REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0442.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: data science; advanced analytics; machine learning; deep learning; smart computing; decision-making; predictive analytics; data science applications;
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:28:09 CEST)
The digital world has a wealth of data, such as Internet of Things (IoT) data, business data, health data, mobile data, urban data, security data, and many more, in the current age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution (Industry 4.0 or 4IR). Extracting knowledge or useful insights from these data can be used for smart decision-making in various applications domains. In the area of data science, advanced analytics methods including machine learning modeling can provide actionable insights or deeper knowledge about data, which makes the computing process automatic and smart. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on "Data Science'' including various types of advanced analytics methods that can be applied to enhance the intelligence and capabilities of an application through smart decision-making in different scenarios. We also discuss and summarize ten potential real-world application domains including business, healthcare, cybersecurity, urban and rural data science, and so on by taking into account data-driven smart computing and decision making. Based on this, we finally highlight the challenges and potential research directions within the scope of our study. Overall, this paper aims to serve as a reference point on data science and advanced analytics to the researchers and decision-makers as well as application developers, particularly from the data-driven solution point of view for real-world problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0498.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public policy; science policy; technology; technology commercialization; technology transfer; university technology transfer
Online: 27 January 2023 (09:33:38 CET)
This paper presents an alternative conceptualization and definition of technology in the context of university technology transfer. The ambiguity regarding the conceptualization of technology is apparent in the technology transfer literature. An expanded conceptualization of technology potentially opens new approaches to researching the topic of technology transfer. It may also cause policymakers to think more comprehensively about what it means to successfully transfer technologies derived from federally funded research to the private sector for use that benefits the public interest. This paper integrates constructs and ideas in the related literature to provide a new perspective of technology that can support future scholarly research and public policy formulation about technology transfer in general, and university technology transfer specifically. Although the paper focuses on university technology transfer to the private sector in the United States, the insights it presents are relevant to technology transfer more broadly and applicable in other geopolitical contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0441.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: digital learning; CiteSpace; visualization; Web of Science
Online: 29 July 2022 (02:48:11 CEST)
The objective of this research is to establish a better understanding of the current landscape of digital learning research and sustainable development by using CiteSpace. First, we retrieved published publications from the Web of Science (2004–2022). Following that, we examined the primary research strengths and important subjects of digital learning from two perspectives: collaboration networks (including collaborative networks across countries, institutions, and authors) and co-citation networks. We examined the co-citation network from three perspectives: cluster analysis, the most active citers, top references. Furthermore, referenced journals, popular themes, and rising trends were examined. These findings indicate the primary study subjects in the field of digital learning, the most intriguing research literature, and each period's emerging research hotspots. Finally, we proposed further study ideas for future paths.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Science and policy - making; Environmental communication; Pan - Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:13:14 CEST)
The science‐policy interface in climate change adaptation became better managed over the past decades. However, the scientists and other knowledge producers, as well as policy makers still need to take bolder steps to more effectively engage with others to apply science and shape up policies. This paper aims to provide practical recommendations, intended to promote conversations between science and policy sectors to address climate change issues. Here, I used two different approaches to synthesize experiences and identify recommendations: a literature review and a case study. The paper stress main findings: (1) The linear communication model is still commonly involved in the science - policy dialogue and proved to be useful to increase the relevance of science and data products to decision makers. (2) When a gap between knowledge producer and knowledge user or decision maker exists, the need for a third party to specialize in bridging the gap become essential. (3) Indigenous people and knowledge must be involved in adaptation policy making based on legitimation local and traditional knowledge, designing the consultation process to broadly engage local and indigenous people, facilitating meaningful dialogues between traditional knowledge and science, and developing initiatives to strengthen skills and capacity of indigenous communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0358.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: ecigarette; regulatory science; substantial equivalence; public health; tobacco product comparison.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:04:52 CET)
This study introduces and demonstrates a comprehensive, accurate, unbiased approach to robust quantitative comparison of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) appropriate for establishing substantial equivalence (or lack thereof) between tobacco products. The approach is demonstrated across a family of thirteen pen- and pod-style ENDS products. Methods employed consist of formulating a robust emissions surface regression model, quantifying the empirical accuracy of the model as applied to each product, evaluating relationships between product design characteristics and maximum emissions characteristics, and presenting results in formats useful to researchers, regulators, and consumers. Results provide a response surface to characterize emissions (total particulate matter and constituents thereof) from each ENDS appropriate for use in a computer model and for conducting quantitative exposure comparisons between products. Results demonstrate that emissions vary as a function of puff duration, flow rate, E-Liquid composition, and device operating power. Further, results indicate that regulating design characteristics of ENDS devices and consumables may not achieve desired public health outcomes; it is more effective to regulate maximum permissible emissions directly. Three emissions outcome measures (yield per puff, mass concentration and constituent mass ratio) are recommended for adoption as standard quantities for reporting by manufacturers and research laboratories. The approach provides a means of (a) quantifying and comparing maximal emissions from ENDS products spanning their entire operating envelope, (b) comparative evaluation of ENDS devices and consumable design characteristics, and (c) establishing comparative equivalence of maximal emissions from ENDS. A consumer-oriented product emissions dashboard is proposed for comparative evaluation of ENDS exposure potential. Maximum achievable power dissipated in the coil of ENDS is identified as a potentially effective regulatory parameter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0264.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: citizen science; citizen social science; sustainability; SDG
Online: 19 July 2022 (10:31:21 CEST)
Both the sustainability discourse and the debate on citizen science are strongly focused on the natural and technical sciences. Yet, numerous participatory research activities can be identified in the social sciences and humanities that address sustainability issues of various kinds. These have hardly been studied so far, and their contribution to addressing sustainability challenges is poorly known. The study investigates which sustainability topics are taken up by citizen science in the humanities and social sciences, which factors influence the choice of topics, and its implications. For this purpose, the concept of Citizen Social Science (CSS) is taken up and sustainability is operationalized via the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and its specific Targets. Based on a collection of CSS activities in Germany, the addressed sustainability topics are identified accordingly. It is then analyzed how these patterns depend on the main characteristics of CSS projects. The findings indicate a focus on three SDGs related to education, sustainable cities and partnerships for the Goals, while at the same time the project consortia are very heterogeneous. CSS shows particular strengths here through its multi-stakeholder approach. Going forward, the linkage of Citizen Science to the SDGs needs to be further formalized so that its transformative effects can be incorporated into SDG monitoring and the scientific institutions need additional incentives to participate in CSS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0296.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Chinese National science-sustainability paradox; Interdisciplinary and inter-institutional analysis; Environmental science mediating the energy science for sustainability; Chinese environmental science versus the American energy science
Online: 16 July 2018 (15:31:02 CEST)
The Science-Sustainability poses an interdisciplinary paradox. On the one hand, the science for sustainability has increased in OECD economies in and in China as well as in the US in particular; on the other hand; the sustainability situation has worsened (Co2 emission has risen). On the face value, the adverse correlation shows a paradox. However, without explicating the science-sustainability relationship, it leads to a premature conclusion. In this study, we have drawn on three concrete questions for concrete answers. First, whether and how interdisciplinary sciences—energy science and environmental science—contribute to the sustainability. Second, whether and how the Sino-US inter-institutional analysis varies in the science-sustainability paradox. The empirical analysis from a panel data in the interdisciplinary and inter-institutional context show mixed patterns in three ways. First, the increase in the environmental science shows an improvement in the sustainability; the energy science shows a decline in the sustainability. Second, the Chinese environmental science has a comparative advantage to American environment science for the sustainability development, and the Chinese energy science has a comparative disadvantage to the US in the sustainability development. Third, the environmental science mediates the energy science in the science-sustainability relationships. Standing alone, the increase in the energy science harms sustainability; mediated by environmental science, it benefits sustainability. The study explains the adverse role of energy science in Jevons Paradox. The study also offers some policy paths for further research how capitalisms differently innovate, form strategies, and implement the practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0328.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Geographic information science; gerrymandering; formal science; empirical science; spatial data science; DIKW paradigm; Metascience
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:04:08 CEST)
Sometimes there are clear and natural limits to the scope of action of a science, and in other cases they are simply convenient ones. Geographic Information Science (GISc) is a transversal science, with contacts with all geosciences but also with various formal sciences such as Mathematics, Logic and Computer Science. A first approach to specifying the limits of a science is through its definition. Definitions of GISc are often so expansive that they have been rightly criticized for practicing gerrymandering, in particular with the rest of the geosciences. To avoid this, an operational definition is proposed that places GISc among the sciences that handle Data and not Information. This solves the gerrymandering problem without really implying a significant cut of what is usually considered within GISc. As an unforeseen consequence, this delimitation will allow it to be characterized as Formal Science, leaving it as the only geoscience with this characteristic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0299.v4
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; pandemic; science; social science; bibliometric analysis
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:49:40 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus emerged in Wuhan City, Hubei province of China at the end of 2019, has radically transformed the lives of people around the world. Due to its fast spreading, it is currently considered as a worldwide health, social and economic concern. The lack of knowledge on this area has encouraged academic sphere for extensive research, which is reflected in exponentially growing scientific literature in this area. However, current state of COVID-19 research reveals only early development of knowledge, while a comprehensive and in-depth overview remains neglected. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to fill the aforementioned gap in the literature and provide an extensive bibliometric analysis of COVID-19 research across science and social science research landscape, using innovative and sophisticated bibliometric approaches (e.g. Venn diagram, Biblioshiny descriptive statistics, VOSviewer co-occurrence network analysis, Jaccard distance cluster analysis, text mining based on logistic regression). The bibliometric analysis is based on the Scopus database including all relevant and latest information on COVID-19 related publications (n=16,866) in the first half of 2020. The empirical results indicate that there is still a lack of publications of COVID-19 and its implications in less-explored (non-health) sciences, especially in social sciences. Accordingly, the findings emphasize an importance of a comprehensive and in-depth approach considering different scientific disciplines in COVID-19 research. The understanding of the evolution of emerging scientific knowledge on COVID-19 is beneficial not only for scientific community but also for evidence-based policymaking in order to prevent and address the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Science Technology Society; STS; STEM, Curriculum Planning; Science; design; Education
Online: 24 December 2018 (14:03:40 CET)
The American Academy of Arts and Sciences suggested the definition of science literacy emphasize how crucial understanding the scientific process and the ability to evaluate conflicting scientific evidence is. The purpose of this article is to present an evidence-supported curriculum covering the fundamentals of logic, reasoning, and argumentation skills to address the emphasized basic knowledge, skills, and abilities required to be scientifically literate, which will prepare the public to understand and engage with science meaningfully. An analytic-synthetic approach toward understanding the notion of public is taken using a theoretical biomimetics framework that identifies naturally occurring objects or phenomena that descriptively captures the essence of a construct to facilitate creative problem-solving. In the present case, the problem being solved is how to reconcile what is meant by public, how it ought to be interpreted, the different levels of confidence in science that exist, and various understandings of science all with one another. The results demonstrate there is an inherent denotative-connotative inconsistency in the traditional notion of public that can be explicated through the concept of a fractal allowing for comprehension of the relationship between public confidence in, and understanding of, science.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0289.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Aging; Network Science
Online: 5 October 2023 (13:02:46 CEST)
Dyslipidemia (Dys) is a disease characterised by abnormally high levels of lipids in the 1 blood. It causes the deposits of lipids on the arterial wall, leading to the insurgence of atherosclerosis, 2 i.e. the increased thickness of arterial walls, which finally increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. 3 Dyslipidemia is as comorbidity of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A set of genes has been associated 4 with dyslipidemia, but examining the regulation of such genes in age and sex is still an open research 5 field. In this study, starting from publicly available databases, we select genes associated with 6 dyslipidemia and we analyse their basal level changes by means of age and sex. Also studying the 7 networks associated to the genes, we identify the rewiring changes showing that there exists a set of 8 genes whose expression changes with age in: artery tibial, artery aorta and blood. Finally, we report 9 about changes associated to gender atributes in the extracted data
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0546.v1
Online: 8 August 2023 (10:16:00 CEST)
Dyslipidemia (Dys) is a disease characterised by abnormally high levels of lipids in the blood. It causes the deposits of lipids on the arterial wall leading to the insurgence of atherosclerosis, i.e. the increased thickness of arterial walls, which finally increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a comorbidity of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A set of genes has been associated with dyslipidemia, but examining the regulation of such genes in age and sex is still an open research field. In this study, we select from publicly available databases the genes associated with dyslipidemia and analyse changes in the basal level of such genes by age and sex. Moreover, we also distinct differential rewiring of the related gene association network in males and females. Our results show that there exist a set of genes whose expression changes with age in artery tibial, artery aorta and blood. Moreover, there exist significant differences between sex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: public engagement on science, science engagement, science communication, public understanding of science, deficit model, informal STEM learning, active learning
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:09:31 CEST)
Publicly-funded scientists have a responsibility to engage with the public on scientific information, but are lacking a standardized framework and assessment strategy to do it well. The PEPS (Public Engagement Practices for Scientists) Method is an outcomes-centered framework employing standardized pedagogical methods with quantifiable outcomes. This approach reveals that scientists often have unrealistic expectations for achieving affective learning outcomes (i.e. changing views from anti- to pro-vaccine) by solely cognitive learning strategies (i.e. supplying data). The PEPS Method can serve as a roadmap for standardized science communication assessments, complementing existing science communication training programs for the next generation of scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0363.v4
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: AI; Artificial Intelligence; Kalam; Sufism; Philosophical Sufism; Philosophy of Science; Science and Religion
Online: 30 August 2023 (07:08:44 CEST)
The recent remarkable progress in Artificial Intelligence (AI) has renewed the discussion on the possibility of human-level AI. Despite the difficulty of the problem and the presence of many large gaps and challenges, most people working in the field think that human-level AI is achievable, but they disagree on the date. In this paper, I briefly discuss the possibility of human-level AI from the perspective of two traditions in the Islamic world, namely Kalam and Sufism, and despite their different mode of investigation, they converge to the same conclusion on this topic.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: data science; reuse; sequencing data; genomics; bioinformatics; databases; computational biology; open science
Online: 16 July 2020 (12:39:43 CEST)
The 'big data revolution' has enabled novel types of analyses in the life sciences, facilitated by public sharing and reuse of datasets. Here, we review the prodigious potential of reusing publicly available datasets and the challenges, limitations and risks associated with it. Possible solutions to issues and research integrity considerations are also discussed. Due to the prominence, abundance and wide distribution of sequencing data, we focus on the reuse of publicly available sequence datasets. We define ‘successful reuse’ as the use of previously published data to enable novel scientific findings and use selected examples of such reuse from different disciplines to illustrate the enormous potential of the practice, while acknowledging their respective limitations and risks. A checklist to determine the reuse value and potential of a particular dataset is also provided. The open discussion of data reuse and the establishment of the practice as a norm has the potential to benefit all stakeholders in the life sciences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0578.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Participatory science; Biodiversity conservation; Landscape science; Michoacán; Mexico
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:02:26 CEST)
Participatory landscape conservation is an innovative approach that weaves theory and practice to bridge the gap between theoretical models and practical applications. Intertropical regions as the case of Mexico face challenges to conciliate regional governability, social justice, and nature conservation. The State of Michoacan is one of these regions where the challenges exacerbate since nature conservation is last due to its ongoing territorial disputes. We implemented the participatory landscape conservation approach by creating a complementary form of protected areas with ongoing conflicts, drought conditions, and extreme poverty. We conducted participatory mapping and land cover/use analyses as main methodological tools to reach consensus among stakeholders. We integrated, macro, micro and social scales to provide sound arguments to integrate local, scholar and policy makers perceptions. The outcomes of the participatory mapping analyses were assessed. The present papers provide evidence of the positive outcome of using a Participatory Landscape Conservation to establish a Biosphere Reserve, safeguarding one of the most biologically diverse and delicate ecosystems consisting of seasonally dry tropical forests within a rather disputed region. We discussed the relevance of our findings and compared them to ongoing regional and global trends in the light of other forms of establishing protected areas.
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: scientific publishing; scientific journals; scholarly publishing; scientific papers; open science; scientific articles
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:48:21 CEST)
In the digital era in which over 4 billion people regularly access the internet, the conventional process of publishing scientific articles in academic journals following peer review is undergoing profound changes. Following physics and mathematics scholars who started to publish their work on the freely accessible arXiv server in the early 1990s, researchers of all disciplines increasingly publish scientific articles in the form of freely accessible and fully citeable preprints before or in parallel to conventional submission to academic journals for peer review. The full transition to open science, I argue in this study, requires to expand the education of students and young researchers to include scholarly communication in the digital era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0046.v1
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:47:36 CEST)
This article explores the lack of unanimity regarding the nomenclature used to refer to the field of research that explores the intersection between art and science. A series of examples of nomenclatures and the context in which they are applied are listed and referenced. The diverse terminology reflects the heterogeneity, transdisciplinarity, and complexity of a research field in full expansion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: science education; science literacy; scientific literacy; visual scientific literacy; machine learning: neurocognition; fNIRS; science assessment
Online: 19 October 2021 (15:38:19 CEST)
The primary barrier to understanding visual and abstract information in STEM fields is representational competence the ability to generate, transform, analyze and explain representations. The relationship is known between the foundational visual literacy and the domain specific science literacy, however how science literacy is a function of science learning is still not well understood despite investigation across many fields. To support the improvement of students’ representational competence and promote learning in science, identification of visualization skills is necessary. This project details the development of an artificial neural network (ANN) capable of measuring and modeling visual science literacy (VSL) via neurological measurements using functional near infrared spectrometry (fNIRS). The developed model has the capacity to classify levels of scientific visual literacy allowing educators and curriculum designers the ability to create more targeted and immersive classroom resources such as virtual reality, to enhance the fundamental visual tools in science.
EDITORIAL | doi:10.20944/preprints201605.0001.v1
Online: 3 May 2016 (14:43:02 CEST)
Preprints is a multidisciplinary preprint platform that makes scientific manuscripts from all fields of research immediately available at www.preprints.org. Preprints is a free (not-for-profit) open access service supported by MDPI in Basel, Switzerland.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1926.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Emotion Regulation; Attention; Behavioral Science; Clinical implementation
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:23:28 CET)
This review explores the complex interrelationships between emotion, attention, and behavior, drawing upon empirical evidence from psychological, neuroscientific, and clinical studies. It delves into the neural mechanisms that underlie these interactions, with a focus on key brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Clinical cases involving stroke and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are examined to illustrate the real-world implications of these cognitive interactions. The review also discusses the impact of effective emotion regulation strategies and the role of attention as a cognitive mechanism that influences both emotion and behavior. Neuroimaging studies, particularly functional MRI, are highlighted for their role in providing a deeper understanding of these intricate relationships. The review concludes by emphasizing the importance of this triadic relationship in adaptive functioning and its broader implications for mental health, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Process science; Data science; Concept drift detection and Branching frequency changes
Online: 10 September 2021 (15:44:14 CEST)
Business processes are continuously evolving in order to adapt to changes due to various factors. One important process drift perspective yet to be investigated is the detection of branching condition changes in the process model. None of the existing process drift detection methods focus on detecting changes of branching conditions in process models. Existing branching condition detection methods do not take changes within the process into account, hence results are inadequate to represent the changes of decision criteria of the process. In this paper, we present a method which can detect branching condition changes in process models. The method takes both process models and event logs as input, and translates event logs into decision sequences for change points detection. The proposed method is evaluated by simulated event logs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0153.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic And Molecular Physics Keywords: Cosmic-rays; Citizien Science; Extensive air showers
Online: 8 October 2018 (15:45:43 CEST)
The Cosmic-Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) is a project dedicated to global studies of extremely extended cosmic-ray phenomena, the cosmic-ray ensembles (CRE), beyond the capabilities of existing detectors and observatories. Up to date cosmic-ray research has been focused on detecting single air showers, while the search for ensembles of cosmic-rays, which may overspread a significant fraction of the Earth, is a scientific terra incognita. Instead of developing and commissioning a completely new global detector infrastructure, CREDO proposes approaching the global cosmic-ray analysis objectives with all types of available detectors, from professional to pocket size, merged into a worldwide network. With such a network it is possible to search for evidences of correlated cosmic-ray ensembles. One of the observables that can be investigated in CREDO is a number of spatially isolated events collected in a small time window which could shed light on fundamental physics issues. The CREDO mission and strategy requires active engagement of a large number of participants, also non-experts, who will contribute to the project by using common electronic devices (e.g. smartphones). In this note the status and perspectives of the project is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: spirit of science; definition; attribute; model; characteristics
Online: 18 August 2018 (12:15:05 CEST)
Spirit of science is one of the important components of science education theory. It not only directly affects the level of science education, but also indirectly affects the selection, education and evaluation of scientific researchers, and the development of science and technology in a country or region. Although more than a century ago, the researchers began to discuss the topic of spirit of science. However, to date, the research of the definition, attribute, structural model and its characteristics of the spirit of science has not yet made a breakthrough. Based on the detailed literature review, the related theoretical analysis and the research of the structural model of the spirit of science, this paper puts forward the new definition, the attribute and the establishment of the structural model of the spirit of science, and analyzes the match the situation from new structural model of the spirit of science and the scientific nature published by the American Society for the Advancement of Science. The results of this study are of great significance for raising the level of scientific education and cultivating future scientific researchers, enhancing their motivation and skills in innovation in scientific research and promoting the development of future scientific undertakings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0348.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Data Science; Genomic Data Science; Machine Learning; Network Analysis; RNA-Seq; Precision Medicine; Subtyping; Parkinson’s Disease
Online: 24 January 2022 (11:36:51 CET)
Precision medicine emphasizes fine-grained diagnostics, taking individual variability into account to enhance treatment effectiveness. Parkinson's Disease (PD) heterogeneity among individuals is a proof that disease subtypes exist, and assigning individuals to subgroups is necessary for a better understanding of disease mechanisms and designing precise treatment approaches. The purpose of this study was to identify PD subtypes using RNA-Seq data in a combined pipeline including unsupervised machine learning, bioinformatics, and network analysis. 210 post mortem brain RNA-Seq samples from PD (n = 115) and Normal Controls (NC, n = 95) were obtained with a systematic data retrieval following PRISMA statements and a fully data-driven clustering pipeline was performed to identify PD subtypes. Bioinformatics and Network analyses were performed to characterize the disease mechanisms of the identified PD subtypes and to identify target genes for drug repurposing. Two PD clusters were identified and 42 DEGs were found (p.adjusted ≤ 0.01). PD clusters had significantly different gene network structures (p < 0.0001) and phenotype-specific disease mechanisms, highlighting the differential involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway regulating adult neurogenesis. NEUROD1 was identified as a key regulator of gene networks and ISX9 and PD98059 were identified as NEUROD1-interacting compounds with disease-modifying potential, reducing the effects of dopaminergic neurodegeneration. This hybrid data analysis approach could enable precision medicine applications by providing insights for the identification and characterization of pathological subtypes. This workflow has proven useful on PD brain RNA-Seq, but its application to other neurodegenerative diseases is encouraged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: promising areas of research; bibliometric analysis; Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering; Web of Science; clustering
Online: 23 May 2022 (11:56:28 CEST)
This article identifies promising research areas on the PETROLEUM SCIENCE topic via bibliometric analysis of the 2018-2021 publications in the highly cited Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, which is included in the Journal Citation Reports Section: ENERGY & FUELS — Q2 Quartile, ENGINEERING, PETROLEUM — Q1 Quartile. Bibliometric metadata from Web of Science were used for 866 articles in 2018, 1,142 — in 2019, 1,138 — in 2020, and 1,832 in 2021. The clustering of articles was performed using the texts of the Title, Abstract, Keywords, and Keywords Plus fields. The demo version of the Lingo3G algorithm was used. For the two major clusters, the most promising research topics were determined by comparing the titles of the 350 most cited and 350 least cited articles for each year. The hypothesis that low-cited papers often have the same subject matter as high-cited papers of previous years is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital object; data infrastructure; research infrastructure; data management; data science; FAIR data; open science; European Open Science Cloud; EOSC; persistent identifier
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:30:06 CET)
Data science is facing the following major challenges: (1) developing scalable cross-disciplinary capabilities, (2) dealing with the increasing data volumes and their inherent complexity, (3) building tools that help to build trust, (4) creating mechanisms to efficiently operate in the domain of scientific assertions, (5) turning data into actionable knowledge units and (6) promoting data interoperability. As a way to overcome these challenges, we further develop the proposals by early Internet pioneers for Digital Objects as encapsulations of data and metadata made accessible by persistent identifiers. In the past decade, this concept was revisited by various groups within the Research Data Alliance and put in the context of the FAIR Guiding Principles for findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable data. The basic components of a FAIR Digital Object (FDO) as a self-contained, typed, machine-actionable data package are explained. A survey of use cases has indicated the growing interest of research communities in FDO solutions. We conclude that the FDO concept has the potential to act as the interoperable federative core of a hyperinfrastructure initiative such as the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC).
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; schools; ocean literacy; citizen science; SDGs
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:14:18 CEST)
Human activities continue to degrade oceanic, coastal and inland waters. The generational change in the role of society in actively looking after the health of water resources can be achieved through the expansion of ocean and water literacy in schools. The Network of European Blue Schools established under the EU4Ocean Coalition for Ocean Literacy has improved ocean and water literacy; however, this Network needs to grow and be supported. Here we present ProBleu; a recently funded EU project that will expand and support the Network, partly through the use of citizen science. The core of the proposed methodology is facilitating school activities related to ocean and water literacy through funding calls to sustain and enrich current school activities, and kick-start and support new activities. The outcomes of the project are anticipated to have wide and long-term impacts across society, oceanic, coastal and inland water environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Citizen science; Colour pattern; geographic diversity; phylogeography
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:55:52 CEST)
The geographic variability of the dorsal pattern (DP) of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis siculus, across its native range was studied with the aim to understand whether the distributions of this phenotypic trait were more shaped by allopatric differentiation rather than adaptive processes. A total of 1298 georeferenced observations scattered across the Italian peninsula and the main islands (Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia) were obtained from citizen science databases and five DPs were characterized by different shapes of the dark pattern (“reticulated”, “campestris”, “reticulated/campestris” and “striped”) or by absence of it (“concolor”). Frequencies of different DP phenotypes differ between the two main mtDNA lineages settled in central-northern and in southern Italy respectively. This pattern may be indicative of a role of long-term allopatric historical processes in determining the observed pattern. The analysis also identified a putative wide area of secondary contact, in central southern Italy, characterized by high diversity of the DP. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), used to estimate a possible association between bioclimatic variables and the observed phenotypic variation, showed that each of the five DPs is correlated to different environmental factors and show different distribution of areas with high probability of occurrence. However, for all but one of the DPs, the area with the greatest probability does not correspond exactly to the real distribution of the DP. Conversely, the “concolor” phenotype does not seem related to any particular mtDNA lineage and it shows a preference for areas with high temperature and low rainfall. This is in agreement with the expectation of low amount of melanin of the dorsal pattern that, in the study areas, is characterized by a light uniform coloration which could confer a better thermoregulation ability in high temperatures environments avoiding overheating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1231.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Boycott; institutional sustainability; institutional trust; legal system; science
Online: 18 July 2023 (12:41:36 CEST)
Institutional sustainability is a dynamic and multifaceted concept that relies on the contributions of various institutions, including the legal and the scientific system. On the other side, consumers boycotts are an expression of political consumerism by which consumers can use their market power to attain sustainability objectives. This article explores institutional trust on the legal system and trust on scientists as potential drivers for consumers’ boycotts. Using data retrieved from the European Social Survey covering twenty-five countries, the study employs binary logistic regression to assess the importance of institutional trust and other potential drivers of product boycotts in Europe. Results confirm that boycotting behaviour is affected by institutional trust, as well as other individual variables including gender, age and life-cycle effects, education, interest in politics and level of satisfaction with the political system, generalized trust, personal well-being, and consumers’ use and perceptions of information and communication technologies. The results of this study enrich the literature on consumer boycotts and have implications for policymakers involved in sustainability initiatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0554.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: philosophy of science; information; artificial life; scales; causality
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:59:04 CEST)
When we attempt to define life, we tend to refer to individuals, those that are alive. But these individuals might be cells, organisms, colonies... ecosystems? We can describe living systems at different scales. Which ones might be the best ones to describe different selves? I explore this question using concepts from information theory, ALife, and Buddhist philosophy. After brief introductions, I review the implications of changing the scale of observation, and how this affects our understanding of selves at different structural, temporal, and informational scales. The conclusion is that there is no single ``best'' scale for a self, as this will depend on the scale at which decisions must be made. Different decisions, different scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0061.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: scientific materialism; genetics; reincarnation; soul; religions; science; Buddhism
Online: 21 July 2017 (05:18:59 CEST)
Scientific materialism is the largely unquestioned basis for modern science's understanding of life. It also holds enormous sway beyond science and thus has increasingly marginalized religious perspectives. Yet it is easy to find behavioral phenomena from the accepted literature that seriously challenge materialism. A number of these phenomena are very suggestive of reincarnation. The larger test for science's paradigm, though, as well as for any potential general import from reincarnation - is the DNA (or genetics)-based model of heredity. If that conception-beget, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-carried model can be confirmed at the individual level then in a very substantial way we would be confirmed as material-only creatures. In particular, can behavioral genetics and personal genomics confirm their DNA-based presumptions? During the last decade enormous efforts have been made to find the DNA origins for a number of health and behavioral tendencies. These efforts have been an "absolutely beyond belief" failure and it is here that the scientific vision faces its biggest challenge. The common premodern reincarnation understanding, on the other hand, fits well on a number of specific conundrums and offers a broad coherence across this unfolding missing heritability mystery. For people trying to make sense of a religious perspective or simply questioning materialism, you should be looking at the missing heritability problem.
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: bioeconomy; open science; open access
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:45:27 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to assess the degree of openness of scientific articles on bioeconomy. Based on a WoS corpus of 2,489 articles published between 2015 and 2019, we calculated bibliometric indicators, explored the openness of each paper and assessed the share of journals, countries and research areas of these articles. The results show a sharp increase and diversification of articles in the field of bioeconomy, with a beginning long tail distribution. 45.6% of the articles are freely available, and the share of OA papers is steadily increasing, from 31% in 2015 to 52% in 2019. Gold is the most important variant of OA. Open access is low in the applied research areas of chemical, agricultural and environmental engineering but higher in the domains of energy and fuels, forestry, and green and sustainable science and technology. The UK and the Netherlands have the highest rates of OA papers, followed by Spain and Germany. The funding rate of OA papers is higher than of non-OA papers. This is the first bibliometric study on open access to articles on bioeconomy. The results can be useful for the further development of OA editorial and funding criteria in the field of bioeconomy.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: science communication; scale; education; toolkit
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:31:14 CET)
A naked human eye can perceive objects down to a millimeter length. While lenses and microscopes have overcome this limit, the human mind still lacks perspective when navigating conventional scales (1), especially in the range that are less palpable to naked human eye (2,3). This problem is particularly acute in the context of science communication, where the conventional scale bar units facilitate little comprehension regarding the perception for factorial size differences (3). Here we aim to bridge the gap of scale factors and perspectives using a universal toolkit of objects, which can help comprehend the relative change in length dimensions up to 13 orders of magnitude difference. We further have demonstrated the use of such a universal object toolkit as a length perceptive scale by illustrating and narrating biological phenomena. The meter to picometer ‘length perceptive scale’ proposed here has the potential to cover majority of length scales present in the biological realm, and is analogous to the time compression methods widely used in explaining cosmos timeline (4). Our toolkit can also be calibrated according to the users need in their scientific communication and illustrations, which will aid the readers’ benefit in understanding the length scale perception of illustrated phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0242.v1
Online: 24 June 2019 (10:14:41 CEST)
The understanding of the issues that affect the training of information professionals requires reflection on the impact of Digital Information and Communication Technologies in the current working world, characterized by the rupture of the notion of space / time and the crossing of jurisdictions and professional boundaries, where dilemmas pedagogies to qualify these professionals considering future perspectives. It was based on the assumption that "studies of graduates" are subsidies for the evaluation of the educational system in face of the demands of in the labor market, helping in the progression of the researches in information, education and work. The objective was to map the results obtained in the studies of graduates promoted in the postgraduate and undergraduate courses in Information Science and Librarianship to verify if the demands pointed out in the surveys with graduates are in line with the studies of Education and Training, the orientations of the National Curricular Guidelines (DCN) and the regulatory actions of the Federal Library Board (CFB). The sample consisted of 45 studies published in CI journals on their associated areas, in the Brazilian context, from 2000 to 2018, of which only 10 articles related to the Library Sciences were considered for the qualitative analysis of this initial phase. to enable a comparative analysis between the proposals of the DCN, the critical analysis of the academic area of CI in the studies on education and professional formation (pedagogical projects and curricula) and the orientations of the class councils. The results were categorized according to the reflection of the graduates about their education, the experience of education, vision about professional practice and the labor market; and followed the structure of the DCN axes: profile; skills and abilities; curricular contents, internships and complementary activities; course structure and institutional evaluation. Prevalence of studies on the identification of graduates (gender, age group, employment and work place) was predominant; few focused on salary aspects; and there were no questions about cultural habits or perceptions about changes in the world of work. Results on issues related to job placement and employability have indicated the need to expand the range of possibilities that go beyond traditional information units and the importance of internships for understanding new virtual work spaces. The dimension of the academic formation was evaluated questioning the compatibility of the disciplines with the demands of the labor market and the satisfaction of the graduates with the course and profession, being indicated as more important contents for the professional life the more technical disciplines and that characterize the course of Librarianship, complemented by those related to management; and with less relevance to the language subjects; marketing; statistic; information and information technology, as opposed to the flexibility proposed by the DCN, adopted after 2002. It is concluded that the process has been guided by isolated initiatives, and that the collective debate involving university and the professional world lacks actions for the construction of dialogue, which may result in the definition of pedagogical and curricular projects suited to the demands of graduates in their regions of origin and demands of the world of work.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0095.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Other Keywords: prepublishing; preprint; chemistry; open science
Online: 31 July 2017 (16:05:17 CEST)
Chemistry is the last natural science discipline to embrace prepublishing, namely the publication of non-peer reviewed scientific articles on the internet. After a brief insight into the origins and the purpose of prepublishing in science, we conduct a concrete analysis of the concrete situation, aiming at providing an answer to several questions. Why the chemistry community has been late in embracing prepublishing? Is this in relation with the slow acceptance of open access publishing by the same community? Will prepublishing become a common habit also for chemistry scholars?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0079.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: online laboratories; virtual laboratories; Covid-19; simulations; science; school
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:16:17 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic has resulted in the closure of schools at every level, globally, forcing education to move online. Meeting the needs of students online for Science Lab classes, in particular, is a challenge since the physical labs are not available to the teachers or students. OLabs is a virtual Science Lab providing a complete learning environment of theory, experimental procedures, videos, animations, simulations, and assessments that capture real lab experiences with the relevant pedagogy. This study looks at the acquisition and behaviors of users, on the OLabs platform, during pre and Covid-19 times. Using Google Analytics, we observe that, during the pandemic time, users increasingly adopted OLabs as a new learning pedagogy for performing experiments as indicated by parameters like the number of users; the number of unique pages viewed per session; time spent on viewing content; bounce rate; and preference for content types such as theory, simulations, videos, and animations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1445.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: metastability; computational neuroscience; neuroimaging; dynamical systems; complexity science
Online: 21 July 2023 (08:09:46 CEST)
Healthy brain functioning depends on balancing stable integration between brain areas for effective coordinated functioning, with bursts of desynchronisation to allow subsystems to reconfigure and express functional specialisation. Metastability, a concept originated in statistical physics and dynamical systems theory, has been proposed as a key signature that characterises this balance. Building on this principle, the neuroscience literature has employed markers of metastability to investigate various aspects of brain function including cognitive performance, healthy ageing, meditation, sleep, responses to pharmacological challenges, and to characterise psychiatric conditions or disorders of consciousness. However, this body of work often uses the notion of metastability heuristically, and sometimes inaccurately, making it hard for the uninitiated to navigate the vast literature, interpret findings, and foster further development of theoretical and experimental methodologies. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of metastability and its applications in neuroscience, covering its scientific and historical foundations and the practical estimators used to estimate it in empirical data. We also provide a critical analysis of recent theoretical developments, clarifying common misconceptions and paving the road for future developments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sports medicine; transdisciplinary; clinical trials; sports science; thermography
Online: 23 February 2023 (04:08:46 CET)
This paper aims to list the current challenges in the study of Sports Medicine in Brazil based on a review of the literature and the author's experience as a member of a transdisciplinary team in this field, as well as to discuss methods for establishing an appropriate and organized course of health activities in this context. The authors identified four significant contemporary difficulties in the field of sports medicine in Brazil that, while minor, are complicated. There is a need to publish a greater number of national studies, generate integrated knowledge through transdisciplinary research, propose sports and movement as a tool for the prevention of degenerative conditions, and research and develop better therapeutic options through transdisciplinary research. It is expected that a transdisciplinary approach will reduce divergences between the real world and science, putting an end to dogmatism, prejudice, and theoretical thinking, increasing the scientificity of sports, bringing competitive advantages, improving training, performance, and athlete health management, and contributing to the advancement of sports medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0537.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy; transparency; quality; reproducibility; open science; best practice
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:10:38 CEST)
Energy use is of crucial importance for the global challenge of climate change but also an essential part of daily life. Hence, research on energy needs to be robust and valid. Other scientific disciplines have experienced a reproducibility crisis, that is, existing findings could not be reproduced in new studies, and energy research might be impacted as well. In this paper, we suggest the ‘TReQ’ approach to improve the research practices in the energy field and arrive at greater Transparency, Reproducibility, and Quality. We acknowledge the specific challenges of energy research and suggest a highly adaptable suite of tools that can be applied to research approaches across this multi-disciplinary and fast-changing field. In particular, we introduce preregistration of studies, making data and code publicly available, using preprints, and employing reporting guidelines to heighten the standard of research practices within the energy field. We argue that through wider adoption of these tools, we will be able to have greater trust in the findings of research used to inform evidence-based policy and practice in the energy field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Public Health; Public Trust; Science Communication; Pedagogy; Citizen Science; Stakeholders; Informed Consent; Uncertainty Communication
Online: 7 February 2023 (02:39:30 CET)
Public trust in science was tested and relied on during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, which has shaped global events since the WHO declaration in March 11, 2020. Public trust has been impacted through the government recommendations and mandates informed by public health guidance, including non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical interventions. The free-flow of ideas and in-formation so essential to the functioning of science has faced unprecedented challenge from widespread censorship in both the media and in scientific journals. This has created a poisoned environment for the building of trust between science and society. Scientific norms and ac-countability must be restored in order to rebuild the vital relationship between scientists and the public they serve.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0314.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Paper, Wood And Textiles Keywords: smart textiles; bibliometric analysis; science mapping; research trends; hotspots
Online: 6 September 2023 (04:49:08 CEST)
According to ISO/TR 23383, smart textiles reversibly interact with their environment and respond or adapt to changes in the environment. The present review and bibliometric analysis was performed on 5,810 documents (1989–2022) from the Scopus database, using VOSviewer and Bibliometrix/Biblioshiny for science mapping. The results show that the field of smart textiles is highly interdisciplinary and dynamic, with an average growth rate of 22% and exponential growth in the last 10 years. Beeby, S.P., and Torah, R.N. have published the highest number of papers, while Wang, Z.L. has the highest number of citations. The leading journals are Sensors, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, and Textile Research Journal, while Advanced Materials has the highest number of citations. China is the country with the most publications and the most extensive cooperative relationships with other countries. Research on smart textiles is largely concerned with new materials and technologies, particularly in relation to electronic textiles. Recent research focuses on energy generation (triboelectric nanogenerators, thermoelectrics, Joule heating), conductive materials (MXenes, liquid metal, silver nanoparticles), sensors (strain sensors, self-powered sensors, gait analysis), specialty products (artificial muscles, soft robotics, EMI shielding), and advanced properties of smart textiles (self-powered, self-cleaning, washable, sustainable smart textiles).
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0342.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Undergraduate research experience; diversity; equity; inclusion; science communication
Online: 12 November 2020 (11:31:22 CET)
Ecology is working to face its colonial roots and institutional inequities. As we build more diverse, equitable, and inclusive (DEI) institutions we must work to support new ecologists by empowering them with the knowledge and tools to succeed. Undergraduate research experiences (UREs) are critical for a student’s professional and interpersonal skill development and key for recruiting more diverse groups of students to ecology. Here, we highlight DEI dimensions of a URE in ecology, acknowledge safety considerations for field ecology, including harassment and assault, and provide tools to support the URE. This is written primarily for all URE students and secondarily for their advisors. We welcome students from underrepresented groups and encourage allyship from students from non-underrepresented groups. After reading this paper, we hope that all students feel more confident and excited about their URE and that advisors see how to improve DEI in their lab.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0138.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate change, antimicrobial resistance, earth science, risk mapping, transdisciplinarity
Online: 8 November 2022 (02:27:23 CET)
Antibiotic resistance is a pressing global and planetary health challenge. Links between climate change, antibiotic use and the emergence of antibiotic resistance have been well documented, but less attention has been given to the impact(s) of earth systems on specific bacterial livestock diseases at a more granular level. Understanding the precise impacts of climate change on livestock health – and in turn the use of antibiotics to address that ill-health – is important in providing an evidence base to tackle such impacts and to develop practical, implementable and locally acceptable solutions within and beyond current antibiotic stewardship programmes. In this paper, we set out the case for better integration of earth scientists and their specific disciplinary skill set (specifically, problem-solving with incomplete/fragmentary data; the ability to work across four dimensions and at the interface between the present and deep/geological time) into planetary health research. We then discuss a methodology that makes use of risk mapping, a common methodology in earth science but less frequently used in health science, to map disease risk against changing climatic conditions at a granular level. This will enable predictions of future disease risk and risk impacts based on predicted future climate conditions, and thus provide an evidence base for planetary health activists to influence policy and develop mitigations. Our case study – of climate conditions’ impact on livestock health in Karnataka, India – clearly evidences the benefit of integrating earth scientists into planetary health research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0280.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: serious games; science education; games in education; augmented reality
Online: 9 November 2020 (11:29:49 CET)
Keeping in mind the increasing trend and need for serious games in science education, we have done a systematic literature review. These papers show the trends and patterns of research carried out in this field from the year 2011 to 2020. Specifically, we investigated country-wise concentration and the most common evaluation methods. Literature is reviewed from IEEEexplore, Springer, and Scopus. Moreover, we discussed the role of Augmented Reality(AR) games in teaching physics. Lastly, we have discussed the positive and negative aspects of serious games in science education in particular, and the trend of using serious games in the past decade in education in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0180.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: computer science; tertiary education; course selection; performance; gender gap
Online: 26 December 2017 (02:30:21 CET)
The aim of the present study is to investigate both the performance and preferences of males and females Computer Science (CS) graduates. In order to attain the above goal, a quantitative case study was conducted regarding 89 degrees, acquired from 2006 to 2012, from the Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Greece. The analysis of the data revealed that in terms of performance, no significant differences between the mean grades of males and females exist, in almost most of the courses included in the curriculum of the aforementioned CS department. Any statistically significant differences in performances were present in almost equal number of courses in favor of males and females. It seems also, that females performed better in the courses they selected more than males. Regarding preferences, in CS courses, it seems that gender differences are existent. Males preferred more than females did core programming courses and advanced topics of Software Systems, computer networks, computer engineering, robotics and mathematics, whereas females preferred more the study of algorithms and security issues, computer fractals, data management, computer architecture, and mobile communication. In addition, females preferred courses in reference with humanities and social sciences, CS terminology, and career opportunities. Yet, females did not select any of programming lab-based courses, computer engineering, computer network issues and robotics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: ventilation; airflow; healthcare facilities; web of science; bibliometric
Online: 8 February 2023 (02:07:50 CET)
Over the years, researchers have been developing different ventilation strategies as a potential solution for controlling infectious airborne transmissions in healthcare facilities. The effects of ventilation systems on airflow characteristics have been extensively discussed among researchers since SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in 2019. Based on a bibliometric study of 154 publications from 1970 to 2021 retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) database, this paper examines the research landscape on the effects of ventilation strategies on airflow analysis in healthcare facilities. Results show that China is the most productive country due to its significant contributions to the top prolific authors and funding agencies, which have promoted the research development of the topic. Several research hotspots were identified through keyword co-occurrence analysis. Cluster 1 highlights the ventilation studies involving ventilation layouts and ventilation rates in healthcare facilities. Cluster 2 underlines the computational analysis of ventilation performance for reducing the exposure risk of occupants, which promotes the development of infection control measures. Cluster 3 strengthens the knowledge of the emission and dispersion characteristics of respiratory droplets in healthcare facilities. Overall, this paper highlights the future direction of the current research field other than identifying strategic collaborators and suitable publication outlets for interested researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0003.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Sentinel-1A; TanDEM-X science phase; wetlands mapping
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
This research is related to the eco-hydrological problems of herbaceous wetland drying and biodiversity loss in the floodplain lakes of the Middle Basin of the Biebrza river (Poland). An experiment was set up, whose main goals were: (i) mapping the vegetation types and the temporarily or permanently flooded areas, and (ii) comparing the usefulness of C-band Sentinel-1A (S1A) and X-band TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X (TSX/TDX) for mapping purposes. The S1A imagery was acquired on a regular basis using the dual polarization VV/VH and the Interferometric Wide Swath Mode. The TSX/TDX data were acquired in quad-pol, a fully polarimetric mode, during the Science Phase. The paper addresses the following aspects: i) wetland mapping with S1A multi-temporal series; ii) wetland mapping with fully polarimetric TSX/TDX data; iii) comparing the wetland mapping using dual polarization TSX/TDX subsets, i.e. HH-HV, HH-VV and VV-VH; iv) comparing wetland mapping using S1A and TSX/TDX data based on the same polarization (VV-VH); v) studying the suitability of the Shannon Entropy for wetland mapping; and vi) assessing the contribution of interferometric coherence for wetland classification. The experimental results show main limitations of the S1A dataset, while they highlight the good accuracy that can be achieved using the TSX/TDX data, especially those taken in fully polarimetric mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: data mining; data extraction; data science; cost infrastructure projects
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:25:22 CEST)
Context: Despite the effort put into developing standards for structuring construction cost, and the strong interest into the field. Most construction companies still perform the process of data gathering and processing manually. That provokes inconsistencies, different criteria when classifying, misclassifications, and the process becomes very time-consuming, particularly on big projects. Additionally, the lack of standardization makes very difficult the cost estimation and comparison tasks. Objective: To create a method to extract and organize construction cost and quantity data into a consistent format and structure, to enable rapid and reliable digital comparison of the content. Method: The approach consists of a two-step method: Firstly, the system implements data mining to review the input document and determine how it is structured based on the position, format, sequence, and content of descriptive and quantitative data. Secondly, the extracted data is processed and classified with a combination of data science and experts’ knowledge to fit a common format. Results: A big variety of information coming from real historical projects has been successfully extracted and processed into a common format with 97.5% of accuracy, using a subset of 5770 assets located on 18 different files, building a solid base for analysis and comparison. Conclusion: A robust and accurate method was developed for extracting hierarchical project cost data to a common machine-readable format to enable rapid and reliable comparison and benchmarking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0612.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Academic journals; Growth of knowledge; Non-peer review; Paradigm change; Peer review; Scholarly communication; Science communication; Simplicity
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
This article challenges the assumption that journals and peer review are essential for developing, evaluating and disseminating scientific and other academic knowledge. It suggests a more flexible ecosystem, and examines some of the possibilities this might facilitate. The market for academic outputs should be opened up by encouraging the separation of the dissemination service from the evaluation service. Publishing research in subject-specific journals encourages compartmentalising research into rigid categories. The dissemination of knowledge would be better served by an open access, web-based repository system encompassing all disciplines. There would then be a role for organisations to assess the items in this repository to help users find relevant, high-quality work. There could be a variety of such organisations which could enable reviews from peers to be supplemented with evaluation by non-peers from a variety of different perspectives: user reviews, statistical reviews, reviews from the perspective of different disciplines, and so on. This should reduce the inevitably conservative influence of relying on two or three peers, and make the evaluation system more critical, multi-dimensional and responsive to the requirements of different audience groups, changing circumstances, and new ideas. Non-peer review might make it easier to challenge dominant paradigms, and expanding the potential audience beyond a narrow group of peers might encourage the criterion of simplicity to be taken more seriously - which is essential if human knowledge is to continue to progress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: digital health; sports science; global research; bibliometrics; Citespace
Online: 1 June 2023 (02:21:27 CEST)
Digital health has gained widespread adoption across various disciplines. Within the field of sport science, there is growing interest in digital health, leading to a surge in research activities. The objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive bibliometric and visualization analysis, tracing the evolutionary trajectory, identifying research hotspots, and uncovering emerging trends in digital health within the domain of sport science. By doing so, this research aims to offer scholars a systematic and comprehensive understanding of the dynamic landscape in this field. To achieve this, the Web of Science core collection was chosen as the primary database. A thorough literature search was performed, focusing on digital health and sport science, resulting in the screening of 1870 English-language documents. The findings revealed a consistent upward growth trend in the annual publication count from 2010 to 2023. Notably, the United States, specifically the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania System of Higher Education, and John B. Cronin, emerged as the most prolific contributors in terms of publications. Collaborative efforts among countries, institutions, and authors were also observed. The research hotspots identified encompassed several areas, including the evaluation of digital health technologies' effectiveness, exploration of the relationship between digital health technologies and physical activity/exercise performance, and the use of digital health technologies in assessing and rehabilitating sports injuries. Among the prominent digital health technologies employed in these studies were virtual reality, social media, and wearable devices. The predominant types of studies utilized meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials, and cross-sectional studies. Looking towards the future, the study identified several key research trends. These include the exploration of telemedicine, artificial intelligence-based machine learning, therapeutic interventions, and physical therapy within the realm of digital health. These emerging areas signify promising directions for future investigation and development in the field of digital health within sport science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0330.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Sensors; Sensor research; Research fields; Technological trajectories; Biosensors; Wearable sensors; Wireless sensor network; Evolution of science; Dynamics of science; Scientific development
Online: 20 September 2021 (12:19:44 CEST)
The fundamental question in the field of sensor research is new directions of scientific fields, which play a vital role in the progress of science and technology. This study confronts this question here by developing a bibliometric analysis, which endeavors to explain the evolution of sensor research and new technologies that are critical to science and society. The database of Scopus concerning scientific documents and patents is used for statistical and computational analyses in these topics. Results suggest that emerging technological trajectories in sensors are wireless sensor networks, wearable sensors and biosensors. Main characteristics of these growing research fields and technologies in sensors are described for fruitful implications of research and innovation policy directed to science advances and technological change in society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: biology education; sustaiable development goals; new biology; biology science
Online: 23 April 2019 (10:59:39 CEST)
Today in times of increasing inequality, climate change, and major social challenges, education is the best way to equip citizens, scholars and leaders to implement meaningful change and prevent future crises. Biologi education and science will solve these problems to supporting sustainable development goals especially in soil remediation, clean water, education quality and clean and affordable energy. This paper will describe how biological education could solve these problems. New biology can solve the problem about hunger use biotech, use synthetic biological material to find new advance material. New biology could driving intersectorial, interdisciplinary and international connectivity, and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology, materials science, allied science and technology areas, are the major challenges in delivering the Materials from Biology vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0440.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: malware analysis; graphs; network science; security
Online: 26 September 2022 (04:24:48 CEST)
A modern binary executable is a composition of various networks. Control flow graphs are commonly used to represent an executable program in labeled datasets used for classification tasks. Control flow and term representations are widely adopted, but provide only a partial view of program semantics. This study is an empirical analysis of the networks composing malicious binaries in order to provide a complete representation of the structural properties of a program. This is accomplished by the measurement of structural properties of program networks in a malicious binary executable dataset. We demonstrate the presence of Scale-Free properties of network structure for program data dependency and control flow graphs, and show that data dependency graphs also have Small-World structural properties. We show that program data dependency graphs have a degree correlation that is structurally disassortative, and that control flow graphs have a neutral degree assortativity, indicating the use of random graphs to model the structural properties of program control flow graphs would show increased accuracy. By providing an increase in feature resolution within labeled datasets of executable programs we provide a quantitative basis to interpret the results of classifiers trained on CFG graph features. An increase in feature resolution allows for the structural properties of program classes to be analyzed for patterns as well as their component parts. By capturing a complete picture of program graphs we can enable theoretical solutions for the mapping a program's operational semantics to its structure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: horticulture, Central Asia, bibliometric analyses, science
Online: 25 February 2022 (07:50:59 CET)
Horticulture crops (fruit trees) had been grown and cultivated from ancient times in Central Asia. Few researchers have addressed the problem of this profitable sector in the former Great Silk Road, which was at the crossroads of trading avenues. Horticulture has received much attention in the last twenty years. To investigate the current state of research activity of horticulture in Central Asia, we downloaded 4205 English papers from the Scopus database between 2000-2020. We identified a total of 50 papers, and the last four years have witnessed significant growth in publication number, an average of 5 articles per year. Acta Horticulturea was one of the most productive journal. Institute of Plant Biology and Biotechnology (Almaty) and the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan have worked productively to study high issues. United States Department of Agriculture and Swiss National Science Foundation with Karl Popper Foundation have supported scientific activity in the region. Top 15 highly cited articles were published within the framework of funded projects with international researchers. Researchers of Central Asia focused on walnut, grape and apple, studied on molecular level and cryopreservation of wild relatives for future use. Cherry, apricot, almond and pomegranate crops were less studied by researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0120.v1
Online: 11 November 2019 (04:53:34 CET)
A considerable body of research exists on women in leadership and likewise on women in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) fields. However, the intersection of the two is terra incognita: women in leadership in STEM. At the most fundamental level, we don’t even have a solid idea of how many women hold leadership positions in STEM. This study determined the proportion of women in leadership positions in several academic STEM areas via a sampling of institutions across the United States and other countries. In every area studied, women held fewer leadership positions than the proportion of female PhDs in those fields. The proportion of women in non-STEM specific top academic leadership roles was also examined to see what proportion of those individuals leading academic institutions might have background in a STEM discipline and how that compares to men in the same positions. This study opens the door to exploring the experiences of women who lead in STEM, which is likely to promote women’s participation in these fields.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: preprints; open science; data; academic publishing
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:19:00 CEST)
This paper explores whether preprints can better support open science by providing links to other early-stage research outputs. This potentially has benefits for transparency and discoverability of research projects. By looking at preprint submission systems, online preprints and surveying those who run preprint servers, I examined to what extent this is currently possible. No preprints server provided a complete service, however many allowed the linking of several open science elements from the abstract page. I looked at variation based on subject, age, and size of preprint server. In conclusion, authors posting preprints should consider the options provided by different preprint servers. It appears that open science is just one focus of preprint servers and further improvements will be dependent on preprint server policies and priorities rather than overcoming any technical difficulties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0246.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: soccer; psychology; research trends; data science; topic modeling; bibliometric
Online: 3 August 2023 (05:20:09 CEST)
This study aims to identify the knowledge structure and research trends of soccer psychology research during the last 33 years (1990–2022). Data were obtained from 1,863 papers from the Web of Science database. The data were collected through keyword text mining and data preprocessing to determine the keywords needed for analysis. Based on the keywords, latent Dirichlet allocation-based topic modeling analysis was performed to analyze the topic distribution of papers and explore research trends by topic area. The topic modeling process included four topic area and fifty topics. The “Coaching Essentials in Football” topic area had the highest frequency, but it was not statistically identified as a trend. However, coaching, including training, is expected to continue to be an important research topic, as it is a key requirement for success in the highly competitive elite football world. Interest in the research field of “Psychological Skills for Performance Development” has waned in recent years. This may be due to the predominance of other subject areas rather than a lack of interest. Various high-tech interventions and problem-solving attempts are being made in this field, providing opportunities for qualitative and quantitative expansion. “Motivation, cognition, and emotion” is a largely underrated subject area in soccer psychology. This could be because survey-based psychological evaluation attempts have decreased as the importance of rapid field application has been emphasized in recent soccer-related studies. However, measuring psychological factors contributes to the study of football psychology through a new methodology and theoretical background. Recognizing the important role of psychological factors in player performance and mental management, as well as presenting new research directions and approaches that can be directly applied to the field, will advance soccer psychology research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0357.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Reproducibility, quality, research integrity, universities, methods, science policy, rigor
Online: 16 October 2018 (11:33:46 CEST)
In recent years, biomedical research has faced increased scrutiny over issues related to reproducibility and quality in scientific findings(1-3). In response to this scrutiny, funding institutions and journals have implemented top-down policies for grant and manuscript review. While a positive step forward, the long-term merit of these policies is questionable given their emphasis on completing a check-list of items instead of a fundamental re-assessment of how scientific investigation is conducted. Moreover, the top-down style of management used to institute these policies can be argued as being ineffective in engaging the scientific workforce to act upon these issues. To meet current and future biomedical needs, new investigative methods that emphasize collective-thinking, teamwork, shared knowledge and cultivate change from the bottom-up are warranted. Here, a perspective on a new approach to biomedical investigation within the individual laboratory that emphasizes collaboration and quality is discussed.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle And Field Physics Keywords: classicization; correspondence principle; fakeons; philosophy of science; quantization; quantum gravity
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:17:49 CET)
The correspondence principle made of unitarity, locality and renormalizability has been very successful in quantum field theory. Among the other things, it helped us build the standard model. However, it also showed important limitations. For example, it failed to restrict the gauge group and the matter sector in a powerful way. After discussing its effectiveness, we upgrade it to make room for quantum gravity. The unitarity assumption is better understood, since it allows for the presence of physical particles as well as fake particles (fakeons). The locality assumption is applied to an interim classical action, since the true classical action is nonlocal and emerges from the quantization and a later process of classicization. The renormalizability assumption is refined to single out the special role of the gauge couplings. We show that the upgraded principle leads to an essentially unique theory of quantum gravity. In particular, in four dimensions, a fakeon of spin 2, together with a scalar field, is able to make the theory renormalizable while preserving unitarity. We offer an overview of quantum field theories of particles and fakeons in various dimensions, with and without gravity.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0236.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: microlearning; culturally-responsive teaching; inclusion; equity; life science education
Online: 18 December 2019 (04:27:11 CET)
Some of the key features of inclusive and equitable teaching approaches encourage prompt feedback, student cooperation in communities of learning, active learning, and promotes diverse ways of knowing in the classroom. In my article, I present step-bystep tips to help instructors create guided microlearning inquiry questions within an inclusive and equitable general biology classroom setting. Microlearning is a special approach that helps students complete a specific task linked to a specific learning objective that would be completed in a short time window around five minutes. The step-by-step tips presented in my article helps instructors to develop questions aligned to specific learning objective to help clarify unclear or confusing topics in general biology using the Kahoot e-Learning platform. This guided microlearning inquiry toolkit provides a blueprint for helping instructors to infuse student-centered approaches to help clarify difficult concepts in general biology and further develop avenues refine students’ critical thinking and experimental design in biology research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1571.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: social-environmental systems; agent-based complex systems; sustainability science; agent-based models; artificial intelligence; data science
Online: 22 September 2023 (13:39:57 CEST)
A significant number and range of challenges besetting sustainability can be traced to the actions and interactions of multiple autonomous agents (people mostly) and the entities they create (e.g., institutions, policies, social network) in the corresponding social-environmental systems (SES). To address these challenges, we need to understand decisions made and actions taken by agents, the outcomes of their actions, including the feedbacks on the corresponding agents and environment. The science of Agent-based Complex Systems—ACS science—has a significant potential to handle such challenges. The advantages of ACS science for sustainability are addressed by way of identifying the key elements and challenges in sustainability science, the generic features of ACS, and the key advances and challenges in modeling ACS. Artificial intelligence and data science promise to improve understanding of agents’ behaviors, detect SES structures, and formulate SES mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: science communication; informal learning; public engagement; science in the media; entertainment media; data visualization; scientific visualization
Online: 1 March 2023 (06:23:52 CET)
Abstract This essay presents a real-world demonstration of the evidence-based science communication process, showing how it can be used to create scientific data visualizations for public audiences. Visualizing research data can be an important science communication tool. Maximizing its effectiveness has the potential to benefit millions of viewers. As with many forms of science communication, creators of such data visualizations typically rely on their own judgments and the views of the scientists providing the data to inform their science communication decision-making. But that leaves out a critical stakeholder in the communications pipeline: the intended audience. Here, we show the practical steps that our team - the Advanced Visualization Lab at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - has taken to shift towards more evidence-based practice to enhance our science communication impact. We do this using concrete examples from our work on two scientific documentary films, one on the theme of ‘solar superstorms’ and the other focusing on the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. We used audience research with each of these films to inform our strategies and designs. We describe how such research evidence informed our understanding of ‘what works and why’ with cinematic-style data visualizations for the public. We close the essay with our key ‘take home’ messages from this evidence-based science communication process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: perceived safety; women; urban science; mobile phone data; street view
Online: 6 March 2023 (13:15:01 CET)
Streets are an essential element of urban safety governance and urban design, but they are designed with little regard for possible gender differences. This study proposes a safety perception evaluation method from the female perspective based on street view images (SVIs) and mobile phone data, taking the central city of Guangzhou as an example. The method relies on crowdsourced data and uses a machine learning model to predict the safety perception map. It combines the simulation of women's walking commuting paths to analyse the areas that need to be prioritised for improvement. Multiple linear regression was used to explain the relationship between safety perception and visual elements. The results showed the following: 1) There were differences in safety perceptions across genders. Women gave overall lower safety scores and more dispersed distribution of scores. 2) Approximately 11% of the streets in the study area showed weak perceived safety, and approximately 3% of these streets have high pedestrian flows and require priority improvements. 3) Safe visual elements in SVIs included the existence of roads, sidewalks, cars, railways, people, skyscrapers, and trees. Our findings can help urban designers determine how to evaluate urban safety and where to optimise key areas. Both have practical implications for urban planners seeking to create urban environments that promote greater safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0723.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Biomedical Laboratory Science; Simulator; EEG; simulation pedagogy; content analyses
Online: 27 April 2021 (13:10:04 CEST)
Methods based on simulation pedagogy are widely used to practice hands on skills in safety environment. The usability of an EEG-simulator on clinical neurophysiology course was evaluated. Second year biomedical laboratory science students (N=35) on this course was included in the study. They were divided into three groups. Two groups used the EEG simulator with different feedback modes and one group without use of the simulator. Results was expected to reveal a correlation between user experience and learning outcomes. This study made used of a mixed method study design. During the study students were asked to keep a learning diary throughout the course on their experience. Diaries were analyzed qualitatively based on content analyses. Quantitative analyses based on an UX questionnaire that measures classical usability aspects (efficiency, perspicuity, dependability) and user experience aspects (novelty, stimulation) and the students’ feelings to use simulator. The quantitative data was analyzed using SPSSTM software. The quantitative and qualitative analyses showed that the use of EEG-simulator which was evaluating teaching-learning process have an extra benefit in clinical neurophysiology education and students felt that simulator is useful in learning. The simulation debriefing session should be followed by a full theoretical and practical session. Students compare their learning from the simulator with that of the actual placement which fosters the reflective practice of learning again deepening the understanding of the EEG electrode placement and different wave patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1513.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Adaptive Gamification; Science Education; Adapted game Elements; Students' Motivation
Online: 21 June 2023 (09:33:46 CEST)
In recent years, gamification has captured the attention of researchers and educators, particularly in science education, where students often express negative emotions. Gamification methods aim to motivate learners to participate in learning by incorporating intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors. However, the effectiveness of gamification has yielded varying outcomes, prompting researchers to explore adaptive gamification as an alternative approach. Nevertheless, there needs to be more research on adaptive gamification approaches, particularly concerning motivation, which is the primary objective of gamification. In this study, we developed and tested an adaptive gamification environment based on specific motivational and psychological frameworks. This environment incorporated adaptive criteria, learning strategies, gaming elements, and all crucial aspects of science education for six classes of 3rd-grade students in primary school. We employed a quantitative approach to gain insights into the motivational impact on students and their perception of the adaptive gamification application. We aimed to understand how each game element experienced by students influenced their motivation. The findings of our study revealed encouraging results in terms of increased motivation and engagement among students, as well as the influence of different game elements when connected with an individual's profile based on a multidimensional adaptive framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0020.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: journalism; artificial intelligence; computer science; machine learning; computer vision; NLP.
Online: 21 December 2021 (14:01:16 CET)
In recent years, news media has been greatly disrupted by the potential of technologically driven approaches in the creation, production, and distribution of news products and services. Artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged from the realm of science fiction and has become a very real tool that can aid society in addressing many issues, including the challenges faced by the news industry. The ubiquity of computing has become apparent and has demonstrated the different approaches that can be achieved using AI. We analyzed the news industry’s AI adoption based on the seven subfields of AI: (i) machine learning; (ii) computer vision (CV); (iii) speech recognition; (iv) natural language processing (NLP); (v) planning, scheduling, and optimization; (vi) expert systems; and (vii) robotics. Our findings suggest that three subfields are being developed more in the news media: machine learning, computer vision, as well as planning, scheduling, and optimization. Other areas have not been fully deployed in the journalistic field. Most AI news projects rely on funds from tech companies such as Google. This limits AI’s potential to a small number of players in the news industry. We make conclusions by providing examples of how these subfields are being developed in journalism and present an agenda for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0434.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: higher education; pedagogy; forensic science; VR; learning technologies; crime scene
Online: 24 April 2020 (10:13:58 CEST)
Simulated crime scene investigation is an essential component of forensic science education, but its implementation poses challenges relating to cost, accessibility and breadth of experience. Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology which offers exciting prospects for teaching and learning, especially for imparting practical skills. We document here a multidisciplinary experimental study in which a bespoke VR crime scene app was designed and implemented, after which it was tested by both undergraduate student and staff/postgraduate student cohorts. Through both qualitative and quantitative analyses, we demonstrate that VR applications support learning of practical crime scene processing skills. VR-based practical sessions have the potential to add value to forensic science courses through offering cost-effective practical experience and the ability to work in isolation, in a variety of different scenarios. Both user groups reported high levels of satisfaction with the process and reports of adverse effects (motion sickness) were minimal. With reference to user feedback, we proceed to evaluate the scalability and development challenges associated with large-scale implementation of VR as an adjunct to forensic science education.
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: amendment; corrigendum; erratum; errors; open science; peer review; preprint; replacement; retractions
Online: 25 February 2020 (11:45:37 CET)
Academic publishing is undergoing a highly transformative process, and many rules and value systems that were in place for years are being challenged in unprecedented forms leading to the evolution of novel ways of dealing with new pressures. One of the most important aspects of an integrated and valid academic literature is the ability to screen publications for errors during peer review to weed out mistakes, fraud and inconsistencies, such that the final published product represents a product that has value, intellectually, and otherwise. It is difficult to claim the existence of perfect manuscripts. The level of errors that exist in a manuscript will depend on the rigor of the research group and of the peer review process that was used to screen that paper. When errors slip into a final published paper, either through honest error or misconduct, and are not detected during peer review and editorial screening, but are spotted during post-publication peer review, an opportunity is created to set the record straight, and to correct it. To date, the most common forms of correcting the literature have been errata, corrigenda, expressions of concern, and retractions. Despite this range of corrective measures, which represent artificially created corrals around pockets of imperfect literature, certain cases do not quite fit this mold, and new suggested measures for correcting the literature have been proposed, including manuscript versioning, amendments, partial retractions and retract and replace. In this commentary, a discussion of the evolving correction of the literature is provided, as are perspectives of the risks and benefits of such new measures to improve it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0098.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: open review; open science; zero-blind review; peer review; methodology
Online: 16 August 2019 (05:27:55 CEST)
We present a discussion and analysis regarding the benefits and limitations of open and non-anonymized peer review based on literature results and responses to a survey on the reviewing process of alt.chi, a more or less open-review track within the CHI conference, the predominant conference in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). This track currently is the only implementation of an open-peer-review process in the field of HCI while, with the recent increase in interest in open science practices, open review is now being considered and used in other fields. We collected 30 responses from alt.chi authors and reviewers and found that, while the benefits are quite clear and the system is generally well liked by alt.chi participants, they are reluctant to see it used in other venues. This concurs with a number of recent studies that suggest a divergence between support for a more open review process and its practical implementation. The data and scripts are available on https://osf.io/vuw7h/, and the figures and follow-up work on http://tiny.cc/OpenReviews.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Accident; Accident connotation; Accident science; New definition of safety; Conceptual model of accident science; Discipline basic construction
Online: 19 October 2020 (09:25:37 CEST)
In order to establish a new discipline specializing in accident science from the perspective of safety science. Under the guidance of the current research theories and methods of safety science, combined with the research paradigm of humanities and social medicine, this paper puts forward new viewpoints, new theories and new models about accident research. First of all, through literature retrieval, this paper analyzes the relevant research results of accidents at home and abroad, and expounds the existing problems and the basic trend of accident science research. Secondly, it puts forward eight kinds of attribute relations of the accident, and makes clear the characteristics and connotation of the accident. In the study of accident types, a hierarchical classification model based on accident cognition is created for the first time. It also points out the logical relevance of five levels of accident science research and the realistic relevance of three levels. At the same time, according to the thought of science of science, this paper puts forward a new definition of safety under the thinking of accident science and other basic concepts related to safety science, and explains the connotation. In addition, it creates and constructs the basic concept of accident science, establishes the conceptual model of accident science, and points out the “3-4-5” model of accident science research and its connotation. Thirdly, draw lessons from the interdisciplinary paradigm to study the relevant theoretical basis and discipline classification relationship of accident science, and construct the tree of accident science. Finally, the research contents of three main aspects of accident science are summarized. The results show that the research results in this paper not only play a fundamental role in the basic construction of accident science, but also further enrich and perfect the discipline system of safety science, which has a certain theoretical significance.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0366.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: ontology; semantics; safety; security; risk; performance; definitions; concepts; safety science; ISO 31000
Online: 31 October 2019 (09:36:29 CET)
When discussing the concepts of risk, safety, and security, people have an intuitive understanding of what these concepts mean, and, to a certain level, this understanding is universal. However, when delving into the real meaning of these concepts, one is likely to fall into semantic debates and ontological discussions. In industrial parks, it is important that (risk) managers from dierent companies, belonging to one and the same park, have the same understanding of the concepts of risk, safety, and security. It is even important that all companies in all industrial parks share a common understanding regarding these issues. As such, this paper explores the similarities and dierences behind the perceptions of these concepts, to come to a fundamental understanding of risk, safety, and security, proposing a semantic and ontological ground for safety and security science, based on an etymological and etiological study of the concepts of risk and safety. The foundation has been induced by the semantics used in the ISO 31000 risk management guidance standard. Hence, this article proposes a coherent, standardized set of concepts and definitions with a focus on the notion “objectives” that can be used as an ontological foundation for safety and security science, linking “objectives” with the concepts of safety, security, risk, performance and also failure and success, theoretically allowing for an increasingly more precise understanding and measurement of (un)safety across the whole range of individuals, sectors and organizations, or even society as a whole.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: microRNAs; Precision livestock science; animal welfare; livestock health; biomarkers; biosensor; pandemics
Online: 13 July 2022 (13:12:32 CEST)
Early disease detection in livestock allows for target treatment decreasing antibiotics use and allow advancements in precision veterinary medicine. MicroRNA (miRNA) -driven signaling cascades play a crucial role in the context of farm animal disease diagnostics and prediction, and their proper understanding remains a challenge. In livestock farm animals, only a small number of miRNAs have been fully validated with respect to disease conditions and physiological or behavioral traits. Low abundance of miRNAs in blood and bodily fluids, along with a small number of nucleotides, makes detection and discrimination tedious and challenging task in. miRNAs usually are homologous, owing to which detection specificity becomes next to impossible when screening for multiple miRNAs in the same analyte sample. Hence, a concurrent, multiplexing, approach becomes crucial for the development of on-farm point-of-care based detection systems. Comprehensive screening methods demand broad dynamic range and enhanced specificity. For on-farm handheld platform development, the ability to screen for multiple varieties of miRNA is essential. In this review paper, I provide an overview of the recent developments of miRNA sensing and the current bottlenecks in the realization of the sensors for detecting miRNAS as target analyte for various livestock disease detection applications. Due to the nascent stages of this research, the possibilities of exploiting miRNAs as a biomarker opens up ways to move from reactive to predictive possibilities in diseases detection in the modern digital livestock farming.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: anomaly detection; MPDI; SPE; Computer Science and Mathematics; bibliometric data; algorithms
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:29:47 CEST)
Anomaly detection in equipment processes plays an important role in the oil and gas sector. Algorithms for detecting anomalies in measured data are best understood in computer science and mathematics. Therefore, a possible transfer of knowledge from the latter knowledge area to the former can play a significant role. This paper addresses such a task by analyzing bibliometric data of Computer Science and Mathematics papers published in MDPI journals and publications found on the SPE search platform. It is shown that the main algorithms both extensively studied in MDPI publications and found in SPE publications and reflecting the anomaly detection problem are Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, Long-term Memory Method and Recurrent Neural Network. The main advantages and disadvantages of these methods are briefly described. Examples of classical, highly cited publications describing the work of these algorithms are given. Examples of papers describing their application in the oil and gas industry are given. The sections of SPE disciplines with the largest number of publications using the above algorithms that are frequently used for anomaly detection are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Chatbot technology; Artificial intelligence; Computer Science Education
Online: 18 August 2021 (13:57:15 CEST)
The number of AI applications in education is growing every day. One recent AI application in the educational sector is Chatbot technology, which is used to support teaching and administrative tasks. This document presents the design and implementation of a Chatbot called Tashi-Bot that helps applicants and university students to obtain information from an educational institution about certain academic and administrative processes. Among these are processes related to well-being, tuition, costs, admission, and other services. In order to design the Chatbot, an analysis of the state of the art, methodologies, and suitable tools was carried out, and a survey was conducted to discover the needs of users and their preferences in the use of a Chatbot for this specific purpose. Tashi-Bot was implemented on the SnatchBot platform and later deployed on a Telegram channel. In its evaluation, a final survey was carried out to check on the satisfaction of the users. The results suggest that Tashi-Bot could help applicants and university students to find information on academic and administrative processes with great certainty and without the need for human interaction. Tashi-Bot can be found at: https://web.telegram.org/#/im?p=@TashiE_Bot..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0224.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: PUI; careers in science; primarily undergraduate institution
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:15:53 CET)
Scientists who hope to obtain a faculty position at a primarily undergraduate institution (PUI) need a distinct skill set and outlook on their future teaching and research career. To obtain a position at a PUI, candidates should 1) design a strategy for obtaining a faculty position that suits each individual’s career goals and aspirations, 2) prepare for the application process, on-campus interview, and contract negotiations, and 3) plan a strategy for the probationary period leading up to tenure and promotion. Given the different types of PUIs, candidates need to consider whether they seek a position that consists of all or mostly all teaching, or both teaching and research. Candidates should educate themselves on the expectations at PUI’s, including current thought, practice, and aspirations for science pedagogy, and gain teaching experience prior to seeking a suitable position. If the candidate’s goal is a position with both teaching and research, it is important to discuss with the current research mentor what projects the candidate can take with them to their new position. The candidate should also consider what types of projects will be successful with undergraduate student researchers in a PUI research environment Importantly, candidates should clearly demonstrate a commitment to diversity and inclusion in their teaching, research, and outreach, and application materials should demonstrate this. On interviews, candidates should be knowledgeable about the mission, values, and resources of the institution and how the candidate will contribute to that mission. Once hired, new faculty should discuss a formal or informal mentoring plan during the probationary period that includes peer evaluations on a regular basis, and maintain communication with the department chair or designated mentor regarding teaching, research, and service activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0443.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; open science; data; bibliometric; pandemic
Online: 22 April 2020 (06:15:34 CEST)
Introduction: The Pandemic of COVID-19, an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 motivated the scientific community to work together in order to gather, organize, process and distribute data on the novel biomedical hazard. Here, we analyzed how the scientific community responded to this challenge by quantifying distribution and availability patterns of the academic information related to COVID-19. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of the information flow and scientific collaboration, two factors we believe to be critical for finding new solutions for the ongoing pandemic. Materials and methods: The RISmed R package, and a custom Python script were used to fetch metadata on articles indexed in PubMed and published on Rxiv preprint server. Scopus was manually searched and the metadata was exported in BibTex file. Publication rate and publication status, affiliation and author count per article, and submission-to-publication time were analysed in R. Biblioshiny application was used to create a world collaboration map. Results: Our preliminary data suggest that COVID-19 pandemic resulted in generation of a large amount of scientific data, and demonstrates potential problems regarding the information velocity, availability, and scientific collaboration in the early stages of the pandemic. More specifically, our results indicate precarious overload of the standard publication systems, significant problems with data availability and apparent deficient collaboration. Conclusion: In conclusion, we believe the scientific community could have used the data more efficiently in order to create proper foundations for finding new solutions for the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, we believe we can learn from this on the go and adopt open science principles and a more mindful approach to COVID-19-related data to accelerate the discovery of more efficient solutions. We take this opportunity to invite our colleagues to contribute to this global scientific collaboration by publishing their findings with maximal transparency.
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: theory; simulation; computational power; epochs, science history
Online: 17 January 2020 (10:25:26 CET)
History is often thought to be dull and boring – where large numbers of facts are memorized for passing exams. But the past informs the present and future, especially in delineating the context surrounding specific events that, in turn, help provide a deeper understanding of their causes and implications. Scientific progress (whether incremental or breakthroughs) is built upon prior work. Chronological examination of computational chemistry’s evolution reveals the existence of major “epochs” (e.g., transition from semi-empirical methods to first principles calculations), and the centrality of key ideas (e.g., Schrodinger equation and Born Oppenheimer approximation) in potentiating progress in the field. The longstanding question of whether computing power (both capacity and speed) or theoretical insights play a more important role in advancing computational chemistry was examined by taking into account the field’s development holistically. Specifically, availability of large amount of computing power at declining cost, and advent of graphics processing unit (GPU) powered parallel computing are enabling tools for solving hitherto intractable problems. On the other hand, this essay argues (using Born Oppenheimer approximation as an example) that theoretical insights’ role in unlocking problems through simple (but insightful) assumptions is often overlooked. Collectively, the essay should be useful as a primer for appreciating major development periods in computational chemistry, from which counterfactual questions illuminate the relative importance of theoretical insights and advances in computer science in moving the field forward.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: night; night science; night research; interdisciplinary research
Online: 22 December 2019 (02:25:27 CET)
The night has historically been neglected in both disciplinary and interdisciplinary research. To some extent, this is not surprising, given the diurnal bias of human researchers, and the difficulty of performing work at night. The night is, however, a critical element of biological, chemical, physical, and social systems on Earth. Moreover, research into social issues such as inequality, demographic changes, and the transition to a sustainable economy will be compromised if night is not considered. Recent years, however, have seen a surge in research into the night. We argue that “night studies” is on the cusp of coming into its own as an interdisciplinary field, and when it does, the field will consider questions that disciplinary researchers haven’t yet thought to ask.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biosecurity; Dual-use; Plasmids; Sequencing; Science Policy
Online: 10 December 2019 (16:07:24 CET)
Recombinant laboratory plasmids (RLPs) are common in biological research and freely shared among academic research laboratories (ARLs), a practice required by many research funding agencies. However, the generation of accurate, reproducible results in experiments utilizing RLPs can be hampered by a lack of accompanying sequence information and metadata. This culture of RLP sharing without knowledge of sequence or etiology is accepted by publishers, not regulated by governments, and outside the realm of bio-industry. In addition, no centralized infrastructure currently exists to collate such data, which at the moment is fragmented across companies, non-profits, and governments and thus is not easily accessed or enacted toward threat assessment. The ubiquity, free exchange, and dual-use risk of RLPs exemplifies a biosecurity threat and elevates the need to characterize their composition to facilitate improved biorisk management by the academic community. A number of common sense solutions are available to create a culture that addresses the biosecurity gap posed by RLP sharing. Culture shift in RLP management will require new norms, effective data management for collation of RLP sequences and metadata, and an incentive structure that encourages sequencing by stakeholders. The next generation of researchers must initiate and champion this shift with support from funding agencies and endorsement from governments and international organizations. Coordination of efforts and stakeholders will require international public/private collaboration, a structure that will be critical to ensure widespread utility as well as the ability of lower-resourced partners to participate, contribute, and benefit.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: regeneration; bioelectricity; planaria; bistability; memory; cognitive science
Online: 28 November 2019 (03:12:53 CET)
Nervous systems and brains’ computational abilities are an evolutionary innovation, specializing and speed-optimizing ancient biophysical dynamics. Bioelectric signaling originated in cells’ communication with the outside world and with each other, in order to cooperate toward adaptive construction and repair of multicellular bodies. Here we review the emerging field of developmental bioelectricity, which links the field of basal cognition to state-of-the-art questions in regenerative medicine, synthetic bioengineering, cognitive science, and even machine learning and artificial intelligence. One of the predictions of this view is that regeneration and regulative development are able to restore correct large-scale anatomies from diverse starting states because, like the brain, they exploit bioelectric encoding of distributed goal states - in this case, pattern memories. Based on this idea, we propose a new interpretation of recent stochastic regenerative phenotypes in planaria, by appealing to computational models of memory representation and processing in the brain. Moreover, we discuss novel findings showing that bioelectric changes induced in planaria can be stored in tissue for over a week, thus revealing that somatic bioelectric circuits in vivo can implement a long-term, re-writable memory medium. A consideration of the mechanisms, evolution, and functionality of basal cognition makes novel predictions and provides an integrative perspective on the evolution, physiology, and biomedicine of information processing in vivo.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: orthodox soil science, alternative practices, corrective strategies
Online: 26 March 2019 (09:43:00 CET)
In Australia, orthodox soil scientists and alternative practitioners who promote ‘regenerative agriculture’ have not been communicating and engaging effectively with each other. Over many years scientists in CSIRO, state departments and universities have made significant achievements in mapping soil distribution, describing soil behaviour and identifying key soil properties and processes that are fundamental to healthy soil function. However, many alternative practitioners are dismissive of these achievements and highly critical of orthodox soil science. Yet many of the tools of soil science are essential to conduct evidence-based research towards elucidating how and why the exceptional results claimed by some alternative practitioners are achieved. We stress the importance of effective engagement and communication among all parties to resolve this ‘clash of cultures’.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0271.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Lead, children's health, zinc, soil, citizen-science
Online: 18 June 2018 (15:14:55 CEST)
An ambitious citizen-science effort in the city of Indianapolis (Indiana, USA) led to the collection and analysis of a large number of samples at the property scale, facilitating the analysis of differences in soil metal concentrations as a function of property location (i.e., dripline, yard, and street) and location within the city. This effort indicated that dripline soils had substantially higher values of lead and zinc than other soil locations on a given property, and this pattern was heightened in properties nearer the urban core. Soil lead values typically exceeded the levels deemed safe for children’s play areas in the US (<400 ppm), and almost always exceeded safe gardening guidelines (<200 ppm). As a whole, this study identified locations within properties, and cities, that exhibited the highest exposure risk to children, and also exhibited the power of citizen science to produce data at a spatial scale (i.e., within a property boundary) that is usually impossible to feasibly collect in a typical research study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1154.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: Biobran; Functional food; Hemicellulose; MGN-3; Natural products; Translational Science.
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:57:47 CEST)
Rice bran arabinoxylan compound (RBAC) is a polysaccharide modified by Lentinus edodes mycelial enzyme widely used as a nutraceutical. To explore translational research on RBAC, a scoping review was conducted to synthesise research evidence from English, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese sources while combining bibliometrics and network analyses for data visualisation. Ninety-eight articles on RBAC and the biological activities related to human health or disease were included. Research progressed with linear growth (median=3/year) from 1998 to 2022, predominantly on Biobran MGN-3 (86.73%) and contributed by 289 authors from 100 institutions across 18 countries. Clinical studies constitute 61.1% of recent articles (2018 to 2022). A shifting focus from immuno-cellular activities to human translations over the years was shown via keyword visualisation. Beneficial effects of RBAC include immunomodulation, synergistic anticancer properties, hepatoprotection, antiinflammation, and antioxidation. Cancer patients reported reduced side effects from chemoradiotherapy and improved quality of life in human studies, indicating RBAC’s impact on the psycho-neuro-immune axis. RBAC has been studied in 17 conditions, including cancer, liver diseases, HIV, allergy, chronic fatigue, gastroenteritis, cold/flu, diabetes, and in healthy participants. Further translational research on the impact on patient and community health is required for the evidence-informed use of RBAC in health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0368.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: semi-structured complex numbers; trigonometry; Euler formulas; quaternions; singularities; engineering; science
Online: 21 March 2023 (04:30:05 CET)
Recently, a paper was written to reformulate and strengthen the theory of semi-structured complex numbers H (a new number set invented to enable division by zero). Whilst the paper had profound results, the application of this number set in many areas of engineering and science has not been fully explored. Consequently, the aim of this paper was to establish the number set H as a useful mathematical tool by providing an amalgam of results arising from its application in several areas of engineering and science. In the process, this paper makes four major contributions: these are (1) determining the product of the gradients of a horizontal and vertical line; (2) developing new Euler formulas relating exponential, trigonometric and hyperbolic functions in the 3D semi-structured complex number Euclidean space; (3) establishing semi-structured complex numbers as a better extension of the complex number set than quaternions; (4) resolving singularities that may arise in engineering and science equations (because of division by zero) to develop reasonable conclusions in the absence of experimental data. These results and their applications provide a firm foundation to advance the number set H as a useful mathematical tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0292.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: scenarios; world views; values; policies; models and modes of science
Online: 22 May 2018 (08:26:23 CEST)
In situations of uncertainty, scenarios serve as input for evidence-based decision making. However, past experience shows that not all scenarios are treated equally, and we hypothise that only those based ion a world view shared by decision makers are perceived as credible and receive full attention. While intuitively plausible, this hypothesis has not been analysed by quantitative correlation analyses, so instead of drawing on quantitative data the paper analyses the archetypical scenarios developed in the ALARM project to substantiate the plausibility by a comparative analysis of world views, value systems and policy orientations. Shock scenarios are identified as a means to explore the possibility space of future developments beyond the linear developments models and most scenario storylines suggest. The analysis shows that the typical scenarios are based on mutually exclusive assumptions. In conclusion, a comparison of storyline and empirical data can reveal misperceptions, policy failures and the need to rethink world views as a necessary step to open up to new challenges. Deeply held beliefs will make this a transition unlikely to happen without severs crises, if not dedicated efforts to reveal the role of world views for scenarios and policies are undertaken.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Research integrity; Publish or Perish; Misconduct in Science; Data fabrication; Data falsification; Plagiarism
Online: 4 April 2023 (16:00:35 CEST)
The concept of Research Integrity and research ethics are linked to the scientific research process and its communication. Presenting the results objectively is essential. It turns out that few scientists use manipulation of results and consequently other types of misconduct such as data Fabrication, Falsification, and Plagiarism (FFP). In this article, we show the definitions of these and different aspects of behavior that should be avoided, which affect principles of research reliability. We present, through a brief literature review, the concept of Research Integrity, FFP, and its relations with Publish or Perish. Editorial disputes are linked to the power that scientists have to remain in the field of research, governed by clear rules to increase their intellectual capital. We discussed that scientists tend to want their papers published in journals with better impact and well-evaluated, seeking prominence in the publishing sector. We have seen that both scientists and journals can have sequelae and problems in the face of the Publish or Perish movement, which can call into question the quality of the editorial process, peer review, and the journal itself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0449.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM education; problem-solving; thinking types; space science at school; CanSat
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:11:31 CET)
Research has shown that hands-on projects promote stem education, namely, via problem-solving. CanSat, literally 'satellite in a can', is a stem educational project promoted by the European Space Agency. This paper addresses this issue by researching this STEM project, which demonstrates how problem-solving can be achieved in secondary-level students within the framework of the CanSat. We use qualitative techniques of data collection and analysis. The results showed that students use sophisticated thinking strategies to process information within this interdisciplinary project: (a) cognitive testing, cognitive organization, cognitive regulation, and monitoring, in addition to computer language and physical–mathematical calculations, are cognitive and metacognitive behavior strategies revealed in the CanSat; (b) problem-solving was suggested as a specific model, where students’ higher cognitive and metacognitive ordering processes deepen in project development; (c) computational, lateral, or divergent and convergent thinking were detected as thinking types of students associated with and mobilized in the course of problem-solving, The findings of this research have practical implications for STEM education in space science. Hands-on projects using problem-solving are an essential strategy to promote STEM education. Additionally, they are a starting point to promote meaningful learning and new thinking types.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0263.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: data science; deep learning; ensemble machine learning models; economics; hybrid models
Online: 13 October 2020 (09:24:17 CEST)
This paper provides the state of the art of data science in economics. Through a novel taxonomy of applications and methods advances in data science are investigated. The data science advances are investigated in three individual classes of deep learning models, ensemble models, and hybrid models. Application domains include stock market, marketing, E-commerce, corporate banking, and cryptocurrency. Prisma method, a systematic literature review methodology is used to ensure the quality of the survey. The findings revealed that the trends are on advancement of hybrid models as more than 51% of the reviewed articles applied hybrid model. On the other hand, it is found that based on the RMSE accuracy metric, hybrid models had higher prediction accuracy than other algorithms. While it is expected the trends go toward the advancements of deep learning models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0028.v7
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: heat energy; photon energy; materials science; nanoscale phenomenon; atomic scale phenomenon
Online: 22 August 2017 (05:58:38 CEST)
Technology is in the way to reach in its climax but the basic understanding of science in many phenomena is still awaited despite the fact that nature witnesses. Scientific research reveals strong analogy between electron and photon. Atoms of solid state behavior that execute suitable electron transitions excite electron at target while absorbing heat energy at shunt level. De-excitation of electron under the pulling force of nearby unfilled state available at bare surface of atom results into depicting force energy shape-like Gaussian distribution called unit photon where inertia involved at each stage of changing state. The continuous cycles of excitation and de-excitation of electron confined within inter-state (filled to unfilled and unfilled to filled) result into generate force energy in wave-like fashion propagating in the inter-state electron’s gap of adjacent atoms in the lattice; in each unit photon, the force energy configures under electron’s trajectory while excitation period is due to inertia-levitation-inertia behaviors and force energy configures under electron’s trajectory while de-excitation period is due to inertia-gravitation-inertia behaviors. Silicon atom is considered as a model system of it. Uninterrupted confined inter-state electron-dynamics results into configure force energy that can travel immeasurable length where interruption from the point of generation termed it an overt photon –a long length photon. Such photons increase wavelength under decreasing energy when travelling in the medium other than inter-state electron’s gap where light glow is observed on attaining wavelength of their certain density in the visible range. They act as merged photons or squeezed photons while interacting (coordinating) to suitable medium, thus, on merging or squeezing convert into heat energy where atoms like silicon again configure them into force energy under the trajectory of electrons. Thus, heat energy dealing to suitable matter at atomic level transforms into photon energy. Involving levitation behavior in the course of exciting electron and gravitation behavior in the course of de-exciting electron validates that force of repulsion or attraction in certain materials engages the phenomenon of levitism or gravitism where inertia is exempted. Here, heat energy and photon energy explore matter at electron level. Thus, devise science to describe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Bibliometric analysis; Pile foundation; Sustainable structure; VOS viewer; Web of science
Online: 19 June 2023 (14:56:53 CEST)
Foundation on soft soil has always been a challenge for civil engineers, Pile foundation is by far the most suitable and comprehensive idea for construction on soft soil. In the present study, we produce a comprehensive overview of Pile foundation research from 1992 to 2021 by making use of bibliometric analysis. This study is conducted based on the Web of Science Core Collection Database. The Web of Science, MS Excel, and VOS viewer software are used for bibliometric analysis and science mapping. A database of 4803 publications has been retrieved. The analysis results show that People R China has yielded the greatest number of publications. In geographical terms, more than 50% of research is done by Asian countries. People R China and USA have the highest collaboration. Studies in this period are focusing on key factors associated with pile foundations such as Soil structure interaction, Pile group, Settlement, Liquefaction, Bearing Capacity etc. as suggested by the keywords analyzed in these publications. Analysis of the most cited articles in the field of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering reveals that the research area has gone vast from analyzing axial behavior and strength of pile foundations to analyzing seismic responses, further moving to sustainable structure and artificial intelligence applications in the concerned field in the last 30 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0378.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: interpretive structural modeling; SDG; COVID-19; bibliometrics; citation analysis; science mapping
Online: 22 February 2023 (07:20:26 CET)
Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) is widely used to understand the complex connections between different components. This study presents a bibliometric overview of ISM research with a focus on its linkages to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and the impact of COVID-19. The study analyzed 1988 publications on ISM published between 2012 and 2021, of which 1202 were directly mapped to the SDG and 59 were related to COVID-19. The study identified key authors, institutions, countries, and journals involved in the research and their linkages to the SDG. The results showed that ISM research is strongly linked to SDG 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production) and SDG 9 (Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure). We also identified influential SDG based on centrality measures like betweenness and eigenvector. The top four countries contributing to ISM publications were India, China, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The most frequently cited journals were Benchmarking: An International Journal, Sustainability, Journal of Modelling in Management, and Journal of Cleaner Production. Four main clusters were identified in the ISM research, including (1) integration with AHP & Fuzzy Logic for promoting sustainability alignment, (2) ISM-based strategy development for various stakeholders, (3) ISM-based decision-making in various fields, and (4) ISM-based risk evaluation. For the first time studies that used ISM approach to understand the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 were identified and their key findings were discussed. The study also identified several emerging topics for future ISM research, such as blockchain & IoT, environmental management systems, climate change adaptation, smart cities, and humanitarian logistics and their potential linkages to SDG.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: perinatal mental health, integrated care, psychiatry consultation, collaborative care, implementation science
Online: 19 April 2023 (08:35:06 CEST)
Mood and anxiety disorders affect pregnant people and their families at increased rates throughout the perinatal period. Geographic, financial, and social barriers persist in identification and access to care that preclude adequate diagnosis and treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. These challenges have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for Black and Indigenous People and People of Color (BIPOC) who already experience increased risk for adverse mental health outcomes and faced structural barriers to accessing perinatal mental health care at baseline. The literature shows that integrated care can improve mental health outcomes and save billions of dollars in annual healthcare costs. This study evaluated a novel statewide integrated care effort designed to facilitate access to perinatal mental health care for OB/GYN patients. In addition to enrollment data, variables studied were maternal program satisfaction, retention rates, and preliminary maternal mental health outcomes. 285 patients were ever referred for care. Of this, we contacted 259 patients (91%) and enrolled 209 (72%). Of the 209, 48 were lost to follow up, while 107 remained enrolled at the time of data analysis. 54 patients met their treatment goals. 97% of individuals asserted they were satisfied with the services they received. Black race and public insurance predicted faster attrition from treatment; risk for interpersonal violence exposure and substance use were not related to attrition. Preliminary mental health outcomes showed significant decreases in anxiety and depression, with the most dramatic decreases in the first month of treatment. The MC3 Perinatal care program is a viable, patient-endorsed collaborative care model that increases access to perinatal mental health and facilitate access to outside resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0076.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Weed science; Plant-microbe interactions; Medicinal plants; shotgun metagenomics; soil metabarcoding
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:19:12 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the roles that microbes may be playing in the rootzone of the medicinal plant Datura inoxia. We hypothesized that rhizospheric and endophytic microbes would be found that were capable of performing the same secondary metabolic functions of the plant rootzone they inhabited. We also hypothesized that the microbial functions would be co-operative with and supportive to plant secondary metabolite production, for example, by providing precursors to important plant bioactive molecules. The methods employed were mi-crobial barcoding, tests of essential oils against antibiotic resistant bacteria and other soil bacterial isolates, 16S Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) metabarcoding, and Whole Genome Shotgun (WGS) taxonomic and functional. A few of the main bacterial genera of interest that were dis-covered in the Datura root microbiome were Flavobacterium, Chitinophaga, Pseudomonas, Strepto-myces, Rhizobium, and Bacillus. In the context of known interactions, and current results, plants and microbes influence the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways of one other, in terms of the regulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. This is important because these compounds are phyto-protective antioxidants and are precursors to many aromatic bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. There was strong evidence to support the notion that synergistic production of plant de-rived secondary metabolites by microbes occurred, as well as the ability for the compounds to enter plant cells. There are possible biopharmaceutical and agricultural applications of the natural interplay that was discovered during this study of the Datura inoxia rhizosphere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0404.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: automated assessment; computer science; learning analytics; process mining; programming; sequence mining
Online: 15 April 2021 (09:40:33 CEST)
Learning programming is a complex and challenging task for many students. It in-volves both understanding theoretical concepts and acquiring practical skills. Hence, analyzing learners’ data from online learning environments alone fails to capture the full breadth of stu-dents’ actions if part of their learning process takes place elsewhere. Moreover, existing studies on learning analytics applied to programming education have mainly relied on frequency analysis to classify students according to their approach to programming or to predict academic achieve-ment. However, frequency analysis provides limited insights into the individual time-related characteristics of the learning process. The current study examines students’ strategies when learning programming, combining data from the learning management system and from an au-tomated assessment tool. To gain an in-depth understanding of students’ learning process as well as of the types of learners, we used learning analytics methods that account for the temporal order of learning actions. Our results show that students have special preferences for specific learning resources when learning programming, namely slides that support search, and copy and paste. We also found that videos are relatively less consumed by students, especially while working on programming assignments. Lastly, students resort to course forums to seek help only when they struggle.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0176.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: Metal alloys; Machine learning; Informatics; Defects; Dislocations; Mechanical deformation; Data science; Ontology
Online: 9 September 2021 (11:22:52 CEST)
In the design and development of novel materials that have excellent mechanical properties, classification and regression methods have been diversely used across mechanical deformation simulations or experiments. The use of materials informatics methods on large data that originate in experiments or/and multiscale modeling simulations may accelerate materials discovery or develop new understanding of materials’ behavior. In this fast-growing field, we focus on reviewing advances at the intersection of data science with mechanical deformation simulations and experiments, with a particular focus on studies of metals and alloys. We discuss examples of applications, as well as identify challenges and prospects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: infrastructure-as-code; reproducibility; virtualization; containerization; open science
Online: 4 October 2023 (07:39:04 CEST)
Verifying published findings in bioinformatics through independent validation is challenging, mainly when accounting for differences in software and hardware to recreate computational environments. Reproducing a computational environment that closely mimics the original proves intricate and demands a significant investment of time. In this paper, we present a case study on how a recently proposed reproducibility framework named Environment Code-First (ECF) based on the Infrastructure-as-Code approach can improve the implementation and reproduction of computing environments by reducing complexity and manual intervention. We detail the steps needed to implement the computational environment of a bioinformatics pipeline named MetaWorks from the perspective of the scientist who owns the research work. Also, we present the steps taken to recreate the environment from the point of view of one who wants to reproduce the published results of a research work. This exercise compares the manual way of implementing the pipeline and the automated method proposed by the ECF framework, showing real metrics regarding time consumption, efforts, manual intervention, and platform agnosticism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: data science; artificial intelligence; machine-learning; digital medicine
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:11:45 CEST)
Recent advances in mathematical modelling and artificial intelligence have challenged the use of traditional regression analysis in biomedical research. This study examined artificial and cancer research data using binomial and multinomial logistic regression and compared its performance with other machine learning models such as random forests, support vector machines, Bayesian classifiers, k-nearest neighbours and repeated incremental clipping (RIPPER). The alternative models often outperformed regression in accurately classifying new cases. Logistic regression had a structural problem similar to early single-layer neural networks, which limited its ability to identify variables with high statistical significance for reliable class assignment. Therefore, regression is not always the best model for class prediction in biomedical datasets. The study emphasises the importance of validating selected models and suggests that a mixture of experts approach may be a more advanced and effective strategy for analysing biomedical datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Daisyworld; homeostasis; Earth Systems Science; synthetic biology; terraformation
Online: 31 July 2023 (09:50:42 CEST)
The idea that the Earth system self-regulates in a habitable state was proposed in the 1970s by James Lovelock, who conjectured that life plays a self-regulatory role on a planetary-level scale. A formal approach to such hypothesis was presented afterwards under a toy model known as the Daisyworld. The model showed how such life-geosphere homeostasis was an emergent property of the system, where two species with different properties adjusted their populations to the changing external environment. So far, this ideal world exists only as a mathematical or computational construct, but it would be desirable to have a real, biological implementation of Lovelock's picture beyond our one Biosphere. Inspired in the exploration of synthetic ecosystems using genetic engineering and recent cell factory designs, here we propose such a living, microbial Daisyworld. This is based on a synthetic microbial ecosystem using pH as the external, abiotic control parameter. Several case studies are considering, including two, three and multiple species assemblies. Despite that oscillatory dynamics and chaos emerge in the latter case, it is shown that global regulation is also achieved in most cases as species diversity increases. The alternative implementations and their implications of this model in other synthetic biology scenarios, including ecosystem engineering, are outlined.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Womens Health; Data Science; Data Methods; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:48:58 CEST)
Abstract ObjectivesThe aim of this perspective is to report the use of synthetic data as a viable method in women’s health given the current challenges linked to obtaining life-course data within a short period of time and accessing electronic healthcare data. Methods We used a 3-point perspective method to report an overview of data science, common applications, and ethical implications. Results There are several ethical challenges linked to using real-world data, consequently, generating synthetic data provides an alternative method to conduct comprehensive research when used effectively. The use of clinical characteristics to develop synthetic data is a useful method to consider. Aligning this data as closely as possible to the clinical phenotype would enable researchers to provide data that is very similar to that of the real-world. Discussion Population diversity and disease characterisation is important to optimally use data science. There are several artificial intelligence techniques that can be used to develop synthetic data. ConclusionSynthetic data demonstrates promise and versatility when used efficiently aligned to clinical problems. Therefore, exploring this option as a viable method in women’s health, in particular for epidemiology may be useful.