean diet decreased odds of hrHPV infection when compared to low adherence (adjOR=0.40, 95%CI=0.22-0.73). Using principle component analysis, we also identified two dietary patterns which explained 14.31% of variance. Women in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of the “western pattern” had higher odds of hrHPV infection when compared with 1st quartile (adjOR=1.77, 95%CI=1.04-3.54 and adjOR=1.97, 95%CI=1.14-4.18, respectively). Adjusting for hrHPV status and age, women in the 3rd quartile of the “prudent pattern” had lower odds of CIN2+ when compared with 1st quartile (OR=0.50, 95%CI=0.26-0.98). Our study is the first to demonstrate the association of dietary patterns with hrHPV infection and CC, discouraging unhealthy habits in favour of Mediterranean-like diet.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: China Rural Pension Scheme, retirement sustainability, labor supply, grandchildren care, Western China, ceaseless toil
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:47:21 CEST)
This paper evaluates the effect of China’s New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) on the retirement sustainability in forms of both formal labor supply and informal labor supply, using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). We explore the regional differences of the NRPS effect on labor supply between the Western regions and the other regions of China. Our analysis shows that western rural China has a more severe problem of “ceaseless toil” compared to the rest of the country. We find that NRPS improves the “ceaseless toil” situation of the Chinese rural elderly, and the results show a very different pattern between western China and other parts of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0631.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Western Cape; Southern Annular Mode; Circulation type; Africa south of the equator; mid-latitude cyclone
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:04:08 CEST)
This study investigates circulation types (CTs) in Africa, south of the equator, that are related to wet and dry conditions in Western Cape, the statistical relationship between the selected CTs and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), and changes in the frequency of occurrence of the CTs related to the SAM under the ssp585 scenario. Obliquely rotated principal component analysis applied to sea level pressure was used to classify CTs in Africa, south of the equator. Three CTs were found to have a high probability to be associated with wet days in Western Cape, and four CTs were equally found to have a high probability to be associated with dry days in Western Cape. Generally, the dry/wet CTs feature the southward/northward track of the mid-latitude cyclone, adjacent to South Africa; anti-cyclonic/cyclonic relative vorticity, and poleward/equatorward track of westerlies, south of South Africa. One of the selected wet CTs is significantly related to variations of the SAM. Years with an above-average SAM index correlate with the below-average frequency of occurrence of the wet CT. The results suggest that through the dynamics of the CT, the SAM might control the rainfall variability of Western Cape. Under the ssp585 scenario, the analyzed climate models indicated a possibility in the decrease of the frequency of occurrence of the aforementioned wet CT associated with cyclonic activity at the mid-latitudes, and an increase in the frequency of occurrence of the CT associated with enhanced SLP in the mid-latitudes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: CSR drivers and barriers; corporate social responsibility; MENA; middle east; north Africa; north America; Australia; Europe; western countries
Online: 9 December 2021 (14:31:21 CET)
Although numerous articles have been published to address drivers or barriers of corporate social responsibility (CSR), some parts of the world have received less attention. In this study, I reviewed the literature, from 2010 to 2021, to identify drivers and barriers of CSR in the the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and compare them with the findings in western countries. (2) Methods: For this study, I used a structured literature review method. By setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 28 articles remained from selected database; (3) Results: The findings revealed some CSR drivers, such as leadership styles, profitability, reputation, moral commitment, and environmental conservation are common in both regions. There are also some differences between CSR drivers, for example religious beliefs, low concentration of ownership, and company characteristics are some of the drivers in the MENA region. Maintaining social license to operate, avoiding the risks of community opposition, pressure from the government, and consumer demand tend to be more important in western countries. Common barriers in both regions are lack of financial resources, cost, lack of CSR knowledge and awareness, and ownership concentration. This review also highlighted that lack of law enforcement, lack of stakeholder communication, lack of management commitment, lack of interests, corruption, and financial debts are some of the addressed barriers of CSR in the MENA region, while cost/benefit ratio, lack of customer interest, and lack of scientific frameworks are the special barriers in western countries. (4) Conclusions: While researchers in western countries have more focus on energy sector, there is a lack of research about drivers and barriers of CSR in the MENA region in several industries, including oil and gas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Interleukin-6; primary knee osteoarthritis; Visual analogue scale; Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; WOMAC; Kellegren-Lawrence score
Online: 18 January 2023 (01:58:20 CET)
Background: Osteoarthritis is the most common degenerative joint disease resulting in pain and altered joint function. Objective: We investigated the possible association between serum interleukin-6 and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis with regard to pain, stiffness, physical function, assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). We also examined the connections between serum interleukin-6 and radiographic severity in primary knee osteoarthritis patients. Methods: In this case-control study, fifty primary knee osteoarthritis patients and fifty age and sex matched controls were randomly recruited. Serum interleukin-6 levels were immunoassayed in patients’ and controls’ serum. Patients’ knee pain, stiffness and physical function were assessed by the respective subscales of the WOMAC Index. Standing anteroposterior radiographs of the knee joint were performed and graded with the Kellegren-Lawrence grade. Results: The mean serum IL-6 level was significantly higher in osteoarthritis patients (110.22 ± 46.98pg/ml) than controls (46.04 ± 12.34 pg/ml) (p=0.001). The WOMAC Index in patients ranged from 0 – 95 and the Kellegren-Lawrence score mean was 2.7 ± 0.76. There was a significant correlation between serum IL-6 levels and pain (r=0.595 p=0.001), physical function score (r=0.666, p=0.001)), and the radiographic score (r=0.799, p=0.001). Regression analysis showed that IL-6 level had a greater impact on both the WOMAC Index (p=0.005) and the Kellegren-Lawrence score (p=0.01). Conclusion: Serum IL-6 level is increased in primary knee osteoarthritis patients. Also, serum interlukin-6 is significantly related to osteoarthritis symptoms and radiographic severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0098.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: genetic variation; brine shrimp Artemia; invasive species; mt-DNA COI; Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) genomic fingerprinting; Western Asia
Online: 6 March 2020 (02:43:06 CET)
Due to the rapid developments in aquaculture industry, Artemia franciscana, originally an American species, has been intentionally introduced to the Eurasia, Africa and Australia. In the present study, we used a partial sequence of the mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (mt-DNA COI) gene and genomic fingerprinting by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) to determine the genetic variability and population structure of Artemia populations (indigenous and introduced) from 14 different geographical locations in Western Asia. Based on the haplotype spanning network, Artemia urmiana has exhibited higher genetic variation than native parthenogenetic populations. Although A. urmiana represented a completely private haplotype distribution, no apparent genetic structure was recognized among the native parthenogenetic and invasive A. franciscana populations. Our ISSR findings have documented that despite invasive populations have lower variation than source population in Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), they have significantly revealed higher genetic variability compare to the native populations in Western Asia. According to the ISSR results, the native populations were not fully differentiated by the PCoA analysis, but the exotic A. franciscana populations were geographically divided in four genetic groups. We believe that during the colonization, invasive populations have experienced substantial genetic divergences, under new ecological conditions in the non-indigenous regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0041.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: conceptual model; Evolutionary Determinants of Health; greened city; human evolution; Palaeolithic genome; urban greenspace; urban wellbeing; Western Lifestyle Diseases
Online: 7 December 2017 (07:15:37 CET)
To cope with a projected global population increase from 7.2 bn to 9.6 bn by 2050, many more cities must be built. Although there are great benefits to modern urban living, there also great costs, such as the seemingly unstoppable rise in Type 2 diabetes, obesity, coronary issues and various cancers. The new towns should be designed to contain or constrain the epidemic of those ‘Western Lifestyle Diseases’ that currently plagues today’s cities. But how might this be achieved? It is suggested here that a greater understanding of human evolution combined with the potency of the ‘Palaeolithic genome’ holds the key to our future urban wellbeing. Consequently, a new paradigm is suggested that underpins positive forward thinking on townplanning and city lifestyles to create healthier urban environments. This builds directly on the ‘Evolutionary Determinants of Health’ programme initiated at University College London (UCL). A four-stage model is proposed that integrates and develops both evolutionary-concordant personal and institutional health behaviours with appropriately reconfigured town-planning and building regulations. When integrated, these strands could deliver a healthier urban culture within greened, active townscapes by proactively constraining or eliminating some of the key underlying causes of the so-called ‘Western Lifestyle Diseases’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0466.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: entrepreneur rail model; value capture; city deals; private railways; transit-oriented development; western Australia; tramways; land grants; future cities; urban planning
Online: 25 July 2018 (05:54:23 CEST)
Urban transit planning is going through a transition to greater private investment in many parts of the world and is now on the agenda in Australia. After showing examples of private investment in transit globally the paper focuses on historical case studies of private rail investment in Western Australia. These case studies mirror the historical experience in rapidly growing railway cities in Europe, North America and Asia (particularly Japan), and also the land grant railways that facilitated settlement in North America. The Western Australian experience is noteworthy for the small but rapidly growing populations of the settlements involved, suggesting that growth, rather than size, is the key to successfully raising funding for railways through land development. The paper shows through the history of transport, with particular reference to Perth, that the practice of private infrastructure provision can provide lessons for how to enable this again. It suggests that new partnerships with private transport investment as set out in the Federal Government City Deal process, should create many more opportunities to improve the future of cities through once again integrating transit, land development and private finance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0207.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Antibody ID; antibody registry; Research Resource Identifier; RRID; reproducibility; quality control; documentation; traceability; clones; biochemical reagents; diagnostics; immunoassays; ELISA; western blot; immunohistochemistry; microarray; biosensor
Online: 15 February 2020 (15:46:27 CET)
Thousands of antibodies for diagnostic and other analytical purposes are on the market. However, it is often difficult to identify duplicates, reagent changes, and to assign the correct original publications to an antibody. This slows down scientific progress and might even be a cause of irreproducible research and a waste of resources. Recently, activities were started to suggest the sole use of recombinant antibodies in combination with the open communication of their sequence. In this case, such uncertainties should be eliminated. Unfortunately, this approach seems to be rather a long-term vision since the development and manufacturing of recombinant antibodies remain quite expensive in the foreseeable future. Also, nearly all commercial antibody suppliers may be reluctant to publish the sequence of their antibodies, since they fear counterfeiting. De-novo sequencing of antibodies is also not feasible today for a reagent user without access to the hybridoma clone. Nevertheless, it seems to be crucial for any scientist to have the opportunity to identify an antibody undoubtedly to guarantee the traceability of any research activity using antibodies from a third party as a tool. For this purpose, we developed a method for the identification of antibodies based on a MALDI-TOF-MS fingerprint. To circumvent lengthy denaturation, reduction, alkylation, and enzymatic digestion steps, the fragmentation was performed with a simple formic acid hydrolysis step. Eighty-nine unknown monoclonal antibodies were used for this study to examine the feasibility of this approach. Although the molecular assignment of peaks was rarely possible, antibodies could be easily recognized in a blinded test, simply from their mass-spectral fingerprint. A general protocol is given, which could be used without any optimization to generate fingerprints for a database. We want to propose that in most scientific projects relying critically on antibody reagents, such a fingerprint should be established to prove and document the identity of the used antibodies and to assign a specific reagent to a datasheet of a commercial supplier, a public database record or an antibody ID.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0041.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: pine nut; pine nut syndrome (PNS); pine mouth syndrome (PMS); non-wood forest products; Leptoglossus occidentalis (Western conifer seed bug); Sphaeropsis sapinea (sphaeropsis blight)
Online: 17 July 2017 (05:58:34 CEST)
Pine nuts are non-wood forest products (NWFP) with constantly growing market notwithstanding a series of phytosanitary issues and related trade problems. The aim of paper is to review the literature on the relationship between phytosanitary problems and trade development. Production and trade of pine nuts in Mediterranean Europe have been negatively affected by the spreading of Sphaeropsis sapinea (a fungus) associated to an adventive insect Leptoglossus occidentalis (fungal vector), with impacts on forest management activities, production and profitability and thus in value chain organization. Reduced availability of domestic production in markets with growing demand has stimulated the import of pine nuts. China has become a leading exporter of pine nuts, but its export is affected by a symptom associated to the nuts of some pine species: the ‘pine nut syndrome’ (PNS). Most of the studies embraced during the review are associated to PNS occurrence associated to the nuts of Pinus armandii. In the literature review we highlight the need for a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the pine nuts value chain organisation, where research on food properties and clinical toxicology be connected to breeding and forest management, forest pathology and entomology and trade development studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0098.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Paleoclimatic variations in Southern Peru; Early human occupations in Tacna - Peru; Ethnoarchaeological analysis of the Populations in the Western Andes; Development of the Puquina; Culture in the Collisuyu territory
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:11:17 CET)
The Environmental interactions contributed to the processes of settlement and development of the first settlers at southern Peru 15,000 BC. The determination of this process is based on paleoclimatic studies at southern Peru and ethnoarchaeological evidence. The determination of this process is based on paleoclimatic studies of southern Peru and ethnoarchaeological evidence; establishing as a result of this analysis the hypothesis of environmental interaction and territorial occupation of the first hunter-gatherer populations until their consolidation, dominating the geographical space from Tacna. The Disruptive disaster events and their effects on climate during the Peruvian Paleolithic resulted in the origin of local societies that shaped the Tiawanaku societies of the early horizon at Southern Peru and Northern Chile.