Preprint Article Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Pine nuts: a review of recent sanitary conditions and market development

Version 1 : Received: 16 July 2017 / Approved: 17 July 2017 / Online: 17 July 2017 (05:58:34 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Awan, H.U.M.; Pettenella, D. Pine Nuts: A Review of Recent Sanitary Conditions and Market Development. Forests 2017, 8, 367. Awan, H.U.M.; Pettenella, D. Pine Nuts: A Review of Recent Sanitary Conditions and Market Development. Forests 2017, 8, 367.

Journal reference: Forests 2017, 8, 367
DOI: 10.3390/f8100367

Abstract

Pine nuts are non-wood forest products (NWFP) with constantly growing market notwithstanding a series of phytosanitary issues and related trade problems. The aim of paper is to review the literature on the relationship between phytosanitary problems and trade development. Production and trade of pine nuts in Mediterranean Europe have been negatively affected by the spreading of Sphaeropsis sapinea (a fungus) associated to an adventive insect Leptoglossus occidentalis (fungal vector), with impacts on forest management activities, production and profitability and thus in value chain organization. Reduced availability of domestic production in markets with growing demand has stimulated the import of pine nuts. China has become a leading exporter of pine nuts, but its export is affected by a symptom associated to the nuts of some pine species: the ‘pine nut syndrome’ (PNS). Most of the studies embraced during the review are associated to PNS occurrence associated to the nuts of Pinus armandii. In the literature review we highlight the need for a comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of the pine nuts value chain organisation, where research on food properties and clinical toxicology be connected to breeding and forest management, forest pathology and entomology and trade development studies.

Subject Areas

pine nut; pine nut syndrome (PNS); pine mouth syndrome (PMS); non-wood forest products; Leptoglossus occidentalis (Western conifer seed bug); Sphaeropsis sapinea (sphaeropsis blight)

Readers' Comments and Ratings (2)

Comment 1
Received: 23 July 2017
Commenter: Eduardo Faundez
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
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Response 1 to Comment 1
Received: 23 July 2017
Commenter: Hafiz Umair Masood Awan
The commenter has declared there is no conflict of interests.
Comment: Dear Eduardo: Thank you very much for your comment. We will see it.
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