BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: zoon balanitis; IL‑1; IL‑1RN; IL‑6; IFN‑γ; TGF‑β1
Online: 20 September 2023 (05:42:58 CEST)
Zoon balanitis (ZB) is a mild and chronic inflammatory dermatosis that mostly affects uncircumcised men of middle and old age. The etiology of this disease remains unknown. Moreover, some authors have questioned the presence of this type of balanitis. Our study aimed to assess the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in ZB and demonstrate the presence of a characteristic expression pattern, different from that reported in the literature for penile lichen sclerosus(LS) and penile cancer. Skin biopsies from four foreskins affected by Zoon’s balanitis with surrounding morphologically unchanged skin and 13 from nonlesional foreskins (healthy control adult males undergoing circumcision) were obtained. RNA was extracted from each biopsy, followed by quantitative assessment of the gene expression of interleukin 1-A(IL-1A), interleukin 1-B(IL-1B),interleukin 1 receptor antagonist(IL-1RN),interleukin 6(IL-6), transforming growth factor β1(TGF-β1), and interferon-gamma(INF-γ). The decreased level of IL-1A mRNA was observed in Zoon’s balanitis in both inflamed and healthy skin compared to control samples. There were no statistically significant differences in other investigated cytokines gene expression between Zoon’s balanitis and the control group. In conclusion, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines was not related to the course of zoon balanitis. Moreover, in the case of IL-1A, we observed the suppression of the immune response.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1362.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Wilms Tumor; nephron‐sparing surgery; robotic surgery; partial nephrectomy; 3D reconstruction; DaVinci; metaverse; 3D virtual models
Online: 20 September 2023 (05:02:48 CEST)
Background: Wilms tumor (WT) is the main renal tumor in children. SIOP-UMBRELLA Guidelines admit Nephron sparing surgery (NSS) in syndromic patients, and in small (<300 ml) nonsyndromic unilateral WTs, without lymph node involvement, and with a substantial expected remnant renal function, after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We report our prechemotherapy transperitoneal robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) in a unilateral non-syndromic Wilms tumor. Methods: A 6-year-old-child showed an exophytic 3.6 cm diameter solid rounding mass involving the upper right renal pole at an incidental abdominal echotomography. CT-scan and abdominal MRI proved no local infiltration neither lymph node involvement was appreciated, suggesting an exophytic mass easily resectable through a NSS robotic approach, with a low risk of rupture and no subverted renal anatomy. The preoperative imaging was not suggestive for WT. A virtual 3D reconstruction of the tumor was performed. Results: the oncologic board approved a robot-assisted partial nephrectomy with the intraperitoneal approach. The histopathologic analysis displayed a WT. The patient underwent 10 vincristine-doses adjuvant chemotherapy. 28-months follow-up showed no tumor recurrence. Conclusions: Intraperitoneal RAPN can represent an opportunity for WT and needs to be assessed as a challenging possibility. This case suggests a potential role of prechemotherapy RAPN in the near future for highly selected patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: microbiome; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; kidney cancer; testicular cancer; penile cancer
Online: 18 September 2023 (19:21:53 CEST)
The microbiome, once considered peripheral, is emerging as a relevant player in the intricate web of factors contributing to cancer development and progression. These often overlooked microorganisms, in the context of urological malignancies, have been investigated primarily focusing on the gut microbiome, while exploration of urogenital microorganisms remains limited. In light of this, our systematic review delves into the complex role of these understudied actors in various neoplastic conditions, including prostate, bladder, kidney, penile, and testicular cancers. Our analysis found a total of 37 studies, with prostate cancer-12, bladder cancer-20, kidney cancer-4, penile/testicular cancer-1, which reveals distinct associations specific to each condition, hinting at potential therapeutic avenues and future biomarker discoveries. It becomes evident that further research is imperative to unravel the complexities of this domain and provide a more comprehensive understanding.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: RADAR, arteriovenous fistula, fistula maturation
Online: 15 September 2023 (08:34:54 CEST)
Background: The most common form of vascular access for hemodialysis is a native arteriovenous fistula, which connects site of the artery to the end of the vein. The maturation process of the fistula plays a crucial role in the establishment of a functional vascular access. Radial artery stenosis is among others a potential cause of maturation failure. In these cases, improving the fistula's blood flow may be difficult, as traditional surgical reanastomosis and endovascular intervention frequently fail. Radial artery deviation and reimplantation (RADAR) is a novel, effective technique for creating primary fistulas with a high patency rate. The main disadvantage of this procedure is the ligation of the radial artery and the subsequent known consequences. Methods: In order to accelerate maturation, we used RADAR as a secondary fistula in three patients with radial artery stenosis and maturation failure. In all patients after surgery we observed significant increase in fistula blood flow. Two patients used fistula for hemodialysis after surgery. We describe the image diagnosis, procedure, and benefits of this method based on a single case. Conclusion: The RADAR technique may be successfully used as a secondary access in patients with maturation failure, due to RA stenosis to accelerate fistula maturation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0835.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: hyponatremia, water-electrolyte imbalance, tonicity, extracellular fluid
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:36:55 CEST)
The perturbation in water balance rather than any change in salt content is the main cause of hyponatremia, the most frequent electrolyte abnormality defined as serum sodium concentration <135 mEq/L. Hyponatremia may be divided as mild (Na>120 mEq/L) or severe (Na<120 mEq/L) hyponatremia, most frequently observed in elderly ICU hospitalized patients. Based on tonicity hyponatremia may be hypotonic (decreased concentration of solute), isotonic, and hypertonic (falsely low sodium). According to the volume of the extracellular fluid (ECF) hyponatremia is further divided as hypovolemic, euvolemic, or hypervolemic hyponatremia. Finally, hyponatremia may develop rapidly as acute (<48 h) with usually severe symptoms, or slowly as chronic hyponatremia, being usually asymptomatic or with mild symptoms. Patient’s medical history and clinical symptoms and signs could point to a certain diagnostic direction. Acute severe hyponatremia is presented with headaches, vomiting, nausea, fatigue, impaired cognition, gait with increased falls symptoms etc., while the severe symptomatology due to hyponatremic encephalopathy is presented as confusion, agitation, seizures, or even coma and death. Nevertheless, an urgent evaluation of the volume and neurological status is essential for prevention of neurological damages. The treatment of hyponatremia should of course be based on the underlying cause, the duration and degree of hyponatremia, the observed symptoms, and volume status of patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0741.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: drug-drug interaction; tamsulosin; mirabegron; pharmacokinetics
Online: 12 September 2023 (14:22:09 CEST)
Overactive bladder (OAB) is characterized by urinary urgency and increased urinary frequency, and can impact quality of life significantly. Tamsulosin and mirabegron combination therapy has been studied as a safe and effective treatment option for patients with OAB. This study evaluated the effects of combining these two drugs on their pharmacokinetics and safety profiles in healthy Korean males. In this open-label, fixed-sequence, 3-period, drug-drug interaction phase 1 study, a total of 36 male participants were administered multiple doses of tamsulosin alone (0.2 mg once daily), mirabegron alone (50 mg once daily), and a combination of both drugs. The results showed that the combination of tamsulosin and mirabegron increased tamsulosin exposure in the plasma by approximately 40%. In contrast, the maximum plasma concentration of mirabegron reduced by approximately 17%, when administered along with tamsulosin. No clinically significant changes in safety profiles, vital signs, or clinical laboratory test results were observed in this study. In conclusion, there were no clinically relevant drug-drug interactions between tamsulosin and mirabegron in terms of pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability, suggesting that their combination therapy could be a promising treatment option for patients with OAB.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0758.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: penile cancer; lymph node dissection; timing; survival
Online: 12 September 2023 (10:29:17 CEST)
Background: The management of penile cancer patients has some grey zones, one of them being the timing of prophylactic pelvic lymph node dissection. Here, we review the impact of timing of prophylactic inguinal and pelvic lymph node dissection on patients’ outcome. Methods: Relevant databases were searched according to recommendations by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Before the systematic review we present a narrative review on the indications for lymph node dissection and the impact of pathological anatomical considerations on the timing of prophylactic lymph node dissection and patients’ outcome. The primary research questions were disease-free and overall survival rate in patients who underwent early or late lymph node dissection after penile cancer diagnosis. Results: Four clinical trials were included in the systematic review. Conclusions: The survival rate of patients with penile cancer is strictly associated with the timing of prophylactic pelvic lymph node dissection. Even though there are no randomized controlled trials we conclude that there is evidence for a strong recommendation that lymph node dissection should be performed as soon as possible after diagnosis with3 months as a realistic cut-off time between early and late. According to the present evidence base, lymph node dissection should be offered the sooner the better to all patients at high risk of lymph node metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0542.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Peyronie's Disease; vacuum erection devices; penile curvature; surgery; quality of life
Online: 8 September 2023 (02:41:27 CEST)
Background: Peyronie’s disease (PD) represents a challenging urological disease, due to not optimal post-operative surgical outcomes. We aim to evaluate if vacuum erection devices (VED) treatment before pe-nile curvature surgery is able to improve the post-operative surgical outcomes. Methods: All enrolled patients were assigned to the following groups: a) treatment group, VED treatment (3 times per week) starting 3 months before surgery and (3 times per week) one months after surgery and b) control group, VED treatment (3 times per week) one months after surgery. Follow-up urologic visits were scheduled at 3 and 6 months after surgery and the two groups were compared. Results: Thirty-eight patients have been enrolled (median age 67 years, 57-74, IQR), 20 in the treatment group and 18 in the control group. At the follow-up visits, the two groups are different in terms of IIEF-5 (26 vs 24; p=0.02), ‘yes’ to SEP2 and 3 (85% vs 55%; p<0.001, 85% vs 50%; p<0.001, respectively) and PDQ (-16 vs -11; p=0.03). Complete correction of penile curvature was achieved in 36 patients (94.7%). In the treatment group, no hourglass deformity has been reported, while in the control group 1 patient reported a mild hourglass deformity. In the treatment group, we obtained a longer total penile length (median +1.5 cm). The overall satisfaction rate was 98% in the treatment group and 96% in the control group. Conclusions: The VED treatment before penile curvature surgery in patients affected by PD is able to improve the post-operative surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0538.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; End-stage kidney disease; amino acids; metabolites
Online: 7 September 2023 (11:24:56 CEST)
There is a pressing need for more precise biomarkers of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Plasma samples from 820 subjects [231 with CKD, 325 with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and 264 controls] were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to determine a metabolic profile of 28 aminoacids (AA) and biogenic amines to test their value as markers of CKD risk and progression. The Kynurenine/Tryptophan ratio showed the strongest correlation with estimated glomerular filtration rate values (coefficient=-0.731, P<0.0001). Models created with Orthogonal Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) containing the metabolic signature showed high goodness of fit and predictability for controls/CKD (R2X:0.73;R2Y:0.92;Q2:0.92) and lower for CDK/ESKD (R2X:0.56;R2Y:0.59;Q2:0.55). Based on generated VIP scores, the most relevant markers for segregating samples into control/CKD or CKD/ESKD groups were citrulline (1.67) and tryptophan (1.59), respectively. ROC analysis showed that the addition of the metabolic profile to a model including CKD classic risk factors improved AUC from 86.7% (83.6-89.9) to 100% (100-100) for CKD risk (P<0.0001), and from 63.0% (58.2-67.8) to 96.5% (95.3-97.8) for the risk of progression from CKD to ESKD (P<0.0001). Plasma concentrations of AA and related amines may be useful as diagnostic biomarkers of kidney disease, both for CKD risk and for progression of CKD patients to ESKD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: bone mineral markers; phosphate/calcium homeostasis; dialysis; inflammation; mortality; vitamin D receptor polymorphism; diabetes; vascular calcification; hs-CRP; CKD
Online: 6 September 2023 (03:34:19 CEST)
Polymorphism of vitamin D3 receptor (VDR), has been associated with low bone mineral density and other immune and metabolic disorders; however, its impact on mortality of female dialysis patients is not well studied. This study aimed to identify bone mass-related factors, VDR gene polymorphism, and their interaction with morbid conditions that could influence all-cause mortality. In 246 female dialysis patients, age 43±11 years on continuous ambulatory dialysis peritoneal; 48%, haemodialysis; 23% and automated peritoneal dialysis; 29%. Tscore, Ca, PO4, albumin, hs-CRP, osteoprotegerin, fetuin, osteocalcin, iPTH, PINP and β-CTx were measured. PCR products were digested with Bsml to analyze VDR polymorphisms. Patients n=229; were followed for a median of 17 (15-31) months; 42 patients died. Bsml polymorphism, bb=64% and BB+Bb=36%. Hs-CRP was the risk of death in multivariate Cox Analysis. Patients with bb and inflammation had a higher risk of death (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.08-5.68) persisted after adjustment for age, diabetes and iPTH (HR 2.33; 95% CI, 1.01-8.33) and after further adjustment for vintage, albumin, osteoprotegerin and vitamin D therapy (HR 3.49; 95% CI, 1.20-10.9). We may conclude that the presences of the bb genotype of VDR and inflammation have additive effects on all cause-mortality in females in CAPD, APD, and HD patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0126.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: nephrotic syndrome; pediatrics; nephrology; steroids; FSGS; Chad; sub-Saharan countries
Online: 4 September 2023 (03:44:10 CEST)
Introduction: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) remains the most frequent mode of presentation of glo-merular diseases in children; in addition, the NS is primitive, i.e., idiopathic in 90% of cases with an average age of onset between 2 and 10 years. The objective of our study was to describe the char-acteristics and outcome of NS in children from 3 major hospitals from one of the poorest countries worldwide (Chad). Patients and Methods: Observational, cross-sectional, descriptive and multicenter study which took place over a period of 36 months (January 1,2019-December 31,2021) carried out in 3 hospitals in N’Djamena (Chad). All children aged 1-15 years presenting with NS were included. Results: Out of 16,776 children hospitalized or followed-up in outpatient clinics, 24 cases of NS were identified, giving a prevalence of 0.14%. The median age at presentation was 6.16(1-10) years. Nineteen children were male (sex ratio 3.8). There were 8 impure NS (33.3%). Edema was present in all patients, oliguria in 29.16%(n=7), and arterial hypertension in 20.83%(n=5) of cases. Mean proteinuria, albuminemia and total proteins were 2.86g/L, 19.13g/L and 30.41g/L respectively. Median serum creatinine was 87.3 µmol/L(75-1375µmol/L); three patients had acute renal failure on admission. Four patients had secondary NS. All patients (n=20) with idiopathic NS had received corticosteroid therapy; steroid-sensitivity was found in 90% of patients. Those who were not ster-oid-sensitive or relapsed underwent kidney biopsy (n=7); the most represented histological lesion was focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS; n=4), followed by minimal change disease (n=2), and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (n=1). The median length of hospitalization stay was 10.67 (5-27) days. None of the patients with idiopathic NS died. At last follow-up sixteen patients (80%) achieved long-term complete remission with normal renal function; however, 4 had subse-quent relapses. 16 patients. One patient with secondary NS died. Conclusion: In Chad childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome involves mostly young male; steroid sensitivity is as high as 95% and in the long-term 80% of the patients are in remission with normal renal function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: semaphorin 3A; neuropilin-1; podocyte; diabetic nephropathy; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney injury; lupus nephritis; fibrosis; apoptosis; inflammation
Online: 31 August 2023 (02:53:48 CEST)
Kidney diseases are worldwide public health problems affecting millions of people. However, there are still limited therapeutic options against kidney diseases. Semaphorin 3A (SEMA3A) is the secreted and membrane-associated proteins, which regulate diverse functions, including immune regulation, cell survival, migration and angiogenesis, thus involving in the several pathogeneses of diseases, including eyes and neurons, as well as kidneys. SEMA3A is expressed in podocytes and tubular cells in the normal adult kidney, and recent evidence revealed that excess SEMA3A expression and subsequent signaling pathway aggravates kidney injury in a variety of kidney diseases, including nephrotic syndrome, diabetic nephropathy, acute kidney injury, and chronic kidney disease. In addition, several reports demonstrated that inhibition of SEMA3A ameliorated kidney injury via reduction of cell apoptosis, fibrosis and inflammation, thus SE-MA3A may be a potential therapeutic target for kidney diseases. In this review article, we summarized current knowledges regarding the role of SEMA3A signaling in kidney pathophysiology and their potential use in kidney diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1560.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: hemodialysis, calcifications, vitamin K, osteocalcin, Matrix Gla protein
Online: 22 August 2023 (11:13:49 CEST)
(1) Background: Vitamin K deficiency is a common feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD), leading to impaired bone quality and increased risk of vascular calcifications. A method to indirectly measure Vitamin K status is measuring the blood level of Vitamin K dependent proteins (VKDP)- osteocalcin (OC) and matrix GLA protein (MGP). The aim of this study is to correlate the level of OC and MGP with markers of CKD mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). (2) Methods: We conducted a single-center cross-sectional study that included 45 CKD G5D patients and measured blood biochemistry, complete blood count and intact osteocalcin and matrix GLA protein. (3) Results: We found a strong statistically significant correlation of OC with the markers of CKD-MBD such as: iPTH , serum calcium and serum phosphorus and a strong indirect statistically significant correlation with abdominal circumference. There was also a statistically significant correlation of MGP with markers of inflammation (CRP). Higher levels of MGP were found in patients treated with vitamin K antagonists, non-calcium based phosphate binders and vitamin D receptor activator- paricalcitol. (4) Conclusions: In our study, we found that vitamin K deficiency, measured indirectly using the level of VKDP is associated to CKD-MBD. The use of medication such as phosphate binders, that reduce vitamin K absorbtion, Vitamin D that increases Vitamin K requirements and also vitamin K antagonists, seem to have an influence on the blood level of VKDPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: body composition; bioelectrical impedance analysis; chronic kidney disease; nutrition
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:57:23 CEST)
Body composition measurement plays an important auxiliary role in the nutritional assessment of diseases, nutritional diagnosis and the evaluation of the effect of nutritional therapy. There are many techniques and methods available for the measurement of body composition. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA ) of body composition has been widely used and explored in many diseases in the past 30 years. Its main advantages are its non-invasiveness, non-radiation, economy, convenience and feasibility. With the development of bioelectrical impedance technology, bioelectrical impedance analysis has gradually developed from single-frequency BIA (SF-BIA) to dual-frequency BIA (DF-BIA). now devices are available that measure at multiple ﬁxed frequencies (multi-frequency BIA, MF-BIA) and over a range of frequencies (bioimpedance spectroscopy, BIS). The clinical significance of nutrition management in chronic kidney disease has gradually become prominent. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition is favored by nephrologists and nutritionists as an auxiliary method for nutrition diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. In the past 20 years, there have been many studies on body composition measurement by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the nutritional management of CKD patients. This article will summarize the recent research results of BIA of body composition method in the nutrition management of CKD patients in pre-dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation, in order to provide reference for the application and research of BIA method in the nutrition management of chronic kidney disease in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1352.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: oral iron absorption; ferric citrate hydrate; hemodialysis; hepcidin-25; iron shift
Online: 18 August 2023 (11:20:29 CEST)
Oral ferric citrate hydrate (FCH) is effective for iron deficiency in hemodialysis patients.; however, it remains unclear how iron balance in the body affects iron absorption from the intestinal tract. This prospective, observational study (Riona-Oral Iron Absorption Trial, R-OIAT, UMIN 000031406), conducted at 42 hemodialysis centers in Japan, wherein 268 hemodialysis patients without inflammation were enrolled and treated with a fixed amount of FCH for 6 months. We assessed the predictive value of hepcidin-25 for iron absorption and iron shift between ferritin (FTN) and red blood cells (RBCs) following FCH therapy. Serum iron changes at 2 h (ΔFe2h) after FCH ingestion were evaluated as iron absorption. The primary outcome was the quantitative delineation of iron variables on ΔFe2h and the secondary outcome was the description of the predictors of body iron balance. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to identify the determinants of iron absorption during each phase of FCH treatment. ΔFe2h increased when hepcidin-25 and MCH decreased (-0.155, -0.242 to -0.068, p = 0.001; -2.574, -4.421 to -0.726, p = 0.006, respectively) in GEE. Hepcidin-25 increased when erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) decreased (-0.002, -0.002 to -0.001, p=0.000). FTN increased when RBC and ESA decreased (-0.466, -0.605 to -0.327, p=0.000; -0.002, -0.004 to -0.000, p=0.05, respectively. Limiting erythropoiesis to maintain hemoglobin levels induces RBC reduction in hemodialysis patients, resulting in increased hepcidin-25 and FTN levels. Hepcidin-25 production may prompt an iron shift from RBC-iron to FTN-iron, inhibiting iron absorption even with continued FCH intake.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1301.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: microRNA; acute kidney injury; biomarker; mesenchymal stem cell.
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:57:53 CEST)
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome where a rapid decrease in kidney function and/or urine output is observed, which may result in the imbalance of water, electrolyte and acid base, and is associated with poor prognosis and prolonged hospitalization. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment to avoid the severe AKI stage is important. While several biomarkers, such as urinary L-FABP and NGAL, can be clinically useful, there is still no gold standard for early detection of AKI and there are limited therapeutic options against AKI. miRNAs are non-coding and single-stranded RNAs that silence their target genes in the post-transcriptional process and are involved in a wide range of biological processes. Recent accumulated evidence has revealed that miRNAs may be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AKI. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge about miRNAs as promising biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for AKI, as well as the challenges in their clinical use.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1224.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Prostate Specific Antigen; Frailty; Prostate cancer screening; Hypogonadism; Benign Prostatic Obstruction
Online: 17 August 2023 (08:49:01 CEST)
Objectives With this study we present, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the implications of PSA tests on the lives of frail men. Methods We searched the available literature for studies analyzing the role of PSA as a screening and prognostic tool for prostatic diseases in frail men, using keywords: Prostate-specific antigen, Frailty, Prostate cancer screening, Hypogonadism and Benign Prostatic Obstruction (BPO). Results PSA in frail men with more than 15 years life expectancy can detect prostate cancer in curable stages, while it enables monitoring response to different prostate cancer treatments and follow-up of testosterone replacement for hypogonadism. PSA also predicts clinical progression of patients with BPO. However, PSA is widely being offered, without personalized patient evaluation, adding to the financial burden of healthcare systems. Conclusion A frailty assessment of men for the potential benefit of PSA tests on their quality of life can reduce unnecessary costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0953.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; ultra-processed foods; food processing; NOVA classification
Online: 11 August 2023 (19:06:14 CEST)
Background: The level of food processing has gained interest for a potential determinant of human health. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between level of food processing and prostate cancer severity. Methods: A sample of 120 consecutive patients were examined for their dietary habits assessed through validated food frequency questionnaires, their dietary intake of food groups categorized according to the NOVA classification, and the severity of prostate cancer according to the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines groups risk. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to test the association between the variables of interest. Results: Individuals reporting higher consumption of unprocessed/minimally processed foods were less likely to have worse prostate cancer severity than lower consumers in the energy-adjusted model [odds ratio (OR) = 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-0.84, P = 0.017 and OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12-0.91, P = 0.032 for medium/high vs. low grade and high vs. medium/low grade prostate cancers, respectively); however, after adjusted for potential confounding factors, the association was no more significant (Table 4). A borderline association was also found between higher consumption of UPF and worse prostate cancer severity in the energy-adjusted model (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 0.998-4.44; P = 0.051), but again the association was no more significant after adjusting for the other covariates. Conclusions: The level of food processing seems not to be independently associated with prostate cancer severity, while potentially related to other factors that need further investigation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1818.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Fluid status 1; overhydration 2; hydration status 3; renal failure 4; kidney failure 5; heart failure 6; Ca-125 7; NT-pro-BNP 8; VEXUS 9; BIS 10
Online: 9 August 2023 (12:44:33 CEST)
Overhydration (OH) is a common medical problem found in patients with kidney or heart failure, but still a specific marker has not been found. Clinicians today use bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS), ultrasound (US) markers of fluid overload or markers of heart and kidney function like NT-pro-BNP, GFR or creatinine levels. New serum markers such as Ca-125, Galectin-3 (Gal-3), Adrenomedullin (AMD) and Urocortin-2 (UCN-2), are being researched with promising results. The need to discover a more precise marker of overhydration is dire mainly because physical examination is extremely imprecise. Signs and symptoms of fluid overload like edema or gradual increase of body mass are not always present, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. This review paper summarizes actual knowledge of a patient's hydration status estimation focusing especially on kidney diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: robot-assisted simple prostatectomy, Obesity, BMI, benign prostatic obstruction, functional outcomes, Trifecta, pentafecta.
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:53:31 CEST)
Obesity represents a worldwide epidemic disorder, increasing the overall morbidity and mortality rate. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on peri-operative and long-term functional outcomes of Robotic assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP). Baseline flowmetry parameters and validated questionnaires’ scores were prospectively recorded. Follow-up assessments included Flowmetry and validated questionnaires. Composite outcomes (Trifecta) was defined as combination of: post-operative Q-max>15 ml/sec, IPSS score<8 and absence of complications. Pentafecta included also post-operative ejaculation persistence (MSHQ score>0) and the Erectile function maintenance (∆IEEF<6). Data were stratified by BMI (<30 or ≥30). 81 patients underwent RASP in our Institution. Baseline demographics and clinical features, questionnaires score and baseline flowmetry results were comparable between obese and non-obese cohorts. At follow-up, obese patients reported lower subjective improvement in IPSS (p=0.02) and OABQ scores (p<0.001) and higher incidence of stress incontinence requiring Duloxetin (p<0.001). Flowmetry outcomes, were also worse in this cohort (p=0.02 and p=0.03, respectively). At comprehensive outcomes assessment, obese patients had comparable Trifecta (67% vs 54%, p=0.39) and pentafecta achievement rate (p=0.76). Our prelimirary results proved that obesity is associated with worse functional outcomes (storage LUTS and incontinence rate) after RASP, but doesn’t affect trifecta and pentafecta achievement rate.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0733.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: chronic kidney disease; uremic toxins; renal tubular transport; extracellular matrix remodeling; apoptosis resistance; inflammatory response; senescence-associated secretory phenotype factors
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:49:19 CEST)
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive condition of kidney dysfunction due to diverse causes of injury. In healthy kidneys, protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs) are cleared from the systemic circulation by proximal tubule cells through the concerted action of plasma membrane transporters that facilitate their urinary excretion, but the endogenous metabolites are hardly removed with kidney dysfunction and may contribute to CKD progression. Accumulating evidence suggests that senescence of kidney tubule cells influences kidney fibrosis, the common endpoint for CKD with an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM). Senescence is a special state of cells characterized by permanent cell cycle arrest and limitation of proliferation, which promotes fibrosis by releasing senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors. The accumulation of PBUTs in CKD causes oxidative stress and increases the production of inflammatory (SASP) factors that could trigger fibrosis. Recent studies provide some clues that PBUTs may also promote senescence in kidney tubular cells. This review provides an overview on how senescence contributes to CKD and the involvement of PBUTs in this process, and how kidney senescence can be studied, Finally, some suggestions for future therapeutic options for CKD while targeting senescence are given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: phase duration assessment; partial nephrectomy; video analysis; surgical data science
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:10:57 CEST)
(1) Background: Surgical phases form the basic building blocks for surgical skill assessment, feedback and teaching. Phase duration itself and its correlation to clinical parameters has not yet been investigated. Novel commercial platforms provide phase indications but have not been assessed for accuracy yet. (2) Methods: We assess 100 robot-assisted partial nephrectomy videos for phase duration based on previously defined proficiency metrics. We develop an annotation framework and subsequently compare our annotations to an existing commercial solution (Touch Surgery, Medtronic™). We subsequently explore clinical correlations between phase durations and peri-operative parameters. (3) Results: Objective and uniform phase assessment requires precise definitions derived from an iterative revision process. Comparison to a commercial solution shows large differences in definitions across phases. BMI and duration of renal tumor identification correlate positively, as well as tumor complexity and both tumor excision and renorraphy duration. (4) Conclusions: Surgical phase duration can be correlated with certain clinical outcomes. Further research should investigate if retrieved correlations are also clinically meaningful. This requires increasing dataset sizes and facilitation through intelligent computer vision algorithms. Commercial platforms can facilitate this dataset expansion and help unlock the full potential, provided the disclosure of phase annotation details.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1978.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: enfortumab vedotin; urothelial carcinoma; database; real‐world; immune checkpoint
Online: 28 July 2023 (11:46:48 CEST)
Background Enfortumab vedotin shows promise as a targeted therapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma, particularly in patients who previously received platinum-based chemotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors. The EV-301 phase III trial demonstrated a significantly improved overall survival and response rates compared with standard chemotherapy. However, more data, especially from larger real-world studies, are needed to assess its effectiveness in Japanese patients. Methods A total of 6,007 urothelial cancer patients treated with pembrolizumab as second-line treatment were analyzed. Among them, 619 patients received enfortumab vedotin after pembrolizumab, while 394 received docetaxel or paclitaxel after pembrolizumab. Results The enfortumab vedotin group showed a longer overall survival than the paclitaxel/docetaxel group (p=0.013, hazard ratio: 0.71). In the multivariate analysis, enfortumab vedotin induction was an independent risk factor for the overall survival (p=0.013, hazard ratio: 0.70). There were no significant differences in the cancer-specific survival. Conclusions Enfortumab vedotin prolonged the overall survival in Japanese patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma compared with paclitaxel or docetaxel after pembrolizumab treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1940.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: sulphoraphane; silymarin; lycopene; glutathione; escin; tryptophan; green tea; men health; prevention
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:24:31 CEST)
Background: Recently the role of nutraceutical compounds in the prevention of human diseases is rapidly increasing. Here, we aim to evaluate the beneficial effect of dietary supplementation with seven active principles, lycopene, sulphoraphane, silymarin, glutathione, escin, tryptophan, green tea catechins, on human health. Methods: An extensive search of PubMed and Medline database was performed with the following keywords: “silymarin”, “sulforaphane”, “lycopene”, “green tea catechins”, “tryptophan”, “glutathione” and “escin” accompanied by the keywords “supplement”, “supplementation”, “nutraceutics”. All pre-clinical and clinical trials have been considered for this review. Results: One-hundred and eighteen full-text articles were eligible for inclusion in this review. The papers examined presented considerable variability due to the wide heterogeneity of dosages administered, population involved and outcomes pursued. Conclusion: Nutritional supplementation with lycopene, sulphoraphane, silymarin, glutathione, escin, tryptophan and green tea catechins appears to exert a wide range of benefits on human health, ranging from mood and cognition to cardiovascular health, fertility, metabolism, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory capabilities, potential anti-cancer effects. Further studies are required to better define the potential synergic effect, optimal dosage, mechanism of action and tolerability profile of these substances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: acute kidney Injury; TIMP2xIGBP7; mid-regional-pro-adrenomedullin; sepsis
Online: 19 July 2023 (08:15:18 CEST)
Identifying a panel of markers detecting kidney injury before the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) reduction is the challenge to improve the diagnosis and the management of acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic patients. This study evaluated the roles of tissue inhibitor metal proteinase, insulin growth factor binding protein (TIMP2*IGFBP7), and mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) in AKI patients. Patients and Methods: This study was prospectively conducted in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) enrolling 230 patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Biomarkers were evaluated before and after 4 hours of the cardiac surgery. Results: Whereas urine and creatinine alterations appeared at 23.2 (12.7 – 36.5) hours, after cardiac surgery, urinary TIMP2*IGBP7 levels were higher at 4 hours in AKI patients (1.1±0.4 mg/l vs 0.08±0.02 mg/l; p < 0.001). Its concentration >2 mg/l increases the AKI risk within the following 24 hours, clearly identifying the population at high risk of renal replacement therapy (RRT). In patients with sepsis, MR-proADM levels were 2.3 nmol/l (0.7–7.8 nmol/l), with the highest values observed in septic shock [5.6 nmol/l (3.2–18 nmol/l)] and a better diagnostic profile than procalcitonin and C-reactive protein to identify septic patients. MR-proADM values >5.1 nmol/l and urine TIMP2*IGBP7 levels > 2 mg/l showed a significantly faster progression to RRT, with a mean follow-up time of 1.1 days. Conclusions: TIMP2*IGBP7 and MR-proADM precociously diagnose AKI in septic patients after cardiac surgery, giving prognostic information for RRT requirement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Hybrid operating room; Kidney cancer; Laparoscopy; Oncology; Surgery
Online: 18 July 2023 (07:55:56 CEST)
Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) after hyperselective embolization of tumor vessels (HETV) in a hybrid operating room (HOR) that combines traditional surgical equipment with advanced imaging technology, is a non-clamping surgical approach to treat localized kidney tumors that have shown promising short-term results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term oncological and functional outcomes of this procedure. All consecutive patients treated for a localized kidney tumor by LPN after HETV between May 2015 and October 2022 in a single academic institution were included in the study. Clinical, pathological and biological data were collected prospectively in the uroCCR database. We evaluated perioperative data, postoperative complications, surgical margin and modification of renal function after surgery. We included 245 patients. Median tumor size was 3.2 (2.5-4.4) cm. The R.E.N.A.L. complexity was low, medium and high for 104 (43.5%), 109 (45.6%) and 26 (10.9%) patients, respectively. Median LPN time was 75 (65 -100) min and median blood loss was 100 (50-300) mL. Surgical postoperative complications occurred in 56 (22.9%) patients with 17 (5.7%) major complications. The median preoperative Glomerular Function Rate (GFR) was 90.5 (77-101.8) mL/min and the median GFR variation at 6 months was -7.5 (-15- -2) mL/min. Malignant tumors were present in 211 (86.1%) patients and 12 (4.9%) patients had positive surgical margins. After a median follow-up of 27 (8-49) months, 20 (8.2%) patients had a tumor recurrence and 4 (1.6%) died from cancer. The use of a HOR to perform LPN after HETV is a safe and efficient non-clamping approach to treat localized kidney tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0924.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: dmrFABP5, Prostate Cancer, CRPC, Enzalutamide, Docetaxel, Synergic effect.
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:05:11 CEST)
Enzalutamide is a drug used to treat PC. Docetaxel is a drug for chemotherapy for different cancers including prostate cancer (PC). The effectiveness of these drugs in treating castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is not consistent and thus, CRPC is still an incurable disease. Recent evidence showed that the bio-inhibitor of FABP5, dmrFABP5, suppressed the tumorigenicity and metastasis of the CRPC cells. In this work, we studied the possible synergic effect of dmrFABP5 combined with either Enzalutamide or Docetaxel on suppressing tumorigenicity of the PC cells. A highly significant synergic effect was observed when dmrFABP5 was used in combination with Enzalutamide on the androgen-responsive PC cells 22RV1. A highly significant synergic effect was also observed when dmrFABP5 was combined with Docetaxel on 22RV1 cells and on the highly malignant, androgen-receptor (AR)-negative DU145 cells. These combined applications exhibited a highly significant inhibitory action on the viability, migration, invasion and colony formation abilities of both 22RV1and DU145 cells. However, dmrFABP5 did not produce any suppression effect when used on FABP5-negative cell line LNCaP, although Enzalutamide can significantly suppress LNCaP cells as a single agent. Further investigations suggested that these synergistic effects were produced by interrupting the FABP5-related signal transduction pathway in PC cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0589.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Lupus nephritis; Double negative B lymphocytes; T lymphocytes; early differentiated cells; senescent lymphocytes
Online: 10 July 2023 (10:33:26 CEST)
B and T lymphocytes demonstrate important alterations in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE), with significant up-regulation of Double Negative (DN) B cells. Aim of this study was to evaluate correlation of T cell immunity changes with the distinct B cell-pattern SLE. In the present study, Flow cytometry was performed in 30 patients with SLE, on remission, and 31 healthy controls, to detect DN B cells (CD19+IgD-CD27-) and a wide range of T lymphocyte subpopulations, based on the presence of CD45RA, CCR7, CD31, CD28, CD57, defined as naive, memory and advanced differentiated/senescent T cells. Both B and T lymphocytes were significantly reduced in SLE patients. However, the percentage of DN B cells were increased, compared to HC, 12.9(2.3-74.2) vs. 8(1.7-35), p=0.04. Distribution of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes demonstrated a shift to advanced differentiated subsets. The population of DN B cells had significant positive correlation with most of early differentiated T lymphocytes, CD4CD31+, CD4CD45RA+CD28+, CD4CD45RA+CD57-, CD4CD45RA-CD57-, CD4CD28+CD57-, CD4CD28+CD57+, CD4 CM, CD8 CD31+, CD8 NAÏVE, CD8CD45RA-CD57-, CD8CD28+CD57-, CD8CD28+CD57+. Multiple Regression analysis revealed CD4CD31+, CD8CD45RA-CD57- and CD8CD28+CD57- cells as independent parameters contributing to DN B cells, adjusted R2=0.534, p<0.0001. The predominance of DN B cells in patients with SLE is closely associated with early differentiated T lymphocyte subsets, indicating a potential causality role of DN B cells in T lymphocyte activation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: oxidative stress; nitrosative stress; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; oxidation–reduction potential
Online: 6 July 2023 (08:37:32 CEST)
Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in semen are both essential for fertilization process; however, they become harmful at excessive levels, causing oxidative stress and nitrosative stress, respectively. Recently, oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) has been used as a marker for measuring oxidative stress, and this study investigated the possibility of comprehensively evaluating nitrosative stress. The correlation between standardized ORP (sORP) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and NOx per unit sperm was tested. Based on the previously reported cutoff value, samples were classified into oxidative stress-positive and negative groups. Thereafter, a receiver operating characteristic curve was drawn on 8-OHdG and NOx, and each optimal cutoff value was determined. Both standardized 8-OHdG and NOx significantly correlated with sORP. Although both correlated significantly with sORP in the oxidative stress group, no correlation was found in the nonoxidative stress group. The optimal standardized 8-OHdG level to determine oxidative stress status was 0.52 ng/106 spermatozoa, and the standardized NOx was 0.17 µM/106 spermatozoa/mL. The ORP is a simpler and quicker assay that can comprehensively assess oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Optimal cutoff values for both stresses were established in this study.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1503.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: exosome; prostate cancer; biomarker
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:02:44 CEST)
Backgound: Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles, carriers of different biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids. Their composition and the fact that their release dramatically increases in case of tumorigenesis, opens different scenarios on the possible application in the research for new biomarkers.Methods: The most widely applied methodologies include ultracentrifugation techniques, size-based techniques, immunoaffinity capture-based techniques (mainly ELISA) and precipitation. To optimize the acquisition of exosomes from the reference sample, more techniques can be applied in sequence for a single extraction, determining an increase in labor time and costs. Results: The analysis of PSA-expressing exosomes provides an incredibly accurate way to discriminate between healthy patients and those with prostate disease. Specifically, IC-ELISA alone method achieved 98.57% sensitivity and 80.28% specificity in discriminating prostate cancer (PC) from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).An immunocapture-based ELISA assay was performed to quantify and characterize carbonic anhydrase (CA) IX expression in exosomes. The results revealed that CA IX positive exosomes were 25-fold higher in plasma samples from PC patients than in those from healthy control. Conclusions: The analysis of PC-linked exosomes represents a promising diagnostic model that can effectively distinguish patients with PC from those with non-malignant prostatic disease, However, the use of exosome analysis in clinical practice is currently limited by several issues, including a lack of standardization in the analytical process and high costs, which are still too high for a large-scale use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0113.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Keywords: urinary tract infection (UTI); diagnostic testing; urine biomarkers; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL); interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:35:23 CEST)
We aimed to determine if infection-associated urine biomarkers can differentiate true urinary tract infection (UTI) from non-UTI controls. Midstream clean-catch urine samples were collected from asymptomatic volunteers and symptomatic subjects > 60 years old diagnosed with presumptive UTI in a specialty setting. Microbial identification and density were assessed using multiplex PCR/pooled antibiotic susceptibility test (M-PCR/P-AST) and standard urine culture (SUC). Three biomarkers (NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β) were measured in the same urine specimens. Definitive UTI cases were symptomatic and had positive microorganism detection by SUC and M-PCR, while definitive non-UTI cases were asymptomatic volunteers regardless of microbial detection. We observed a strong positive correlation (R2 ≈ 1) between microbial density and the biomarkers NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β. Biomarker consensus criteria of two or more positive biomarkers had sensitivity 90.2%, specificity 91.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) 91.7%, negative predictive value (NPV) 89.7%, accuracy 90.7%, positive likelihood ratio of 10.28, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.11 in differentiating definitive UTI from non-UTI cases, regardless of microbial density. NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β showed a significant elevation in symptomatic cases with positive microbe identification compared to asymptomatic cases with or without microbe identification. Biomarker consensus exhibited high accuracy in distinguishing UTI from non-UTI cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; mp-MRI; biochemical recurrence; Gleason pattern; radiomics
Online: 3 July 2023 (11:32:39 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most diagnosed non-cutaneous cancer in men. Despite therapies such as radical prostatectomy, which is considered curative, distant metastases may form resulting in biochemical recurrence (BCR). This study used radiomic features calculated from multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) to evaluate their ability to predict BCR and PCa presence. Data from a total of 279 patients, of which 46 experienced BCR, undergoing MP-MRI prior to surgery were assessed for this study. After surgery, the prostate was sectioned using patient-specific 3D-printed slicing jigs modeled using the T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). Sectioned tissue was stained, digitized, and annotated by a GU-fellowship trained pathologist for cancer presence. Digitized slides and annotations were co-registered to the T2WI and radiomic features were calculated across the whole prostate and cancerous lesions. A tree regression model was fitted to assess the ability of radiomic features to predict BCR, and a tree classification model was fitted with the same radiomic features to classify regions of cancer. We found that 10 radiomic features predict eventual BCR with an AUC of 0.97 and classifying cancer at an accuracy of 89.9%. This study showcases the application for a radiomics-based tool to screen for the presence of prostate cancer and assess patient prognosis, as determined by biochemical recurrence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: urinary tract infection (UTI); standard urine culture (SUC); multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR); urine biomarkers; diagnostic testing; neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL); interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β
Online: 3 July 2023 (09:28:56 CEST)
The literature lacks consensus on the minimum microbial density required for diagnosing urinary tract infections (UTIs). This study categorized the microbial densities of urine specimens from symptomatic presumptive UTI patients and correlated them with detected levels of immune response biomarkers NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β. The objective was to identify changes in immune response at different microbial densities and determine an optimal threshold for diagnosing symptomatic UTIs. Midstream clean-catch urine samples were analyzed for microbial identification and quantification using SUC and M-PCR, while NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β levels were measured with ELISA. NGAL, IL-8, and IL-1β levels were all significantly higher in symptomatic subjects with microbial densities ≥ 10,000 cells/mL by M-PCR (p < 0.0069) or equivalent CFUs/mL by SUC (p < 0.0104) compared to samples with no detectable microbes. With both PCR and SUC, a consensus of two or more elevated biomarkers correlated well with microbial densities > 10,000 cells/mL or CFU/mL, respectively. The association between ≥ 10,000 cells and CFU per mL with elevated biomarkers in symptomatic patients suggests that this lower threshold may be more suitable for diagnosing UTIs. These findings challenge the widely used threshold of 100,000 CFU per mL, which may overlook many active UTI cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0009.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Adjustable Trans-Obturator Male System; Post-prostatectomy Incontinence; Adjuvant Radiotherapy; Outcomes; Satisfaction
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:22:49 CEST)
(1) Background: Treatment of male stress incontinence in patients with prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy and adjuvant pelvic radiation is a therapeutic challenge. The efficacy and safety of the adjustable trans-obturator male system (ATOMS) in these patients is not well established, despite the general belief that outcomes are worse than in patients without radiation. (2) Methods: Retrospective multicenter study evaluating patients treated with silicone-covered scrotal port (SSP) ATOMS implant after radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy in nine different institutions between 2016 and 2022. The primary endpoint was dry patient rate, defined as pad-test ≤20 mL/day. The secondary endpoints were complication rate (defined using Clavien-Dindo classification), device removal and self-perceived satisfaction using the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) scale. Wilcoxon rank sum test, Fisher’s exact test and logistic regression were performed using stepwise method with a 0.15 entry and 0.1 stay criteria. (3) Results: 223 patients fulfilled criteria for inclusion, 12 (5.4%) had received salvage prostatectomy after radiation and 27 (12.1%) previous devices for stress incontinence. After ATOMS adjustment, 95 patients (42.6%) were dry and 36 (16.1%) had complications of any grade (grade I, n=20; grade II, n=11; grade III, n=5) during the first 3 months postoperatively. At a mean 36 ± 21 months follow-up the device was explanted in 26 (11.7%) patients. Regarding self-perceived satisfaction with the implant, 105 of 125 patients (84%) considered themselves satisfied (PGI-I 1 to 3). In univariate analysis dryness was associated to younger age (p=.06), primary prostatectomy (p=.08), no previous incontinence surgery (p=.02), absence of overactive bladder symptoms (p=.04), absence of bladder neck stricture (p=.001), no need of surgical revision (p=.008) and lower baseline incontinence severity (p=.0003). Multivariate analysis identified absence of surgical revision (p=.018), absence of bladder neck stricture (p=.05), primary prostatectomy (p=.07) and baseline incontinence severity (p<.0001) were independent predictors of dryness. A logistic regression model was proposed and internally validated. (4) Conclusions: ATOMS is an efficacious and safe alternative to treat male incontinence after radical prostatectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Factors predictive of dryness are identified in this complex scenario to allow better patient selection.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2102.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Gordonia sputi; Dialysis; Catheter-associated infection
Online: 29 June 2023 (11:35:49 CEST)
Improvement in medical care has turned severe diseases into chronic conditions, but often their treatment and use of medical devices are related to specific complications. Here we present a clinical case of a long-term dialysis patient, who is infected with a rare opportunistic infectious agent – Gordonia sputi. In recent years the incidence of Gordonia spp. infections in immunocompromised patients with central venous catheters (CVC) appear to rise. Their isolation and identification are challenging and require modern techniques. In addition, the treatment is usually persistent and often results in CVC extraction, which is associated with further risk and costs for the patient. We also studied the alternations in the immune status of the patient caused by long-term renal replacement therapy and persistent HCV infection. Antibiotic therapy and immunostimulation with Inosine pranobex lead to successful eradication of the infection without the need for CVC replacement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1854.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID -19; Chronic Kidney Disease; Long COVID; Acute Kidney Injury; Amazon region; Kidney function tests
Online: 27 June 2023 (07:20:09 CEST)
Long coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may occur after experiencing acute COVID-19 infec-tion with many effects on patients´ kidneys. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical and labora-tory aspects of kidney function in individuals with long COVID in the Amazon region of Brazil. This cross-sectional study selected participants from a ‘long COVID’ clinical care program. Clini-cal data and baseline demographics were obtained, and blood samples were collected to quantify kidney-related markers. Patients were evaluated after COVID-19 infection at several time points as follows: 0–3 months, 3–6 months, 6–12 months, and 12 months. Altogether, 246 patients were selected for this study, and only 79 were hospitalised (9 in the intensive care unit because of COVID-19. Of the patients, 38 were diagnosed with hypertension after COVID-19, 52 cases had to have their medications adjusted, and 83 patients presented with kidney function decline. The older age group and individuals with glycaemic alterations presented with a higher risk of devel-oping kidney dysfunction. Therefore, health professionals should monitor long-term kidney mark-ers in long COVID.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1493.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: cerebral oxygenation; hepatic oxygenation; intradialytic hypotension; splanchnic circulation; ultrafiltration rate
Online: 21 June 2023 (07:33:20 CEST)
Background: Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a critical pathological condition associated with all−cause mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). However, few studies have investigated IDH-related changes in hepatic and cerebral regional tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2). This study investigated IDH-induced changes in hepatic and cerebral rSO2. Methods: Hepatic and cerebral rSO2 during HD were measured using an INVOS 5100C oxygen saturation monitor, and their percentage (%) changes during IDH development were analyzed. Ninety-one patients undergoing HD were investigated, including 20 with IDH development. Results: In patients with IDH, % changes in hepatic and cerebral rSO2 decreased at IDH onset. Additionally, the % change in hepatic rSO2 was significantly larger than those in cerebral rSO2 (P < 0.001). In patients without IDH, no significant differences were found between the % changes in hepatic and cerebral rSO2 at time of the lowest systolic blood pressure during HD. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that the difference between the % change in cerebral and hepatic rSO2 was significantly associated with IDH development (P < 0.001) and ultrafiltration rate (P = 0.010). Conclusion: Hepatic and cerebral rSO2 significantly decreased in IDH development and hepatic rSO2 was more largely decreased than cerebral rSO2 at IDH onset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1440.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: body composition monitoring; extracellular water; intracellular water; hemodialysis; permanent catheter; catheter patency; infection; malfunction
Online: 20 June 2023 (12:20:54 CEST)
Patients undergoing dialysis through a permanent catheter often experience infection or malfunction. However, few studies have clarified the predictors of permanent catheter patency survival in patients undergoing hemodialysis. We assessed the relationship between parameters of body composition monitoring (BCM) determined before the initiation of dialysis and the patency survival of the permanent catheters inserted in 179 patients who commenced hemodialysis between January 14, 2020 and August 31, 2021. The relationships between permanent catheter patency at 6 weeks and BCM parameters, laboratory tests, age, sex, comorbidities, and medications at baseline were studied using Kaplan–Meier survival curves. Permanent catheter patency was observed to be superior at high extracellular-to-intracellular (ECW/ICW) ratio (P<0.005). After adjustment for covariates, the ECW/ICW ratio remained an independent factor associated with permanent catheter patency survival. When patients with non-patent catheters were subdivided into infection and malfunction groups, and the associations of BCM parameters were evaluated in those groups, the ECW/ICW ratio was not significantly associated with permanent catheter patency survival in the infection group (P = 0.327); instead, a significant association was found for the lean tissue index (P<0.001). In the malfunction group, the ECW/ICW ratio remained significantly associated with permanent catheter patency survival (P < 0.001).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1312.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; high-risk prostate cancer; radical prostatectomy; radiation therapy; neoadjuvant therapy; oncological outcomes
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:21:19 CEST)
Prostate cancer (PCa) is most commonly observed in male patients. Although PCa progresses relatively slowly, high-risk PCa is associated with an increased risk of lymph nodes, distant metastases, and PCa-related death. Several guidelines recommend radiation therapy (RT) of the prostate combined with long-term androgen deprivation therapy for high-risk PCa. A comparison of clinical outcomes between radical prostatectomy (RP) and RT for high-risk PCa by propensity score-matched analysis showed that RP had a significantly higher risk of biochemical recurrence than RT. However, the combination of neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy followed by RP may be more likely to achieve a cure when overall survival is considered the primary endpoint. In this review, we aimed to confirm the oncological outcomes of RP and RT for high-risk PCa and highlight the importance of neoadjuvant therapy followed by RP for high-risk PCa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1277.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Traditional medicine; phytotherapy; hypoxia; oxidative stress; nephroprotection; antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; diuretic.
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:48:42 CEST)
There are several Amazonian plant species with potential pharmacological validation for the treatment of acute kidney injury, a condition in which the kidneys are unable to adequately filter the blood, resulting in the accumulation of toxins and waste in the body. Scientific production on plant compounds capable of preventing or attenuating acute kidney injury, caused by several factors, including ischemia, toxins and inflammation, has shown promising results in animal models of acute kidney injury and some preliminary studies in humans. Despite the popular use of Amazonian plant species for kidney disorders, further pharmacological studies are needed to identify active compounds and subsequently conduct more complex preclinical trials. Thus, this review aimed to describe the pharmacological properties of phytocompounds from Amazonian plant species and their effectiveness in the prevention and treatment of Acute Kidney Injury. (AKI). The classes of Amazonian plant compounds with significant biological activities most evident in the consulted literature were alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and terpenoids. An expressive phytochemical and pharmacological relevance of the studied species was identified, although many of them with insufficiently explored potential, mainly in face of AKI, a clinical condition with high morbidity and mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Erectile Dysfunction; COVID-19; Nerve-Sparing Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy; IIEF-5
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:51:23 CEST)
Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic, triggered by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in over 160 million infections and 3.5 million fatalities worldwide. Evidence of SARS-CoV-2 presence in the highly vascularized penile tissue and the established correlation between COVID-19 and subsequent erectile dysfunction (ED) has emerged. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) is a popular procedure for prostate cancer because of its reliability and swift recovery rate. However, the ED prevalence post-surgery is believed to be comparable to open surgery, and postoperative ED significantly affects the patient's quality of life. Our study aimed to explore the effect of COVID-19 on ED recovery in patients undergoing bilateral nerve preservation during RARP. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective study on 85 patients who underwent bilateral nerve-sparing RARP (nsRARP) at our institution between December 2017 and May 2021. Chart reviews and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaire facilitated the analysis. Our objective was to contrast ED recovery after surgery between SARS-CoV-2–infected and non-infected patients using preoperative IIEF-5 scores and scores at 6, 12, and 24 months post-surgery. We defined successful ED recovery as an IIEF-5 score of 17 or higher and successful sexual intercourse. We also compared ED recovery rates between the two groups, regardless of the timing of COVID-19 diagnosis. IBM's SPSS version 18.0 assisted in the statistical analysis, with Fisher's exact test and chi-square test used for comparing categorical variables. Independent t-tests determined mean differences between baseline and postoperative IIEF-5 scores. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results From December 2017 to May 2021, our institution executed 213 RARP cases, with 185 of these involving nerve preservation. Among these patients, 133 had an IIEF-5 score of 17 or higher during preoperative EF assessment. We included 85 patients with consistent IIEF-5 records before surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 months post-surgery in this study. Of these, 44 and 41 patients comprised the COVID-19–positive and COVID-19–negative groups, respectively. The COVID-19–positive group had a higher proportion of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients (24 (54.55%) vs. 7 (17.07%), p<0.001). There was no significant difference in preoperative IIEF-5 scores or scores up to 6 months after surgery between the two groups. However, the IIEF-5 scores of the COVID-19–positive group were statistically lower after 12 and 24 months post-surgery. Additionally, the COVID-19–negative group showed a more considerable score increase between 6 and 12 months post-surgery, and the EF recovery rate was lower in the COVID-19–positive group starting from the 12th month after surgery. Within the COVID-19–positive group, no statistically significant difference in IIEF-5 scores was found between single infection and multiple reinfection groups. Conclusions Principal component analysis revealed the impact of COVID-19 on ED recovery in patients who underwent nsRARP. The most substantial changes in IIEF-5 scores occurred between 6 and 12 months. From 12 months onwards, the COVID-19–positive group had significantly lower scores, and fewer patients had IIEF-5 scores above 17. However, the number of COVID-19 diagnoses did not significantly affect the IIEF-5 scores.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: End-stage renal disease; medication review; drug-related problems; negative outcomes associated with medication.
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:13:13 CEST)
(1) Background: This article reviews the available scientific literature on drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medications identified by medication review with follow-up for end-stage renal disease and discussed with the physicians; (2) Methods: A systematic review was conducted of the scientific literature retrieved from the following databases: MEDLINE (via PubMed), Web of Science, SCOPUS, Cochrane Library: The Cochrane Central Register and Control Trials (CENTRAL) and Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe (LILACS), Medicina en Español (MEDES), and the SciELO bibliographic database (collection of scientific journals). The following terms were used as descriptors and searched in free text: "end-stage renal disease", "medication review", and "drug-related problems” and “negative outcomes associated with medication". The following limits were applied: "humans" and "adults (more than 18 years)”; (3) Results: A total of 59 references were recovered and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 16 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 15 provided information on drug-related problems and only 1 on negative outcomes associated with medications; (4) Conclusions: It can be concluded that drug-related problems and negative outcomes associated with medication affect patients with end-stage renal disease, mainly those receiving renal replacement therapy. More evidence is needed, especially on negative outcomes associated with medication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0934.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Hemodialysis; Uremic toxins; Breath markers; Volatile organic compounds; Mass spectrometry
Online: 13 June 2023 (11:40:13 CEST)
Breath volatile organic compound analysis is a non-invasive tool for assessing health status; the compositional profile of these compounds in the breath of patients with chronic kidney disease is believed to change with decreasing renal function. We aimed to identify breath volatile organic compounds for recognizing patients with chronic kidney disease. Using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, untargeted analysis of breath markers was performed using breath samples of healthy controls (n=18) versus non-dialysis (n=21) and hemodialysis (n=12) patients with chronic kidney disease in this cross-sectional study. A total of 303 volatile organic compounds alongside 12 clinical variables were used to determine the breath volatile organic compound profile. Metabolomic analysis revealed that age, systolic blood pressure, and fifty-eight breath volatile organic compounds differed significantly between the chronic kidney disease group (non-dialysis + hemodialysis) and healthy controls. Thirty-six volatile organic compounds and two clinical variables that showed significant associations with chronic kidney disease in the univariate analysis were further analyzed. Different spectras of breath volatile organic compounds between the control and chronic kidney disease groups were obtained. Multivariate model incorporating age, 2-methyl-pentane, and cyclohexanone showed high performance (accuracy, 86%) in identifying patients with chronic kidney disease, with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) P-values of 0.18 (0.07-2.49) 0.013; 2.10 (0.94-2.24) 0.025; and 2.31 (0.88–2.64) 0.008, respectively. Hence, renal dysfunction-associated characteristic profiles of breath volatile organic substances can be used as non-invasive markers to screen for chronic kidney disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0867.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Sex differences; Chronic Kidney Disease; Atherosclerosis; Foam Cells; Parietal Epithelial Cells (PECs); Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEi)
Online: 13 June 2023 (03:22:47 CEST)
Background: This study analyzes sex-based differences in renal structure and response to the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Methods: ApoE-/- mice (8 weeks old) received enalapril (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous) or PBS as a control for an additional 14 weeks. Each group consisted of six males and six females. Results: Females exhibited elevated LDL-cholesterol levels, while males presented higher creatinine levels and proteinuria. Enalapril effectively reduced blood pressure in both groups, but proteinuria decreased significantly only in females. Plaque size analysis and assessment of kidney inflammation revealed no significant sex-based differences. However, males displayed more severe glomerular injury, with increased mesangial expansion, mesangiolysis, glomerular foam cells and activated parietal epithelial cells (PECs). Enalapril mitigated mesangial expansion, glomerular inflammation (particularly in females), and the hypertrophy of PECs in males. Conclusion: This study demonstrates sex-based differences in the response to enalapril in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Males exhibited more severe glomerular injury, while enalapril provided renal protection, particularly in females. These findings suggest potential sex-specific considerations for ACE inhibitor therapy in chronic kidney disease and atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease. Further research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanism behind these observations.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Iron isomaltoside; NF-kappaBeta; dehydroxymethyepoxyquinmicin (DHMEQ); mesothelial cells
Online: 9 June 2023 (10:37:47 CEST)
Background. Intravenous iron therapy is used in treatment of anemia in uremic pa-tients. In patients treated with peritoneal dialysis iv. infused iron diffuses into the peritoneal cavity and may cause injury to the mesothelial cell. Methods. We studied effect of Iron Isomaltoside (IIS) in presence of NF-κβ inhibitor dehydroxymethyepoxyquinmicin (DHMEQ) on function of the peritoneal mesothelial cells. Experiments were performed on human peritoneal mesothelial cells in in vitro culture ex-posed to IIS 15 ug/dL ± DHMEQ 1 ug/mL. Intracellular oxidative stress, secretory activity and collagen synthesis in the cells were studied. Results. IIS induced oxidative stress in the mesothelial cells and that effect was weaker in presence of DHMEQ (-52%,p<0.001). In cells exposed to IIS increased expression of genes for IL6 (+74%,p<0.001), PAI-1 (+43%, p<0.01) and TGFβ (+53%,p<0.001) was observed and reduced for tPA (-36%,p<0.01). In presence of IIS increased secretion of IL6 (+56%, p<0.001), TGFβ (+49%,p<0.001) and PAI-1 (+51%, p<0.001) was observed whereas secretion of tPA was reduced (-25%, p0.001). DHMEQ reduced changes in genes and secre-tory activity caused by IIS. In presence of IIS synthesis of collagen in mesothelial cells was increased (+45%,p<0.001) and that effect was weaker (-25% vs. IIS, p<0001) when simulta-neously DHMEQ was used. Discussion. IIS induces proinflammatory changes in mesothelial cells, deteriorates their fibrinolytic activity and stimulates synthesis of collagen. All these effects are reduced when simultaneously NF-κβ inhibitor – DHMEQ is used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: erectile dysfunction; social stress; ketamine; sexual dysfunction
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:41:13 CEST)
We aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying social stress (SS)-induced erectile dysfunction (ED) and evaluate the effects of a single sub-anesthetic dose of ketamine on SS-related ED. Male FVB mice were exposed to retired male C57BL/6 mice for 60 minutes daily over a 4-week period. In the third week, SS mice received intraperitoneal injections of either saline (SSS group) or ketamine (SSK group). Erectile function was assessed by measuring intra-cavernosal pressure (ICP) during electrical stimulation at the major pelvic ganglia. Corpus cavernosum (CC) strips were utilized for wire myography to assess their reactivity. Both SSS and SSK mice exhibited significantly lower ICP in response to electrical stimulation than control. SS mice showed increased contractility of CC induced by phenylephrine. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in SSS and SSK mice. Sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation was higher in SSS mice compared to control and SSK mice. Nicotine-induced neurogenic and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in both SSS and SSK mice. Immunohistochemically analysis revealed co-localization of tyrosine hydroxylase and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-immunoreactive fibers in the CC. These findings highlight the complex nature of SS-related ED and suggest the limited efficacy of ketamine as a therapeutic intervention in this condition.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Artificial intelligence; pathology; renal cell carcinoma; kidney cancer
Online: 2 June 2023 (15:58:27 CEST)
No abstract available
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; total kidney volume; cyst volume; non-cystic tissue; magnetic resonance imaging; segmentation; artificial intelligence
Online: 31 May 2023 (13:18:14 CEST)
In the context of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), total kidney volume (TKV) plays a key role as biomarker of disease progression and response to therapy and has been recently recognized as enrichment biomarker and possible surrogate endpoint. Several imaging modalities and methods are available to calculate TKV, and the choice depends on the purpose of use. Technological advancements have made it possible to accurately assess cyst burden, that can be crucial to assess the disease state and help identifying rapid progressors. Moreover, the development of automated algorithms has increased the efficiency of total kidney and cyst volume measurements. Beyond total kidney and cyst volume, the quantification and characterization of non-cystic kidney tissue show potential to early stratify ADPKD patients, monitor disease progression, and possibly predict renal function loss. A broad spectrum of kid-ney MRI techniques are available to characterize kidney tissue, showing promise to non-invasively pick up early signs of ADPKD progression. Radiomics has been used to extract tex-tural features from ADPKD images, providing valuable information about the heterogeneity of the cystic and non-cystic components. This review provides an overview of ADPKD imaging bi-omarkers, focusing on quantification methods, potential, and necessary steps towards successful translation to clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1974.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Micro-RNAs; biomarkers; urological cancers; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma; renal cancer
Online: 29 May 2023 (05:15:04 CEST)
Background: Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are emerging as biomarkers in the detection and prognosis of cancers due to their inherent stability and resilience. Methods: To summarize evidence regarding urinary miRNA (umiRNAs) role in the detection, prognosis and therapeutic management of urological cancers, we performed a systematic review of the most important scientific databases using the following keywords: (urinary mir-na)AND(prostate cancer); (urinary mirna)AND(bladder cancer); (urinary mirna)AND(renal cancer); (urinary mirna)AND(testicular cancer); (urinary mirna)AND(urothelial cancer). Results: Of all, 1364 articles were initially selected. Only original studies in the English language on human specimens were considered for inclusion in our systematic review. Thus, a convenient sample of 60 original articles was identified. Urinary miRNA (UmiRNAs) are downregulated in prostate cancers and may serve as potential non-invasive molecular biomarkers. Several umiR-NAs have been identified as diagnostic biomarkers of urothelial carcinoma and bladder cancer (BCa), allowing to discriminate malignant from non-malignant forms of haematuria. UmiRNAs could serve as therapeutic targets or recurrence markers of non-muscle invasive BCa and could predict the aggressivity and prognosis of muscle-invasive BCa. In renal cell carcinoma, miRNAs have been identified as predictors of tumour detection, aggressiveness, and progression to metastasis. Conclusion: umiRNAs could play an important role in the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of urological cancers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1970.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy; Hyperglycemia; Phytocompounds; End stage renal disease; Oxidative stress; Inflammation
Online: 29 May 2023 (05:03:27 CEST)
Diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the primary consequences of diabetes mellitus, affecting many people worldwide. Diabetes affects yearly 463 million adults globally between the ages of 20 and 79, and is the main cause of death under the age of 60. ROS production rises during hyperglycemia and is crucial to the development of diabetic complications. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced excessively in a diabetic state and accumulate in the kidney, where they change renal architecture and impair renal function. Another important targeted pathway for the formation of DN includes NF-B, Nrf2, NLRP3, Akt/mTOR, and autophagy. About 40% of individuals with diabetes eventually acquire diabetic kidney disease and end stage renal disease that needs hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or kidney transplantation, to survive. The current state of acceptable therapy for this kidney ailment is limited. The studies revealed that some naturally occurring bioactive substances might shield the kidney by controlling oxidative stress, renal fibrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In order to provide new potential therapeutic lead bioactive compounds for contemporary drug discovery and clinical management of DN, this review was designed to examine the various mechanistic pathways by which current conventional plants derive phytocompounds that are effective for the control and treatment of DN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1875.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; somatic alteration; epigenomics; epigenetic machinery; African ancestry; southern Africa; health disparity
Online: 26 May 2023 (07:24:27 CEST)
Prostate cancer is driven by acquired genetic alterations, including those impacting the epigenetic machinery. With African ancestry a significant risk factor for aggressive disease, we hypothesize that dysregulation among the roughly 656 epigenetic genes may contribute to prostate cancer health disparities. Interrogating prostate tumor genomic data from 109 men of southern African and 56 men of European Australian ancestry, we found African-derived tumors to present with a longer tail of epigenetic driver gene candidates (72 versus 10). Biased towards African-specific drivers (63 versus 9 shared), many are novel to prostate cancer (18/63) including several putative therapeutic targets (CHD7, DPF3, POLR1B, SETD1B, UBTF and VPS72). Through clustering of all variant types and copy number alterations, we describe two epigenetic PCa taxonomies capable of differentiating patients by ancestry and predicted clinical outcomes. We identified top genes in African and European-derived tumors that represent a multifunctional “generic machinery”, alteration to which may be instrumental in epigenetic dysregulation and prostate tumorigenesis. In conclusion, numerous somatic alterations in the epigenetic machinery drive prostate carcinogenesis but African-derived tumors appear to achieve this with greater diversity amongst such alterations. The greater novelty observed in African-derived tumors illustrates the significant clinical benefit to be derived from a much needed African tailored approach to prostate cancer healthcare aimed at reducing prostate cancer health disparities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; brachytherapy; lower urinary tract symptom; international prostate symptom score (IPSS); overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS)
Online: 22 May 2023 (16:28:32 CEST)
To examine the association of clinical, treatment, and dose parameters with late urinary toxicity after low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) for prostate cancer, we retrospectively studied patients with prostate cancer who underwent LDR-BT from January 2007 through December 2016. Urinary toxicity was assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Overactive Bladder (OAB) Symptom Score (OABSS). Severe and moderate lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were defined as IPSS ≥ 20 and ≥ 8, respectively; OAB was defined as a nocturnal frequency of ≥ 2 and a total OABSS of ≥ 3. In total, 203 patients (median age, 66 years) were included, with a mean follow-up of 8.4 years after treatment. The IPSS and OABSS worsened after 3 months of treatment; these scores improved to pretreatment levels after 18–36 months in most patients. Patients with a higher baseline IPSS and OABSS had a lower frequency of moderate and severe LUTS and OAB at 24 and 60 months, respectively. LUTS and OAB at 24 and 60 months were not correlated with the dosimetric factors of LDR-BT. Although the rate of long-term urinary toxicities assessed using IPSS and OABSS was low, the baseline scores were related to long-term function. Refining patient selection may further reduce long-term urinary toxicity.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Testis; granulosa-cell tumor; adult–type; sex cord-stromal tumor of testis; testicular cancer
Online: 16 May 2023 (07:27:50 CEST)
Testicular granulosa cell tumors (TGCTs) are rare tumors of sex cord stromal origin. TGCTs can be classified into the adult type and the juvenile type. The adult type is extremely rare with only 93 known cases reported in the literature. We, herein, present a report of a case of a 30 year old male patient who presented with a testicular mass, underwent radical inguinal orchiectomy and the pathology examination revealed an adult type granulosa tumor. We additionally review the literature to summarize the scientific knowledge of an entity barely described worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1104.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: hemolytic uremic syndrome; complement; single cell sequencing
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:36:09 CEST)
Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare and life-threatening disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute kidney injury, necessitating differentiation from other thrombotic microangiopathy disorders. Definitive biomarkers for disease diagnosis and activity are currently lacking, and identifying molecular markers is essential. We conducted single-cell sequencing on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 13 aHUS patients, 3 aHUS family members, and 4 healthy controls. Analysis included clustering, cell type annotation, pseudotime estimation, and cell-cell communication. Immune cell populations differ among aHUS, aHUS families, and healthy controls. Disease activity and treatment influence T, NK, B, and monocyte subpopulations, with increased intermediate monocyte levels distinguishing aHUS from controls and aHUS groups with varying disease activity. Subclustering revealed differential gene expression in patients compared to controls; higher expression of mitochondria-related genes suggests cell metabolism may influence clinical course. Pseudotime trajectory analysis demonstrated unique immune cell differentiation, and cell-cell interaction analysis identified distinct signaling pathways among patients, family members, and controls. This single-cell sequencing study is the first to confirm immune cell dysregulation in aHUS pathogenesis, offering valuable insights into molecular mechanisms and potential new diagnostic and disease activity markers.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1044.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Mitrofanoff; appendicovesicostomy; clots; hematuria; augmented bladder; urethral sheath; bladder tamponade
Online: 15 May 2023 (12:35:31 CEST)
Background: a 17 years-old girl with a Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy developed a large bladder clot due to hematuria after a surgical cystolithotomy in an augmented bladder. Trans-urethral approaches were not feasible due to a previous surgical closure of the bladder neck. Methods: after an unsuccessful trans-appendicovesicostomy bladder washing, the endoscopic evaluation was performed using a 14 Ch rigid cystoscope, surrounded by its own urethral sheath. The clot was progressively fragmented through the cystoscope and a urethral catheter under direct vision. Clot fragments were aspirated obtaining a complete evacuation; Results: the urethral sheath prevented damages to the appendicovesicostomy, allowing at the same time repeated accesses of the cystoscope into the neobladder and ensuring the success of the procedure; Conclusions: the use of urethral sheath 14 Ch though an appendicovesicostomy preserves both the stoma and the channel, making possible endoscopic procedures as blood clot evacuation into the neobladder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0742.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: renal lithiasis; phytate; lower inositol phosphates; crystallization inhibitors; calcium oxalate; calcium phosphates
Online: 10 May 2023 (10:45:26 CEST)
Pathological calcifications may consist of calcium oxalate (CaOx), hydroxyapatite phosphate (HAP), and brushite (BRU). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of phytate (inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6), InsP6 hydrolysates, and individual lower InsPs (InsP5, InsP4, InsP3, and InsP2) on the crystallization of CaOx, HAP and BRU in artificial urine. All of the lower InsPs seem to inhibit the crystallization of calcium salts in biological fluids, although our in vitro results showed that InsP6 and InsP5 were stronger inhibitors of CaOx crystallization, and InsP5 and InsP4 were stronger inhibitors of BRU crystallization. For the specific in vitro experimental conditions we examined, the InsPs had very weak effects on HAP crystallization, although it is likely that a different mechanism is responsible for HAP crystallization in vivo. For example, calciprotein particles seem to have an important role in the formation of cardiovascular calcifications in vivo. The experimental conditions that we examined partially recapitulated the in vivo conditions of CaOx and BRU crystallization, but not the in vivo conditions of apatite crystallization.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0486.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: estrogen replacement therapy; genitourinary syndrome of menopause; urethral prolapse
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:00:09 CEST)
Urethral prolapse (UP) is a rare condition in which the distal urethral mucosa protrudes circularly from the external urethral meatus. Urethral prolapse is seen in two age groups: prepubertal girls and postmenopausal women. The fact that it is seen in older women shows that it may be acquired. Causes of acquired UP include weakening of smooth muscle layers secondary to estrogen deficiency, chronic cough, chronic constipation, trauma, recurrent urinary tract infections, pelvic radiotherapy, and sexual abuse. The priority in treatment is conservative management, such as manual reduction, sitz baths, topical estrogen creams, and antibiotics. The general consensus is to switch to surgical treatment in patients who do not benefit from a conservative approach. In this case report, we describe the surgical treatment of a 56-year-old postmenopausal female patient with necrotic UP who presented with urinary retention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: 1; erectile dysfunction 2; stem cell delivery 3; prostate cancer 4; biofabrication
Online: 6 May 2023 (05:37:14 CEST)
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common and feared complication of radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. Recently, tissue engineering is being attempted for post-prostatectomy ED, with controlled interactions between cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM) being important for nerve regeneration's structural integrity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of biomechanical ECM patch on human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) morphology and behavior in bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) rat model. The ECM patch, made of decellularized human fibroblast-derived ECM (hFDM) and a biocompatible polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel, was tested with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) on a bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) rat model. In vitro analysis showed that the hFDM/PVA + hBMSCs patches significantly increased neural development markers. In vivo experiments demonstrated that the rats treated with the hFDM/PVA patch had higher ICP/MAP ratio, a higher ratio of smooth muscle to collagen, increased content of nNOS, higher levels of eNOS protein expression, and a higher cGMP level compared to the BCNI group. These results indicate that the hFDM/PVA patch is effective in promoting angiogenesis, smooth muscle regeneration, and nitrergic nerve regeneration, which could contribute to improved erectile function in post-prostatectomy ED.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0172.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Prostate cancer; robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP); console-time.
Online: 4 May 2023 (03:36:11 CEST)
Longer operating time in radical prostatectomy may escalate the risk of perioperative complications. Various factors like cancer extent, procedure’s level of difficulty, habitus and previous surgeries may lengthen robotic assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) and therefor compromise outcomes. Objective: this study investigates the influence of operating time on outcomes after RARP in real life settings in a monocentric single surgeon study. Methods: 500 consecutive patients who underwent RARP between April 2019 and August 2022 were included. Patients were divided in three groups. Short (n=157; 31.4%) under or equal to 120 minutes, average (n=255; 51%) between 121 and 180 minutes, long (n=88; 17,6%) above 180 minutes console-time. Demographic, baseline and perioperative data were analyzed and compared between groups. Univariate logistic regression was completed to investigate the association between console-time and outcomes and to predict factors which may prolong surgery. Results: hospital stay and catheter days were significantly longer in group 3 with medians 6 and 7 days (p<0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Those findings were confirmed in univariate analysis, p=0.012 for Catheter days and p<0.001 for Hospital stay. Moreover, major complications were higher in patients with longer procedures p=0.008. Prostate volume was the only predictor for prolonged console time (p=0.005). Conclusion: RARP is a safe procedure and most patients will be discharged uneventfully. Yet longer console-time is associated with longer hospital stay, catheter days and major complications. Caution has to be taken in large prostate to avoid longer procedures, which may prevent postoperative advert events.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1238.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Peyronie's disease; pathogenesis; risk factors; molecular mechanisms, transforming growth factor-β1
Online: 30 April 2023 (02:21:49 CEST)
Peyronie's disease (PD) is a benign condition caused by plaque formation on the tunica albuginea of the penis. It is associated with penile pain, curvature, and shortening, and contributes to erectile dysfunction, which worsens patient quality of life. In recent years, understanding of the detailed mechanisms and risk factors involved in development of PD has been increasing. In this review, the pathological mechanisms and several closely related signaling pathways, including TGF-β, WNT/β-catenin, Hedgehog, YAP/TAZ, MAPK, ROCK, and PI3K/AKT, are described. Findings regarding cross-talk among these pathways are then discussed to elucidate the complicated cascade behind tunica albuginea fibrosis. Finally, various risk factors including genetic involved in the development of PD are presented and their association with the disease summarized. The purpose of this review is to provide better understanding regarding involvement of risk factors in the molecular mechanisms associated with PD pathogenesis, as well as provide insight into disease prevention and novel therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1063.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: empagliflozin; vascular calcification; AMP-activated protein kinase; nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor; heme oxygenase 1; chronic kidney disease
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:35:25 CEST)
Vascular calcification (VC) is associated with increased cardiovascular risks in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, like empagliflozin, can improve cardiovascular and renal outcomes. We assessed the expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in inorganic phosphate–induced VC in mouse VSMCs to investigate the mechanisms underlying empagliflozin’s therapeutic effects. We evaluated biochemical parameters, mean artery pressure (MAP), pulse wave velocity (PWV), transcutaneous glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and histology in an in vivo mouse model with VC induced by an oral high-phosphorus diet following a 5/6 nephrectomy in ApoE−/− mice. Compared to the control group, empagliflozin-treated mice showed significant reductions in blood glucose, MAP, PWV, and calcification, as well as increased calcium and GFR levels. Empagliflozin inhibited osteogenic trans-differentiation by decreasing inflammatory cytokine expression and increasing AMPK, Nrf2, and HO-1 levels. Empagliflozin mitigates high phosphate–induced calcification in mouse VSMCs through the Nrf2/HO-1 anti-inflammatory pathway by activating AMPK. Animal experiments suggested that empagliflozin reduces VC in CKD ApoE−/− mice on a high-phosphate diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1055.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Molecular docking; Bibliometric analysis; Kidney reperfusion; Kidney transplantation; Renal resection
Online: 27 April 2023 (07:25:20 CEST)
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a complex pathophysiological process that can lead to severe and irreversible consequences, including the complete loss of renal function. While standardized strategies for preventing IRI during "back-table" and cold preservation are available, various intraoperative prevention methods have been proposed to mitigate the harmful effects of warm ischemia and reperfusion of the kidney. These methods include pharmacological agents, mechanical interventions, and surgical techniques such as renal capsulotomy, ischemic preconditioning, venous blood reperfusion, renal perfusion, and the use of tissue engineering techniques like mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and/or decellularization. In this comprehensive analysis, we provide a detailed overview of pharmacological agents and intraoperative methods and approaches for the prevention and treatment of renal IRI. We begin by discussing the mechanisms of IRI and the challenges of preventing it during surgery. Then using a bibliometric analysis and molecular docking of brand-new legends we showed eplerenone have the most binding affinity to Aldehyde dehydrogenase (AD), Estrogen receptor (ER), Klotho protein, Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for preventing IRI comparing with other available therapeutics, Benzodioxole, Hydrocortisone, Indoles, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and Niacinamide. Next, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the potential benefits and limitations of various prevention strategies, including an in-depth discussion of the mechanisms of action of pharmacological agents, mechanical interventions, and surgical techniques. Furthermore, we introduce a novel scoring system for the prevention methods of kidney IRI, which takes into account the effectiveness, feasibility, and safety of each method. We then analyze the current state of clinical research in this area and discuss the implications of these methods for future clinical practice. Overall, this article provides a valuable resource for clinicians and researchers seeking to prevent and treat renal IRI in surgical settings, and introduces a new scoring system that can be used to guide the selection of the most effective and safe prevention methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0672.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Cardiorenal syndromes; Acute kidney injury; Biomarkers; Chronic kidney disease; Heart failure
Online: 21 April 2023 (05:26:37 CEST)
Biomarkers have become an important tool in the diagnosis and management of cardio renal syndromes (CRS), a complex condition characterized by dysfunction in both the cardiovascular and renal systems. These biomarkers can help identify the presence and severity of CRS, predict its progression and outcomes, and facilitate personalized treatment options. Several biomarkers, including natriuretic peptides, troponins, and inflammatory markers, have been extensively studied in CRS and have shown promising results in improving diagnosis and prognosis. In addition, emerging biomarkers such as kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin offer potential for early detection and intervention of CRS. However, the use of biomarkers in CRS is still in its infancy, and further research is needed to establish their utility in routine clinical practice. This review highlights the role of biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of CRS and discusses their potential as valuable clinical tools for personalized medicine in the future.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0319.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: biomarkers; chronic kidney disease; peptide; proteomic; urine
Online: 13 April 2023 (10:51:02 CEST)
Background: Biomarker development, improvement, and clinical implementation in the context of kidney disease has been a central focus of biomedical research for decades. To this point, only serum creatinine and urinary albumin excretion are well accepted biomarkers in kidney disease. With their known blind spot in early stages of kidney impairment and diagnostic limitations there is a need for better and more specific biomarkers. With the rise of large-scale analysis of thousands of peptides in serum or urine samples using mass spectrometry techniques hopes for biomarker development were high. Advances in proteomic research have led to the discovery of an increasing amount of potential proteomic biomarkers and identification of candidate biomarkers for clinical implementation in the context of kidney disease management. In this review we focus on urinary peptide and especially peptidomic biomarkers emerging from recent research and underline the role of those with the highest potential for clinical implementation. Methods: The Web of Science database (all databases) was searched on October 17th, 2020, using the search terms “marker*” OR biomarker* AND “renal disease” OR “kidney disease” AND “proteome*” OR “peptid*” AND “urin*”. English, full-text original articles on humans published within the last 5 years were included which were cited at least 5 times per year. Studies based on animal models, renal transplant studies, metabolite studies, studies on miRNA and studies on exosomal vesicles were excluded focusing on urinary peptide biomarkers. Results: The described search led to the identification of 3668 articles and application of inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as abstract and consecutive full-text analysis of 3 independent authors to a final number of 62 studies for this manuscript. The 62 manuscripts encompassed 8 established single peptide biomarkers and several proteomic classifiers including CKD273 and IgAN237. Discussion: This review provides a summary of recent evidence on single peptide urinary biomarkers in CKD while emphasizing the increasing role of proteomic biomarker research with new research on established and new proteomic biomarkers. Lessons learned from the last 5 years in this review might encourage future studies hopefully resulting in routine clinical applicability of new biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0280.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Androgen receptor; androgen receptor splice variant 7; prostate cancer; localization; NanoBiT
Online: 13 April 2023 (02:54:24 CEST)
The androgen/androgen receptor (AR)-signaling axis plays a central role in the development and growth of prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Upon androgen-binding the AR dimerizes with another AR, translocates into the nucleus where the AR-dimer activates/inactivates androgen-dependent genes. In consequence treatments for locally advanced or metastatic PCa are commonly based on androgen deprivation therapies (ADT). Unfortunately, the clinical benefits of ADT are only transitory and most tumors develop mechanisms allowing the AR to bypass its need for physiological levels of circulating androgens. In the clinic failure of ADT is often characterized by the synthesis of a C-terminally truncated, constitutively active AR splice variant, termed AR-V7. In contrast to AR, the constitutively active AR-V7 does no longer need androgenic stimuli for nuclear entry and/or dimerization. The goal of the present study was to mechanistically decipher the interaction between full-length AR (AR-FL) and AR-V7 in AR-null HEK-293 cells using the NanoLuc Binary Technology (NanoBiT) structural complementation assay under androgen stimulation and deprivation conditions. Our data point toward a hypothesis that AR-FL/AR-FL homodimers form in the cytoplasm, whereas AR-V7/AR-V7 localize in the nucleus. However, after 15 min of androgen stimulation, all AR-FL/AR-FL, AR-FL/AR-V7 and AR-V7/AR-V7 dimers localized in the nucleus. In this way, we can show an androgen-regulated interaction between AR-FL and AR-V7 at forming heterodimers that localize in the nucleus, whereas AR-V7/AR-V7 dimers were found to localize in the absence of androgens in the nucleus. Treatment with enzalutamide diminished the luminescence of AR-FL homodimers and AR-FL/AR-V7 heterodimers but not AR-V7/AR-V7 homodimers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: chronic kidney disease; antihypertensive; practice guidelines; recommendations; performance measures; GRADE; adolopment; AGREE II; RIGHT-Ad@pt; evidence-based healthcare; Saudi Arabia
Online: 6 April 2023 (08:59:14 CEST)
Background: This practice guideline was developed by the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Task Force, which was composed of clinical and methodological experts. The Saudi Arabian Ministry of Health and its Health Holding Company commissioned this guideline project to support the realization of the Vision 2030's healthcare transformation pillar. Methods: The guideline synthesis was guided by the GRADE-ADOLOPMENT methodology. Results: The final adoloped guideline addressed 12 clinical questions on blood pressure management in patients with CKD through a set of recommendations and performance measures. The recommendations included antihypertensive agents in children, non-renin angiotensin system inhibition (Non-RASi) vs RASi in adults, intensive vs standard blood pressure targets, early vs late assessment for kidney replacement therapy (KRT), late vs early preparation strategy for KRT, CKD symptoms during assessment for KRT or conservative management, initiation of KRT in patients with deteriorating CKD, choice of KRT modality or conservative management in certain CKD patient groups, changing or discontinuing KRT modalities, review frequency for KRT or conservative management, and Information, education and support. Conclusions: These conditional recommendations were based on low to very low certainty of evidence that highlights the need for high-quality randomized trials comparing different antihypertensive agents in patients with CKD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0444.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: CD44; astrocytes; hypoxia; seizures; interlaminar astrocytes
Online: 27 March 2023 (04:19:41 CEST)
In the mammalian isocortex CD44, a cell surface receptor for extracellular matrix molecules, is present in pial-based and fibrous astrocytes of white matter, but not the protoplasmic astrocytes. In the hominid isocortex, CD44+ astrocytes comprise the subpial “interlaminar” astrocytes, sending long processes into the cortex. The hippocampus also contains similar astrocytes. We have examined all levels of the human CNS and found CD44+ astrocytes in every region. Astrocytes in white matter and astrocytes that interact with large blood vessels, but not capillaries in gray matter, are CD44+, the latter extending long processes into the parenchyma. Motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord, such as oculomotor, facial, hypoglossal, and in the anterior horn of the spinal cord, are surrounded by CD44+ processes, contrasting with neurons in the cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. We found CD44+ processes that intercalate between ependymal cells to reach the ventricle and that show a location-specific presence. We also found a CD44+ astrocyte in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. Protoplasmic astrocytes, which do not normally contain CD44, acquire it in pathologies like hypoxia and seizures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS CoV-2; hypertension; obesity; clinical predictor of outcomes; clinical triage; ClinSeqSer acute COVID-19 observational study
Online: 20 March 2023 (07:46:35 CET)
In New Orleans, Louisiana the population’s poor baseline health led to its establishment as an early epicenter for severe acute COVID-19. Antici-pating future outbreaks of COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses, we need to identify correlates of outcome, from real clinical experience. 89 patients were recruited into the ClinSeqSer acute COVID-19 longitudinal observational study, from the beginning of the outbreak in March to July 2020. Patients admitted for acute COVID-19 were enrolled in person. The cohort is unique as it is 68% Black, 53% female, of average age of early 60s, and prevalence of obesity and hypertension respectively of 55% and 83%. The outcomes are: 53% severe (20% fatal, 33% non-fatal) and 47% non-severe, with severe defined as death or requiring mechanical ventila-tion or high flow oxygen. Obesity and admit systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140mmHg are each associated with severe outcome and, despite respective sensitivity of 71% and 76%, specificity ~66% for both, and ac-curacy of 60% and 70% by ROC analysis, would likely provide useful predictors of outcome in critically stressed health care systems. We discuss pathophysiologic hypotheses to explain why high admit SBP is observed only in half of patients with pre-COVID hypertension and is associated with severe outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: testicular cancer; radiomics; retroperitoneal surgery
Online: 10 March 2023 (02:28:40 CET)
Post chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) in non-seminomatous germ-cell tumours (NSTGCTs) is a complex procedure. We evaluated whether 3D computed tomography (CT) rendering and their radiomics analysis help predict resectability by junior surgeons. The ambispective analysis was performed between 2016-2021. Prospective group (A) of 30 patients undergoing CT were segmented using 3D slicer software while retrospective group (B) of 30 patients were evaluated with conventional CT (without 3D reconstruction). CatFisher’s exact test showed a p-value of 0.13 for group A and 1.0 for Group B. Difference between proportion test showed a p-value of 0.009149 (IC 0.1-0.63). Proportion of correct classification showed a p-value of 0.645 (IC 0.55-0.87) for A, and 0.275 (IC 0.11-0.43) for Group B. Furthermore, 13 shape features were extracted: elongation, flatness, volume, sphericity, surface area, among others. Performing logistic regression with the entire dataset, n=60, the results were: Accuracy: 0.7, Precision: 0.65. Using n=30 randomly chosen, the best result obtained was Accuracy: 0.73, Precision: 0.83, with a p-value: 0.025 for Fisher's exact test. In conclusion, the results showed a significant difference in the prediction of resectability with conventional CT versus 3D reconstruction by junior surgeon versus experienced surgeon. Radiomics features used to elaborate an artificial intelligence model improve the prediction of resectability. The proposed model could be of great support in a university hospital, allowing to plan the surgery and to anticipate complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: chronic kidney disease; solid organ transplant; nephrology
Online: 27 February 2023 (04:45:33 CET)
Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common complication of non-kidney solid organ transplant (NKSOT). Identifying predisposing factors is crucial for an early approach and correct referral to nephrology. Methods: This is a single-center retrospective observational study of a cohort of CKD patients under follow-up in Nephrology Department between 2010 to 2020. Statistical analysis was performed between all the risk factors and four dependent variables: end-stage renal disease (ESKD), increased serum creatinine ≥50%, renal replacement therapy (RRT), and death in pre-transplant, peri-transplant and post-transplant period. Results: 74 patients were studied (7 heart transplant, 34 liver transplants, and 33 lung transplant). Patients who were not followed-up by nephrology in the pre-transplant (p<0.027), peri-transplant (p<0.046), and the longest time until outpatient clinic follow-up (HR 1,032) were associated with a higher risk of creatinine increase ≥50%. Receiving a lung transplant conferred higher risk than liver or hear transplant for developing a creatinine increase ≥50% and ESKD. Peri-transplant mechanical ventilation, peri-transplant and post-transplant anticalcineurin overdose, nephrotoxic and the number of hospital admissions were significantly associated to present a creatinine increase ≥50% and develop ESKD. Conclusion: An early follow-up by the nephrology department was associated with a decrease in the worsening of renal function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0057.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: TRPA1; cinnamon; cinnamaldehyde; urinary bladder
Online: 3 February 2023 (04:33:00 CET)
Background. TRPA1-related drugs alter sensation, particularly in conditions of inflammation. To further characterize the role of these drugs in bladder sensation, the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (CMA) and oral true cinnamon spice were examined in preclinical models of bladder pain. Methods. Female, adult rats with and without acute zymosan-induced cystitis, were anesthetized and visceromotor (VMR) and cystometric responses to urinary bladder distension (UBD) determined following either the intravesical administration of CMA/vehicle solutions or the oral administration of true cinnamon/vehicle. ELISA measures of bladder TRPA1 content were also determined. Results. Acute cystitis resulted in increases in bladder TRPA1 content and produced an increased vigor of the VMRs to UBD and a lowering of micturition volume thresholds for activation of a micturition response. Intravesical CMA produced a robust inhibition of VMRs to UBD in rats with cystitis, but not in those without. Micturition volume thresholds were lowered by CMA in rats without cystitis, but had no additional effect in rats with cystitis. Oral cinnamon also produced a robust inhibition of VMRs to UBD in rats with cystitis and a mild augmentation of VMRs to UBD in rats without cystitis. Conclusions. A potentially analgesic effect of the spice, true cinnamon, in the treatment of the pain of acute cystitis was suggested by these preclinical studies. Human studies are indicated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0447.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: acute kidney disease; chronic kidney disease; gene therapy; cell therapy
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:29:25 CET)
The rising global incidence of acute and chronic kidney diseases has increased the demand for renal replacement therapy. This issue, compounded with the limited availability of viable kidneys for transplantation, has propelled the search for alternative strategies to address the growing health and economic burdens associated with these conditions. In the search for such alternatives, significant efforts have been devised to augment the current and primarily supportive management of renal injury with novel regenerative strategies. For example, gene- and cell-based approaches that utilize recombinant peptides/proteins, gene, cell, organoid, and RNAi technologies have shown promising outcomes primarily in experimental models. Supporting research has also been conducted to improve our understanding of the critical aspects that facilitate the development of efficient gene- and cell-based techniques that the complex structure of the kidney has traditionally limited. This manuscript is intended to communicate efforts that have driven the development of such therapies by identifying the vectors and delivery routes needed to drive exogenous transgene incorporation that may support the treatment of acute and chronic kidney diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: green tea; EGCG; oxidative stress; acute kidney injury; chronic kidney disease; kidney stones; diabetic nephropathy
Online: 15 December 2022 (15:48:03 CET)
Kidney diseases are a global health problem, and their frequency is continuously increasing. Available treatments provide limited kidney protection. The protective effect of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in several diseases have been extensively investigated. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties of EGCG are promising for the treatment and/or prevention of kidney diseases. This review analyzes the available evidence on the effects, and the likely protective mechanisms of action, of EGCG in a broad spectrum of kidney diseases, including acute kidney injury, drug-induced nephrotoxicity, kidney stone disease, diabetic nephropathy, chronic kidney disease, and kidney fibrosis.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0441.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Ewing sarcoma; Prostate adenocarcinoma; Cauda equina syndrome; Dual primary malignancy.
Online: 23 November 2022 (07:47:52 CET)
Introduction: A dual malignancy with both Ewing Sarcoma and Prostate Adenocarcinoma has not been reported in the English literature. We report a case of simultaneous diagnosis of Ewing sarcoma and prostate adenocarcinoma with profound clinical manifestation. Case presentation: A 53-year-old male with advanced metastatic prostate cancer (Gleason-9) admitted with classical presentation of cauda equina syndrome including incontinence, back pain, and paresis following bilateral nephrostomy insertion for the treatment of bilateral renal hy-dronephrosis. The patient was diagnosed with an epidural abscess at the level of L5-S1 and an emergency surgical spine decompression was performed. No abscess was found, and pathology results showed a concomitant primary Ewing sarcoma in the spine. Conclusions: Very rare occurrences of a dual primary malignancy, in this case, Ewing sarcoma and prostate adenocarcinoma, should be kept in mind in patients suffering from complex clinical course of malignancies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Clear cell carcinoma, molecular pathology, biomarkers, gene and protein signatures, machine learning, treatment decision.
Online: 31 October 2022 (10:21:51 CET)
Renal clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC) comprises over 75% of all renal tumors and arises in the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule. Molecularly ccRCC is characterized by copy number alterations (CNAs) such as the loss of chromosome 3p and VHL inactivation. Additional driver mutations (SETD2, PBRM1, BAP1, and others) promote genomic instability and tumor cell metastasis through the dysregulation of various metabolic and immune-response pathways. Many researchers identified mutation, gene expression, and proteomic signatures for early diagnosis and prognostics for ccRCC. Despite a tremendous influx of data regarding DNA alterations, gene expression, and protein expression, the incorporation of these analyses for diagnosis and prognosis of RCC into the clinical application has not been implemented yet. In this review, we focused on the molecular changes associated with ccRCC development, along with gene expression and protein signatures, to emphasize the utilization of these molecular profiles in clinical practice. These findings, in the context of machine learning and precision medicine, may help to overcome some of the barriers encountered for implementing molecular profiles of tumors into the diagnosis and treatment of ccRCC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0475.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: catheter-associated infection; CAUTI; urinary tract infection; healthcare-associated infection; active drain line clearance; burns; intra-abdominal pressure; measurement
Online: 30 September 2022 (04:13:24 CEST)
OBJECTIVE A quality improvement study to assess catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate post-implementation of a bladder catheter with integrated active drain line urine clearance and automated intra-abdominal pressure monitoring in a burn intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN Eight-year retrospective before and after study (2015–2022). SETTING A single American Burn Association verified Burn Center with fourteen inpatient beds. PATIENTS Patients meeting criteria for admission to a Burn Center METHODS Retrospective cohort study following the implementation of a novel urine output monitoring system with integrated drain line and urine clearance. Data from a 48-month (from January 2015-December 2018) historical control (period 1) were compared to data from a 28-month (from January 2020 to April 2022) post-implementation period (period 2). Pre- and post-implementation CAUTI event incidences were compared. Charts were reviewed to characterize the patients. RESULTS A total of 42 CAUTIs in 2243 patients were identified using the National Health and Safety Network (NHSN) definition during the analyzed period. There were 40 CAUTI events in period 1 and two CAUTIs in period 2. The incidence of CAUTI events pre-implementation was 0.030 (mean of 10 CAUTI events per year) compared to 0.002 (mean of 1 CAUTI event per year) post-implementation of an automatic drain line clearing UO monitoring system showing a significant reduction in CAUTI events (P<0.01, risk ratio novel vs. gravity bladder catheter 0.071, 95% confidence interval: 0.017-0.294). CONCLUSIONS CAUTIs were reduced in the period following the implementation of a novel urinary catheter system with an integrated active drain line and urine clearance in burn patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: COVID-19 prophylaxis; COVID-19 treatment; Kidney transplantation; Vaccination; Monoclonal antibodies; Small antivirus molecules
Online: 16 September 2022 (02:00:02 CEST)
Abstract Kidney transplant recipients, because of a weak immune response due to the assumption of immunosuppressant are exposed to the risk of COVID-19 infection. This fact realize the problem on how to treat the severe infection without carrying the risk of acute rejection due to the reduction of the immunosuppressive drugs. The best are the prophylactic measures to be taken before transplantation as vaccination. If the patient is already transplanted, three measures may be undertaken: Vaccination, use of monoclonal antibodies, use of therapeutic antiviral small molecules. Concerning vaccination is still debated which one is the best and how many doses should be given. The surge of new virus variant is the major problem and invites to find new active vaccines. In addition, not all the transplanted patients develop antibodies. The other measure is the use of monoclonal antibodies. They may be used as prophylaxis or in the early stage of the disease. Finally, the antiviral small molecules may be used again as prophylaxis or treatment. Their major drawback are the interference with the immunosuppressive drugs and the fact that some of them cannot be administered to patients with low eGFR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: COVID-19; hemodialysis; vaccination; cellular immunity; humoral immunity; adverse reactions
Online: 7 September 2022 (05:14:06 CEST)
Most studies on vaccines of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have focused on antibody, but cellular immunities are also critical. We aimed to evaluate the immune reactions of hemodialysis (HD) patients after the administration of the booster dose from the perspective of both humoral and cellular immunities. Hemodialysis patients (HD group) and age- and sex-matched non-dialysis individuals (control group) receiving three doses of BNT162b2 vaccine were measured for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin (IgG) and T-SPOTⓇ.COVID test (T-SPOT) before, 3 weeks, and 3 months after the booster dose. The HD group had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels 3 weeks and 3 months after the booster dose than the control group, although both groups had no difference in SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels before the booster dose. Moreover, the HD group had significantly higher T-SPOT levels before and 3 weeks after the booster dose than the control group, but the difference was not significantly different 3 months after the booster dose. Furthermore, the incidence rates of local and systemic adverse reactions were significantly higher in the HD group than in the control group. HD patients obtained higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and SARS-COV-2-specific T-cell responses after the booster dose than control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: bladder cancer; clinically positive lymph nodes; diagnosis; treatment; lymphadenectomy
Online: 25 August 2022 (10:05:05 CEST)
The purpose of this review is to present the current knowledge about the diagnostic and treatment options in bladder cancer (BCa) patients with clinically positive lymph nodes (cN+). In this review compaction of CT and MRI performance in preoperative prediction of lymph node invasion (LNI) in BCa patients was presented, along with other diagnostic methods. Most scientific societies do not distinguish cN+ patients in their guidelines, recommendations concern muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and differ between associations. Currently, the standard treatment of patients with MIBC is radical cystectomy (RC) with bilateral pelvic lymph node dis-section (PLND). The template of PLND and its therapeutic value remain debatable. Moreover, most guidelines recommend neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, there is still lack of definitive evidence of the superiority of neoadjuvant chemotherapy over adjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the curative treatment that provides the best long-term survival in cN+ patients is a multimodal approach with a combination of chemotherapy and RC. Recent studies demonstrate the growing importance of immunotherapy. Special attention should be paid to cN+ BCa patients as the oncological outcomes are significantly worse for this group.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: STAT3; prostate cancer; bladder cancer; upper tract urothelial carcinoma; renal cell carcinoma; penile cancer; testicular cancer
Online: 8 August 2022 (15:09:21 CEST)
Nowadays molecular research is essential for the better understanding of tumor cells pathophysiology. The increasing number of neoplasms is taken under ‘the molecular magnifying glass’ therefore it is possible to discover complex relationships between cytophysiology and tumor cells. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) belongs to the family of latent cytoplasmic transcription factors called STATs which comprises seven members: STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT5A, STAT5B, STAT6. Those proteins play important role in cytokine-activated gene expression by transducing signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Abnormal prolonged activation results in tumorigenesis, metastasis, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and angiogenesis. Inhibition of this transcription factor inhibits previously mentioned effects in cancer cells whereas normal cells are not affected. Hence STAT3 might be a viable target for cancer therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate; biomarker; immunotherapy; cancer vaccine; T-cell engaging antibody
Online: 29 July 2022 (14:02:03 CEST)
Six-Transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate 1-4 (STEAP1-4) compose a family of metalloproteinases involved in iron and copper homeostasis and other cellular processes. Thus far, five homologs are known: STEAP1, STEAP1B, STEAP2, STEAP3, and STEAP4. In prostate cancer, STEAP1, STEAP2, and STEAP4 are overexpressed while STEAP3 expression is downregulated. Although the metalloreductase activities of STEAP1-4 are well-documented, their other biological functions are not. Furthermore, the properties and expression levels of STEAP heterotrimers, homotrimers, heterodimers, and homodimers are not well-understood. Nevertheless, studies over the last few decades have provided sufficient impetus to investigate STEAP1-4 as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. In particular, STEAP1 is the target of many emerging immunotherapies. Herein, we give an overview of the structure, physiology, and pathophysiology of STEAP1-4 to provide context for past and current efforts to translate STEAP1-4 into the clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0463.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Nocturia; aging male symptoms; Quality of life; Health-related Quality of life; Male adults; NQoL; Urinary frequency; Bedtime urination; sleep
Online: 29 July 2022 (13:13:15 CEST)
Background: The link between nocturia and aging male symptoms (AMS) has not been scientifically established. This study aimed to measure the degree of severity of AMS that impact on the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in adult males living with nocturia, and to determine the predictive values of nocturnal factors on AMS. Methods: It is an extended analysis of new data collected by using the Hong Kong Traditional AMS (HK-AMS) scale and Cantonese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) in a recently published cross-sectional population-based survey. Results: Of the 781 respondents that have completed the set of questionnaires, 68% and 61% of men living with nocturia reported clinically significant (at moderate-to-severe levels) somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, whereas the prevalence and severity were increased with advancing nighttime voiding frequency. The nocturia-specific QoL (NQoL) score and nocturnal frequency were found to be significant predictive factors for composite, somato-vegetative and sexual AMS, in addition to age, global OSQI score, and certain metabolic diseases. Conclusions: Current findings suggested the inclusion of nocturia when measuring the male-specific HRQoL related to aging.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0393.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; cancer vaccines; immunotherapy; focal therapy; combination immunotherapy; tumor immune microenvironment; in vivo vaccination
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:01:20 CEST)
Due to slow progression and susceptibility to radical forms of treatment low-grade PC is associ-ated with high overall survival (OS). With the clinical progression of PC the therapy is getting more complex. The immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) makes PC a difficult target for most immunotherapeutics. Its general immune resistance is established by i.e. immune evasion through Treg cells, synthesis of immunosuppressive mediators, and defective expression of surface neoantigens. The success of sipuleucel-T in clinical trials initiated several other clinical studies that specifically target the immune escape of the tumor and eliminate the immunosuppres-sive properties of TME. In the settings of PC treatment, this can be commonly achieved with radi-ation therapy (RT). Also, focal therapies usually applied for localized PC, such as high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy (PDT), or irreversible electroporation (IRE) were shown to boost anti-cancer response. Nevertheless, the present guide-lines restrict their application to localized and low-grade PC. This review explains how RT and focal therapies enhance the immune response. We also provide data supporting the combination of RT and focal treatments with immune therapies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Autoimmune diabetes; PD-1 inhibitor; Sintilimab; Penile carcinoma
Online: 20 July 2022 (06:09:13 CEST)
Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare disease. Treatment options for advanced penile cancer are often limited and prognosis remains poor. We reported a 52-year-old male recurrent and metastatic penile SCC patient with high PD-L1 expression(90%) and TMB(14.4 muts/Mb). He had undergone penectomy, bilateral inguinal lymph node dissection and excision of the abdominal wall mass during two surgeries. Despite cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy and sequential chemotherapy with docetaxel plus cisplatin were then carried out, the carcinoma still had progressed. The patient then obtained progression free survival exceeding 32 months with continuous sintilimab, although new onset of ICI-induced diabetes after 24 cycles of sintilimab and required sustained insulin treatment. He didn’t have positive type 1 diabetes associated autoantibodies, but had susceptible HLA genotype DR3-DQ2 haplotype. This is the first patient with radiation and multichemorefractory penile SCC obtained remarkable anti-tumor effect of partial regression exceeding 32 months during continuous sintilimab.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: interleukin-17; renal cell carcinoma; immunotherapy; inflammation; tumor microenviroment; tumor development; Th17 lymphocytes
Online: 21 June 2022 (05:11:36 CEST)
Nowadays molecular and immunological research is essential for the better understanding of tumor cells pathophysiology. The increasing number of neoplasms is taken under ‘the molecular magnifying glass’ therefore it is possible to discover complex relationships between cytophysiology and immune system action. An example could be renal cell carcinoma (RCC) which has deep interactions with immune mediators such as Interleukin 17 (IL-17) - an inflammatory cytokine reacting to tissue damage and external pathogens. RCC is one of the most fatal urological cancer because of its often late diagnosis and poor susceptibility to therapies. IL-17 and its relation with tumors is extremely complex and constitute a recent topic for numerous research. What is worth highlighting is IL-17 dual character in cancer development - it could be pro- as well as antitumorigenic. The aim of this review is to summarize the newest data considering multiple connections between IL-17 and RCC.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0166.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: acute kidney injury; intra-abdominal pressure; oxidative stress; renal cortical blood flow; renal medullar blood flow; renal lymphatic drainage; venous congestion
Online: 18 April 2022 (10:45:36 CEST)
Acute kidney injury (AKI), especially if recurring represents a risk factor for future chronic kidney disease. In intensive care units, increased intraabdominal pressure is well-recognized as a significant contributor of AKI. However, the importance of transiently increased intra-abdominal pressures procedures is less commonly appreciated during laparoscopic surgery, the use of which has rapidly increased over the last few decades. Unlike the well-known autoregulation of the renal cortical circulation, medulla perfusion is modulated via partially independent regulatory mechanisms and strongly impacted by changes in venous and lymphatic pressures. In our review paper, we will provide a comprehensive overview of this evolving topic, covering a broad range from basic pathophysiology up to and including current clinical relevance. Key regulators of oxidative stress such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, the activation of inflammatory response and humoral changes interacting with procedural pneumoperitoneum formation and AKI risk will be recounted. Moreover, we present an in-depth review of the interaction of pneumoperitoneum formation with general anesthetic agents and animal models of congestive heart failure. A better understanding of the relationship between pneumoperitoneum formation and renal perfusion will support basic and clinical research, leading to improved clinical care and collaboration among specialists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0101.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; lymph node invasion; radical prostatectomy
Online: 11 April 2022 (14:13:34 CEST)
Lymph node invasion in prostate cancer is a significant prognostic factor indicating worse prognosis. While it affects significantly both survival rates and recurrence, proper management remains a heated issue. Thorough evaluation of risk factors associated with nodal involvement, such as lymph node density or extracapsular extension, is crucial to establish potential expansion of the disease and to substratify patients clinically. There are multiple strategies that may be taken into consideration for patients with positive lymph nodes. Nowadays therapeutic methods are generally based on observation, radiotherapy, and androgen deprivation therapy. However current guidelines are incoherent in terms of indication of the most effective management approach. Future management strategies will be expected to reach for novel diagnostic tools and therapies, such as photodynamic therapy or diagnostic imaging with prostate specific membrane antigen. Nevertheless, this heterogeneous group of men remains a vast therapeutic concern, and both clarification of the guidelines and optimal substratification of patients is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: kidney transplantation; belatacept; calcineurin inhibitor; transcriptome; RNAseq
Online: 7 April 2022 (12:31:09 CEST)
In kidney transplant recipients, belatacept is usually pursued indefinitely after it has been started. In the setting of the belatacept shortage and after having evaluated the benefit-risk ratio, we established a strategy consisting of time-limited belatacept therapy / transient calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal, whose results are analyzed in that study. We considered all the kidney transplant recipients that had been switched from conventional immunosuppressive therapy to belatacept and then for whom belatacept has been withdrawn intentionally. Furthermore, in the first 8 patients, we assessed changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) transcriptome using RNAseq before and 3 months after belatacept withdrawal. Over the study period, 28 out of 94 patients had belatacept intentionally withdrawn including 25 (89%) switched to low-dose CNI. One rejection due to poor compliance occurred. The eGFR after 12 months remained stable from 48 ± 19 ml.1.73m-2 to 46 ±17 ml.1.73m-2 (p = 0.68). However, patients that resumed belatacept / withdrew CNIs (n=10) had a trend towards a better eGFR comparing with the others (n =15): 54 ± 20 ml.1.73m-2 vs eGFR 43 ± 16 ml.1.73m-2 respectively (p = 0.15). The only factor associated with belatacept resumption was when the withdrawal took place during the COVID-19 outbreak. Transcriptome analysis of PBMCs, did not support rebound in alloimmune response. These findings underpin the use of belatacept as part of a time-limited therapy, in selected kidney transplant recipients, possibly as an approach to allow efficient vaccination against SARS-Cov-2.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0273.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; ultrasonography; biopsy; micro-ultrasound; elastography; contrast-enhanced ultrasound
Online: 21 March 2022 (04:26:46 CET)
The purpose of this review is to present the current role of ultrasound-based techniques in the diagnostic pathway of prostate cancer (PCa). With overdiagnosis and overtreatment of a clinically insignificant PCa over the past years, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) became recommended for every patient suspected of PCa before performing a biopsy. It enabled targeted sampling of the suspicious prostate regions, improving the accuracy of the traditional systematic biopsy. However, mpMRI is associated with high costs, relatively low availability, long and separate procedure or exposure to the contrast agent. The novel ultrasound modalities such as shear wave elastography (SWE), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) or high frequency micro-ultrasound (MicroUS) may be capable of maintaining the performance of mpMRI without its limitations. Moreover, the real-time lesion visualization during biopsy would significantly simplify the diagnostic process. Another value of these new techniques is the ability to enhance the performance of mpMRI by creating the image fusion of multiple modalities. Such models might be further analyzed by artificial intelligence to mark the regions of interest for investigators and help to decide about the biopsy indications. The dynamic development and promising results of new ultrasound-based techniques should encourage researchers to thoroughly study their utilization in prostate imaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: kidney; renal; lipid; fast MRSI
Online: 18 March 2022 (02:59:02 CET)
A reliable and practical renal-lipid quantification and imaging method is needed. Here, the feasibility of an accelerated MRSI method to map renal fat fractions (FF) at 3T and its repeatability were investigated. A 2D density-weighted concentric-ring-trajectory MRSI was used to accelerate acquiring 48×48 voxels (each of 0.25 ml spatial-resolution) without respiratory navigation implementations. The data was collected over 512 complex-FID timepoints with a 1250 Hz spectral bandwidth. The MRSI sequence was designed with a metabolite-cycling technique for lipid-water separation. The in vivo repeatability performance of the sequence was assessed by conducting a test-reposition-retest study within healthy subjects. The coefficient of variation (CV) in the estimated FF from the test-retest measurements showed a high degree of repeatability of the MRSI-FF (CV= 4.3 ±2.5%). Additionally, the matching level of spectral signature within the same anatomical region was also investigated, and their intrasubject repeatability was also high, with a small standard deviation (8.1 ±6.4%). The MRSI acquisition duration was ~3 minutes only. The proposed MRSI technique can be a reliable technique to quantify and map renal metabolites within a clinically acceptable scan time at 3T that supports the future application of this technique for the non-invasive characterization of heterogeneous renal diseases and tumors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0197.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: prostate cancer; lymph node dissection; lymphadenectomy; radical prostatectomy
Online: 16 March 2022 (02:24:15 CET)
The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge on lymph node dissection (LND) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Despite a growing body of evidence, utility, therapeutic and prognostic value of such approach as well as optimal extent of LND, remain unsolved issues. Although LND is the most accurate staging procedure, the direct therapeutic effect is still not evident from the current literature which limits the possibility of establishing clear recommendations. This indicates the need for further robust and adequately designed high quality clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Membranous glomerulonephritis; remission; nephrotic syndrome; chronic kidney disease; end-stage kidney diseases
Online: 18 February 2022 (14:49:32 CET)
Background: Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in non-diabetic adults, accounting for up to one-third of biopsy diagnostics in some regions. A watchful waiting strategy has been adopted to accurately assess the success of MGN. In this study, we predict prognostic risk factors for primary MGN patients for effective intervention and prognosis. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study design involving 125 biopsy-proven MGN subjects on follow-up from January 2012 to October 2019 in Hospital Serdang and Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Result and Conclusion: After the median follow-up of 36 (15.0-57.0) months, 26 (20.8%) consisting of 17 (13.6%) primary MGN and 9 (7.2%) secondary MGN subjects achieved complete remission while 17 (13.6%) and 10 (8.0%) of primary and secondary MGN subjects respectively achieved spontaneous remission. Subjects with nephrotic range proteinuria have 2.917 odds more at risk of primary MGN while subjects with hypertension have 2.417 odds risk of primary MGN compared to those with no hypertension at presentation. Multiple logistic regression models retained only factors directly associated with MGN with only nephrotic range proteinuria associated with primary MGN. Those with nephrotic range proteinuria were 3.04 times the odds of primary MGN when compared with those without nephrotic syndrome (95% C. I = 1.089, 8.472). The nephrotic syndrome could be used to determine the prognosis in patients with primary MGN especially those at risk of end-stage kidney disease.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: urinary tract infection; cystitis; D-mannose; antibiotics; acute cystitis symptom score
Online: 8 February 2022 (13:25:24 CET)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very frequent in women and can be caused by a range of pathogens. High recurrence rates and increasing antibiotic resistance of uropathogens make UTIs a severe public health problem. d-mannose is a monosaccharide that can inhibit bacterial adhesion to the urothelium after oral intake. Several clinical studies have shown the efficacy of d-mannose in the prevention of recurrent UTI; these also provided limited evidence for the efficacy of d-mannose in acute therapy. A recent prospective, non-interventional study in female patients with acute cystitis reported good success rates for treatment with d-mannose. Here we present data from a post-hoc analysis of this study to compare the cure rate of d-mannose monotherapy with that of antibiotics. The results show that d-mannose is a promising alternative to antibiotics in the treatment of acute uncomplicated UTIs in women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Urinary tract infections (UTIs); opportunistic pathogens
Online: 1 February 2022 (21:26:23 CET)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain one of the most important problems of modern urology and medicine. Infections bring great discomfort and significantly reduce the quality of life. UTIs rank second after respiratory tract infections in outpatients. The most common pathogen of UTI are E.coli. The study of the etiology of UTI has great clinical and epidemiological importance in routine practice. Objective: To assess the etiological significance of pathogens in the occurrence of urinary tract infections in the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. Methods: A total of 2378 patients presenting UTIs were enrolled and each provided a urine sample. The study was carried out in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory MediTEC-NS between 2 January and 29 December 2018. Identification of isolated microorganisms was carried out on a WalkAway 96 Plus microbiological analyzer, Microscan model manufactured by Beckman Coulter (USA). Statistical Analysis was performed using the STATISTICA-6 package. Results: Out of 2378 patients a total of 1177 (49,5%) urine samples tested positive by culture test. From these samples, 1356 strains of microorganisms were isolated, of which 84.79% were monoculture and 21% were of a mixed culture. Gram-positive bacteria 690 (50, 88%), Gram-negative bacteria 630 (46, 46%), and Candida 36 (2.65%) were identified. Gram-negative rods were represented by Enterobacterales 557 (88.41%) and non-fermenting bacteria 73 (11.59%). In the Enterobacterales group included Escherichia coli 371 (66.61%) of which 108 (29,1%) ESBL strains. The next etiologically significant uropathogens were Klebsiella- 99 (17, 77%), Enterobacter-36 (6,46%) and Proteus-32 (8,09). K.pneumoniae prevailed in comparison with other Klebsiella spp. ESBL producing was 34 (57, 6%) out of 59 K.pneumoniae isolates. Gram-negative non-fermenting rod were represented by Acinetobacter spp-34 (46.57%) and Pseudomonas spp 31 (42.47%). Of 34 Acinetobacter spp. isolates 22 (64.7%) were identified as Acinetobacter lwoffii. Among the gram-positive pathogens of UTI, Staphylococcus spp prevailed - 411 (59.57%), followed by Enterococcus spp 197 (28.55%) and Streptococcus spp 81 (11.73%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci 381 (92,7%) isolates out of total 411 staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus epidermidis 245 (59,61%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus 81 (21,17%) were the most frequent isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of 411 staphylococcal isolates, 182 (44.28%) were MRS Conclusion: We found that UTIs among our study population were predominantly caused by ten opportunistic pathogens. The most common uropathogens with a frequency of 66.9% were E. coli- 30.53%, S. epidermidis -20.16%, and Enterococcus spp. -16.21%. Frequently isolated pathogens included Klebsiella, S. haemolyticus spp., and Streptococcus spp. which amounted to 21.98%. The distribution within the patient group was equable and ranged from 6,67% to 8,15%. Etiologically significant pathogens included Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria accounted for 11.11%. The distribution within the group was again equable and ranged within 2,55% to 2,96%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Urinary tract infections (UTIs); opportunistic pathogens
Online: 31 January 2022 (21:38:17 CET)
Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain one of the most important problems of modern urology and medicine. Infections bring great discomfort and significantly reduce the quality of life. UTIs rank second after respiratory tract infections in outpatients. The most common pathogen of UTI are E.coli. The study of the etiology of UTI has great clinical and epidemiological importance in routine practice.Objective: To assess the etiological significance of pathogens in the occurrence of urinary tract infections in the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan.Methods: A total of 2378 patients presenting UTIs were enrolled and each provided a urine sample. The study was carried out in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory MediTEC-NS between 2 January and 29 December 2018. Identification of isolated microorganisms was carried out on a WalkAway 96 Plus microbiological analyzer, Microscan model manufactured by Beckman Coulter (USA). Statistical Analysis was performed using the STATISTICA-6 package.Results: Out of 2378 patients a total of 1177 (49,5%) urine samples tested positive by culture test. From these samples, 1356 strains of microorganisms were isolated, of which 84.79% were monoculture and 21% were of a mixed culture. Gram-positive bacteria 690 (50, 88%), Gram-negative bacteria 630 (46, 46%), and Candida 36 (2.65%) were identified. Gram-negative rods were represented by Enterobacterales 557 (88.41%) and non-fermenting bacteria 73 (11.59%). In the Enterobacterales group included Escherichia coli 371 (66.61%) of which 108 (29,1%) ESBL strains. The next etiologically significant uropathogens were Klebsiella- 99 (17, 77%), Enterobacter-36 (6,46%) and Proteus-32 (8,09). K.pneumoniae prevailed in comparison with other Klebsiella spp. ESBL producing was 34 (57, 6%) out of 59 K.pneumoniae isolates. Gram-negative non-fermenting rod were represented by Acinetobacter spp-34 (46.57%) and Pseudomonas spp 31 (42.47%). Of 34 Acinetobacter spp. isolates 22 (64.7%) were identified as Acinetobacter lwoffii. Among the gram-positive pathogens of UTI, Staphylococcus spp prevailed - 411 (59.57%), followed by Enterococcus spp 197 (28.55%) and Streptococcus spp 81 (11.73%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci 381 (92,7%) isolates out of total 411 staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus epidermidis 245 (59,61%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus 81 (21,17%) were the most frequent isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of 411 staphylococcal isolates, 182 (44.28%) were MRSConclusion: We found that UTIs among our study population were predominantly caused by ten opportunistic pathogens. The most common uropathogens with a frequency of 66.9% were E. coli- 30.53%, S. epidermidis -20.16%, and Enterococcus spp. -16.21%. Frequently isolated pathogens included Klebsiella, S. haemolyticus spp., and Streptococcus spp. which amounted to 21.98%. The distribution within the patient group was equable and ranged from 6,67% to 8,15%. Etiologically significant pathogens included Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria accounted for 11.11%. The distribution within the group was again equable and ranged within 2,55% to 2,96%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Urinary tract infections (UTIs); opportunistic pathogens
Online: 31 January 2022 (21:18:06 CET)
Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain one of the most important problems of modern urology and medicine. Infections bring great discomfort and significantly reduce the quality of life. UTIs rank second after respiratory tract infections in outpatients. The most common pathogen of UTI are E.coli. The study of the etiology of UTI has great clinical and epidemiological importance in routine practice. Objective: To assess the etiological significance of pathogens in the occurrence of urinary tract infections in the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. Methods: A total of 2378 patients presenting UTIs were enrolled and each provided a urine sample. The study was carried out in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory MediTEC-NS between 2 January and 29 December 2018. Identification of isolated microorganisms was carried out on a WalkAway 96 Plus microbiological analyzer, Microscan model manufactured by Beckman Coulter (USA). Statistical Analysis was performed using the STATISTICA-6 package. Results: Out of 2378 patients a total of 1177 (49,5%) urine samples tested positive by culture test. From these samples, 1356 strains of microorganisms were isolated, of which 84.79% were monoculture and 21% were of a mixed culture. Gram-positive bacteria 690 (50, 88%), Gram-negative bacteria 630 (46, 46%), and Candida 36 (2.65%) were identified. Gram-negative rods were represented by Enterobacterales 557 (88.41%) and non-fermenting bacteria 73 (11.59%). In the Enterobacterales group included Escherichia coli 371 (66.61%) of which 108 (29,1%) ESBL strains. The next etiologically significant uropathogens were Klebsiella- 99 (17, 77%), Enterobacter-36 (6,46%) and Proteus-32 (8,09). K.pneumoniae prevailed in comparison with other Klebsiella spp. ESBL producing was 34 (57, 6%) out of 59 K.pneumoniae isolates. Gram-negative non-fermenting rod were represented by Acinetobacter spp-34 (46.57%) and Pseudomonas spp 31 (42.47%). Of 34 Acinetobacter spp. isolates 22 (64.7%) were identified as Acinetobacter lwoffii. Among the gram-positive pathogens of UTI, Staphylococcus spp prevailed - 411 (59.57%), followed by Enterococcus spp 197 (28.55%) and Streptococcus spp 81 (11.73%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci 381 (92,7%) isolates out of total 411 staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus epidermidis 245 (59,61%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus 81 (21,17%) were the most frequent isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of 411 staphylococcal isolates, 182 (44.28%) were MRS Conclusion: We found that UTIs among our study population were predominantly caused by ten opportunistic pathogens. The most common uropathogens with a frequency of 66.9% were E. coli- 30.53%, S. epidermidis -20.16%, and Enterococcus spp. -16.21%. Frequently isolated pathogens included Klebsiella, S. haemolyticus spp., and Streptococcus spp. which amounted to 21.98%. The distribution within the patient group was equable and ranged from 6,67% to 8,15%. Etiologically significant pathogens included Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria accounted for 11.11%. The distribution within the group was again equable and ranged within 2,55% to 2,96%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: end-stage renal disease; peritoneal dialysis; far-infrared therapy (FIR)
Online: 20 January 2022 (09:05:44 CET)
Introduction: The treatment of peritoneal dialysis in end-stage renal disease is increasing in clinical practice. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of far-infrared radiation therapy on inflammation and the cellular immunity of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Materials and Methods: We recruited 56 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, and we included 32 patients from the experimental group and 24 patients from the control group in the final analysis. The experimental evaluation in our study was as follows: (1) We used abdominal computed tomography to measure the diameter and degree of hardening of the abdominal veins and large blood vessels to explore the changes in abdominal blood vessels. (2) The study compared the effects of peritoneal dialysis using albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, white blood cell, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Hs-CRP clearance rate, and HBAlC. (3) We compared the cytokine concentration of blood between the two groups while controlling for GM-CSF, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-18, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-12p70, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Results and Discussion: (1) There was no significant difference in the abdominal blood vessels of the experimental group relative to the control group according to abdominal CT measured over 6 months. (2) Our study demonstrates the statistically significant effect of FIR therapy on the following parameters: albumin (p = 0.048*), creatinine (p = 0.039*), and Hs-CRP (p < 0.001**) decreased significantly, and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, p = 0.043*) and glucose (p < 0.001**) increased significantly. Our study found that, in the experimental group, albumin and creatinine decreased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. However, our study also found that, in the experimental group, glucose (p < 0.001**) increased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. Peritoneal dialysis combined with FIR can reduce the side effects of glucose in dialysis buffer, which interferes with peritoneal inflammation and peritoneal mesothelial cell fibrosis. In addition, we also found that, in the experimental group, Hs-CRP (p < 0.001**) decreased significantly due to FIR therapy for 6 months. (3) No statistical significance in the inflammatory cytokines related to FIR therapy differences was observed in our study. IFN-γ (p = 0.124), IL-12p70 (p = 0.093), IL-18 (p = 0.213), and TNF-α (p = 0.254) did not exhibit significant improvements in peritoneal dialysis with FIR treatment over 6 months. IFN-γ and IL-18 in the plasma of patients in the experimental group and the control group were higher in the third month than in the first month. Conclusion: We found that the effect of peritoneal dialysis improved significantly with FIR therapy, and significant improvements in the peritoneal permeability and inflammatory response were observed. end-stage renal disease; peritoneal dialysis; far-infrared therapy (FIR)
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: left renal vein; urology; radiology
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:19:21 CET)
Retroaortic left renal veins are an often overlooked, but no so rare anatomic anomaly that might cause a few aspecific symptoms and signs, especially flank or inguinal pain, microscopic or even gross hematuria; in the vast majority of cases it is, thought, totally asymptomatic. The nutcracker syndrome that might arise in the case of RLRV is mainly due to the re- duced space between aorta and the vertebral body and the consequent compression on the venal rein; this might in turn cause upstream hypertension, hematuria, varicocele, pain. The compression of RLRV leads to hematuria because of renal venous hypertension, consequent left renal congestion. This upstream venous congestion might result, in some cases, in left-sided varicocele in men and pelvic congestion syndrome in women. From a radiologic point of view, the presence of RLRV and the precise reporting its subtypes is mandatory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: older people; nursing home; incontinence; urinary incontinence; pelvic health; sedentary behaviour; physical health; faecal incontinence; low urinary tract symptoms
Online: 12 January 2022 (18:41:11 CET)
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common geriatric syndrome affecting bladder health and is especially prevalent in nursing homes (NHs). The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of UI and its associated factors in 5 Spanish NHs. UI (measured with Minimum Data Set 3.0.), sociodemographic and health-related variables were collected. Chi- square (or Fisher’s) or Student’s t-test (or Mann Whitney U) for bivariate analysis were used, with Prevalence Ratio (PR) as an association measure. The prevalence of UI was 66.1% (CI:95%, 53.6–77.2) and was significantly associated with frailty (PR 1.84; 95%CI 0.96–3.53), faecal incontinence (FI) (PR 1.65; 95%CI 1.02–2.65), anxiety (PR 1.64; 95%CI 1.01–2.66), physical performance (PR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00–3.11) and cognitive state (PR 1.95; 95%CI 1.05–3.60). Statistically significant differences between incontinent-continent groups were found for activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, mobility, quality of life, sedentary behaviour (SB) and handgrip strength. It can be concluded that 2/3 of the residents experienced UI, and its significant associated factors were mainly physical (SB, frailty, physical performance, ADL limitations, mobility, FI and handgrip strength) followed by psycho-cognitive factors (cognition, anxiety and quality of life).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: extra-prostatic extension; magnetic resonance imaging; radical prostatectomy; nerve-sparing; prostate cancer; staging; diagnostic accuracy
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:05:55 CET)
The accuracy of multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) in pre-operative staging of prostate cancer (PCa) remains controversial. Objective: To evaluate the ability of mpMRI to accurately predict PCa extra-prostatic extension (EPE) on a side-specific basis using a risk-stratified 5-point Likert scale. This study also aimed to assess the influence of mpMRI scan quality on diagnostic accuracy. Patients and Methods: We included 124 men who underwent robot-assisted RP (RARP) as part of the NeuroSAFE PROOF study at our centre. Three radiologists retrospectively reviewed mpMRI blinded to RP pathology and assigned a Likert score (1-5) for EPE on each side of the prostate. Each scan was also ascribed a Prostate Imaging Quality (PI-QUAL) score for assessing the quality of the mpMRI scan, where 1 represents poorest and 5 represents best diagnostic quality. Outcome measurements and statistical analyses: Diagnostic performance is presented for binary classification of EPE including 95% confidence intervals and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: A total of 231 lobes from 121 men (mean age 56.9 years) were evaluated. 39 men (32.2%), or 43 lobes (18.6%) had EPE. Likert score ≥3 had sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), NPV, PPV of 90.4%, 52.3%, 96%, 29.9%, respectively, and AUC was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.77-0.86). AUC was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.37-0.9), 0.77 (0.71-0.84) and 0.92 (0.88-0.96) for biparametric scans, PI-QUAL 1-3 and PI-QUAL 4-5 scans, respectively. Conclusions: MRI can be used effectively by genitourinary radiologists to rule out EPE and help inform surgical planning for men undergoing RARP. EPE prediction was more reliable when the MRI scan was a) multi-parametric and b) of a higher image quality according to the PI-QUAL scoring system.