ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0145.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: banking; financial performance; sustainability performance
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:23:42 CET)
Banking sector is generally taken out of sample while the sustainability performance, and the financial performance are compared with each other. The core aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the declarations made in the cope of sustainability reports on the financial performance in the banking sector. Seven banks were included in the study which were placed at least one time in BIST Sustainability Index in between 2010-2017 years. Environment, human resources, product liability and community involvement were determined as sustainability criteria and return on assets, return on equity and net interest margin were determined as financial performance criteria. Non-Parametric Statistic Tests and Panel Data Analysis were used for analysis and types, and the sizes of banks were selected as dummy variables. As a result, it is found that the declarations of sustainability reports have a significant effect only on return on assets and have no significant effect on return on equity and net interest margin. And also, when we analyzed the relationship of sustainability criteria and return on assets, we found that the declarations about environment and human resources have negative effects on return on assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Posture; Athletic performance; Athletes; Cardiopulmonary performance
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:37:32 CEST)
This study assessed the relationship between body posture displacements and cardiopulmonary function test (CPET) and skill related physical fitness tests. One hundred male (60%) and female collegiate athletes (22.2 ± 4yrs) with a normal body mass index (BMI up to 24.9) were assessed via the PostureScreen Mobile app to quantify postural displacements as head, thorax and pelvis rotations and translations. CPET and physical performance tests including the agility T-test, the vertical jump test, the stork static balance test (SSBT) and the dynamic Y-balance test (YBT) were performed. Spearman correlation (r) and p-values are reported. Postural parameters were found to have moderate-to-high associations with CPET and the agility test, moderate correlations with the vertical jump test and the SSBT (head and pelvic postures only), and weak correlations with the YBT. As postural parameters were more asymmetric, both CPET and performance skills scores were worse. For examples: 1) a medium positive correlation was found between cranio-vertebral angle (CVA) and vertical jump test (r = 0.54; p-value < 0.001) and SSBT (r = 0.57; p-value < 0.001), while a strong negative correlation was found between CVA and agility test (r = -0.86; p-value < 0.001). 2) A strong positive correlation was found between CVA and oxygen uptake efficiency slope, load watts VO2 at VT, VO2 / kg, load watts at respiratory compensation point (RCP), (r = 0.65 and r = 0.71; p < 0.001). Conversely, a significant negative correlation was found between CVA and VE / VO2 at VT (r = -0.61; p < 0.001). Postural rotations and translations of the head, thorax and pelvis were statistically correlated with physical performance skills and CPET in young collegiate athletes. There were moderate-to-high associations with cardiopulmonary functions and agility tests, moderate correlations with the vertical jump test, and weak correlations with the YBT. Postural alignment may be important for optimal physical performance and optimal cardiopulmonary function. Further research is necessary to elucidate reasons for these correlations as found in our sample of young and healthy athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1992.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Track Cycling; Coaching; Sports Performance; Performance Modelling
Online: 31 July 2023 (02:43:50 CEST)
There is a paucity of data on the progression of track cycling sprinters, and the evolution of training and performance over a training cycle. Following prior research showing relationships between sprint cycling power and endurance cycling power, we compared these relations over a 3-month period. Our hypothesis is large improvements in power would come from training either for sprint power or sprint capacity, and this would be reflected in the data. A total of publicly available 25 datasets. These data were plotted against the line of best fit for 30-s and 2-min power to assess if training towards the line led to better 30-s power. We observe the best performances came from riders who start below the 30-s vs 2-min power line of best fit, with greater capacity and ability to ride fast over a sprint series, and progressing towards focusing on specific power in the final block leading into a competition. These results support the hypothesis of combined capacity and power training based on rider-specific relationship to the line of best fit between these measures versus a strictly maximal power training focus.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0138.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Underwriter; IPO’s; Performance; underwriter reputation; IPO’s Performance
Online: 5 September 2020 (09:55:05 CEST)
In this paper, it is defined that how the IPOs are affected by the underwriter reputation. What will happen to IPOs who are backed by reputed underwriter and who is not? And evaluate the IPOs short-run and long-run performance. Also try to explain the relationship between IPOs and underwriter. Also tried to compare some of the international return and Pakistani returns. Also determine the relation of the investor to the underwriter. There is a set of investors who have there own relationship with the underwriters how they will affect on the IPOs in the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0058.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Sustainability performance; Environmental; Social and Governance (ESG) performance; Innova-tion performance; mediating effect; manufacturing firms
Online: 3 March 2023 (06:17:55 CET)
In this age of global warming, academics and policymakers are increasingly concerned about firm environmental sustainability success. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) performance impacts sustainability performance through the mediating effect of firm innovation. To this end, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was deployed to analyze data collected from the employees of manufacturing industries in an emerging economy like Bangladesh. The results revealed that ESG performance significantly enhances the innovation and sustainability performance of manufacturing industries, indicating that the higher the ESG performance of a firm, the greater its innovation and sustainability performance. Furthermore, the results confirmed that firm innovation performance fully mediates the relationship between ESG initiatives and sustainability performance. The findings of this study provide policymakers and industry authorities with valuable insight into the role of ESG and innovation performance in improving sustainability performance. Specifically, the study sheds knowledge on how firm ESG initiatives and innovation performance impact sustainability performance in the manufacturing sector of an emerging economy like Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0673.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: FLASH; UHDR; hippocampus; behavioral performance; cognitive performance; flow cytometry
Online: 10 May 2023 (03:00:53 CEST)
In the current study, we assessed the effects of conventional and Ultra High Dose Rate (UHDR) irradiation on behavioral and cognitive performance one month following exposure and assessed whether these effects were associated with alterations in the number of immune cells in the hippocampus using flow cytometry. Conventional- and UHDR-irradiated mice showed impaired novel object recognition. During fear learning, conventional- and UHDR-irradiated mice moved less during the inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) and UHDR-irradiated mice also moved less during the baseline period (prior to the first tone). In irradiated mice, reduced activity levels were also seen in the home cage; conventional- and UHDR-irradiated mice moved less during the light period and UHDR-irradiated mice moved less during the dark period. Following behavioral and cognitive testing, infiltrating immune cells in the hippocampus were analyzed by flow cytometry. The percent Ly6G+ CD45+ cells in the hippocampus was lower in conventional- and UHDR-irradiated than sham-irradiated mice, suggesting that neutrophils might be particularly sensitive to radiation. The percent of Ly6G+ CD45+ cells in the hippocampus was positively correlated with the time spent exploring the novel object in the object recognition test, suggesting that the reduced percent Ly6G+ CD45+ cells in the hippocampus might mediate some of the detrimental radiation-induced cognitive effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: benchmarking; evaluation of performance; performance indicator; principal component analysis
Online: 30 August 2018 (05:16:30 CEST)
The Inefficient water use, varying and low productivity in Kenya public irrigation schemes is a major concern. It is therefore necessary to periodically monitor and evaluate the performance of public irrigation schemes. The performance of public irrigation in western Kenya was assessed by combining benchmarking methodology and principal component analysis. The aim was to quantify and rank the performance of pumped public irrigation schemes in Kenya. Eleven benchmarking indicators were computed for the period from 2012 to 2016 and compared to global benchmark values. The indicators used fall under agricultural productivity, water supply and financial performance categories. The computed agricultural productivity was 36%–51% in Ahero, 23%–42% in West Kano and 26%–50% Bunyala irrigation scheme. Water supply performance in Ahero, West Kano and Bunyala irrigation schemes varied from 24% to 58%, 3% to 49% and 19% to 43% respectively. Financial performance varied from 46% to 54% in Ahero, 25% to 32% in West Kano and 54%–56% in Bunyala irrigation scheme. An average overall performance efficiency of 46%, 39% and 31% was obtained in Ahero, Bunyala and West Kano irrigation schemes respectively. The performance of the irrigation schemes is very poor and measures on improving performance are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0180.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Hospital performance; Hospital quality; Sustainability; Performance evolution; Data Envelopment Analysis
Online: 9 March 2023 (13:07:25 CET)
Covid-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which has spread worldwide since the beginning of 2020. Several pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical strategies were proposed to contain the virus dissemination, including vaccination and lockdowns. One of the consequences of the pandemic was the denial or delay of access to convenient health care services, but also potentially the increase of adverse events within those services, like the number of hospital infections. Therefore, the main question here is: What happened to the performance and sustainability of hospitals? The main goal of this work was to test if the Portuguese public hospitals' performance has been affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We used the Benefit-of-Doubt method integrated with the Malmquist Index to analyze the performance evolution over time. Then, we employed a multiple regression model to test whether some pandemic-related variables could explain the performance results. We considered a database of 40 Portuguese public hospitals evaluated from January 2017 to May 2022. The period 2017 to 2019 corresponds to the baseline (pre-pandemic), against which the remaining period will be compared (during the pandemic). We also considered fourteen variables characterizing hospital quality, divided into three main performance definitions (efficiency and productivity; access; safety and care appropriateness). As potential explanatory variables, we consider seven dimensions, including vaccination rate and the need for intensive care for Covid-19 infected people. Results suggest that Covid-19 pandemic features help explain the drop on access after 2020, but not the evolution of safety and appropriateness of care, which surpris-ingly increased the whole time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0433.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: advanced industrial engineering; strategy; management; business performance; key performance indicators
Online: 28 July 2022 (08:43:32 CEST)
The paper deals with the design of a systematic procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes for a project-oriented production type of organization. In the first part of the contribution, a summary of the theoretical starting points for the field of strategic management and change management is presented. In the second part, the contribution deals with the analysis of the current situation in the area of the impact of the change of strategy on the management of business processes. In the last part, the proposal of the procedure for implementing strategy changes into internal business processes and the verification results are presented. The proposed procedure includes steps where the selection and verification of key performance indicators at individual levels of management plus the quantification of the impact of the change in strategy on the processes takes place. The management can thus monitor and evaluate the chosen processes in accordance with the fulfilment of the chosen strategy of the company. The last chapter presents the verification of the proposal for the systematic introduction of changes into the processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Grid-connected PV plant, Monitoring, Performance parameters, performance comparison, Mauritania.
Online: 11 February 2021 (10:30:39 CET)
This paper presents preliminary operational performance results of a pilot grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system designed and installed on the rooftop of the Ministry of Petroleum, Energy and Mining headquarter in Nouakchott (latitude of 18.1°N and the longitude of 16.0°W), Mauritania. The aim is for the government to demonstrate the relevance of using solar energy and to encourage the uptake of solar PV technology for commercial and residential building applications in Mauritania.. In this study, the grid-connected PV system has a peak power of 48 kW and the performance monitoring was carried out during one year, with a system that allow to measure DC power, inverter and system conversion efficiency, energy generated by the PV arrays, solar radiation in the inclination plane of panels, ambient temperature and module temperature. During this period, the PV plant was found to supply 65,668 kWh to the grid. The final yield ranged from 3.91 to 5.09 kWh/kWp/day. The performance ratio was found to vary from 69.69% to 89.35% and the annual capacity factor was found to be 19%. Finally, performance parameters were compared with other PV plants installed in the same region of Northern Africa. The outcome of this work is deemed important in assisting accurate PV system design and decision-making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1147.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: financial performance; sustainability reporting; sustainable performance; content analysis; Istanbul Stock Exchange
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:51:51 CEST)
This study investigated the impact of sustainability reporting on financial performance, with a focus on companies in the Turkish food, beverage and tobacco and textile, wearing apparel and leather sectors. The sustainability reports of 48 companies listed on the Istanbul Stock Exchange for 2022 were studied, and the quality of sustainability practices was determined by using a general index (Sustainability Reporting Disclosure Quality Index (SRDQI)) and three partial indices (Environmental Disclosure Quality Index, Social Disclosure Quality Index, and Corporate Governance Disclosure Quality Index (CGDQI)). To analyze the relationships between financial performance and sustainability practices two types of regression models were developed, based on which eight models were directly examined. The results indicate the complete absence of a statistically significant impact of SRDQI on all financial performance measures used. Among the partial indices, only CGDQI has a significant positive effect on the Assets Turnover Ratio. An analysis of the influence of control variables shows a multidirectional dependence of individual financial performance measures on the size of companies, their age, industry affiliation, as well as on the structure of capital used. Finally, this study provides directions for improving the institutional environment of sustainability reporting for Turkish companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Performance zoning; Superpave; Performance grade; Dynamic shear rheometer; Bending beam rheometer
Online: 18 May 2023 (08:49:36 CEST)
Asphalt binder is a temperature sensitive material, whose performance is greatly affected by the climate change of the environment. Improper selection of asphalt will cause a lot of damage and affect the durability of the road. The establishment of asphalt pavement performance zoning in Xinjiang, a vast area with great temperature difference, will provide reference for the selection of asphalt suitability, the refinement of pavement design and the sustainable development of road engineering. In this study, 11 years of temperature data in Xinjiang region were collected and analyzed, and 98% reliability of pavement design temperature was used to draw a performance grading map of asphalt pavement in Xinjiang region based on ArcGIS platform. Finally, Xinjiang region was divided into 9 performance zones. At the same time, the performance grade (PG) of five kinds of asphalt binders in Karamay were explored. The result shows that there is little difference in continuous PG span between different matrix asphalt binders, the lower penetration grade, the better high temperature performance, the worse low temperature performance. After adding SBS modifier, the continuous PG span can be higher than the matrix asphalt in 20 ℃. All these provide the basis for reasonable selection of asphalt binders in different areas of Xinjiang.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0042.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: performance-based management; performance measurement; good governance; local government; public agency
Online: 3 April 2019 (11:27:59 CEST)
Performance appraisal is a fundamental indicator in public accountability to achieve the good governance principles. Hence, this study aims to analyze the performance measurement that can improve performance on government agencies in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The study was conducted in qualitative approach. The research found that non-integrated models of performance measurement in South Sulawesi are inefficient and ineffective. Inefficiency happens because it uses time and cost resources separately, while being ineffective is because both models focuses on each goal instead on performance goals and the process is not supported by the actual management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0019.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: clustering; machine learning; distributed computing; performance portability; GPGPU; OpenCL; peak performance
Online: 2 February 2019 (03:27:07 CET)
Clustering is an important task in data mining that has become more challenging due to the ever-increasing size of available datasets. To cope with these big data scenarios, a high-performance clustering approach is required. Sparse grid clustering is a density-based clustering method that uses a sparse grid density estimation as its central building block. The underlying density estimation approach enables the detection of clusters with non-convex shapes and without a predetermined number of clusters. In this work, we introduce a new distributed and performance-portable variant of the sparse grid clustering algorithm that is suited for big data settings. Our compute kernels were implemented in OpenCL to enable portability across a wide range of architectures. For distributed environments, we added a manager-worker scheme that was implemented using MPI. In experiments on two supercomputers, Piz Daint and Hazel Hen, with up to 100 million data points in a 10-dimensional dataset, we show the performance and scalability of our approach. The dataset with 100 million data points was clustered in 1198s using 128 nodes of Piz Daint. This translates to an overall performance of 352TFLOPS. On the node-level, we provide results for two GPUs, Nvidia's Tesla P100 and the AMD FirePro W8100, and one processor-based platform that uses Intel Xeon E5-2680v3 processors. In these experiments, we achieved between 43% and 66% of the peak performance across all compute kernels and devices, demonstrating the performance portability of our approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0363.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Artificial Neural Network; Schedule Performance Index (SPI); Cost Performance Index (CPI); To Complete Cost Performance Indicator (TCPI); Predicting; Models
Online: 24 March 2020 (14:49:20 CET)
The importance of this study may be defined by using the smart techniques to earned value indicators of residential buildings projects in Republic of Iraq, only one development intelligent forecasting model was presented to predict Schedule Performance Index (SPI), Cost Performance Index (CPI), and To Complete Cost Performance Indicator (TCPI) are defined as the dependent. The approach is principally influenced by the determining numerous factors which effect on the earned value management, that involves Iraqi historical data. In addition, six independent variables (F1: BAC, Budget at Completion., F2: AC, Actual Cost., F3, A%, Actual Percentage., F4: EV, Earned Value. F5: P%, Planning Percentage., and F6: PV, Planning Value) were arbitrarily designated and satisfactorily described for per construction project. It was found that ANN has the capability to envisage the dust storm with a great accuracy. The correlation coefficient (R) has been 90.00%, and typical accuracy percentage has been 89.00%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0035.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: healthcare; sustainability; financial performance
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:17:09 CEST)
The medical sector is of the utmost importance in every country for well-known reasons such as their economic development, national security, quality of life, and so on. Many researchers were dedicated to this topic, however, in Romania there are limited studies on this subject. One reason is that most of the businesses in this sector are individual enterprises or small family businesses. In our research paper we deploy several analysis methods to see the financial sustainability of companies operating in the medical industry. By analyzing a sample of 23931 companies and we have concluded that their performance has increase in the peak of the pandemic and that the financial stability is high. Our results are in line with other similar studies that were conducted in other regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0963.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Non-compliant; undamaged; performance
Online: 26 April 2023 (06:19:27 CEST)
Non-compliant (NC) structures are often encountered in building construction in developing countries. This is a condition whereby erected buildings do not follow regulatory standards, especially in the provision of reinforcements. Therefore, under an earthquake load, the structures do not have sufficient resistance against such load. The structural elements of the building, which often have NC conditions, are the beam-column joints because they do not contain adequate shear reinforcements due to installation difficulty. This study aims to determine the structural performance of the reinforced concrete (RC) frame, which has a reinforcement deficiency in the beam-column joints. Numerical simulation was conducted on the Kakaletsis structure model by modifying the reinforcement details at the joints to represent the NC conditions. The non-linear modeling and analysis of the structural model were carried out using ATENA software. The analysis showed that the reduction in shear reinforcements in the NC model joint caused a decrease in load-carrying capacity by about 26.04%. A shift was also observed in the collapse pattern, i.e., from the beam to the end of the column, causing global failure and reducing the undamaged but increasing more severely damaged condition. This showed that the NC structure, due to the non-conformance of reinforcement, significantly reduced the structure's performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0477.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: HRM; innovation; organizational performance
Online: 26 December 2022 (07:16:40 CET)
This study offers a concise summary of the research that has been done on alternative methods of HRM. A survey of 47 articles on the topic of creative human resource management uncovered three primary schools of thinking. At its core, innovation in HRM entails nothing more than that. One such topic worthy of investigation is the way human resource management approaches new situations. Third, research on inventiveness in the business world has given rise to the concept of "innovative HRM." Each of these three approaches, as well as the theoretical underpinnings of each, will be covered in this article. The note wraps up with a discussion of the significance of the findings for next research as well as clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0392.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: K-means; performance; pattern
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:31:53 CEST)
We are in the era where various processes need to be online. However, data from digital learning platforms are still underutilised in higher education, yet, they contain student learning patterns, whose awareness would contribute to educational development. This limits development of adaptive teaching and learning mechanisms. In this paper, a model for data exploitation to dynamically study students progress is proposed. Variables to determine current students progress are defined and are used to group students into different clusters. K-means clustering is performed on real data consisting of students from a South African tertiary institution. Cluster migration is analysed and the corresponding learning patterns are revealed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0795.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Stock Prices; Financial Performance
Online: 14 May 2021 (16:27:12 CEST)
The authors propose in this study to evaluate financial performance applications for stock prices of the Indonesian Stock Exchange in manufacturing companies. The method of research used here is a quantitative descriptive method. In that statement, Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies between 2016 and 2018 are the population use in this research, using the sampling technique Purpose Sampling. This research uses secondary data from 2016 to 2018, the financial reports of Indonesian Stock Exchange manufacturing companies. The Indonesian stock exchange web site has been provided with all data sources at https://www.idx.co.id, and searching for www.google.id. Our analysis shows that book value prices and the net profit margin affect stock prices. The value of financial performance at the Indonesian Stock Bourses manufacturing companies' cost amounts to 64.5 percent, while other factors not listed in this study account for 35.4 percent.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0105.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: team sports; performance; players
Online: 3 February 2021 (10:08:07 CET)
Top performance in team sports attracts the attention from the general public. In particular, the best players became incredibly skilled and physically powerful, a fact that potentiates to deliver a product considered attractive, exciting and competitive. Not surprisingly, this is a very valuable product from an economic and social standpoint, thus, all sports professionals are extremely interested in developing new procedures to improve sports performance. Besides, the great interests of the various stakeholders (owners, CEO-s, agents, fans, media, coaches, players, families and friends) are one of the main reasons for this development of sports science umbrella and the accompanying sports industry. all their personal performances should be coordinated and put into function by the sports team. In this scientific and applied manuscript, we will deal primarily with the individual treatment of players in order to improve their personal performance and, consequently, team sport performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: solid waste management; performance assessment; fuzzy rule-based modeling; performance indicators; Simulink MATLAB
Online: 30 January 2019 (06:55:00 CET)
Most of the municipalities in the Gulf region are facing performance related issues in their municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems. They lack to possess a deliberate inter-municipality benchmarking processes. Instead of identifying the performance gaps for their key components (e.g., personnel productivity, operational reliability, etc.) and adopt proactive measures, the municipalities primarily rely on an efficient emergency response. A novel hierarchical modeling framework, based on deductive reasoning, is developed for performance assessment of MSWM systems. Fuzzy rule based modeling using Simulink-MATLAB was used for performance inferencing at different levels, i.e., component, sub-components, etc. The model is capable of handling the inherent uncertainties due to limited data and imprecise knowledge base. The model’s outcomes can exclusively assist the managers working at different levels of organizational hierarchy for effective decision-making. Performance of the key component, assists the senior management to assess the overall compliance level of performance objectives. Subsequently, operation management can hone in the sub-components to acquire useful information for intra-municipality performance management. While, individual indicators are useful for inter-municipality benchmarking. The model has been implemented on two municipalities operating in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. The results demonstrate the model’s pragmatism for continuous performance improvement of MSWM systems in the country and elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0367.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Tapering; Workload; Performance; Microcycle; Youth
Online: 23 September 2022 (09:27:20 CEST)
French academies almost all implement reactivity drills and small-sided games (SSG) the day preceding a match (MD-1). The present study aimed to determine the physical impact of different training durations on MD-1 on the subsequent matchday performance (MD). Eleven elite U19 academy soccer players con-ducted three typical training sessions lasting 45min (TS45), 60min (TS60), and 75min (TS75) on MD-1. Dur-ing TS60, warm-up, reactivity and SSG were 10, 15, and 24min, respectively, plus coaches' feedback or wa-ter breaks. Durations decreased and increased by 25% for TS45 and TS75, respectively. Tests were con-ducted on MD-4 (CONTROL) and MD before the match (TEST). Tests consisted of a counter movement jump (CMJ), 20m sprint, Illinois agility test (IAT), and Hooper questionnaire. CONTROL values were simi-lar over the three experimental conditions. TEST on MD revealed greater CMJ for TS45 (42.7 ± 5.1cm) compared to TS60 (40.5 ± 5.5cm, p=0.032) and TS75 (40.9 ± 5.7cm, p=0.037). 20m time was lower for TS45 (3.07 ± 0.10s, p<0.001) and TS60 (3.13 ± 0.10s, p=0.017) compared to TS75 (3.20 ± 0.10s). IAT time was lower on TS45 (14.82 ± 0.49s) compared to TS60 (15.43 ± 0.29s, p<0.001) and TS75 (15.24 ± 0.33s, p=0.006). Further-more, the Hooper index was lower at TEST for TS45 (7.64 ± 1.50) compared to TS60 (11.00 ± 3.49, p=0.014) and TS75 (9.73 ± 2.41, p=0.045) indicating a better readiness level. We concluded that as training session duration increases, performance decreases on MD. A 45min training session including reactivity and SSG exercises is therefore recommended on MD-1.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0271.v1
Online: 18 July 2022 (11:07:08 CEST)
UHPC is a type of cement-based composite used in new construction and/or rehabilitation of existing buildings to extend service life. It is a novel composite material that can serve as an alternative to concrete construction in hostile climates. Following decades of study and production, a diverse variety of commercial UHPC compositions are now available globally to meet the rising number of applicants and demand for high-quality building materials. Although UHPC offers major benefits over normal concrete, its utilization is restricted due to restrictive design rules and exorbitant costs. As a result, a thorough examination of the durability properties of UHPC is required to give important information for material testing requirements and processes, as well as to broaden its practical uses. This report is aimed at increasing basic understanding of UHPC and supporting more UHPC research and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: swimming; COVID-19; swim performance
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:34:46 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic caused significant training disruptions during the 2020-21 season due to lockdowns, quarantines, and strict adherence to pandemic protocols. The main purpose of this study was to determine how pandemic training restrictions affected training volume and performance in one collegiate swim team. Cumulative training volume data, across a 28-week season, were compared between a pandemic (2020-2021) versus non-pandemic (2019-2020) season. Swimmers were categorized into three groups (Sprinters, Mid-Distance, and Long-Distance) based on training group. Performance times in 25 swimmers who competed in Regional Championships, during both the non-pandemic and pandemic year, were compared via 1-way ANOVA. 26 male and 22 female swimmers commenced the 2020-21 (pandemic) season, with 23% of swimmers voluntarily opting out. Three COVID-19 cases were confirmed (2%) by the medical staff with no long-term effects. Significant reductions in average swim volume were verified in Sprinters (32,867±10,135 vs.14,800±7,995yards;p<0.001), Mid-Distance (26,457±10,692 vs.17,054±9.923yards;p<0.001), and Long-Distance (37,600±14,430 vs.22,254±14,418yards;p<0.001) swimmers (non-pandemic vs. pandemic season, respectively). In the Regional performance analyses, the Sprinters swam faster (n=8;-0.5±0.6secs), while Mid-Distance (n=10;0.17±2.1secs) and Long-Distance (n=7;6.0±4.9secs) swimmers swam slower (F=11.76;p=0.0003;r2=0.52). Thus, the pandemic caused significant reductions in swim training volume, with Sprinters performing better and Long-Distance swimmers performing worse at Regional Championships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0312.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Internet; television; academic performance; utilization.
Online: 26 November 2019 (10:51:18 CET)
An investigation was carried out to study the effects of television and internet on academic performance of senior secondary schools students in Rigachukun Inspectorate of Kaduna state. A well structured and designed questionnaire was adopted in eliciting information from the respondents. The respondents were sampled from schools within Kaduna state. The information obtained showed that the percentage of senior secondary school students who made use of internet for academic purpose was as much as those who could not operate a computer or even browse the internet. Good number of students applied internet mostly through phones and computer with internet access in solving their assignment. A larger percentage of students devoted their time to watching non-educative programs on television, even though it was discovered that some of them also watch educative programs. Positive impacts of television and internet are however obscuring and not glaring. Investigation carried out revealed that students in senior secondary schools need to be sensitized and oriented on how they can derive the best from internet and television. Schools should be encouraged in using television and internet as an instrument of learning and teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0241.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: leadership; community leadership; job performance
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:37:32 CET)
Leadership performance by village leaders is essential to promote sustainable life among rural communities, especially fisheries community who living along coastal villages. Otherwise, previous studies found that performance issues among village’s leaders remain as serious problems, and need to find the best solution. This study was conducted to profile the job performance among village leaders based on demographic factors such as educational level, age and experiences as village leader. The data of this cross-sectional survey were collected by questionnaires on 300 respondents consist of members of village organization through stratified sampling’s technique, while the data was analysed by SPSS using items of mean, standard deviation, independent-sample t-test and anova. The finding shown that there were differences in job performance among village leaders on educational level, age and experiences. Interestingly, the finding told the best on job performance among village leaders are (i) the age between 41 to 50 years old; (iii) the experience between 11 to 20 years; and (iii) the higher educational level the higher job performance among them. This result can be using by government or any responsible parties to improve job performance among village leaders, especially for recruitment selection and for in-service training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0165.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Training; competence; incentives; management; performance.
Online: 8 August 2018 (10:55:28 CEST)
Background.Nurse gives professional nursing service to patients according to competence owned. Based on these services in the end of every year, nurses are given incentives for medical services as financial incentive. Purpose. To analyze the impact of competence training and incentives medical services’ distribution upon the achievement of nurse’s performances in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Matterial and method. Observational survey research with cross sectional design. Population. Nurses in General Hospital of W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Technique. Total sampling technique with number of samples 183 respondents. Inclusive criteria of samples are willing to be interviewed, nurse’s status, permanent offices without limitation from particular working unit or poly in hospital. Independent variable: (1) competence training; (2) Incentives for medical services. Dependent variable; Nurse’s performance achievement. Variables are measured by using Lickert scale. Information are recorded through questionnaire. Analyzes using linier regression. Result. There are impacts of competence training (α=.000;ß=.489)and distribution of incentives for medical services(α=.012; ß=.152)upon nurse’s performances achievement in General Hospital of Prof.W. Z. Johannes Kupang. Conclusion.The training of nursing service status that could increase competences among nurses with affair incentives for medical services’ distribution simultaneously end up in the increasing of nurse’s performances achievement in a hospital
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0094.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: entrepreneurship; innovation; management; performance; sustainability
Online: 31 July 2017 (15:43:49 CEST)
The study examines how the South African construction industry can nurture an entrepreneur and a large successful entrepreneurial construction company, even though the founder had no formal education and the company was founded during the Apartheid era. The question of whether entrepreneurs are born or are made is based on the age-old question of nurture and nature. The paper presents the narratives of a successful entrepreneur Mr. Sam Lubbe. The narratives presented are collected through a case study research approach. The data collected suggests that although Sam does not have any formal education, he succeeded based on nurturing given to him when he had the opportunity to work for a large South African construction company, his innate characteristics of self-confidence, task-result orientation, originality, future direction, and a unique business model which also helped him access international construction work opportunities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0379.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: surgical simulator training; individual performance trend; speed-accuracy function; automatic detection; performance feed-back
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:40:08 CEST)
Simulator training for image-guided surgical interventions may benefit from artificial intelligence systems that control the evolution of task skills in terms of time and precision of a trainee's performance on the basis of fully automatic feed-back systems. At the earliest stages of training, novice trainees frequently focus on getting faster at the task, and may thereby compromise the optimal evolution of the precision of their performance. For automatically guiding them towards attaining an optimal speed-accuracy trade-off, an effective control system for the reinforcement/correction of strategies must be able to exploit the right individual performance criteria in the right way, reliably detect individual performance trends at any given moment in time, and alert the trainee, as early as necessary, when to slow down and focus on precision, or when to focus on getting faster. This article addresses several aspects of this challenge for speed-accuracy controlled simulator training before any training on specific surgical tasks or clinical models should be envisaged. Analyses of individual learning curves from the simulator training sessions of novices and benchmark performance data of one expert surgeon, who had no specific training in the simulator task, validate the suggested approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0445.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: perovskite; crystal structure; electrochemical performance; LaMnO3
Online: 8 November 2023 (01:31:22 CET)
In this paper, the sol−gel method was used to synthesize powders of LaMnO3 (LMO), La0.85Ca0.15MnO3 (LCM), and La0.85Sr0.15MnO3 (LSM). We investigated the impact of substituting Ca and Sr at the A−site on the perovskite crystal structure and electrochemical capabilities of LMO. LCM retained its orthogonal structure in comparison to the parent LMO components, whereas LSM transitioned to a rhombic structure. At 0.5 A/g, the specific capacitance of LCM and LSM electrodes is 185.5 F/g and 248 F/g, respectively.The specific capacitance of LCM was more three times than that of the LMO electrode. Among the three samples (LMO, 22.25 m2 g−1; LSM, 31.56 m2 g−1), the LCM sample exhibited the highest specific surface area of 38.79 m2 g−1. The charge transfer resistances of the LMO, LCM, and LSM are 0.48 Ω, 0.36 Ω, and 0.38 Ω, correspondingly. The LCM electrode exhibits the greatest capacitance performance due to its more refined morphology, increased concentration of oxygen vacancy, and more complete utilization of the perovskite bulk structure. The above results demonstrate that Ca or Sr substitution of A−site compounds has great potential for supercapacitor applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0468.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: orchard; apple; organic; costs; performance; Romania
Online: 7 November 2023 (13:36:11 CET)
Life Cycle Cost Analysis is a method used to assess long-term economic efficiency among equivalent competing processes or products. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the nature and level of costs for an organic orchard located in Southern Romania, using a complex approach covering the entire chain of production, through the life span. The research results, based on a dynamic analysis and an integrated evaluation of the orchard's performance, have been ranked on investment and operational costs, broken down on three categories (establishment and production, post-harvest and transport costs). The highest cost, representing 151726 euros/ha/20 years, about 52.72% of the total operational costs and 50.4% of the total farm costs/ha/20 years, was recorded in exploitation stage. The scenarios for the sensitivity analysis considered different levels of average yield (40, and, respectively 60 tons/ha) with different rate of sold production (85%, optimistic scenario; 70%, pessimistic scenario). The hotpoints identified at the production stage were use of agricultural machinery, several pesticides, the costs of seedlings, anti-hail net, plastic boxes and labor cost, while at the post-harvest stage, were those related to labor and energy consumption. The transport stage has had important costs with tractor operation and the track.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0251.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Performance; Validation; Psychometric properties; Satisfaction.; Work
Online: 3 November 2023 (11:48:25 CET)
The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) can be defined as the individual be-haviour capable of generating value and competitive advantage for the organization. It is a mul-ti-dimensional construct, consisting of task performance, contextual performance and counter-productive work behavior. Albeit important, a comprehensive measure of individual job per-formance is still lacking in the Italian context. This paper describes the validation of an Italian adaptation of the IWPQ. A back translation procedure was used. To investigate the psychometric properties of the 18-item Italian IWPQ, 1053 participants (502 men, 47.7%; 551 women, 52.3%) were enrolled; the age of participants ranged between 19 and 69 (Mage=34.6, SD= 11.8), and for the oc-cupation, the sample is classified in blue collar 32.5%, pink collar 33% and white collar 34.5%. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and multigroup confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test the structural factor of the IWPQ. The results supported the goodness of the IWPQ in the Italian context and the scales were found consistent with the original structure. One item was omitted due to a low factor loading, resulting in a final 17-item structure. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis showed that the factor solution was invariant across both gender and occupational category and found evidence of metric invariance, uniqueness and scalar invariance, and structural invariance. Convergent and discriminant validity were also tested and showed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0668.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: airlift; job performance; doctor; helicopter; RPISD
Online: 11 October 2023 (05:05:59 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a medical helicopter air transport training program for emergency medical personnel. The program was developed according to Rapid Prototyping Instructional System Design (RPISD) and finalized after content validity and usability evaluation. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated using a single-arm pre-post design to measure the performance of 11 convenience-sampled emergency medical technicians after the program was applied. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 26.0 Program and Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. The results of this study are summarized as follows. First, the developed doctor helicopter air transport training program applied RPISD, and the development stage was divided into analysis, design and usability evaluation, and development stages; the final program was derived. Secondly, the developed medical helicopter air transport training program is composed of a blended learning training program that combines online theory lectures and offline simulations for a total of 8 sessions. Third, as a result of applying the developed doctor helicopter air transport training program to 11 emergency medical workers, both pre- and post-air transport subjective job performance and objective job performance were statistically significantly increased. The Dr. Helicopter air transport training program developed in this study was found to be a program that can sufficiently evaluate the job performance of emergency medical personnel in air transport. Through this study, we hope that this training program can directly contribute to improving the survival rate of critically ill patients in the actual air transport field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0435.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: acceleration parameters; chair-rise; performance test
Online: 8 October 2023 (08:13:04 CEST)
Acceleration parameters in sit-to-stand (STS) movements are useful for measuring lower-limb function in older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between acceleration in STS movements and physical function and the test-retest reliability of acceleration parameters in older adults. We performed cross-sectional analyses on 244 older adults including 107 men (mean age:77.4±4.7) and 137 women (mean age: 75.6±5.3). Four acceleration parameters were measured in STS movements: maximum acceleration (MA), maximum velocity (MV), maximum power (MP), and stand-up time (ST). Good intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC>0.70) were observed for all parameters. For the acceleration parameters, MA, MV, and MP were relatively strongly associated with the 5-time STS test (men: r=-0.36~-0.47; women: r=-0.37~-0.45) and the Timed up and Go test (men: r=-0.39~0.47, women: r=-0.43~-0.51): MP was also strongly associated with grip strength (men: r=0.48, women: r=0.43). All acceleration parameters were poorer in participants reporting mobility limitations than in those reporting no mobility limitations. These findings support the usefulness of sensor-based STS measurement. The system is expected to be useful in various settings where care prevention is addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0142.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: immunology; growth performance; nutrition; microbiology; hematology
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:33:34 CEST)
The aim of this paper was to test isolated and pre-selected bacteria strains from Nile tilapia intestinal mucus, collected in Brazilian commercial fish farming, to use as probiotics in the feeding. The variable were growth performance, hematology, microbiology and immunology. These strains were submitted to in vitro inhibition tests of pathogenic bacteria. Then, they were identified by PCR and sequencing, and comparing using the BLAST software. The experiment was carried out in the Fisheries Institute, Sao Paulo, Brazil, for 84 days, following the randomized experiment design with seven treatments and three replicates (21 experimental units): T0 – control, T1 – Bacillus velezensis, T2 – Bacillus pumilus, T3 – Bacillus subtilis, T4 –Enterococcus hirae T5 – Enterococcus faecium and T6 – mix of bacteria strains used to this experiment. The variables analyzed were: growth performance, DGGE (Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), phagocytes respiratory burst activity, hematology and bromatology. As result, the bacteria strains B. pumilus (T2) and all bacteria mix (T6), included in Nile tilapia diet, promoted better biomass values, with similar feed conversion rate of control group (p<0,05). Apparently, the microorganisms use does not affect the health and well-fare of the fish. The hematology index, except basophils and thrombocytes numbers do not demonstrated differences among the groups, as well as glycemia, lactate level, respiratory burst and lysozyme activities. In conclusion, the isolated and pre-selected bacteria from intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia, B. pumilus (T2) and mix (T6 - B. velezensis, B. pumilus, B. subtilis, E. hirae and E. faecium) improve the growth performance and may be used as probiotics for Nile tilapia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1839.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reclaimed asphalt mixture; roundness; road performance
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:22:29 CEST)
Recycled asphalt mixture is a material remixed with old asphalt recycled material (RAP) and new aggregate, and its application is of great significance in environmental protection.Due to the wear and tear of the old asphalt mixture, the road performance of the recycled asphalt mixture will decrease. This paper uses IPP software to obtain the shape characteristics of the old and new aggregates, and found that the roundness of the old aggregate of 9.5mm-16mm is the most serious wear. Therefore, the 30% RAP, and the influence of the roundness of the recycled asphalt mixture on the road performance is studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1542.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Independent board member; financial performance; ESG
Online: 22 August 2023 (10:14:55 CEST)
This paper examines the relationship between the ratio of independent board member to the financial performance of the company under the mediation of the three pillars of environment, society, and governance (ESG) in Taiwan. The study addresses a research gap between independent directors and corporate financial performance, an issue that is rarely discussed today. The author develops the hypotheses and tests them by applying panel data regression to the data tables taken from the Thomson Reuters Eikon database to analyze data on 173 Taiwanese companies that reported ESG from 2009 to 2021. The results show that the relationship between the ratio of independent directors and financial performance has a positive relationship. At the same time, the 3 pillars of ESG also clearly show the intermediary role in this relationship. Finally, this study provides additional insights into the relationship between the ratio of independent directors and financial performance in the Taiwan context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1093.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: government support; corporate entrepreneurship; innovation performance
Online: 15 August 2023 (11:42:20 CEST)
The study of the effect of corporate entrepreneurship(CE) which is a key indicator of success in corporate innovation performance(IP) is a central research topic. However, an empirical study on whether various types of government support(GS) have a moderating effect between these two variables is of new interest. This study empirically analyzed the effects of CE on IP and analyzed the indirect effects of GS on CE and IP based on 4000 Korean manufacturing firms. The results showed that all five factors of CE (innovativeness, risk-taking, proactiveness, autonomy, and competitive aggressiveness) had a positive effect on IP. In addition, the moderating effect of GS on the relationship between CE and IP was validated in seven categories: taxation, subsidies, financial support, human resources, technology, certification, and procurement. The results showed that five types of GS, other than financial support and technical support, strengthened the effect of CE on IP. This study provides a basis for establishing a strategy for strengthening organizational entrepreneurship and for selecting and focusing on various types of GS. It can be concluded that for more effective government support policies, direct government financial support or technical support should be more elaborately implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Sports Nutrition; Dietary Supplements; Athletic Performance
Online: 16 January 2023 (01:29:53 CET)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effect of caffeine supplementation on performance in official soccer matches. In double-blind, randomized crossover design, 13 professional soccer players performed two complete matches, with Caffeine (CAF) (6 mg/kg) and placebo (PLA) supplementation. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that there was no effect of supplementation on the total distance covered (p = 0.536; ŋp² =0.033) or the total distance covered at different speeds (p = 0.453; ŋp² = 0.048), acceleration or deceleration (p = 0.387; ŋp² = 0.063) number of sprints (p = 0.521; µ² = 0.035) Heart Rate mean (p = 0.484; ŋp² = 0.042) Heart Rate maximum (p = 0.110; ŋp² = 0.199), Rate Perceived Effort (p = 0.151) or efficiency index (p = 0.480). Therefore, acute caffeine supplementation not effective to increase the performance of soccer players in official matches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0088.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Academic performance; Machine Learning; RBFNN; psychomotor
Online: 6 July 2022 (05:09:31 CEST)
Introduction: Academic success is primary goal of every student. It is described as the extent to which a student has successfully achieved his or her short and long-term educational goals. Several factors have been established to predict academic performance of students. Machine learning techniques have been employed in predicting students’ performance, but it has not been prevalent in developing countries like Nigeria and most studies did not consider class teachers’ end-of-the-year rating. Aim: The aim of this work is to develop a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) for prediction of secondary school students’ performance. Materials and Methods: We obtained data from school repository containing students’ raw score and classteachers’ rating from year one to year six. The data was labelled into pass or fail given the actual outcome of their examinations. Subjects were categorized into Mathematics, English and major, depending on the student’s specialization. Class-teachers’ ratings were also included in the dataset. The preprocessed dataset was used to train the RBFNN model. The impact of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also measured. Results: We set up four experiments in order to achieve our aim. The best result gave the sensitivity of 93.49%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 86.59% and an AUC score of 94%. Other experiments gave a relatively low performance. Conclusion: This study helps students to get a projection of academic success even before sitting for the examination. This will also help parents and counsellors in knowing the direction of their counseling to each student. Teachers and parents should pay attention to class teacher ratings of the students as this is discovered to affect the prediction accuracy of their examination success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0519.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Network; Graph theory; Soccer; Performance analysis
Online: 27 August 2021 (11:30:10 CEST)
Formation in soccer is among the most important tactical choices for a successful match.Herein, the simulations of 420000 match-plays have been performed varying the formation, the number of opponents that are actively pressing the team, the speed of the opponents in attempting a pass interception. Dribbling has been neglected. The match-play ends either with a successful series of passes from a central back to the line of the strikers or with the opponents that steal the ball. In this work, I demonstrate that 3-4-3 formation, which is among the most employed formations, relates to the highest probability of success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0140.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: K-Mean, Mean-Shift, Performance, Accuracy
Online: 5 August 2021 (11:00:32 CEST)
Clustering, or otherwise known as cluster analysis, is a learning problem that takes place without any human supervision. This technique has often been utilized, much efficiently, in data analysis, and serves for observing and identifying interesting, useful, or desired patterns in the said data. The clustering technique functions by performing a structured division of the data involved, in similar objects based on the characteristics that it identifies. This process results in the formation of groups, and each group that is formed, is called a cluster. A single said cluster consists of objects from the data, that have similarities among other objects found in the same cluster, and resemble differences when compared to objects identified from the data that now exist in other clusters. The process of clustering is very significant in various aspects of data analysis, as it determines and presents the intrinsic grouping of objects present in the data, based on their attributes, in a batch of unlabeled raw data. A textbook or otherwise said, good criteria, does not exist in this method of cluster analysis. That is because this process is so different and so customizable for every user, that needs it in his/her various and different needs. There is no outright best clustering algorithm, as it massively depends on the user’s scenario and needs. This paper is intended to compare and study two different clustering algorithms. The algorithms under investigation are k-mean and mean shift. These algorithms are compared according to the following factors: time complexity, training, prediction performance and accuracy of the clustering algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0424.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: ImageJ; Kymograph; Cardiac Performance; Zebrafish; Daphnia
Online: 21 October 2020 (09:31:42 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. This condition resulted in huge research on CVD increasing the need for animal models suitable for the in vivo research. Daphnia and Zebrafish are good animal models for cardiovascular research due to their relative body transparency and easy culture property. Several methods have been developed to conduct cardiac performance measurement in Daphnia and Zebrafish. However, most of the methods only able to obtain heartbeat rate. The other important cardiac endpoints like stroke volume, ejection fraction, fraction shortening, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity must use other programs for measurement. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we successfully developed a one-stop ImageJ-based method using kymograph macros language that able to obtain multiple cardiac performance endpoints simultaneously for the first time. To validate its utility, we incubate Daphnia magna at different ambient temperatures and exposed zebrafish with astemizole to detect the corresponding cardiac performance alterations. In summary, the kymograph method reported in this study provides a new, easy to use, and inexpensive one-stop method on obtaining multiple cardiac performance endpoints with high accuracy and convenience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0358.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: healthcare sector; financial performance; public hospitals
Online: 16 July 2020 (13:27:46 CEST)
Hospital indebtedness is a complex and very diverse phenomenon. Thus, the goal of this study is the comparison of the financial performance of public hospitals in accordance with their ownership and size. The results of the research lead to the conclusion that the vast majority of public hospitals are indebted, and their ownership structure does not affect their financial condition. What is more, the statistical analysis depicted that large Marshall hospitals are less indebted than poviat-commune ones. In the group of medium-size hospitals, the situation was the opposite. Moreover, the study did not confirm the significant relationship between the size or ownership and the financial status of the hospital. The analysis conducted in the article is aimed at filling in the gap in studies comparing the indebtedness between different types of public hospitals.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: imaging; CMOS; camera; SNR; noise; performance
Online: 9 October 2018 (09:38:23 CEST)
Expensive cameras meant for research applications are usually characterized by the manufacturers and detailed specifications  are available for them. Suppliers of inexpensive cameras usually do not provide such detailed information about their cameras. This data set provides the acquisition speed and noise characteristics acquired from a monochrome 1.2 megapixel CMOS camera, the QHY5L-II M . The source code provided along with this data set  can also be used to acquire similar data for other QHY cameras. This enables the use of such cost-effective cameras for other scientific applications in other fields, beyond the designed use in Astronomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Shadings; Thermal Performance; Iwan; experimental; EnergyPlus
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:49:55 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of an exterior shading element (Iwan) on energy consumption in four different climatic regions, and for different geographical directions, has been investigated numerically and experimentally. By applying different materials and techniques and creating various elements and spaces, architects make hard climatic conditions more tolerable for residents. Iwan is one of the cooling elements which is used in different forms and dimensions in the Islamic architecture. In the present research, Iwan has been introduced as a climatic element in traditional and contemporary architectures and its role in reducing the energy consumption in buildings has been studied. In this respect, first, the thermal loads of a building without Iwan are computed by means of EnergyPlus software. Then, four different forms of Iwan are added to the above-mentioned structure along the four principal geographical directions, and the effect of Iwan on the reduction of thermal loads is analyzed for four different climates. Finally, the design parameters of Iwan, in terms of depth and form, that can help reduce the thermal loads in different climatic conditions are presented. The results show that the best position for using an Iwan is the south direction and the use of Iwan in temperate & humid, hot & humid, cold & mountainous and hot & dry climates could reduce the energy consumption in buildings by 32%, 26%, 14%, and 29%, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: judo; martial art; combat sport; open-skill exercise; brain function; physical performance; cognitive performance; old adults
Online: 28 June 2023 (10:27:53 CEST)
Judo is a popular Japanese martial art and an Olympic sport. Recently, an increasing interest has been observed in the application of judo as a multicomponent exercise, with a growing body of evidence showing that multicomponent exercise improves physical and cognitive performance in older adults. Therefore, this review highlights the benefits of judo training in preventing physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Specifically, first, this review outlines the basic characteristics of judo (philosophy, match, and training). Next, previous studies investigating the effects of judo training on physical and cognitive aspects of older adults are reviewed. Thereafter, the brain mechanisms underlying the effects of judo training in improving physical and cognitive performance are discussed. Throughout this review, judo training demonstrated some positive effects on physical (gait and balance, among others) and cognitive (memory and executive function) function in older adults. These positive effects are attributed to a variety of changes in the brain (e.g., increased neurotrophic factor expression and increased cerebral blood flow, among others), that affect different brain regions and networks both functionally and structurally. From these findings, this review concludes that judo training can be an effective way to maintain and prevent physical and cognitive decline in older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: winglets; lift-induced drag; wing tip device; non-planar lifting surface; performance optimization; aircraft performance; regional aircraft
Online: 9 June 2019 (03:48:26 CEST)
An increasing number of aircraft is equipped with wing tip devices, which either are installed by the aircraft manufacturer at the production line or are retrofitted after the delivery of the aircraft to its operator. Installation of wing tip devices has not been a popular choice for regional turboprop aircraft and the novelty of the current study is to investigate the feasibility of retrofitting the British Aerospace (BAe) Jetstream 31 with an appropriate wing tip device (or winglet) to increase its cruise range performance, taking also into account the aerodynamic and structural impact of the implementation. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, no previous study exists which has attempted to assess the winglet retrofit of an existing aircraft type of similar size and operating profile. The optimal winglet design achieved a 2.38% increase of the maximum range by reducing the total drag by 1.19% at a mass penalty of 3.25%, as compared with the baseline aircraft configuration. Other designs were found to be more effective in reducing the total drag, but the structural reinforcement required for their implementation outweighed the achieved performance improvements. Since successful winglet retrofit programs for typical short to medium range narrow body aircraft report even more than 3% of block fuel improvements, undertaking the project of installing an optimal winglet design to the BAe Jetstream 31, should also consider a Direct Operating Cost (DOC) assessment on top of the aerodynamic and structural aspects of the retrofit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0907.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: capacity building; evaluation framework; Key Performance Indicators
Online: 14 November 2023 (11:58:55 CET)
European cities are motivated to act towards the achievement of climate-neutral mobility solutions. Often, though, they are facing many challenges when bringing (innovative) sustainable mobility solutions forward. Capacity building that fills skills gap and/or enables acquisition of new ones related to the planning and implementation of such solutions can empower local/ regional authorities to identify them, adopt them and eventually deliver them properly. The aim of this paper is to present the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) framework that has been used for the assessment of the effectiveness of the Learning and Exchange Programme applied in an EU-funded project. It presents the methodological steps for the adoption of the KPIs, as well as the tools used for the selection of the KPI data and the KPI monitoring at project level. It also presents the results from the application of the framework for assessing the knowledge performance towards the deployment of sustainable mobility solutions. It finally reflects on recommendations for applying the KPI framework to other cases and thematic contents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0682.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: HPPT; Performance; Standalone; Management Method; DC PVWPS
Online: 10 November 2023 (07:51:19 CET)
This research article aims to present implementation and evaluation of the HPPT design based on using multi-parallel pumps switching for yielding performance with reference to potential change of daily irradiance. After that, the curve fitting of the hydraulic performance scenarios is tested to compare the hydraulic energy growth behaviors with reference to exponential and power growth models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0638.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: probiotic; production; intestinal health; performance; intestinal flora
Online: 9 November 2023 (13:36:32 CET)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of probiotics obtained from agro-industrial substrates fermented with lactic acid bacteria and/or yeasts on the health and changes in the microbiota of the digestive tract of guinea pigs. Eighty male guinea pigs, Kuri breed, 30 days old and 250 g live weight, were randomly selected and divided into four groups of 20 animals each. T0, Control, T1, Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. bulgaricus. T2, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces fragilis and T3. L acidophilus, L bulgariccus, S cerevisiae and K. fragilis. T1, T2 and T3 contained molasses-vinasse substrate in their base, the dose administered was 0.75 mL/animal orally. The parameters evaluated were weight gain, occurrence of diarrhea and mortality, blood profile, macroscopic lesions in the digestive tract organs and changes in the microbiota of the stomach, caecum, small and large intestine. Treatments T1, T2 and T3 improved weight gain (p<0.05) and reduced the presence of guinea pigs with diarrhea (p<0.05) and there was no mortality; hematic indices did not vary significantly (p>0.05) between treatments; animals in the control group presented a greater amount (p<0.05) of macroscopic lesions in the digestive tract organs; in the T1, T2 and T3 group there was an improvement in the natural microbiota. It is concluded that the inclusion of microbial additive in young guinea pigs improves intestinal health, consequently, improves weight gain, reduces diarrhea and deaths, and normalizes the natural microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1871.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: ESG performance; auditor choice; audit opinion; Egypt
Online: 30 October 2023 (10:30:41 CET)
Purpose –This study examines the effect of ESG performance on auditor choice and audit opinion for Egyptian-listed firms. Design/methodology/approach – We use univariate and multivariate analyses of 612 firm-year observations for a sample of 68 firms listed on EGX100 over 2012-2022 using binary logistic regression models. Findings – Consistent with the ethical perspective of corporate social responsibility, we found that firms listed in the ESG index are more likely to assign one of the Big4 auditors, and less likely to receive a qualified opinion. In addition, we find that COVID-19 moderates the relationship between ESG performance, auditor choice, and audit opinion. Originality/value – Our results contribute to the growing interest in the implications of ESG performance for audit practices in emerging economies. Implications: This research has important implications for investors, the audit profession, firms, and regulators in Egypt. It provides substantial evidence that ESG performance can enhance financial reporting quality. Further, it indicates that binding guidelines and regulations are crucial to oversee corporate ESG performance, especially during crisis time to enhance investors’ protection and firms’ sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1612.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; IoT; performance; energy; neural networks
Online: 25 October 2023 (08:54:39 CEST)
Transfer learning has proven to be a valuable technique for deploying machine learning models on edge devices and embedded systems. By leveraging pre-trained models and fine-tuning them on specific tasks, practitioners can effectively adapt existing models to the constraints and requirements of their application. In the process of adapting an existing model, a practitioner may make adjustments to the model architecture, including the input layers, output layers, and intermediate layers. In this study, we examine the effects of these adjustments on the runtime and energy performance of an edge processor performing inferences. Based on our observations, we make recommendations for how to adjust convolutional neural networks during transfer learning to maintain runtime performance. We observe that the Edge TPU is generally more efficient than a CPU at performing inferences on convolutional neural networks, and continues to outperform a CPU as the depth and width of the convolutional network increases. We explore multiple strategies for adjusting the input and output layers of an existing model and demonstrate important performance cliffs for practitioners to consider when modifying a convolutional neural network model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0640.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Wnt signaling; inflammation; muscle performance; sex difference
Online: 10 October 2023 (11:54:38 CEST)
The importance of various markers such as sclerostin, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), Irisin, receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), and Vitamin D have been well studied in bone metabolism. Additionally, inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukine-6 (IL-6) have been identified to hinder muscle protein synthesis, leading to the loss of muscle and strength. However, a research gap exists in the understanding their role in muscle function and physical activity. Therefore, this study aims to explore the serum levels of sclerostin, DKK-1, irisin, IL-6, RANKL, Vitamin D, and TNF-α and assess their relationships with upper and lower body strength in young adults. In this study, 38 college-aged students 18-23 years participated and completed the protocols. The participants’ lower and upper body strength were assessed by the vertical jump test (Just Jump, Probotic, AL) with a Tendo FitroDyne (Tendo Sports Machines, Trencin, Slovak Republic) and handgrip (HG) dynamometry (Takei Scientific Instruments, Yashiroda, Japan), respectively. Fasting morning blood samples were analyzed for serum levels of the biomarkers by ELISA. The results indicate significant sex differences in sclerostin, DKK-1, irisin, and vitamin D levels (p<0.05). Furthermore, a positive association was observed between sclerostin, DKK-1, and vitamin D, with lower body muscle performance variables (p<0.05). Conversely, a significant negative correlation was observed between TNF-α and upper-body muscle performance variables (p<0.05). The results suggest that these markers may have a distinct effect on muscle performance, underscoring the need for further investigation to elucidate the concept of muscle-bone crosstalk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0465.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: HPPT; Performance; Standalone; Management Method; DC PVWPS
Online: 7 September 2023 (09:22:47 CEST)
This paper provides a new management method (MM) to optimally operate standalone direct current (DC) photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) and synchronize its hydraulic performance to variable daily irradiance. The proposed approach well considers the issues from PV generator and a positive displacement pump mismatching to deserve a hydraulic network. Accordingly, Management Method uses small pumps mounted in parallel scheme to displace the hydraulic power point (HPP) in order to satisfy the mal adequacy between supply and load. Based on experimental Study; this approach showed a yielded standalone system, possibility of running pumping system using only photovoltaic supply (Without use of capacitance), and possibility to design more economical PV systems as the maximum peak power demand for each month can be satisfied using small power pumps in parallel and adjusting their switch with accordance to varying daily irradiance. Moreover, an analytical model was developed with reference to the obtained experimental results. This model based on a daily occurring irradiance as inputs in order to predict optimal performance outputs. It can be considered as a decision tool to track power point resulting from optimal electrical and hydraulic performances of the pumping system according to changes of the daily irradiance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1453.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Discourteous Behavior; Extra-role performance; Emotions; Hardiness
Online: 21 August 2023 (10:02:34 CEST)
This study examined the effect of colleagues uncivil behavior on extra-role performance of teachers. The study further explored the mediating role of emotional exhaustion to intensify the effect. In parallel, moderation of psychological hardiness to absorb the negative shocks was also determined. For examining the direct, mediating, and moderating effects, primary data were collected through mailed questionnaires. To overcome the issues of common method biases, dyadic and time lagged approaches were used for collection of data. Responses were collected in three phases, with appropriate time intervals. Data of independent, mediating, and moderating variables were collected from teachers while of dependent variable form their immediate supervisors, i.e. HoDs. The study found a significant effect of colleagues’ discourteous behavior on extra-role performance of victims at job. Significant mediation of emotional exhaustion in the effect was also observed. In the meantime, hardiness of targets absolutely moderated the effect to minimize the associated consequences. Based on results, several policy implication and interventions were suggested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0993.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Necrotic enteritis; saponin; chicken; performance; tight junctions
Online: 14 June 2023 (05:36:32 CEST)
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an intestinal disease that results in poor performance, inefficient nu-trient absorption, and has a devastating economic impact on poultry production. This study evaluated the effects of a saponin-based product (Clarity Q [CQ]) during a NE challenge. A to-tal of 1,200 male chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (10 pens/treatment; 30 birds/pen): treatment 1 (NC): a non-medicated corn-soybean basal diet; treatment 2 (PC) NC + 50 g/metric ton (MT) of Bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD); treatments 3 (CQ15) and 4 (CQ30) NC + 15 and 30 g/MT, respectively. On day (d) of placement, birds were challenged by a coccidia vaccine to induce NE. On d 8, 14, 28, and 42, performance parameters were measured. On d 8, three birds/pen were necropsied for NE lesions. On d 8 and d 14, jejunum samples from one bird/pen were collected for mRNA abundance of tight junction proteins and nutrient trans-porter genes. Data were analyzed in JMP (JMP Pro, 16) and significance (P ≤ 0.05) between treatments identified by Fisher’s least significant difference (LSD) test. Compared to PC and NC, CQ15 had higher average daily gain (ADG), while CQ30 had lower average daily feed in-take (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). NE lesions in the duodenum were lower in CQ15 compared to all other treatments. On d 8, mRNA abundance of CLDN1, CLDN5, AMPK, PepT2, GLUT2, and EAAT3 were significantly greater in CQ30 (P < 0.05) compared to both PC and NC. On d 14, mRNA abundance of ZO2 and PepT2 was significantly lower in PC when compared to all treatments, while that of ANXA1, JAM3, and GLUT5 was comparable to CQ15. In summary, adding Clarity Q to broiler diets has the potential to alleviate adverse effects caused by this enteric disease by improving performance, reducing intestinal lesions, and positively modulating the mRNA abundance of various tight junction proteins and key nutrient transporters during peak NE infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: emotions; emotional intelligence; intellectual performance; learning; stress
Online: 16 May 2023 (08:57:25 CEST)
Emotional instability and stress are main disturbances that condition the learning process, affecting both teachers and students. The main objective of this review is to analyze the influence of stress and emotions (as part of stress) on the learning process. The quality and intensity of emotions will not depend exclusively on a particular situation, but also on the subjective evaluation that the person makes of the situation in terms of a set of assessment dimensions. Emotions lead to sentimental, cognitive, behavioral and physiological changes, which will have a strong influence on intellectual performance. Stress is a physiological mechanism that the organism develops to adapt and survive in external and internal environments. Although it seems that it is a general pattern of response to emotions, it could be assumed that each emotion seems to have its own pattern of physiological reaction. In conclusion, extreme stress situations can generate anxiety and frustration in students. The activation of coping strategies constitutes a key mechanism for dealing positively with problems and challenges, generating positive emotions essential for the self-regulation of learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0744.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Motivation; Project performance; Motivational techniques; Employee turnover
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:01:29 CEST)
In order to remain competitive in the highly competitive construction industry, it is crucial for construction organizations to continually improve their overall performance, as project performance is a key determinant of their relevance. Despite the industry's competitiveness and risk, it has been reported that the construction industry has the lowest return margins compared to other industries (Jackson, 1999), suggesting that the project performance of construction organizations in the industry has not been up to par. This issue can be attributed to several factors, with motivation being the primary factor. Unfortunately, motivation is often disregarded in the construction industry due to the short duration of many construction projects and the high rate of employee turnover. The impact of employee dissatisfaction and related work attitudinal problems on performance in the construction industry is a matter of concern, particularly in developing countries where working conditions may be unappealing. The severity of this issue cannot be overstated.The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of motivational techniques in enhancing project performance in Nigeria. The study employed a survey research design and targeted the management staff of construction firms in Lagos State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was used to collect data, and the respondents were purposively selected from the population. Data analysis was conducted using percentage, mean ranking, and chi-square. The findings reveal that the opportunity to learn new skills, with a mean score of 0.85, and wage increment, with a mean score of 0.82, were the most widely adopted motivational techniques for management staff and skilled labor, respectively, in construction firms. Additionally, the study found that most of the motivational schemes tested did not produce statistically significant results, indicating low adoption and limited effectiveness in enhancing project performance. As a result, it is suggested that construction companies in Nigeria should implement and enforce financial and non-financial incentives to enhance the performance of their employees and consequently, improve project performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0014.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning; Fog layer; Heartrate; Performance; IoT
Online: 1 December 2022 (08:07:47 CET)
This work focused on the evaluation of some machine learning (ML) models and their application in e-health, using intermediate nodes within an Internet of Things (IoT) platform used for heartbeat anomaly detection. For the evaluation of ML models, a set of statistical validation metrics was selected. These metrics were applied in the training, testing and validation phases of the models. The results obtained can determine relevant factors for the selection of ML models, either based on the statistical and intrinsic efficiency of the ML models, or on their suitability to be implemented in intermediate nodes within an IoT platform. the more Lightweight models such as Simple Linear Regression, Logistic Regression, and K Nearest Neighbors, could easily operate in intermediate nodes, and they are models that require low processing and storage to work. In conclusion, the approach for intermediate nodes of Internet of Things platforms using cognitive networks decreases the processing cost in cloud computing and transfers it to the fog layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: atmospheric propagation; communication system performance; attenuation; communication
Online: 29 July 2022 (11:15:18 CEST)
6G is already being planned and will employ much higher frequencies, leading to a revolutionary era in communication between people as well as things. It is well known that weather, especially rain, can cause increased attenuation of signal transmission for higher frequencies. The standard methods for evaluating the effect of rain on symbol error rate are based on long-term averaging. These methods are an inaccurate, which results with an inefficient system design. This is critical regarding bandwidth scarcity and energy consumption and requires a more significant margin of effort to cope with the imprecision. Recently we have developed a new and more precise method for calculating communication system performance in case of rain, using the probability density function of rain rate. For high rain rate (above 10mm/hr), for a typical set of parameters, our method shows the symbol error rate in this range to be higher by orders of magnitude than that found by ITU standard methods. Our model also indicates that sensing and measuring the rain rate probability is important in order to provide the required bit error rate to the users. To the best knowledge of the authors, this novel analysis is unique. It can constitute a more effi-cient performance metric for the new era of 6G communication and prevent disruption due to incorrect system design. Keywords: atmospheric propagation, communication system performance, attenuation, com-munication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: anxiety; low participation; mother tongue; speaking performance
Online: 7 May 2022 (05:36:27 CEST)
The goal of classroom English instruction is to educate students on how to use the English language effectively for communication in any scenario. It is identified by presenting various teaching tactics and speaking activities to encourage students to participate more actively in conversations. The study intended to identify the problems in the speaking performance of Grade 8 Jade in Tagum City National High School. The study was conducted using a quantitative non-experimental descriptive survey method. Results revealed that the problems in speaking performance have garnered a mean of 3.20 (moderate) as descriptive equivalent and it was found out that the prevailing speaking problem is anxiety with a mean of 3.84, interpreted as high. Thus, an intervention program is designed to address the problems in the speaking performance of the respondents. This program is divided into two: Overcoming Speaking Anxiety Seminar-Workshop and Speaking Enhancement Activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ATO; Performance Evaluation; Scenario-based Testing; Simulation
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:42:05 CET)
There is increasing interest in automating train operations of mainline services, e.g. to increase network capacity. Automatic train operation (ATO) is already achieved by several pilot projects, but not implemented on a large scale. Before the general introduction of new or adapted technologies can have a transformative effect on the operation of such a complex system as train operation on mainlines, they have to pass functional, interoperability and performance tests. A virtual preliminary analysis is one way to ensure a smooth as well as safe introduction and implementation. This paper aims to present an approach that applies to the performance testing of ATO systems. Therefore, methods and test standards for technologies enabling automatic operation in other transport sectors are reviewed. The main findings have been adapted, transformed and combined to be used as a general strategy for virtual performance testing in the railway sector. Specifically, universal performance indicators, namely punctuality, accuracy, energy consumption, safety and comfort, are presented. A layer model for scenario description is adapted from the automotive sector, as well as the definition of different scenario types. Lastly, factors that can influence the performance of an ATO algorithm are identified. To demonstrate the developed approach, a straightforward investigation of a case study is conducted using a microscopic train simulator in combination with an ATO algorithm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0151.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: high-performance; heritable; multi-environments; credibility interval
Online: 10 February 2022 (11:14:21 CET)
The giant challenge breeding flood-irrigated rice is to identify superior genotypes that present high-yielding with specific grain qualities, resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, excellent adaptation to the target environment. Thus, the objectives of this study were to propose a bayesian multi-trait model, estimate genetic parameters, and select flood-irrigated rice genotypes with better genetic potentials in different evaluation environments. For this, twenty-five rice genotypes belonging to the flood-irrigated rice improvement program were evaluated. The grain yields, grain length, width and thickness, grain length, and grain width and weight of 100 grains in the agricultural year 2016/2017. The experimental design used in all experiments was a randomized block design with three replications. The Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithm estimated genetic parameters and genetic values. The grain thickness trait was considered highly heritable, with a credibility interval ranging from: h^2: 0.9480; 0.9440; 0.8610, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The grain yields showed a low correlation estimate between grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in all environments, with a credibility interval ranging from (ρ= 0.5477; 0.5762; 0.5618 and 0.5973; 0.5247; 0.5632, grain thickness and 100-grain weight, in environments 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The Bayesian multi-trait model proved to be an adequate strategy for the genetic improvement of flood-irrigated. Genotypes 2 and 15 had similar potential in the three environments, they should be selected as high-performance multi-trait genotypes for the genetic breeding of flood-irrigated rice in the program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0511.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: real sea surface; object detection; performance detection
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:16:15 CET)
The video images captured at long range usually have low contrast floating objects of interest on a sea surface. A comparative experimental study of the statistical characteristics of reflections from floating objects and from the agitated sea surface showed the difference in the correlation and spectral characteristics of these reflections. The functioning of the recently proposed modified matched subspace detector (MMSD) is based on the separation of the observed data spectrum on two subspaces: relatively low and relatively high frequencies. In the literature the MMSD performance has been evaluated in generally and moreover using only a sea model (additive Gaussian background clutter). This paper extends the performance evaluating methodology for low contrast object detection and moreover using only the real sea dataset. This methodology assumes an object of low contrast if the mean and variance of the object and the surrounding background are the same. The paper assumes that the energy spectrum of the object and the sea are different. The paper investigates a scenario in which an artificially created model of a floating object with specified statistical parameters is placed on the surface of a real sea image. The paper compares the efficiency of the classical Matched Subspace Detector (MSD) and MMSD for detecting low-contrast objects on the sea surface. The article analyzes the dependence of the detection probability at a fixed false alarm probability on the difference between the statistical means and variances of a floating object and the surrounding sea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:40:53 CET)
The article presents an original method to assess the sustainability of concrete. The method uses three parameters, namely: performance, lifetime and environmental impact, to calculate a sustainability index. The originality and the simplicity of the proposed method presented in the article consists in the fact that by applying the relation to determine the sustainability index, the first two factors service life and performance are constant. This approach is possible in the context of the new proposals to specify the durability of structural concrete in EN 1992 and EN 206. That allows classification of concrete according to its performance, through Environmental action Resistance Classes (ERC). For this purpose, specific experimental methods were used in order to determine the performance of concrete exposed to carbonation. The concretes were prepared with two cement types with additions (CEM II / A-S and CEM II / A-M (S-LL)). Based on the carbonation resistance classes (the first constant - the performance) and exposure classes, the thickness of the concrete cover layer was determined to ensure a certain service lifetime (second constant - the service lifetime). Finally, the global warming potential was calculated for each composition, consequently allowing the users of the method, to select the compositions with the lowest impact on the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0400.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: gauging weirs; impact; swimming performance; hydraulic barriers
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:05:33 CET)
The monitoring of river discharge is vital for the correct management of water resources. A worldwide facility used for measuring discharge are flat-V gauging weirs. These structures consist of a small weir, with a triangular cross-section and a flat “V”-shaped notch. Their extensive use is a consequence of their utility in the measurement of both low and high flow conditions. However, depending on their size, local morphology and river discharge can act as full or partial hydraulic barriers to fish migration. To give answer to this question, the present work studies fish passage performance over flat-V weirs considering their hydraulic performance. For this, radio-tracking and video monitoring observations were combined with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models in two flat-V weirs, using Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) as target species. Results show that fish passage is conditioned by both hydraulic and behavioral processes, providing evidences about the scenarios where flat-V weirs may act as full or partial barriers to upstream movements. For the studied flat-V weirs, a discharge range of 0.27-8 m3/s, with a water drop difference between upstream and downstream water levels lower than 0.7 m and a depth downstream the weir higher than 0.30 m can be considered as an effective passage situation for barbels. These findings are of interest to quantify flat-V weir impacts, for engineering applications and to establish managing or retrofitting actions when required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: sustainability; concrete; assessment; performance; service life; environment.
Online: 12 November 2021 (15:12:23 CET)
This article presents a method to assess the sustainability of concrete based on three elements: service life, performance and environmental impact. The method proposes - to achieve similar performance and service life times, regardless of the component materials used, so that the sustainability assessment ultimately depends on the environmental impact criterion. To this end, specific experimental methods are used to determine the performance of concrete in terms of compressive strength and carbonation resistance for concrete cast with two blended cement types. The procedure needed to classify the concrete through carbonation resistance is detailed, in relationship with the performance obtained for compressive strength. The obtained results highlight the concrete formulations to be used to ensure similar performances regardless of the cement type used. In conclusion, the simplicity in the application of the method, which is closely related to the performance approach on concrete durability in the revision proposals of the European standards, is highlighted. The method is also a useful tool to encourage the widespread use in concrete formulation of blended cements with low environmental impact, without reducing the performance or service life time of the constructions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0030.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: reservoir computing; time series prediction; performance optimisation
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:09:46 CET)
Reservoir computing is a machine learning method that uses the response of a dynamical system to a certain input in order to solve a task. As the training scheme only involves optimising the weights of the responses of the dynamical system, this method is particularly suited for hardware implementation. Furthermore, the inherent memory of dynamical systems which are suitable for use as reservoirs mean that this method has the potential to perform well on time series prediction tasks, as well as other tasks with time dependence. However, reservoir computing still requires extensive task dependent parameter optimisation in order to achieve good performance. We demonstrate that by including a time-delayed version of the input for various time series prediction tasks, good performance can be achieved with an unoptimised reservoir. Furthermore, we show that by including the appropriate time-delayed input, one unaltered reservoir can perform well on six different time series prediction tasks at a very low computational expense. Our approach is of particular relevance to hardware implemented reservoirs, as one does not necessarily have access to pertinent optimisation parameters in physical systems but the inclusion of an additional input is generally possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0140.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: performance; biodegradation; bacterial consortium; marine sponge; PAHs
Online: 8 October 2021 (12:09:30 CEST)
Every petroleum processing industry produces sewage sludge containing several types of poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) components. The degradation of PAH components by physical, biological and chemical methods is not efficient. The use of marine sponge symbiont bacteria is considered an alternative method in the degradation and reduction of PAHs com-pared to the previous method. This study aims to explore the potential and performance of a consortium of sponge symbiont bacteria in degrading anthracene and pyrene. There are three types of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus strain GLB197, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain SLG510A3-8, Acineto-bacter calcoaceticus strain SLCDA 976) were mixed to form a consortium. The interaction between the bacterial consortium suspension and PAH components was measured at 5-day intervals for 25 days. The biodegradation performance of bacteria on PAHs samples was determined based on five biodegradation parameters. The analysis results showed a decrease in the concentration of anthracene (21.89%) and pyrene (7.71%), equivalent to a ratio of 3: 1. The data was followed by a decrease in the abundance of anthracene (60.30%) and pyrene (27.52%), an equivalent ratio of 2: 1. The level of degradation of the pyrene component is lower than that of the anthracene compo-nent, presumably due to the higher toxicity of pyrene and the more stable molecular structure, making it difficult for bacterial cells to destroy it. The biodegradation products are organic compounds of alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acids and a small proportion of aromatic hydrocarbon components. Keywords: performance; biodegradation; bacterial consortium; marine sponge; PAHs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0088.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: innovation; proactivity; financial literacy; economy business performance
Online: 5 October 2021 (15:06:35 CEST)
This study aims to determine the Implication of innovation, proactivity, risk-taking, artistic orientation, and financial literacy on creative economy businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was conducted on 120 creative economy businessmen in Bandar Lampung City, which is a miniature of Indonesia with multiethnic cultures. The results showed innovation is not significant, but proactive attitude, artistic orientation, and financial literacy have a significant implication on the performance of creative economic businesses during the Covid-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0259.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Financial constraints; corporate social responsibility; financial performance
Online: 15 September 2021 (12:43:05 CEST)
This study focuses on a sample of Chinese listed companies from 2019 to 2020 to explore the relationships among corporate social responsibility, financial constraints, and financial performance. In addition, we discuss five factors affecting financial constraints. We also analyze the types of enterprises that can improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility keeping in mind the factors that lead to a high degree of financial constraint. The results indicate that: 1. The degree of financial constraints has a negative and significant impact on financial performance; 2. There is a reverse relationship between the degree of financial constraints and the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility measures; 3. Enterprises with high financial constraints (due to lower financial slack and revenue growth rates) can significantly improve their financial performance through the implementation of effective corporate social responsibility programs. 4. Enterprises with high financial constraints, caused by financial slack and revenue growth rate, can significantly improve their financial performance by implementing corporate social responsibility programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: lizard; autotomy; tail; locomotion; performance; temperature; predation
Online: 7 July 2021 (08:00:27 CEST)
Caudal autotomy is a dramatic adaptation used by many lizard species to evade predators. Most studies to date indicate that caudal autotomy impairs lizard locomotor performance. Surprisingly, some species bearing the longest tails show negligible impacts of caudal autotomy on sprint speed. Part of this variation has been attributed to lineage effects. For the first time, we model the effects of caudal autotomy on the locomotor performance of a gymnophthalmid lizard, Micrablepharus atticolus, characterized by a long and bright blue tail. To improve model accuracy, we incorporated the effects of several covariates. We found that body temperature, pregnancy, mass, collection site, and the length of the regenerated portion of the tail were the most important predictors of locomotor performance in Micrablepharus atticolus. However, sprint speed was unaffected by tail loss. Apparently, the long tail of M. atticolus is more useful when using undulation amidst the leaf litter and not when using quadrupedal locomotion on a flat surface. Our findings highlight the intricate relationships among physiological, morphological, and behavioral traits. We suggest that future studies about the impacts of caudal autotomy among long-tailed lizards should consider the role of different microhabitats/substrates on locomotor performance, using laboratory conditions that closely mimic their natural environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Functional fitness training; athletic performance; exercise testing
Online: 1 June 2021 (12:32:59 CEST)
This study analyzed the relationship between anthropometric measures, cardiorespiratory capacity, strength, power and local muscle endurance with performance in the CrossFit® Open 2020. For this, 17 volunteers (6 women) (29.0 ± 7.2 years; 70.5 ± 9.8 kg) completed, on separate weeks, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), maximal oxygen consumption (2km row test), muscle strength (1RM back and front squat, isometric peak torque), and muscle power (1RM snatch and clean & jerk), and muscle endurance (Tibana test), which were compared with performance during the CrossFit® Open 2020. Multiple linear regression showed that for the CrossFit Open 2020.1 and 2020.2 workouts, the score in the Tibana test was the only variable that explained the outcomes (Beta = -0.78, p < 0.01 for 2020.1 workout and Beta = 0.82, p < 0.01 for 2020.2 workout). Performance in the CrossFit Open 2020.3 and 2020.4 workouts were explained through the relative strength (Beta = 0.58, p = 0.02 for 2020.3 workout and Beta = 0.50, p = 0.04 for 2020.4 workout). Lastly, Tibana test had the greatest influence on CrossFit Open 2020.5 workout (Beta = -0.75, p < 0.01). A local muscle endurance and muscle strength may be used to predict CrossFit® open workout performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: physical activity; sleep; inhibitory performance; mediating effects
Online: 10 May 2021 (11:51:54 CEST)
The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between physical activity (PA) level and inhibitory control performance and then determine whether this association was mediated by multiple sleep parameters (i.e., subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance). Methods. 180 healthy university students (age: 20.15 ± 1.92 years) from the East China Normal University were recruited in the present study. PA level, sleep parameters, and inhibitory control performance were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scale (PSQI), and a Stroop test, respectively. Data were analyzed using structual equation modeling. Results. A higher level of PA was linked to better cognitive performance. Furthermore, higher subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency were associated with better inhibitory control performance. The mediation analysis revealed that subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediated the relationship between PA level and inhibitory control performance. Conclusion. Our results are in accordance with the literature and buttress the idea that a healthy lifestyle that involves a relatively high level of regular PA and adequate sleep patterns is beneficial for cognition (e.g., inhibitory control performance). Furthermore, our study adds to the literature that sleep quality and sleep efficiency mediates the relationship of PA and inhibitory control performance expanding our knowledge in the field of exercise-cognition.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: digestible energy; growth performance; microbiome; metabolome; donkey
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:28:35 CET)
Little information is available regarding the impacts of dietary energy level on the gut microbiota and metabolites of donkeys. This studied aimed to explore the effects of dietary energy content on growth performance, intestinal microbiome and metabolome of Dezhou donkeys. Thirty-six 9-month-old male Dezhou donkeys were assigned to two groups fed low or high content energy diets (LE or HE). Results showed that donkeys fed HE had improved (P < 0.05) the average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G/F), compared with those receiving LE diet. Compared to the LE group, feeding HE specially increased the abundances of unidentified_Prevotellaceae (P = 0.02) while decreased the richness of unidentified_Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.05) of donkeys. Compared to LE group, feeding HE diet significantly (P < 0.05) affected the metabolic pathways involving the aspartate metabolism and urea cycle. In addition, the increased bacteria and metabolites in the HE-fed group exhibited a positive correlation with improved growth performance of donkeys. Taken together, feeding HE diet increased the richness of some specific bacteria and upregulated growth-related metabolic pathways, which contributed to the augmented growth performance of donkeys. Thus, it is a recommendable dietary strategy to feed HE diet to fattening donkey for superior production performance and feed efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0225.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Repeated Sprint Training; Speed Performance; Physiology; Sports
Online: 9 December 2020 (12:20:00 CET)
Background: Interventions with the performance of sessions with sprints in different intensity manipulations, can be a great alternative to improve physical performance. Objective: To verify the influence of different break times between sprints on the performance of amateur futsal athletes Methods: 10 individuals, men, amateur futsal athletes (Age: 21.5 ± 1.6; Weight: 72.4 ± 6.88; Height: 1.72 ± 0.05; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.2; Fat%: 13.7 ± 3.3, VO2peak: 49.1 ± 10.5) participated in the study. For the intervention, individuals were randomly selected to perform sessions with sprints (10 sets 20 meters) with different pause times, being 15 (S15), 30 (S30) and 60 (S60) seconds. For performance analysis, the speed (km / h) applied to each sprint was used, monitored by a device with a photocell (CEFISE Biotecnologia Esportiva®, Nova Odessa, São Paulo) and the statistical treatment of all data was through the software Statistica 7.0 (Statsoft ™, Tulsa, OK, USA) using a significance level of p≤0.05. Results: There was an interaction between speed and interval time (p = 0.000). For condition S15, a greater reduction in performance was observed (p≤0.05), while for S30 and S60, no significant reduction in performance was observed (p> 0.05). The data for the area under the curve showed a significant difference (p = 0.000), where the interval of 60 seconds (S60) was longer compared to the values of 30 (S30) (p = 0.000) and 15 seconds (S15) (p = 0.000). However, there were no significant differences between the 30 and 15 second data (p = 0.248). Conclusion: Shorter time (15 seconds) of interval between repeated sprints can significantly affect performance when compared to longer breaks (30 and 60 seconds). But, all the conditions tested here, can be positive for the improvement of the performance, mainly in sports that demand fast and efficient motor actions, as for example, futsal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0056.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Islamic Bank; Banking Performance; Bibliometric Analysis; Cluster
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:51:16 CET)
Islamic banks (IBs) have been criticized as not being genuinely Islamic, and the methods in measuring their performances have been debatable. While the literature on IBs performance has been emerging, such studies precisely assess its recent development remains absent. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the development of scholarly articles that measure IBs’ performances. We employ bibliometric analysis and sample related articles from the Scopus database. We find that the development of IBs performance literature may be understood by 111 peer-reviewed journal articles, 4 conference papers, 1 book, and 1 book series. We analyze these materials based on publication sources, country and institution affiliation, keywords association, and cluster dendrogram. Our model that quantifies the keywords association and cluster dendrogram provides a novelty in assessing IBs performance literature development. Future studies may replicate our model to cluster and identify the keyword associations from the unstructured data sources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: beef cow welfare; reproductive performance; New Zealand
Online: 6 November 2020 (15:38:20 CET)
One key area where animal welfare may relate to productivity is through reproductive performance. Welfare was assessed on 25 extensively managed pastoral New Zealand beef farms and the relationship between welfare and reproductive performance was explored. Relationships between welfare measures and key reproductive performance indicators (pregnancy rate, weaning rate, mating period and bull: cow ratio) were investigated using an exploratory Principal Components Analysis and linear regression model. Seven welfare measures (thinness, poor rumen fill, dirtiness, blindness, mortality, health checks of pregnant cows and yarding frequency/year) showed potential influence on reproductive performance, and lameness was retained individually as a potential measure. Mean pregnancy rates in both 2018 (PD18) and 2017 (PD17) were ~91% and mean weaning rate was 84%. Of the welfare measures, only lameness had a direct association with pregnancy rate, as well as confounding effect on the association between mating period and pregnancy rate. The bull: cow ration (mean 1:31) and reproductive conditions (dystocia, abortion, vaginal prolapse) did not influence pregnancy and weaning rates. In the study population there was no clear association between welfare and reproductive performance, except for the confounding effects of lameness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0651.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pre-exam anxiety; Poor academic performance; GPA
Online: 30 October 2020 (15:49:21 CET)
Introduction: Exams are a relatively stressful period for all students, especially undergraduate medical students. Exams bring anxiety and stress for the students. Some students experience such high stress that it hinders their academic productivity and reduces their exam performance. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of pre-exam anxiety on the academic performance of medical students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-five final year medical students completed Westside Test Anxiety (WTA) Scale one month before their exams. Grade Point Average (GPA) of these students was noted when the results were announced. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS v 22.0Results: The mean anxiety score on WTA scale was 3.46 ± 0.87. All students (100%) who scored ≤ 2.50 GPA were highly-extremely highly anxious. In the 2.51-3.00 GPA group, 46% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 32% were moderately anxious, and 21% had low to normal anxiety. In the 3.01-3.50 GPA group, 30% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 30% were moderately anxious, and 39% had low to normal anxiety. In the 3.51-4.00 GPA group, 29% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 23% were moderately anxious, and 47% had low to normal anxiety. The correlation coefficient between GPA and test anxiety of students was -.314 which shows inverse relationship.Conclusion: Pre-exam anxiety and stress imparts negative effects on the exam performance of final year medical students. Poor academic performance was associated with high to extremely high pre-exam anxiety while high achievers had relatively lower anxiety levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: combustion engines; thermal efficiency; fuel performance catalysts.
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:09:50 CEST)
The results from laboratory tests and field tests, available in the open literature for over ten years, despite the announcement of high efficiency translating into increased energy efficiency and such significant ecological advantages, have not so far resulted in widespread use of fuel performance catalysts (FPC) on a global scale. Wishing to explain why the above situation occurred and to verify the operation of catalytic additives for fuels; this article presents the results of research on the effect of using catalytic additives for fuel in a brand new diesel engine. The article contains an analysis of the results of exhaust gas emission tests from the Doosan MD196TI engine. During the tests, the engine was fueled with a typical diesel fuel and the same fuel with the a catalyst additive. The catalyst was added to the liquid fuel in the form of a commercially available product distributed by ProOne company under the name FMAX. The research was carried out in the form of a test, much more developed than the approval test on a stationary braking station in accordance with the requirements of ISO 8178. The article is concluded with a comparative analysis of exhaust gas emission results illustrating the effects of a catalyst in the form of reduction of solid particles, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and a slight increase in nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, the effect of the catalyst depends on the product of thermal (brake) efficiency of the engine and the calorific value (CV) of the fuel used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0419.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: artificial sweeteners; zebrafish; Daphnia; cardiac performance; toxicity
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:47:33 CEST)
Artificial sweeteners are widely used food ingredients in beverages and drinks to lower calorie intake which in turn prevent lifestyle diseases such as obesity. Epidemiological evidences suggest that an overdose of artificial sweeteners could result to adverse effects after consumption. Thus, our study aims to systematically explore the potential adverse effects of eight commercial artificial sweeteners, including acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, dulcin, neotame, saccharin and sucralose on cardiac performances of zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Daphnia as model animals. Embryonic zebrafish and Daphnia were exposed to eight artificial sweeteners at 100 ppb concentrations and their cardiac performance (heart rate, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, stroke volume, cardiac output and heartbeat regularity) were measured and compared. Saccharin significantly increased the heart rate of zebrafish larvae while a significant decrease was observed in Daphnia. Significant increase was also noted in zebrafish heart rate variability after incubation in acesulfame K, dulcin, sodium cyclamate, and sucralose. However, a significant increase in Daphnia was only observed after incubation in dulcin. Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering results, several artificial sweetener samples were species-specific to zebrafish and Daphnia. Our study demonstrates the potential adverse physiological effects of artificial sweeteners in cardiovascular systems of zebrafish larvae and Daphnia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0130.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: academic performance; COVID-19; veterinary; online learning
Online: 21 August 2020 (02:25:37 CEST)
Many universities and colleges worldwide suspended classroom teaching due to the novel coronavirus pandemic and switched to online teaching. The current cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the impact of lockdown due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the academic performance of veterinary medical students and researchers. Veterinary medical students and researchers were invited to answer an online google form questionnaire. A total of 1398 participants were from 92 different countries answered the questionnaire with response rate of 94.52%. The data showed that COVID-19 pandemic lockdown affected the academic performance of most participants (96.7%) with varying degrees. The mean evaluation scores for the online education in general was 5.06 ± 2.43 while that for the practical parts was 3.62± 2.56. Although online education provides an opportunity for self-study. The main challenge online education faces in veterinary medical science is how to give practical lessons. Since most of the subjects are practical; therefore, it is not easy to learn it online. Students think that it is difficult to fulfill the veterinary competencies only with online education system. Online education can be improved by making it more interactive, showing medical procedures in real situations, giving concise information, and providing 3D virtual tools to mimic the real situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Acupuncture; lactate; heart rate; physical performance; sustainability
Online: 2 August 2020 (14:46:22 CEST)
Studies have demonstrated the positive effects of acupuncture on athletic performance. The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of acupuncture on heart rate, the perceived exertion scale and lactate levels in recreational athletes. Fifteen competitive males engaged in HIIT. The characteristic was 29.86±2.51 years old, heart rate reserve 59.00±3.33, lactate 3.17±0.50 mM/DL. The subjects were submitted to two exercise sessions. Both training sessions consisted of 10 burpees, 12 thrusters and 14 box jumps (75 cm high) for 12 minutes. Activity intensity was between 85 and 95% of maximum heart rate. Acupuncture points: ST36, L3, LI11. The student’s t-test was adopted, Shapiro-Wilk test was applied for normality, and Pearson correlation. There was a positive correlation of r = 0.69 between lactate levels and heart rate. Lactate: Lac1 15.00±1.18 – Lac2 19.59± 1.46 p= 0.0001*; Heart 1rate: HRF 163.71±7.27 – HRF2 177.60±6.99 p=0.0001*; Blood pressure: SBP1 174.86±1.57 – SBP2 180.86±1.77 p= 0.0001*; PES1: 19.4±1.14; PES2 16.8±0.84 p= 0.0001*; weight1 – 182,57±12,05; weight 2 206,43±11,39 p=0.0325*. Acupuncture increased lactate accumulation, heart rate and blood pressure, suggesting that the exertion reached after acupuncture is higher than without acupuncture. The acupuncture technics improved the athlete performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; serological diagnostic test; performance evaluation
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:58:20 CEST)
In only a few months after initial discovery in Wuhan, China, SARS-CoV-2 and the associated COVID-19 disease has become a global pandemic causing significant mortality and morbidity. In the absence of vaccines and effective therapeutics, reliable serological testing can be a key element of public health policy to control further spread of the disease and gradually ease quarantine measures. However, prior to launch of large-scale seroprevalence studies to assess herd immunity, it is critical to understand the limits and potential of current SARS-CoV-2 serological tests on the market. In this study, we provide an overview of serological testing and conduct a systematic review of independent evaluations of SARS-CoV-2 serological tests performance. Our findings show significant variability in the accuracy of marketed tests and highlight several lab-based and point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests with high performance level in detecting SRAS-CoV-2 specific antibodies. The findings of this review highlight the need for ongoing independent evaluations of commercialized COVID-19 diagnostic tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0131.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Saqez; Copper; Physical properties; Biological resistance; Performance
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:08:51 CEST)
There is an increasing interest in applying environmentally-friendly materials in wood protection technology. This include the use of less toxic active ingredients, as well as better fixation. This study investigates the formulation based on the combination of copper and Saqez resin on the physical and biological resistance properties of poplar wood. Samples were treated by either copper-ethanolamine (Cu/MEA) and/or Saqez resin at various treatment levels. A vacuum pressure procedure was applied. The retention, weight percent gain, water absorption, volumetric swelling, and decay resistance of the samples were then determined. The highest retention and weight percent gain were obtained at the samples treated with the combination of copper-based system and Saqez resin. Additionally, the combination of the copper and Saqez improved the physical properties and decay-resistance against white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: supersonic combustion; vent mixer; mixing; combustion performance
Online: 16 April 2019 (12:14:14 CEST)
This work focuses on forced combustion with regards to the relationship between vent mixer models and several injection locations in unheated supersonic flow. A plasma jet torch was used to ignite the hydrogen–air mixture in a laboratory-scaled combustor duct. The flow field of the combustion was visualized with pressure and gas-sampling measurements. The vent mixers indicate good dispersion characteristics of the mixture for both parallel and normal 1 injections. However, forced combustion is dominantly governed by the injection rate toward the plasma jet (hot source) because the combustible region is restricted under the cold main flow. For this reason, the parallel injection, which provides the hydrogen–air mixture directly toward the plasma jet, shows good combustion performance. The normal 1 injection interacted with the vent mixers and shows slightly good combustion performance. Lastly, the normal 2 injection is little affected by the vent mixers and has poor combustion performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: mortar; aerial lime; aggregates; experimental testing; performance
Online: 22 August 2018 (14:36:31 CEST)
In order to fully perform their functions and be durable, mortars for renders and plasters are requested to have a set of characteristics that can vary with the type of exposure to external environmental actions and the type of substrate. Generally, they need moderate strength, high deformability, some water protection capability, good adhesion to the substrate, and compatibility with the pre-existent materials. The presence of water and its movement inside the pore structure of the mortars are among the most significant causes of degradation. Moreover, several authors consider that the main factors for durability and good performance of lime-based mortars are mostly related with the good quality of the binder and the use of adequate aggregates. This paper intends to study the effect of ageing on the properties and durability of air lime mortars, using aggregates of different mineralogy. For this purpose, different mortars compositions are exposed to an accelerated weathering test under defined conditions. The obtained characteristics are discussed and compared with the results obtained with the same mortars tested in laboratory conditions. The effects of the aggregate type on the durability of mortars seem to be linked to their effects on the mortars porous structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: high-intensity functional training; work capacity; performance
Online: 12 March 2018 (05:33:23 CET)
High-Intensity Functional Training (HIFT) is a novel exercise intervention that may test body systems in a balanced and integrated fashion by challenging individuals’ abilities to complete mechanical work. However, research has not previously determined if physical work capacity is unique to traditional physiologic measures of fitness. Twenty-five healthy men and women completed a six-week HIFT intervention with physical work capacity and various physiologic measures of fitness assessed pre- and post-intervention. At baseline, these physiologic measures of fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity) were significantly associated with physical work capacity and this relationship was even stronger at post-intervention assessment. Further, there were significant improvements across these physiologic measures in response to the delivered intervention. However, the change in these physiologic measures failed to predict the change in physical work capacity induced via HIFT. These findings point to the potential utility of HIFT as a unique challenge to individuals’ physiology beyond traditional resistance or aerobic training. Elucidating the translational impact of increasing work capacity via HIFT may be of great interest to health and fitness practitioners ranging from strength/conditioning coaches to physical therapists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: performance evaluation; poultry meat; ergonomics; injuries; industry
Online: 2 January 2018 (06:36:04 CET)
Injuries of repetitive efforts constitute one of the prime causes of absenteeism in the workplace, have bear a considerable cost for the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company. The objective of this paper is to build, in the researchers, the needed knowledge to choose a set of relevant scientific articles about repetitive strain injuries in the poultry meat industry, aiming identify characteristics in those scientific publications that have the potential to contribute on the topic of this paper. The research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive, draws on primary and secondary data sources. The study involves the application of a method for selection and analysis of the selected articles. To this end, the method utilized was the Knowledge Development Process – Constructivist (Proknow-C) as theoretical intervention instrument. Within the process development, it was obtained a portfolio of 16 articles aligned to the research and scientifically recognized with the main periodicals, papers, authors and keywords. The ProKnow-C process allowed identify opportunities in the literature about injuries in the poultry meat industry and showed opportunities for research future. This paper, under the constructivist perspective, presents a structured process to build, in the researcher, the necessary knowledge to identification, selection and analysis of relevant scientific articles relating to research context and, for these articles, find prominences and opportunities for a research theme without similar publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0619.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: long longitudinal slope; permeable pavement; porosity; road performance
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:12:47 CET)
Permeable asphalt pavement refers to an asphalt mixture layer with an air void content of more than 18% and internal water permeability and drainage capabilities, which can quickly drain away water on the road surface, improve rainy day travel safety and ride comfort. This paper aims to explore the optimal asphalt mixture mix design for long longitudinal slope roads. By using CT scanning technology to analyze the air void content of different rotated and compacted asphalt mixture specimens, and extensively testing and evaluating the performance of permeable pavement mixtures, the following conclusions are drawn: Based on the research philosophy of functional integration, a new asphalt mixture gradation suitable for long longitudinal slope roads is proposed, with the optimal key factor composition being: 0.075mm passing rate of 7%, 2.36mm passing rate of 20%, 9.5mm passing rate of 55%, and oil-stone ratio of 4.8%. The FAM mixture was divided into three parts for air void analysis, with the upper part having a slightly higher air void content than the lower part. The air void distribution diagram of the FAM mixture is concave, with higher air void rate curves on both sides and a lower middle curve. Compared with laboratory dry measurement method, CT scanning test showed slightly higher air void content in specimens. Through dynamic modulus testing, the strength requirement for road asphalt mixture in pavement structure design was evaluated. It was found that at high temperature conditions (50℃), the minimum dynamic modulus value of the FAM mixture was 323 MPa, with a peak value of 22746MPa at a temperature of -10℃ and a frequency of 25HZ. The dynamic modulus value at high temperature conditions is lower than at low temperature conditions, while the dynamic modulus value at high frequency conditions is higher than at low frequency conditions. This study provides useful information and experimental data for the design of new asphalt mixtures for long longitudinal slope roads, and has conducted in-depth research on the air void distribution and performance of the mixture, providing strong support for related research fields and practical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0190.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; crossfit; sport analytics; weightlifting; performance prediction
Online: 2 November 2023 (17:27:56 CET)
(1) Background: The analysis of athletic performance has always aroused great interest from sport scientist. This study utilized machine learning methods to build predictive models using a comprehensive CrossFit (CF) dataset, aiming to reveal valuable insights into the factors influencing performance and emerging trends.; (2) Methods: The study used Random Forest (RF) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models to predict performance in four key weightlifting exercises within CF: clean & jerk, snatch, back squat, and deadlift. Performance was evaluated using R-squared (R2) values and Mean Squared Error (MSE). Feature importance analysis was conducted using RF, XGBoost, and AdaBoost models.; (3) Results: The RF model excelled in deadlift performance prediction (R2 = 0.80), while the MLR model demonstrated remarkable accuracy in clean & jerk (R2 = 0.93). Across exercises, clean & jerk consistently emerged as a crucial predictor. The feature importance analysis revealed intricate relationships among exercises, with gender significantly impacting deadlift performance.; (4) Conclusions: This research advances our understanding of performance prediction in CF through machine learning techniques. It provides actionable insights for practitioners, optimize performance, and demonstrates the potential for future advancements in data-driven sports analytics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1377.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Jeryak; longissimus dorsi; RNA-seq; miRNA; production performance
Online: 23 October 2023 (11:05:29 CEST)
The Jeryak, a hybrid offspring of Gannan yak and Jersey cattle, exhibits evident hybrid advantages over the Gannan yak in terms of production performance and other various aspects. The small non-coding RNAs known as miRNAs exert a significant regulatory influence on gene expression post-transcriptionally. However, the regulatory mechanism of miRNA associated with muscle development in Jeryak remains elusive. To elucidate the regulatory role of miRNAs in orches-trating the skeletal muscle development in Jeryak, we selected dorsal longissimus muscle tissues from Gannan yak and Jeryak for transcriptome sequencing analysis. A total of 230 (DE)miRNAs and 1819 differentially expressed mRNAs (DEMs) were identified in the longest dorsal muscle of Gannan yak and Jeryak. The functional enrichment analysis revealed a significantly enrichment of target genes from differentially expressed (DE)miRNAs and DEMs in signaling pathways associ-ated with muscle growth, such as the Ras signaling pathway and the MAPK signaling pathway. The network of interactions between miRNA and mRNA suggested that some differentially ex-pressed miRNAs, including miR-2478-z, miR-339-x, novel-m0036-3p and novel-m0037-3p, played a pivotal role in facilitating muscle development. These findings help us to deepen our under-standing of the hybrid dominance of Jeryaks and provide a theoretical basis for further research on the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs associated with Jeryak muscle growth and development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0931.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Hermetia illucens; growth performance; sustanability; coffee sirvelskin; microalgae
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:01:37 CEST)
Hermetia illucens is a very promising insect due to its ability to convert low-value substrates in highly nutrient feed. Its feeding and nutrition are important issues. This work aimed to study the effect of different substrates composed of coffee silverskin, by-product of the roasting process, enriched with different inclusion of microalgae (5%, 10%, 20%, 25%), Schizochytrium limacinum and Isochrysis galbana, coupled with the assessment of environmental sustainability by LCA. In general, the inclusion of microalgae caused an increase in the growth performance of the larvae, although S. limacinum showed the best results. Higher prepupal weight were observed in larvae fed on 20% and 25% of S. limacinum, shorter development times in larvae fed on 25% of both S. limacinum and I. galbana and higher growth rate were observed in larvae fed on 25% of S. limacinum. Anyway, the inclusion of 10% of S. limacinum showed a small difference with the higher inclusions. Moreover, the 10% of S. limacinum achieved the best waste reduction index. Therefore, considering the greater inclusion of microalgae, the higher the environmental impact of larvae production, the addition of 10% of S. limacinum seems to be the best compromise for the larval rearing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1525.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: workplace well-being; seniority; workplace bullying; employee performance
Online: 22 September 2023 (09:12:48 CEST)
The relationship between workplace well-being, seniority, workplace bullying, and employee performance was explored in the context of the Mangkutana district office. Data was collected through direct surveys and questionnaires distributed to respondents. The impact of these variables on employee performance was assessed using multiple linear regression analysis. The results unveiled significant insights. Firstly, a positive correlation was observed between favorable workplace well-being factors and employee performance. Feeling valued, supported, and satisfied in the work environment was linked to higher motivation and productivity. Interestingly, seniority exhibited an unexpected negative impact on employee performance. Longer-tenured employees might face complacency or adaptability challenges, leading to decreased performance. Furthermore, the research emphasized the detrimental impacts of workplace bullying on employee performance. Instances of bullying led to the emergence of stress, anxiety, and decreased job satisfaction, collectively leading to a decline in overall performance and well-being. In summation, this study accentuates the significance of fostering a positive work environment that places a premium on employee well-being and concurrently deals with matters related to seniority and workplace bullying. By recognizing and mitigating these factors, organizations can enhance employee performance, productivity, and job satisfaction, fostering a healthier and more successful work environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0200.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: total quality management; performance; hospitals; structural equation modelling
Online: 5 September 2023 (05:20:02 CEST)
The main aim of this study is to examine the effects of Total Quality Management (TQM) practices (leadership of management, decision making, continuous improvement, customer focus, employee involvement, process management and relations with suppliers) on the financial and operational performance of hospitals in service industry. The data of the study were collected by the questionnaire prepared in the light of published studies and the suggestions of medical and administrative staff. Medical and administrative staff were chosen as target participants that reflect perspectives of hospitals. 1069 questionnaires were answered in 6 private and 26 public hospitals in the Marmara region in Turkey. The results claim that “customer focus” affects both operational performance as well as the financial performance of hospitals more than other TQM practices. While “process management” and “customer focus” explain the variance of financial performance significantly. “Process management” does not explain variance of operational performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1266.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digitization; digital transformation; manufacturing export enterprises; enterprise performance
Online: 17 August 2023 (07:32:38 CEST)
At present, countries around the world adopt digital strategy, so that enterprises apply digital technology, digital supply chain, blockchain, and a series of digital measures to enhance their competitiveness. By analyzing the relationship between digital transformation of manufacturing export enterprises, and their business performance and export performance, this paper focused on the current situation and existing problems of digital transformation of manufacturing export enterprises in China. Based on the Resource Based View theory and Trade theory, the impact of digital transformation of enterprises performance, proposing hypotheses, and building regression models were explored. With the samples of 1007 listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen Stock markets from 2012 to 2019, the regression analysis, intermediate effect test, robustness test, stage lag, and heterogeneity analysis were conducted. The results shew that: (1) Listed manufacturing export enterprises carried out digital transformation, which had a significantly positive effect on enterprise performance; (2) It was found that digital transformation could improve enterprise performance by reducing costs, improving R&D intensity and improving human resources etc. (3) According to the fractal analysis, non-state-owned enterprises had more positive effects on enterprise performance, and digital transformation of manufacturing export enterprises in developed areas had a more significant impact on enterprise performance. Finally, according to the empirical results, relevant suggestions for digital transformation were provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0172.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: market uncertainty; transaction entropy; market performance; willingness price
Online: 4 July 2023 (09:41:21 CEST)
Market uncertainty has a significant impact on market performance. Previous studies put much efforts in investigations on market uncertainty related to information asymmetry and risk. However, they have neglected the uncertainty inherent in market transactions, which is also an important aspect of market performance, besides quantity of transactions and market efficiency. In this paper, we put forward the concept of transaction entropy to measure the market uncertainty and see how it changes with price. The definition of transaction entropy is the ratio of total information entropy of all traders to quantity of transactions, reflecting the level of uncertainty in making transactions. And the transaction entropy is the lowest at equilibrium, it will be decreasing in a shortage market, and increasing in a surplus market. Additionally, we make a comparison of total entropy of the centralized market with that of the decentralized market, revealing that the price filtering mechanism could effectively reduce market uncertainty. Overall, the introduction of transaction entropy enriches our understanding of market uncertainty and facilitates a more comprehensive assessment of market performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0632.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: broiler; duodenum; jejunum; production performance; intestinal barrier; immunoglobulin
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:46:21 CEST)
In order to improve the adaptability of broilers to low-temperature environments and their ability to resist acute cold stress (ACS), 240 one-day-old broilers were selected and randomly divided into three groups. The control treatment (CC) was raised at the conventional feeding temperature from 1-43 days (d), the cold stimulation treatments (CS) were kept at 3 °C below the temperature of CC at 1-d intervals for 3 and 6 hours from 15 to 35 d, namely CS3 and CS6, respectively. Then all broilers were kept at 20 °C from 36 to 43 d. ACS was then carried out at 44 d, and the ambient temperature was dropped to 10 °C for 6 hours. The study investigated the production perfor-mance, as well as levels of intestinal barrier genes (including Claudin-1, E-cadherin, Occludin, ZO-1, ZO-2 and Mucin2), secretory IgA in duodenum and jejunum, and immunoglobulins (IgA and IgG) in serum. The results showed that IMCS could increase the daily weight gain and decrease the feed conversion ratio. During the IMCS, the expression levels of intestinal barrier genes were up-regulated and the content of secretory IgA was increased. When IMCS ceased for one week, the level of immunoglobulins in serum stabilized, and the expression levels of Occludin, ZO-2 and Mucin2 still maintained high levels. After ACS, broilers that received IMCS training maintained the high levels of intestinal barrier genes and secretory IgA.