Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Drivers and Barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Comparison of the MENA Region and Western Countries

Version 1 : Received: 7 December 2021 / Approved: 9 December 2021 / Online: 9 December 2021 (14:31:21 CET)

How to cite: Alizadeh, A. The Drivers and Barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Comparison of the MENA Region and Western Countries. Preprints 2021, 2021120154 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0154.v1). Alizadeh, A. The Drivers and Barriers of Corporate Social Responsibility: A Comparison of the MENA Region and Western Countries. Preprints 2021, 2021120154 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202112.0154.v1).

Abstract

Although numerous articles have been published to address drivers or barriers of corporate social responsibility (CSR), some parts of the world have received less attention. In this study, I reviewed the literature, from 2010 to 2021, to identify drivers and barriers of CSR in the the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and compare them with the findings in western countries. (2) Methods: For this study, I used a structured literature review method. By setting the inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 28 articles remained from selected database; (3) Results: The findings revealed some CSR drivers, such as leadership styles, profitability, reputation, moral commitment, and environmental conservation are common in both regions. There are also some differences between CSR drivers, for example religious beliefs, low concentration of ownership, and company characteristics are some of the drivers in the MENA region. Maintaining social license to operate, avoiding the risks of community opposition, pressure from the government, and consumer demand tend to be more important in western countries. Common barriers in both regions are lack of financial resources, cost, lack of CSR knowledge and awareness, and ownership concentration. This review also highlighted that lack of law enforcement, lack of stakeholder communication, lack of management commitment, lack of interests, corruption, and financial debts are some of the addressed barriers of CSR in the MENA region, while cost/benefit ratio, lack of customer interest, and lack of scientific frameworks are the special barriers in western countries. (4) Conclusions: While researchers in western countries have more focus on energy sector, there is a lack of research about drivers and barriers of CSR in the MENA region in several industries, including oil and gas.

Keywords

CSR drivers and barriers; corporate social responsibility; MENA; middle east; north Africa; north America; Australia; Europe; western countries

Subject

SOCIAL SCIENCES, Business and Administrative Sciences

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