Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Academic Analytics; data storage; education and big data; analysis of data; learning analytics
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:37:39 CEST)
Business Intelligence, defined by  as "the ability to understand the interrelations of the facts that are presented in such a way that it can guide the action towards achieving a desired goal", has been used since 1958 for the transformation of data into information, and of information into knowledge, to be used when making decisions in a business environment. But, what would happen if we took the same principles of business intelligence and applied them to the academic environment? The answer would be the creation of Academic Analytics, a term defined by  as the process of evaluating and analyzing organizational information from university systems for reporting and making decisions, whose characteristics allow it to be used more and more in institutions, since the information they accumulate about their students and teachers gathers data such as academic performance, student success, persistence, and retention . Academic Analytics enables an analysis of data that is very important for making decisions in the educational institutional environment, aggregating valuable information in the academic research activity and providing easy to use business intelligence tools. This article shows a proposal for creating an information system based on Academic Analytics, using ASP.Net technology and trusting storage in the database engine Microsoft SQL Server, designing a model that is supported by Academic Analytics for the collection and analysis of data from the information systems of educational institutions. The idea that was conceived proposes a system that is capable of displaying statistics on the historical data of students and teachers taken over academic periods, without having direct access to institutional databases, with the purpose of gathering the information that the director, the teacher, and finally the student need for making decisions. The model was validated with information taken from students and teachers during the last five years, and the export format of the data was pdf, csv, and xls files. The findings allow us to state that it is extremely important to analyze the data that is in the information systems of the educational institutions for making decisions. After the validation of the model, it was established that it is a must for students to know the reports of their academic performance in order to carry out a process of self-evaluation, as well as for teachers to be able to see the results of the data obtained in order to carry out processes of self-evaluation, and adaptation of content and dynamics in the classrooms, and finally for the head of the program to make decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: academic libraries; management; sustainability
Online: 8 December 2022 (08:51:50 CET)
This article works on the three questions: “How can libraries make an effective contribution to resolving the sustainability challenges we are collectively facing?”; “When are libraries truly sustainable?”; and “How can library management support this shift?”. Looking across libraries and their history of the last decades, the author discerns different stages of development leading to sustainability. In line with the work of Dyllick and Muff (2016) the author describes Sustainability Levels 0.0 to 3.0. The highest level requires a quantum leap and shifts from thinking inside-out to outside-in. This article addresses the need that there is virtually no academic management literature on the topic of sustainability in libraries. It shows that whilst there are many examples of individual projects or activities, there is a serious lack of methodology senior management level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: academic entrepreneurship; TTOs; full service KTOs; academic entrepreneurship in Bangladesh; patents in Bangladesh
Online: 14 August 2019 (03:13:18 CEST)
Academic entrepreneurship focuses on commercialization of research. Even though it is practiced worldwide for decades, Bangladesh is a newcomer in this segment. In Bangladesh only 2 Universities have Technology Transfer Offices or TTOs which are established with the sole focus of commercialization of researches of the students and the faculty members of the Universities. This article focuses on worldwide practices of technology transfer and academic entrepreneurial activities and also explores the opportunities and challenges of such entrepreneurs through detail investigation of the existing body of knowledge. Apart from exploring the problems and prospect of academic entrepreneurship in Bangladesh, this article also introduces the concept of Full-Service Knowledge Transfer Office (KTO), which existing literatures do not offer. The authors believe that by establishing such KTOs as a self-sustaining body, it is possible for an academic entrepreneur to stimulate, support and sustain their activities in Bangladesh. The concept of full service KTOs can also become models for other nations, specially the developing ones, to establish and nurture a culture of academic entrepreneurship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0035.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: graduate student publishing; scholarly publication; research writing; productive academic writing; academic publishing, autoethnography
Online: 15 July 2016 (04:57:30 CEST)
For doctoral students, publishing in peer reviewed journals is a task many face with anxiety and trepidation. The world of publishing, from choosing a journal, negotiating editors and navigating reviewers’ responses is a bewildering place. Looking in from the outside, it seems that successful and productive academic writers have knowledge that is inaccessible to novice scholars. While there is a growing literature on writing for scholarly publication, many of these publications promote writing and publishing as a straight-forward activity that anyone can achieve if they follow the rules. We argue that the specific and situated contexts in which academic writers negotiate publishing practices is more complicated and messy. In this paper, we attempt to make explicit our publishing processes to highlight the complex nature of publishing. We use autoethnographic narratives to provide discussion points and insights into the challenges of publishing peer reviewed articles. One narrative is by a doctoral student at the beginning of her publishing career, who expresses her desires, concerns and anxieties about writing for publication. The other narrative focuses on the publishing practices of a more experienced academic writer. Both are international scholars working in the Canadian context. The purpose of this paper is to explore academic publishing through the juxtaposition of these two narratives to make explicit some of the more implicit processes. Four key themes emerge from these narratives. To publish successfully, academic writers need: 1) to be discourse analysts; 2) to have a critical competence; and 3) to have writing fluency and 4) to be emotionally intelligent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0312.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Internet; television; academic performance; utilization.
Online: 26 November 2019 (10:51:18 CET)
An investigation was carried out to study the effects of television and internet on academic performance of senior secondary schools students in Rigachukun Inspectorate of Kaduna state. A well structured and designed questionnaire was adopted in eliciting information from the respondents. The respondents were sampled from schools within Kaduna state. The information obtained showed that the percentage of senior secondary school students who made use of internet for academic purpose was as much as those who could not operate a computer or even browse the internet. Good number of students applied internet mostly through phones and computer with internet access in solving their assignment. A larger percentage of students devoted their time to watching non-educative programs on television, even though it was discovered that some of them also watch educative programs. Positive impacts of television and internet are however obscuring and not glaring. Investigation carried out revealed that students in senior secondary schools need to be sensitized and oriented on how they can derive the best from internet and television. Schools should be encouraged in using television and internet as an instrument of learning and teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0088.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Academic performance; Machine Learning; RBFNN; psychomotor
Online: 6 July 2022 (05:09:31 CEST)
Introduction: Academic success is primary goal of every student. It is described as the extent to which a student has successfully achieved his or her short and long-term educational goals. Several factors have been established to predict academic performance of students. Machine learning techniques have been employed in predicting students’ performance, but it has not been prevalent in developing countries like Nigeria and most studies did not consider class teachers’ end-of-the-year rating. Aim: The aim of this work is to develop a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) for prediction of secondary school students’ performance. Materials and Methods: We obtained data from school repository containing students’ raw score and classteachers’ rating from year one to year six. The data was labelled into pass or fail given the actual outcome of their examinations. Subjects were categorized into Mathematics, English and major, depending on the student’s specialization. Class-teachers’ ratings were also included in the dataset. The preprocessed dataset was used to train the RBFNN model. The impact of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was also measured. Results: We set up four experiments in order to achieve our aim. The best result gave the sensitivity of 93.49%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 86.59% and an AUC score of 94%. Other experiments gave a relatively low performance. Conclusion: This study helps students to get a projection of academic success even before sitting for the examination. This will also help parents and counsellors in knowing the direction of their counseling to each student. Teachers and parents should pay attention to class teacher ratings of the students as this is discovered to affect the prediction accuracy of their examination success.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0309.v1
Online: 14 October 2020 (13:39:23 CEST)
Cheating is a kind of fraud or attempts to get dishonest advantages in an academic institution, it has been increasing dramatically for the last 50 years with the growth of technology. In some countries, this phenomenon has changed to a problematic factor in schools. Plagiarism is also considered as a type of cheating if it occurs intentionally. More efforts are made to mitigate the severity of cheating in an academic institution using technological-based devices. Besides, technology has an effective role in the detection of plagiarism by several detection platforms, however, still, there are some types of plagiarism which cannot be detected by these platforms efficiently, that authors should treat honestly during his/her scientific writing. This work aims to conceptualize and characterize cheating and plagiarism in an academic institution, also it is tried to indicate the relationship of cheating and plagiarism that in which cases, plagiarism becomes cheating. To achieve the purposes, relevant literature including scientific papers, monographs, reports, and authorized website were reviewed, and the literature output are integrated with the observation and experience of author during the teaching and learning in academic institutions.The findings and direct observation from close contact of classrooms show that cheating is felt mostly in classes with large numbers of students, that institution policy, instructor control, and using of technology have the most effect on the controlling cheating. Plagiarism as academic dishonesty is a widespread phenomenon among the students and even the authors. In some cases, the poor understanding of students and authors in scientific writing rules causes plagiarism and is measurable by some available detection platforms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0545.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: gender; academic; STEM; leadership; barriers; assistance
Online: 23 July 2020 (10:06:20 CEST)
Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are under-represented, and women are also less likely than men to be in leadership positions generally. Little is known about the intersection of these areas: women in leadership in STEM. To determine what sort of barriers and assistance female STEM leaders have encountered, a survey was developed asking women who are in academic leadership positions in STEM about their experiences. The main barriers were similar in the STEM area and in leadership: balancing work/home life, devaluing of achievements, and imposter syndrome. The main two types of assistance in both STEM and leadership were support from spouse/partner, and encouragement from peers. The main barriers women encounter are cultural and will take time to overcome. The main assistance women have had comes from people, not training or institutional structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0101.v1
Online: 6 August 2018 (08:44:19 CEST)
This study contended that learning statistics and its rudiments were perceived as complicated compared to some other courses offered at the university level. Further, this investigation contested the existence of statistics anxiety among postgraduate students in an in-site university setting. Relationships and differences were determined in this study utilizing the constructs of antecedents of statistics anxiety namely academic procrastination, perfectionism, and gender. The objectives were (1) to establish the relationship between academic procrastination and statistics anxiety; (2) to find out the relationship between perfectionism and statistics anxiety; and (3) to investigate the differences between gender and statistics anxiety. The data from randomly selected 136 postgrad students (Kampala International University, Uganda) referring to dispositional (procrastination and perfectionism) and environmental antecedents (gender) and statistics anxiety were scientifically elicited, processed and analyzed utilizing the quantitative- post positivist’s research paradigm model. The findings revealed a positive but insignificant relationship between academic procrastination and statistics anxiety; a significant adverse correlation between perfectionism and statistics anxiety; an insignificant positive correlation existed between gender and statistics anxiety, and differences in statistics anxiety between the female and male students existed. Notably from the results then, academic procrastination did not significantly affect the students’ statistics anxiety; the students with higher levels of perfectionism tended to have lower levels of statistics anxiety while the levels of statistics anxiety among the female students were slightly greater than that of the male students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0243.v1
Online: 15 June 2018 (05:19:00 CEST)
This paper explores whether preprints can better support open science by providing links to other early-stage research outputs. This potentially has benefits for transparency and discoverability of research projects. By looking at preprint submission systems, online preprints and surveying those who run preprint servers, I examined to what extent this is currently possible. No preprints server provided a complete service, however many allowed the linking of several open science elements from the abstract page. I looked at variation based on subject, age, and size of preprint server. In conclusion, authors posting preprints should consider the options provided by different preprint servers. It appears that open science is just one focus of preprint servers and further improvements will be dependent on preprint server policies and priorities rather than overcoming any technical difficulties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0190.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Sleep habits; Sleep disorders; Students: Academic achievement.
Online: 13 October 2021 (08:26:58 CEST)
Sleep deprivation (failure to get enough sleep) is a public health issue that can negatively impact our body including cognitive function. Many studies have been done in Saudi Arabia to evaluate the impact of poor sleep and academic performance but almost all of them were done at university level. To investigate the relationship between sleep quality and general degree of academic achievement in school students. This is a cross-sectional, school-based study, conducted at Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia. A total of 957 participants (615 male and 342 female) were recruited from a state school. The study used a standardized, confidential, validated self-administered questionnaire to assess sleep quality and habits. By using Statistical Package for Social Studies (SPSS 22), achievement of the students was significantly related to the following parameters; laziness and fatigue after wake-up time and during school time, lack of concentration during school time, difficulty in complete tasks during school time and inability to maintain wakefulness during school time. Furthermore, students with poor academic degrees reported more significant incidence of sleeping at school, excessive daytime sleepiness, and other sleep related disorder than good academic degrees. Students with poor sleep quality have lower school grades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0651.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Pre-exam anxiety; Poor academic performance; GPA
Online: 30 October 2020 (15:49:21 CET)
Introduction: Exams are a relatively stressful period for all students, especially undergraduate medical students. Exams bring anxiety and stress for the students. Some students experience such high stress that it hinders their academic productivity and reduces their exam performance. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of pre-exam anxiety on the academic performance of medical students. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-five final year medical students completed Westside Test Anxiety (WTA) Scale one month before their exams. Grade Point Average (GPA) of these students was noted when the results were announced. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS v 22.0Results: The mean anxiety score on WTA scale was 3.46 ± 0.87. All students (100%) who scored ≤ 2.50 GPA were highly-extremely highly anxious. In the 2.51-3.00 GPA group, 46% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 32% were moderately anxious, and 21% had low to normal anxiety. In the 3.01-3.50 GPA group, 30% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 30% were moderately anxious, and 39% had low to normal anxiety. In the 3.51-4.00 GPA group, 29% were highly-extremely highly anxious, 23% were moderately anxious, and 47% had low to normal anxiety. The correlation coefficient between GPA and test anxiety of students was -.314 which shows inverse relationship.Conclusion: Pre-exam anxiety and stress imparts negative effects on the exam performance of final year medical students. Poor academic performance was associated with high to extremely high pre-exam anxiety while high achievers had relatively lower anxiety levels.
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:08:55 CEST)
The issues mothers face in the academy have been discussed for decades. Routinely, new studies report significant differences between women and men at comparable career stages with respect to salary, service demands, publications, grant submissions, and overall funding rates. The COVID-19 pandemic is further exposing these inequalities as women scientists who are parenting while also engaging in a combination of academic related duties are falling further behind. COVID-19 is shaking the very foundations of our society and laying bare the many inequalities that defined our pre-COVID world. We can solve these inequities by investing strategically in creative solutions, thereby making the most of women’s contributions to scientific endeavors. Here we describe strategies that would make the academy more equitable for working mothers now and into the future. Importantly, while the data are clear that mothers are being disproportionally impacted by COVID-19, many groups could benefit from these same ideas. Now is the time to act. Rather than rebuilding what we once knew, let us be the architects of a new world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0130.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: academic performance; COVID-19; veterinary; online learning
Online: 21 August 2020 (02:25:37 CEST)
Many universities and colleges worldwide suspended classroom teaching due to the novel coronavirus pandemic and switched to online teaching. The current cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze the impact of lockdown due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the academic performance of veterinary medical students and researchers. Veterinary medical students and researchers were invited to answer an online google form questionnaire. A total of 1398 participants were from 92 different countries answered the questionnaire with response rate of 94.52%. The data showed that COVID-19 pandemic lockdown affected the academic performance of most participants (96.7%) with varying degrees. The mean evaluation scores for the online education in general was 5.06 ± 2.43 while that for the practical parts was 3.62± 2.56. Although online education provides an opportunity for self-study. The main challenge online education faces in veterinary medical science is how to give practical lessons. Since most of the subjects are practical; therefore, it is not easy to learn it online. Students think that it is difficult to fulfill the veterinary competencies only with online education system. Online education can be improved by making it more interactive, showing medical procedures in real situations, giving concise information, and providing 3D virtual tools to mimic the real situation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0326.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: business plan; publishing; academic libraries; open access
Online: 27 September 2018 (04:27:08 CEST)
Over the last twenty years, library publishing has emerged in higher education as a new class of publisher. Conceived as a response to commercial publishing practices that have strained library budgets and prevented scholars from openly licensing and sharing their works, library publishing is both a local service program and a broader movement to disrupt the current scholarly publishing arena. It is growing both in numbers of publishers and numbers of works produced. The commercial publishing framework which determines the viability of monetizing a product is not necessarily applicable for library publishers who exist as a common good to address the needs of their academic communities. Like any business venture, however, library publishers must develop a clear service model and business plan in order to create shared expectations for funding streams, quality markers, as well as technical and staff capacity. As the field is maturing from experimental projects to full programs, library publishers are formalizing their offerings and limitations. The anatomy of a library publishing business plan is presented and includes the principles of the program, scope of services, and staffing and governance requirements. Other aspects include production policies, financial structures, and measures of success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0482.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Distance; Learning; Academic; Education; Students; Teaching-Learning; Modality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:59:30 CET)
Education setting evolved from historical open learning system to traditional classroom set-up to distance learning modality. Teaching-Learning practice is transformed with an evolution of teaching-learning materials. With technological advancement in progressive manner and it’s increasing use in academic setting, distance learning has been the on-demand and on-debate topic in current educational discourse. Comparatively fresh topic in Nepali academic setting, this paper intended to analyze the perception of Nepali students towards online modality in Nepali academic setting. This paper further analyzed the student’s preference towards distance learning in current Nepali academic setting. Research findings were analyzed based on data collected through literature review, interview with students and professor and quantitative data collection through use of google form. Study identified opportunities as revenue generation; continuation of academic career from any part of country; increase learning outcome among jobholders. Study identified challenges as unequal access and quality of internet facilities; affordability of laptops/computers; limited interaction; and frequent disturbances. Seeing the better prospects, study strongly supported the need of shift in academic shift from traditional setting to non-traditional setting in Nepali context to meet the global needs of competitive and quality education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: professional competence; academic success; emotional intelligence; students; nursing
Online: 19 January 2021 (11:00:04 CET)
This study was conducted to investigate the correlations between social-emotional competence (SEC) and academic achievement (AA) among nursing students and to compare students’ level of each core skill of SEC (critical thinking disposition, self-directed learning, creativity, emotional intelligence, problem-solving, and collaboration) and academic achievement (clinical performance and subjective academic achievement). A cross-sectional design was adapted. Data were collected from 195 nursing students in the junior and senior years who had participated in clinical practicum from four universities in South Korea. General characteristics, levels of critical thinking disposition, self-directed learning, creativity, emotional intelligence, problem-solving, collaboration, and academic achievement were collected via self-reported questionnaire. Canonical correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between SEC and AA. The canonical correlation coefficient between SEC and AA was .762. Critical thinking disposition (Rs = .89), problem-solving (Rs = .86), cooperation (Rs = .80) made the most important contributions to SEC. Clinical performance (Rs=.95) and subjective AA (Rs=.57) were correlated with AA. SEC should be addressed to improve the AA of nursing students. All core skills of SEC should be regularly promoted. It is particularly urgent for nursing students to improve their creativity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0057.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: scientific publishing; science journals; academic publishing; open science
Online: 6 December 2019 (04:16:26 CET)
Scholarly journals today are the products of a large industry comprised of for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, whose annual income exceeds $25 billion. Originally created for facilitating scientific communication, the World Wide Web in principle makes scientific journals no longer necessary. Yet, in an almost opposite fashion to what happened in retail publishing, the academic publishing industry has further flourished following the advent of the internet. Education of today’s students and young researchers, we argue in this study, is the key enabler for the transition to open science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0139.v1
Online: 11 April 2019 (10:27:55 CEST)
Academic staffs’ organizational commitment has been a critical issue to determine work performance for successes of University, as well as, to keep its Academic staffs motivation granted for achieving better work performance. This subject has therefore, been investigated so as to draw attention for enhancement of effective work performance and success. The main objective of this study was to assess academic staffs’ level of organizational commitment in Haramaya University. The study also investigated whether significant differences exist in academic staffs’ level of organizational commitment in reference to their gender and level of education. Researchers used cross-sectional research design. Primary and secondary data sources were used to study the problem. A commitment scale questionnaire was used to collect data from 275 participants who were selected from 877 target population of the study using stratified sampling technique; furthermore, focus group discussion and document review were also used to triangulate the data. The quantitative data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics; the qualitative data were also analyzed using narration methods of analysis. The study revealed that academic staffs of the university have moderate level organizational commitment. This implies relatively no more expected effective work performance for success of the institution; In addition, there were relative implications of turnover, turnover intention, absenteeism, and demotivation among staffs. The study further revealed that although there is no significance difference in employees’ level of commitment with reference to gender, their level of organizational commitment was significantly different in reference to level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: academic institution; career progression; gender imbalance; glass ceiling; professionals
Online: 17 February 2021 (13:30:25 CET)
Compared to their men counterparts, women do not rapidly climb up the leadership ladder due to a glass ceiling obstacle. This study aims to explore the inhibiting factors demotivating Africa women's leadership pursuit in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). A qualitative approach was adopted using online open-ended questions to seek narratives from African women leaders on their roles and experiences of a STEM career. Data were collected using a non-probability, purposive sample of African women leaders in STEM in African research institutes and universities. Forty-two women in leadership positions in 12 African countries participated in the study, which was content analyzed, seeking patterns and themes to explore the narratives. A common thread exists in the tone and life experiences of the African women leaders in STEM. Scholarship, supportive organizational structure, commitment, hard work, and tenacity were all experienced as enablers of the career path process and their attained positions. The education level contributed to a strong leadership position. Women experience less acceptance than males in STEM leadership as the organizational culture still devalues women in leadership positions in several African countries. The study's contribution, the limitations, recommendations, and managerial implications are discussed, with suggestions for further research are made.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0197.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic freedom; free speech; censorship; free inquiry; thought suppression
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:07:22 CEST)
This paper explores the suppression of ideas within academic scholarship by academics, either by self-suppression or because of the efforts of other academics. Legal, moral, and social issues distinguishing freedom of speech, freedom of inquiry, and academic freedom are reviewed. How these freedoms and protections can come into tension is then explored by an analysis of denunciation mobs who exercise their legal free speech rights to call for punishing scholars who express ideas they disapprove of and condemn. When successful, these efforts, which constitute legally protected speech, will suppress certain ideas. Real-world examples over the past five years of academics who have been sanctioned or terminated for scholarship targeted by a denunciation mob are then explored.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0305.v1
Subject: Keywords: academic leadership; change management; educational leadership; leadership; leadership development
Online: 24 June 2020 (18:05:40 CEST)
Medical education is facing great challenges and uncertainties amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical Education Institutions are required to build a task force team for crisis management. These should be committed to supporting a sudden online education transition, academic support, and psychological well-being of students, staff members, health care professionals, paramedics, and faculty administration. As the situation evolves, the task force has to monitor the challenges and provide appropriate plans, guidance, and solutions. Leaders in medical education have a crucial role in response to the pandemic crisis in securing a successful educational process while ensuring the mental and psychological well-being of the stakeholders. Herein, we provide tips that can provide a guide for medical education leaders to coordinate crisis management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: academic advising; undergraduate students; major choice; influence, major change
Online: 19 November 2017 (12:52:35 CET)
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of academic advising on changing or maintaining majors in university degrees. It is also a goal of the study to determine which semester of the course study is most likely or less likely witness the change of major and whether advising contributes to that change. Through this correlational study, the researchers explored students’ perceptions about the academic advising they received and the relationship of its absence on students’ major change. The participants were 1725 undergraduate students from all year levels. One survey is used to collect the data for this study: Influences on Choice of Major Survey. Based on the findings, it is found that university advisors have a very poor effect on students' decisions to select their majors as 45.6% of the 1725 participants indicate NO influence of advising in their survey answers. Whereas career advancement opportunities, students' interests, and job opportunities indicate a strong effect on their majors’ selections as they score the highest means of 3.76, 3.73, 3.64 respectively. In addition, findings show that students are most likely changing their majors in their second year and specifically in the second semester. Second year major change scored 36.9% in the second semester and 30.9% in the first semester. More importantly, results indicate that there is a positive significant correlation between college advisor and change major in the second year (p = 0.000). It is to researchers understanding based on the findings that when students receive enough academic advising in the first year of study and continues steadily to the next year, the possibilities of students changing their majors decreases greatly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0072.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: constructivism theory; social media; educational quality; students’ academic performance; engagement
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:39:28 CET)
This paper aimed to use social media impact on student studies in higher education. Apart from enjoyment and academic purposes, many educational practices and processes have been influenced by social networks. This paper highlighted the use of media tools in higher education as well as indicates out some of the factors. Moreover, through a literature review of related articles, we aim to provide insights into the impacts of a social network on educational quality, actual use of social media, and performance impact in higher education. A questionnaire survey on constructivism was circulated among a total of 206 university students as the key method for collecting data. This research hypothesizes educational quality and actual social media use indicates a positive effect in education, all of which also hypothesizes constructivism for educational quality and actual social media that in turn improve students’ satisfaction, and performance impact. Moreover, all research findings were attained through a quantitative method using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM-AMOS). Findings of this research to indicate a positive effects students on their academic through behavioral intention to utilize social media to actual social media use for teaching and learning on higher education. Moreover, the results mention the use of social media for learning purpose, as well as social media to enables the sharing of knowledge, discussions, and information to enhance students' learning activities, Further studies are recommended which universities educators should take this into consideration when planning their curricula; it comes to the inclusion of technology in the teaching process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0644.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: scientific social network; knowledge network; academic research; knowledge transfer; collaboration
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:39:31 CET)
Scientific social networking sites like Researchgate or Academia.edu have become part of the work practice of academic researchers. These digital platforms have been designed precisely to encourage the exchange of knowledge between scholars and to help the expansion of collaborative networks among them. Even if studies on this topic have multiplied in recent years, there is a dearth of research on the actual impact of these platforms on scientific production. The goal of this study is to investigate the relation between the attitude of researchers towards scientific social networks and the use of knowledge in their scientific work. Data from users of the scientific social networking site Researchgate were collected. A total of 143 valid responses were received and structural equation modeling was applied for data analysis. Findings of this study confirmed that researchers use knowledge obtained from scientific social networking sites both incorporating it within their research products and to acquire new competences. In particular approaching the platform as a scientific community with a shared language and a shared vision was found to have a positive impact on knowledge use. To the best knowledge of the authors this is the first study investigating the actual use of knowledge from scientific social networking sites by academic researchers. Results help to understand the impact of these platforms on the work practice of a strategic sector like scientific research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: disgust; DS-R; medical students; psychology students; academic orientation; specialization
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:08:20 CEST)
Disgust evolved as a way to protect one’s self from illness. DS-R measures disgust propensity of three kinds of disgust (Core, Animal Reminder and Contamination). Although the DS-R scale was refined mainly with young and largely female student population its impact on educational orientation has not been assessed. In the present study we examined the DS-R scoring and the choice of postgraduate studies in medical (n= 94) and psychology (n= 97) students. They responded to an anonymous web-based survey and completed the DS-R and a questionnaire on their demographics and plans for postgraduate studies. Female students outnumbered males (3:1) and scored higher in Total DS-R score (median: 59 vs. 50, p<0.05). Psychology students scored higher in all three kinds of disgust (p<0.05), indicating a higher level of disease avoidance. Medical students willing to follow Internal Medicine scored higher in Core Disgust (p<0.05) while psychology students willing to study Experimental Psychology scored lower in Animal Reminder subscale (p<0.001). Also, the higher the psychology students scored in Core Disgust scale the higher was the probability to choose Experimental Psychology. In conclusion, disgust propensity as rated by DS-R differentiates medical from psychology students and is also related to orientation preferences in postgraduate studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0430.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: foreign language teaching; teacher expectation; expectancy strategies; attitude; academic achievement
Online: 19 November 2018 (07:38:50 CET)
The aim of the existing study is to investigate the influence of teacher expectation on students’ achievement and their attitudes towards English lesson and to increase the students’ academic success and positive attitudes towards this issue. In the study, a process which defined the existing situtation and which provided the educational processes to improve by changing the existing situation could be seen. For this reason, emancipatory/improving/critical action research model was used. The study was carried out on a sample group consisting of 87 students; 43 6th graders and 44 8th graders attending a school located in the city center of Düzce during the 2015-2016 academic year. In order to collect the data, “Teacher Expectancy Scale” developed by the researchers, “Attitude Scale towards English Course” and 7 test exams prepared by Turkish Ministry of National Education (MoNE) were used. The study was conducted for a total 48 hours in 12 weeks, 4 hours a week. As the result of the study, it was revealed that teacher expectation influenced the attitudes of the students towards the English lesson in a positive way and increased their academic achievements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0274.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Bilingual program; Academic performance; Learning competence; English proficiency; Student workload
Online: 12 October 2018 (14:51:07 CEST)
Despite the rapid adoption of bilingual programs (English-Chinese) in China's higher education institutions (HEIs), concerns have been raised on perceived language hindrance to students’ academic comprehension and then performance. In response to this, this paper investigates the effects of bilingual instruction on content-based learning and provides empirical evidence after testing related influential factors in bilingual environment. Analyzing a sample of 498 undergraduate students enrolling in a fundamental business course in a sample university in China, we find insignificant statistical difference in students' academic performance between bilingual and L1 classes. We attribute this to the English language support provided by the university and show that learning competence can help students to minimize language barrier and furthermore solve the common learning problems confronted by both bilingual and L1 students. Overall, our paper aims to identify key determinants of students' academic performance in bilingual instruction and provide policy implication for developing desirable bilingual programs in HEIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: smart library; smart city; library marketing; public library; academic library
Online: 6 July 2018 (14:13:31 CEST)
Can the smart city provide a new perspective for public and academic libraries? How does the smart city impact the libraries as cultural and scientific assets? And how can libraries contribute to the development of the smart city? An overview of recent library models, like the learning center or the green library, reveals affinities with the concept of the smart city, especially regarding the central role of information and the integration of technology, people and institution. From this observation, the paper develops the outline of a new concept of the smart library which can be described on four dimensions, i.e. smart services, smart people, smart place and smart governance. However, the smart library concept does not constitute a unique model or project but a process, a way how to get things done, less linear, less structured, more creative and innovative. Also, smartness may not be a solution for all library problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0026.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: academic journal editor; citations; inappropriate tactics; coercive citations; citations overdose
Online: 3 May 2017 (08:27:17 CEST)
How much is the h-index of an editor of a well ranked journal improved due to citations which occur after his/her appointment? Scientific recognition within academia is widely measured nowadays by the number of citations or h-index. Our dataset is based on a sample of four editors from a well ranked journal (impact factor – IF – greater than 2). The target group consists of two editors who seem to benefit by their position through an increased citation number (and subsequently h-index) within journal. The total amount of citations for the target group is bigger than 600. The control group is formed by another set of two editors from the same journal whose relations between their positions and their citation records remain neutral. The total amount of citations for the control group is more than 1200. The timespan for which citations’ pattern has been studied is 1975-2015. Previous coercive citations for a journal benefit (increase its IF) has been signaled. To the best of our knowledge, this is a pioneering work on coercive citations for personal (editors’) benefit. Editorial teams should be aware about this type of potentially unethical behavior and act accordingly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0106.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Academic performance; Involvement of Parents; Debre Berhan General Secondary School; Ethiopia
Online: 7 June 2020 (16:16:44 CEST)
Education plays an essential role in the acquisition of knowledge and skills. School is the place where children’ attitudes, interests, and habits are developed. More involved and supportive a parent is towards their adolescent the higher self-esteem they will gain allowing the adolescent to feel confident and focused during school. Parents therefore enroll their children in schools that can give them expected quality of lives. The main core objective for this study was to determine the parental influence on students’ academic performance - A case study of Debre Berhan General Secondary School. A total of 118 students were included in the present study using simple random sampling technique from the total students (2367). Cross-sectional design was appropriate for this study. Primary source of data was employed collected from students. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. For statistical analysis SPSS 20 was used at 5% level of signiﬁcance. Descriptive statistics results indicate that the average mark of students was with minimum and maximum value of 47 and 94 respectively. Multiple regression models showed that Income level, Rate of money given to satisfy basic and educational materials, Parent’s occupation, Family size, Parent’s educational level, and Parent’s way of giving motivation were found to be a significant effect on academic performance of students at 5% level of significance at study area. However, sex of students, age of students and grade level of students were not found to be significant effect to academic performance at study area. Overall model is statistically significance for the data. All the assumption of regression analysis was satisfied. Normality, Constant variance, absence of multicolinearity, linearity and absence of autocorrelation were satisfied due to formal tests and diagnostic plots. Study recommended the need for programs related to improvement of mother and father education for caring child in appropriate success of their education and also parents should allocate time to visit schools and establish good relationship and discussion about their children’s academic progress in according to way of motivation to learn actively in school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0497.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Journal ranking; Publication; Mathematical Algorithm; Academic Research; Promotion; Quantitative; Developing Countries.
Online: 29 August 2018 (13:10:13 CEST)
Academic publishing appears to be the most important key of the academic functions (academic research, excellence in teaching and learning and community services). Selecting the right journal to publish research results is a challenge to academics. Yet, there is inadequate knowledge about a model specifically directed at the topic of the journal selection process with a mathematical certainty. The objectives of this research are: to identify the main factors that an author or researchers consider when selecting an academic journal for submitting a manuscript, and, to develop a mathematical algorithm of journal selection that provide the best journal choice with a mathematical certainty based on difficulty of each factor. Quantitative research through questionnaires has been applied as an appropriate instrument base to address the researcher’s identification of the factors that should be considered when selecting a journal. Questionnaire developed and emailed to academics in 31 public and private universities in the developing countries. Academics reported that the most important publication difficulty factors were publishing in reputable journals, and publishing in a journal that has an impact factor. However, the most least publication difficulty factors were found to be: number of issues per year and if the journal is an open access. The proposed mathematical algorithm of journal’s publication difficulty factors was developed and tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0311.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: perceived stress; life satisfaction; academic performance; university students; stress management; COVID-19
Online: 21 October 2021 (13:59:07 CEST)
The circumstances arising from the exceptional situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have affected all socioeconomic areas in the last two years. The field of Education has not been an exception and the management of the situation seems to have caused an increase in the level of perceived stress of university students. On this basis, this research that aims, first, to analyze the student’s level of perceived stress during the de-escalation and return to normality period, secondly, to evaluate its relationship with life satisfaction and, finally, to detect the students' needs in stress management, has been developed. An exploratory-descriptive study of quantitative and cross-sectional nature has been carried out. 222 university students of the Childhood and Primary Education Degrees of the University of Jaén (Spain) have participated. The instruments, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) have been used. The results show a moderate and partial relationship among the dimensions of the used instruments. The obtained coefficients of determination are, Academic Performance (r² = .019) and Life Satisfaction (r² = .402), with a mean square error (SRMR) of .079. These findings show the need to develop actions within the university training program in effective stress management strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0345.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: student academic performance; educational data mining; methods; algorithms; tools; higher education; overview
Online: 16 August 2021 (14:04:57 CEST)
This overview study set out to compare and synthesise the findings of review studies conducted on predicting student academic performance (SAP) in higher education using educational data mining (EDM) methods, EDM algorithms and EDM tools from 2013 to June 2020. It conducted multiple searches for suitable and relevant peer-reviewed articles on two online search engines, on nine online databases, and on two online academic social networks. It, then, selected 26 eligible articles from 2,050 articles. Some of the findings of this overview study are worth mentioning. First, only 2 studies explicitly stated their precise sample sizes with maths and science as the two most mentioned subject areas. Second, 16 review studies had purposes related to either EDM techniques, EDM methods, EDM models, or EDM algorithms employed to predict SAP and student success in the higher education sector. Third, there are six commonly used typologies of input variables reported by 26 review studies, of which student demographics was the most commonly utilised variable for predicting SAP. Fourth and last, seven common EDM algorithms employed for predicting SAP were identified, of which Decision Tree emerged both as the most used algorithm and as the algorithm with the highest prediction accuracy rate for predicting SAP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0452.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: nursing faculty shortage; nurse faculty; educator; nursing academic workforce; scoping review; Canada
Online: 22 January 2021 (14:18:36 CET)
Background: Strong nursing faculty is paramount to promote disciplinary leadership and to prepare future nurses for practice. Our understanding of the factors associated with or predictive of nurse faculty retention and/or turnover is lacking. Purpose: The aim of this review is to identify and synthesize the existing literature on factors contributing to nurse faculty shortage in Canada and implications on nursing practice. Methods: A scoping review based on the Arskey and O’Malley’s five stage framework for scoping reviews was undertaken. Utilising the PRISMA protocol, a comprehensive and structured literature search was conducted in five databases of studies published in English.Findings: Limited through search inclusion and relevance of research, nine studies out of 220 papers met the criteria for this review and were thematically analyzed. Identified themes were: supply versus demand; employment conditions; organizational support; and personal factors.Discussion: Impending retirement of faculty, unsupportive leadership, and stressful work environments were frequently reported as significant contributing factors to the faculty shortage.Conclusions: This scoping review provide insights into how Canada’s schools of nursing could engage in grounded efforts to lessen nursing faculty shortage, both nationally and globally. We identified a gap in the literature that indicates that foundational work is needed to create context-specific solutions. The limited studies published in Canada suggests that this is a critical area for future research and funding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0228.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: attachment; parent-child relationship; parenting; contextual (context-specific); sport; academic; hierarchical model
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:19:06 CET)
Bowlby’s (1969/1982) attachment theory has been employed as a broad and integrative framework to explore human wellness across a range of disciplines. Attachment theory has even been labelled one of the last surviving “grand theories” not to have been completely dismissed, replaced, or extensively reworked (e.g., Carr, 2012; Mercer, 2011). However, despite the ubiquitous nature of some of the theory’s fundamental tenets, there are always possibilities for new conceptual development, extension, and revision. In this paper, we critically explore the idea of “context-specific” attachment within parent-child relationships. We briefly outline critical assumptions and key areas of attachment and articulate potential rationale, conceptualisation, and relevance of contextual attachment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0213.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Digital gap; academic performance; Information and Communication Technology; digital literacy; virtual education; Covid-19
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:12:52 CET)
This study analyzes the academic performance of students from an official school in Bogotá (Colombia) who had asymmetric access to Information and Communication Technologies during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Classical Linear Regression Model is employed using data from a survey of a representative group of students in the year 2020. Results show technological gaps between students that are associated with asymmetric academic performance against students with limited or null access to the Internet and electronic devices. Results also show that, among students with permanent access to the Internet, women have better scores compared to men’s scores, which implies that women can achieve better academic results than men in virtual education. It is also noted that the sole access to an electronic device does not guarantee good academic achievements if there is no full access to the Internet, and if ICT-use skills have not been developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0489.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: sleep; academic performance; grade point average; college students; wearable device; longitudinal; nighttime sleep awakening
Online: 30 December 2021 (13:45:37 CET)
Although the relations between sleep and academic performance have been extensively examined, how sleep predicts future academic performance (e.g., 2 -3 years) remains to be further investigated. Using wearable smartwatches and a self-report questionnaire, we tracked sleep activities of 45 college students over a period of approximate half a month to see whether their sleep activities predicted their academic performance, which was estimated by grade point average (GPA). Results showed that both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency in the tracking period were not significantly correlated with the GPA for the courses taken in the semester during sleep tracking (current GPA). However, both nighttime sleep awakening frequency and its consistency inversely predicted the GPA for the rest of the courses taken after that semester (future GPA). Moreover, students with more difficulty staying awake throughout the day obtained lower current and future GPAs, and students with lower inconsistency of sleep quality obtained lower future GPA. Together, these findings highlight the importance of nighttime sleep awakening frequency and consistency in predicting future academic performance and emphasize the necessity of assessing the consistency of sleep measures in future studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Adapted COVID-Stress Scales; Stress in Academic Professionals; Resilience to COVID stress in Academia
Online: 20 January 2021 (16:37:25 CET)
To mitigate the COVID-19 infection, many world governments endorsed the cessation of non-essential activities, such as the school attendance. Thereby, forcing the evolution of the teaching model to the virtual classroom. In the present work we show the application of a modified version of the adapted COVID-19 stress scales (ACSS) which also included teaching anxiety and preparedness, and resilience for academic professionals in Mexico, during the unprecedented transformation of the education system undergone in the COVID-19 quarantine. Most of the studied variables: gender, age, academic degree, household occupants, having a disease, teaching level, teaching mode, work hours, resilience, teaching anxiety and preparedness, and fear of being an asymptomatic patient (FOBAP), showed significant statistical correlation between each other (p<0.050) and to the 6 areas of the ACSS (danger, contamination, social economical, xenophobia, traumatic stress and compulsive checking). Our results further showed that the perceived stress and anxiety, fell into the category of absent to mild with only the danger section of the ACSS falling into the moderate category. Finally, resilience generated throughout the quarantine, seems to be a predictor of the adaptation the academic professional has undergone to cope with stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0387.v1
Subject: Keywords: Scholarship evaluation; Tenure and promotion; Teaching and mentoring; Researcher evaluation; Academic career; Open science
Online: 19 January 2021 (16:37:50 CET)
In most world’s countries, scholarship evaluation for tenure and promotion continues to rely on conventional criteria of publications in journals of high impact factor and grant funding. Continuing to hire and promote scholars for their achievements in research and in securing research funds exposes universities at risk because students, directly and indirectly through government funds, are the main source of revenues for academic institutions, whereas talented young researchers are those who actually carry out most of the published research. Purposeful scholarship evaluation needs to include all three areas of scholarly activity: research, teaching and mentoring, and service to society. Young scholars seeking tenure and promotion benefit from the practice of open science because it provides better and more impactful results with respect to each of the three areas of scholarship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0029.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: academic staffs’; gender; level of education; affective commitment; continuance commitment; normative commitment; overall commitment
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:21:19 CEST)
Employees’ organizational commitment is considered to be a critical issue in higher educational setting for the success of its visions and goals, as well as to keep its employees motivation granted for achieving better work performance. This subject has therefore, been studied so as to draw attention to enhance effectiveness of higher educational institution in Ethiopia, particularly in reference to Haramaya University. The major objective of study was to find out the level of academic staffs’ commitment. The study assessed whether significant difference exist in academic staffs’ commitment level in terms of their gender and level of education. Researchers used cross-sectional research design and both primary and secondary data sources were used for the study; 242 participants were selected using stratified sampling technique. Questionnaire, focus group discussion and document review were used to collect data. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics; and the qualitative data were also analyzed using narration methods of analysis. Study result showed there was moderate level of in overall commitment and in specific commitment dimensions among academic staffs. The study further indicated that there is no significance difference in commitment of academic staffs with reference to gender; however, a significant difference in commitment was existed in reference to level of education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0469.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: burnout; team mindfulness; work engagement; online meetings; academic meetings; writing prompts; doodling; COVID-19; online games
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:55:37 CET)
Burnout, a negative job-related psychological state particularly associated with the health professions, equates to a loss of valuable research in healthcare researchers. Team mindfulness, recognized to enhance personal fulfilment through work engagement, represents one important aspect found effective in reducing burnout. In a specific series of diverse membership academic meetings intended to reduce research burnout—employing writing prompts, doodling and continuous developmental feedback to do so—team mindfulness was demonstrated when conducted in person. Therefore, determining if team mindfulness is evident when holding such academic meetings online is relevant. When COVID-19 limitations required moving these academic meetings online, it was previously noted and reported that team mindfulness was affected in no longer being present during the first eighteen months of restrictions. To discover if this result persisted, question asking, doodles submitted and feedback responses were analyzed of the following year’s academic meetings for the same group, both quantitively and qualitatively. In finding the team mindfulness of these meetings additionally compromised the second full year, online practices actually found successful at creating and supporting team mindfulness—online games—are identified and considered. Concluding implications are noted and recommendations made regarding team mindfulness in reducing burnout for future online academic meetings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0236.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Blood Pressure; Rope Exercise; physical activity; Lifestyle Modification; Adolescents; BMI; Hypertension; Cardiovascular risk factors; Academic Performance
Online: 18 October 2021 (10:21:34 CEST)
There are evidences of shared biological mechanisms between obesity and hypertension during childhood in the adulthood, and loads of research literatures have proven that, it will cost the economies and health of nations profoundly if neglected. The Prevention and early diagnosis of cardiovascular risk factors such as overweight and hypertension is an essential strategy for control, effective treatment and prevention of its’ complications. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of school based Exercise and Life style Motivation Intervention (SEAL-MI) on adolescent's cardiovascular risk factors and academic performance. An experimental study was conducted among 1005 adolescents - 520 and 485 adolescents were randomly selected for control and study group, respectively. Demographic details and the data related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep quality were collected by a structured interview questionnaire. The study group adolescents were given the SEAL-MI for six months which includes a school based rope exercise for 45 minutes per day for 5 days a week and a motivation intervention related to dietary habits, physical activity and sleep. Post-test 1 and 2 were done after 3 and 6 months of intervention. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was 28.73% and prehypertension was 9.26%. Among overweight adolescents, the prevalence of prehypertension was found to be very high (32.25%). In post intervention, there was a significant reduction in weight, BP (p=0.000) and improvement in dietary habits, physical activity, sleep (p=0.000) and academic performance. A significant positive correlation was found between BMI and SBP (p=0.000) and BMI and academic performance (p=0.003). The linear regression analyses revealed that the gender (ß: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.81), age (ß: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17, 0.46), family income (ß: 0.2, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.5), residence (ß: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.27) and type of family (ß: 0.25, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.02) had the strongest correlate with the BMI of the adolescents. Also, Mother’s education Mother’s education (ß: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.59) had the strongest correlate with the SBP of the adolescents. In contrast, the DBP was negatively persuaded by age (ß: -0.36, 95% CI: 1.54, 0.29) and gender (ß: -0.26, 95% CI: 1.34, 0.12) of the adolescents. Regular practice of rope exercise and lifestyle modification such as diet, physical activity and sleep quality among adolescents prevent and control childhood CVD risk factors like overweight, hypertension. The SEAL-MI may lead to age appropriate development of adolescents and improves their academic performance and quality of life. Giving importance to the adolescents from urban habitat, from affluent nuclear family and catching them young will bring significant change in the disease burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Mental health; psychological well-being; depression; anxiety; stress; undergraduate students; Bachelor’s degree students; student academic satisfaction.
Online: 15 January 2021 (12:18:32 CET)
Background Research on the mental health of students in health disciplines mainly focuses on psychological distress and nursing and medical students. This study aimed to investigate the psychological well-being and distress and related factors among undergraduate students training in eight different health-related tracks in Geneva, Switzerland. Methods This cross-sectional study used established self-filled scales for anxiety, depression, stress, psychological well-being, and study satisfaction. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Results In October 2019, out of 2835 invited students, 915 (32%) completed the survey. Lower academic satisfaction scores were strongly associated with depression (β=-.26, p<.001), anxiety (β=-.27, p<.001), and stress (β=-.70, p<.001), while higher scores with psychological well-being (β=.70, p<.001). Being female was strongly associated with anxiety and stress but not with depression or psychological well-being. Increased age was associated with enhanced psychological well-being. The nature of the academic training had a lesser impact on mental health and the academic year none. Conclusion Academic satisfaction strongly predicts depression, anxiety, stress, and psychological well-being. Training institutions should address the underlying factors that can improve students’ satisfaction with their studies while ensuring that they have access to psychosocial services that help them cope with mental distress and enhance their psychological well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0451.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic lessons; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA; whole-school; physical activity; physically active learning; PAL
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:11:07 CET)
Background: A large majority of primary school pupils fail to achieve 30-minutes in-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The aim of this study was to investigate MVPA accumulation and subject frequency during academic lesson segments and the broader segmented school day. Methods: 122 children (42.6% boys; 9.9±0.3yrs) from six primary schools in North East England, wore uniaxial accelerometers for eight consecutive days. Subject frequency was assessed by teacher diaries. Multilevel models (children nested within schools) examined significant predictors of MVPA across each school-day segment (lesson one, break, lesson two, lunch, lesson three). Results: Pupils averaged 18.33±8.34 minutes of in-school MVPA and 90.2% failed to achieve the in-school 30-minute MVPA threshold. Across all school-day segments, MVPA accumulation was typically influenced at the individual level. Lesson one and two - dominated by Math and English - were less active than lesson three. Break and lunch were the most active segments. Conclusion: This study breaks new ground, revealing MVPA accumulation and subject frequency varies greatly during different academic lessons. Morning lessons were dominated by the inactive delivery of Math and English, whereas afternoon lessons involved a greater array of subject delivery that resulted in marginally higher levels of MVPA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0418.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic stress; psychological and physical well-being; adolescence; secondary education; validity; reliability; gender and age differences
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:32:43 CEST)
This study presents the validation process of the Questionnaire on Academic Stress in Secondary Education –QASSE-, designed to assess the wide variety of school sources and situations related to academic stress in adolescence, and their relationship with students’ physical and psychological well-being. Participants were 860 Spanish high school students (52.9% girls) with an average age of 14.62 years (SD = 1.8). Through a cross-validation process, EFA and CFA supported QASSE multifactorial structure with four first-order factors -academic overload, interaction with classmates, family pressure, and future-oriented perspective- and a second-order factor of academic stress, showing a significant and intense relationship with adolescents’ psychological and physical well-being. Results also highlight the effects of the gender*educational level interaction on the students’ stress, with girls showing higher levels of stress in the transition courses between educational phases (sophomore and junior years). The QASSE demonstrates good validity and reliability, showing potential for both research and educational application. The results show the high impact of the QASSE dimensions on psychological and physical well-being in adolescence, highlighting its special usefulness for designing and adjusting educational prevention and intervention actions in this area to the students’ specific characteristics and needs
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0104.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: HEMS; Reinforcement Learning; Deep Neural Network; Q-Value; Policy Gradient; Natural Gradient; Actor-Critic; Residential, Commercial, Academic.
Online: 1 September 2022 (04:27:12 CEST)
The steep rise in reinforcement learning (RL) in various applications in energy as well as the penetration of home automation in recent years are the motivation for this article. It surveys the use of RL in various home energy management system (HEMS) applications. There is a focus on deep neural network (DNN) models in RL. The article provides an overview of reinforcement learning. This is followed with discussions on state-of-the-art methods for value, policy, and actor–critic methods in deep reinforcement learning (DRL). In order to make the published literature in reinforcement learning more accessible to the HEMS community, verbal descriptions are accompanied with explanatory figures as well as mathematical expressions using standard machine learning terminology. Next, a detailed survey of how reinforcement learning is used in different HEMS domains is described. The survey also considers what kind of reinforcement learning algorithms are used in each HEMS application. It suggests that research in this direction is still in its infancy. Lastly, the article proposes four performance metrics to evaluate RL methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0245.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Natural language processing (NLP); topic modelling; BERT; transportation; newspaper; magazine; academic research; journalism; deep learning; smart cities
Online: 17 March 2022 (07:58:15 CET)
We live in a complex world characterised by complex people, complex times, and complex social, technological, and ecological environments. There is clear evidence that governments are failing at most public matters. The recent COVID-19 pandemic is a high example of global governance failure both at preventing such pandemics and managing the COVID-19 pandemic. It is time that all of us take responsibility and look into ways of collaboratively improving the governance of public matters, our matters. While there are many reasons for government failures, we believe the lack of information availability is a fundamental reason that limits the government’s ability to act smartly and allows the lack of transparency to creep into policy and action leading to corruption and failure. To this end, this paper introduces the concept of deep journalism, a data-driven deep learning-based approach for discovering multi-perspective parameters related to a topic of interest. We build three datasets (a newspaper, a technology magazine, and a Web of Science dataset) and discover the academic, industrial, public, governance, and political parameters for the transportation sector as a case study to introduce deep journalism and our tool DeepJournal (Version 1.0) that implements our proposed approach. We elaborate on 89 transportation parameters and hundreds of dimensions reviewing 400 technical, academic, and news articles. The findings related to the multi-perspective view of transportation reported in this paper show that there are many important problems seen by the public that industry and academia seem to not place their focus on. On the other hand, academia produces much broader and deeper knowledge on the subject such as a wide range of pollutions affecting the people and planet do not get to reach the public eye. Our deep journalism approach could find the gaps and highlight them to the public and other stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0612.v2
Subject: Keywords: Academic journals; Growth of knowledge; Non-peer review; Paradigm change; Peer review; Scholarly communication; Science communication; Simplicity
Online: 30 August 2021 (12:02:53 CEST)
This article challenges the assumption that journals and peer review are essential for developing, evaluating and disseminating scientific and other academic knowledge. It suggests a more flexible ecosystem, and examines some of the possibilities this might facilitate. The market for academic outputs should be opened up by encouraging the separation of the dissemination service from the evaluation service. Publishing research in subject-specific journals encourages compartmentalising research into rigid categories. The dissemination of knowledge would be better served by an open access, web-based repository system encompassing all disciplines. There would then be a role for organisations to assess the items in this repository to help users find relevant, high-quality work. There could be a variety of such organisations which could enable reviews from peers to be supplemented with evaluation by non-peers from a variety of different perspectives: user reviews, statistical reviews, reviews from the perspective of different disciplines, and so on. This should reduce the inevitably conservative influence of relying on two or three peers, and make the evaluation system more critical, multi-dimensional and responsive to the requirements of different audience groups, changing circumstances, and new ideas. Non-peer review might make it easier to challenge dominant paradigms, and expanding the potential audience beyond a narrow group of peers might encourage the criterion of simplicity to be taken more seriously - which is essential if human knowledge is to continue to progress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: food; commons; epistemologies of food; commons epistemologies; food narratives; food values; public good theory; academic schools; paradigms
Online: 7 April 2017 (04:13:41 CEST)
Commons and food are experiencing a revival in recent years and yet the links between both are almost absent in academic and political discourses. Commons are often portrayed as historical and yet innovative governing mechanisms that can challenge the State-Market hegemony. On the other side, food is both a relevant agent of change and a major driver of planetary destruction, being thus cause and solution to multiple crises that affect humankind. Departing from the commodification of food as one root cause of the broken global food system, this text firstly situates and discusses the different schools of thought (or epistemologies) that have addressed the private/public, commodity/commons nature of goods in general, and then explores how those schools have considered food in particular. To do so, the author has defined five epistemologies, four academic (economic, legal, historical and political) and one non-academic (grassroots activists). The analysis highlights how those epistemologies have yielded incommensurable understandings and conflicting vocabularies, hence creating confusion in the socio-political realm and even rejection around the idea of food being considered as a commons. The economic epistemic regard has reigned over the others by applying an approach to commons, public and private goods that is theoretical, reductionist and ontological instead of phenomenological, therefore preventing or obscuring other scholarly or practical understanding of commons. When applied to food, the iron law of economics dictated that food, a private good based on rivalry and excludability, shall be better allocated through market mechanisms with absolute proprietary rights and valued as a pure commodity. This reductionist view collides with the plurality of meanings of food in different societies, civilisations and historical periods, as other schools of thought indicate. The author uses diverse epistemic tools to re-construct food as a commons, based on its essentiality to human beings and societies and the customary and contemporary praxis to produce, consume and govern food collectively through non-market mechanisms for more than 2000 centuries. As commoning has instituting power to create different political and legal frameworks, if food is valued differently the entire architecture of the global food system would change, as the grassroots activist school claims. Re-commoning food defies the legal and political scaffoldings that sustain the hegemony of market and state decision-makers over eaters and food producers and informs sustainable forms of food production (agro-ecology), new collective practices of governance (food democracies) and alternative policies to regain control over the food system (food sovereignty). Food as a commons is an agent of change with transformative power, no matter what economists say.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2040076
Subject: Keywords: academic journals; publishing; seal of approval; impact factor; h-index; anonymous refereeing; continuous and discrete frequency of publications; avoidance of time wasting; seeking adventure; open access; academic publishing as a continuous dynamic process; improving research after publication; internet
Online: 15 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Many academics are critical of the current publishing system, but it is difficult to create a better alternative. This review relates to the Sciences and Social Sciences, and discusses the primary purpose of academic journals as providing a seal of approval for perceived quality, impact, significance, and importance. The key issues considered include the role of anonymous refereeing, continuous rather than discrete frequency of publications, avoidance of time wasting, and seeking adventure. Here we give recommendations about the organization of journal articles, the roles of associate editors and referees, measuring the time frame for refereeing submitted articles in days and weeks rather than months and years, encouraging open access internet publishing, emphasizing the continuity of publishing online, academic publishing as a continuous dynamic process, and how to improve research after publication. Citations and functions thereof, such as the journal impact factor and h-index, are the benchmark for evaluating the importance and impact of academic journals and published articles. Even in the very top journals, a high proportion of published articles are never cited, not even by the authors themselves. Top journal publications do not guarantee that published articles will make significant contributions, or that they will ever be highly cited. The COVID-19 world should encourage academics worldwide not only to rethink academic teaching, but also to re-evaluate key issues associated with academic journal publishing in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mental health; psychological well-being; depression; anxiety; stress; COVID-19; students' academic satisfaction; undergraduate students; Bachelor's degree students
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:20:50 CET)
Background University students’ psychological health is linked to their academic satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate students’ psychological health and academic satisfaction in the context of COVID-19 and academic year-end stress. Methods Standardized self-filled scales for anxiety, depression, stress, psychological well-being, and an ad-hoc COVID-19 stress scale were used in this cross-sectional study. Participants were first- to third-year students of eight different health-related tracks in Geneva, Switzerland. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Results In June 2020, out of 2835 invited students, 433 (15%) completed the survey. Academic satisfaction was a stronger mental health predictor than COVID-19, which mainly predicted stress and anxiety. Lower academic satisfaction scores were significantly associated with stress (β = -.53, p < .001), depression (β = -.26, p < .001), anxiety (β = -.20, p < .001), while higher scores with psychological well-being (β = .48, p < .001). Being female was strongly associated with anxiety and stress but not with depression or psychological well-being. Lower age was associated with stress only. The nature of the academic training had a lesser impact on mental health and the academic year none. Compared to students starting the academic year, year-end students reported significantly lower academic satisfaction, higher depression, and particularly higher anxiety and stress. There was, however, no difference in psychological well-being. Conclusion Students suffer more from anxiety, stress, depression, and lower satisfaction with studies at the end of the academic year than at the beginning. Academic satisfaction plays a more substantial role than COVID-19 in predicting students’ overall mental health status. Training institutions should address the underlying factors that can enhance students’ academic satisfaction, especially during the COVID-19 period, in addition to ensuring that they have a continuous and adequate learning experience, as well as access to psychosocial services that help them cope with mental distress and enhance their psychological well-being.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0192.v1
Subject: Keywords: UK higher education; student; COVID-19; pandemic; academic performance; student evaluations; online learning; loss of income; educational disruptions
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:36:40 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the worst catastrophes that we have faced globally in recent years. It has not only taken its toll on the economic sector but also on the education sector. The social distancing norms that are in place as a direct response to the pandemic have turned conventional classroom teaching into a problematic minefield; as such, students all over the world have been forced into unprecedented situations that have served only to worsen the situation. The current pandemic has given rise to one of the worst crises the 21st Century has ever seen, resulting in a surge of unemployment. Many companies have taken the route of firing employees or making redundancies, as they cannot afford the monthly reimbursement for staff. While this issue primarily concerns full-time workers, it also carries significant consequences for students – a considerable number of students are required to earn their daily living costs, and, without a job, they cannot pay their educational fees, accommodation costs, or living expenses. This comprehensive study briefly discusses the multitude of problems faced by students in the UK regarding higher education, as a direct result of the coronavirus pandemic. It contains six individual sections: a detailed introduction; the methodological procedures employed; educational disruptions, covering issues from hindrances in field research to examinations and student evaluations; personal problems experienced by students, such as accommodation and loss of income; concerns arising from the global pandemic; and finally, a conclusion and summary of the study’s findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0108.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: academic meetings; video conferencing; Zoom; private Facebook group; narrative research; COVID-19; self-directed learning; team mindfulness; democratic meetings
Online: 21 October 2021 (12:10:57 CEST)
The online learning necessitated by COVID-19 social distancing limitations has resulted in the utilization of hybrid online formats focused on maintaining visual contact among learners and teachers. The preferred option of video conferencing for academic meetings has become that of Zoom. The needs of one voluntary, democratic, self-reflective university research group—grounded in responses to writing prompts—differed in learning focus. Demanding a safe space to encourage and record both self-reflection and creative questioning of other participants, the private Facebook group was chosen over video conferencing to maintain the concentration on group members’ written responses rather than how they saw themselves (and thought others saw them) on screen. A narrative research model initiated in 2015, the 2020/21 interaction of the group in the year’s worth of Facebook entries, and the yearend feedback received from group participants, will be compared with previous years when the weekly group met in-person. The results in relation to COVID-19 limitations indicate that an important aspect of self-directed learning related to trust that comes from team mindfulness is lost when face-to-face interaction is eliminated regarding the democratic nature of these meetings. With online meetings the new standard, maintaining trust requires improvements to online virtual meeting spaces.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; digital literacy; academic meetings; private Facebook groups; Zoom; 4Cs; health-related group; landscape of truth; narrative research
Online: 3 August 2020 (08:38:41 CEST)
Late January 2020, COVID-19 unexpectedly imposed world-wide limitations on daily life. Deemed a pandemic mid-March 2020, lockdowns were imposed for an indefinite period, including at academic institutions. Consequently, interest in digital literacy—an on-going and increasing concern of academic institutions in the 21st century—exponentially heightened. Continuing meetings of academic groups now necessitated online communication. In the almost overnight closure of all non-essential services, academic units at one post-secondary institution expeditiously selected Zoom—a popular video conferencing application—as the preferred platform for meetings until social distancing was lifted. In contrast to this widely accepted use of Zoom for scheduled meetings, one unique health-related group at the institution, tailored to the 4Cs of 21st century learning of critical thought, communication, cooperation and creativity, found social networking through a private Facebook group a more appropriate and satisfying group experience than likely possible with the Zoom app. Pros and cons of both online platforms are presented along with when each choice is warranted. In promoting digital literacy as the primary goal in online communication for academic meetings, private Facebook groups hold promise for collaborative online academic meetings with similar features to this health-related group.