ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0298.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sustainability assessment; Sustainable Development Goals; Agenda 2030; peri-urban fringe; multidimensional indicators; evaluation tools; sustainable development; spatial decision support system
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:08:30 CEST)
This research experiments with a sustainability assessment based on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of Agenda 2030 through a process of their territorialisation and implementation. This process enables the development of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) that can be integrated with strategic environmental assessments in urban planning. The assessment takes place on the transversality of the sustainability concept by trying to consider together the three dimensions (environmental, social and economic) into a single assessment through the Spatial Sustainability Assessment Model (SSAM) by integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and multi-criteria analyses. Economic development, social equity, and ecological integrity represent three common visions for rethinking peri-urban edges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0169.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agricultural carbon emissions; Low-level trap; DEA-SBM model; Tobit model; China
Online: 2 June 2023 (09:38:11 CEST)
This study evaluates the agricultural carbon emission efficiency of Shandong Province from 2011 to 2020 using the DEA-SBM model. The nexus between endogenous and exogenous variables is estimated using the Tobit model. The findings reveal an overall increasing trend in agricultural carbon emissions, with significant variations in efficiency values among different cities, leading to a severe polarization. Spatial evaluation shows a high distribution trend in the central region and low in the eastern and western regions of Shandong Province. The empirical tests conducted for Shandong Province and its three regions indicate that urbanization plays a major role in sup-porting the growth of agricultural carbon emission efficiency, while the education level of the la-bor force has a suppressive impact. Economic development and crop cultivation structure, how-ever, have no significant influence. The impact of these variables varies across the eastern, central, and western regions. The proposed countermeasures include improving planting structure and reducing brain drain in the eastern region, strengthening agricultural and rural inputs and in-creasing the added value of agricultural products in the central region, and intensifying the link-age between urbanization and industrial layout in the western region to reduce agricultural car-bon emissions efficiency in Shandong Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2213.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change; perception; impacts; temperature; precipitation; agricultural community; Bamyan; Afghanistan
Online: 2 June 2023 (05:05:52 CEST)
Climate change affects both human and natural systems. Afghanistan ranked globally on the top of highly vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change. The agricultural communities of Afghanistan is highly affected by climate change. Understanding farmers’ real experiences on changing climate become crucial in planning the future adaptation strategies. This study assessed the farmers' perception of climate change and its impacts on farming communities. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews conducted with 120 household heads. Additional qualitative data were collected by conducting 4 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs), 4 Historical Timeline Calendars (HTCs), 18 Key Informant Interviews (KII), and sketches of 4 Crop Calendars. The study reveals that climate indicators have varied and changed. The farmers express their experiences of decreasing snowfall in winter and annual rainfall in spring and summer, which led to the intensity and frequency of drought and water shortages for agriculture and rangelands in the upper and lower part of the valleys. The temperatures in winter and summer have increased and led to earlier snow melting, earlier blooming, flowering, and greening of the plants. These changes affected both positively and negatively. There is a half-month new opportunity for cultivation and increased earlier animal ranching in the rangelands. These findings can be valuable inputs for developing effective and efficient adaptation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0119.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Submerged aquatic vegetation; Carbon balance model; Landsat 8/9-OLI; Deep learning
Online: 2 June 2023 (03:42:30 CEST)
: Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) are highly efficient at carbon sequestration and, despite their relatively small distribution globally, are recognized as a potentially valuable component of climate change mitigation. However, SAV mapping in tidal marshes presents a challenge due to optically complex constituents in the water. The emergence and advancement of deep learn-ing-based techniques in the field of habitat mapping with remote sensing imagery provides an opportunity to address this challenge. In this study, an analytical framework was developed to quantify the carbon sequestration of SAV habitats in the Atchafalaya River Delta Estuary from field and remote sensing observations using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) tech-niques. A U-Net based model, Wetland-SAV Network, was trained to identify SAV percent cover (high, medium, and low) as well as other estuarine habitat types from Landsat 8/9-OLI data. The areal extent of SAV was up to 8% of the total area (47,000 ha) with a significant loss of SAV habitats observed post-Hurricane Barry (~2,300 ha) in 2019. The habitat areas and habitat-specific carbon fluxes were then used to quantify net greenhouse gas (GHG) flux of the study area for with/without SAV scenarios in a Carbon Balance Model. The total net GHG flux was in the range of -0.13 ± 0.06 to -0.86 ± 0.37 ×105 tonne CO2e yr-1 and increased up to 40% (-0.23 ± 0.10 to -0.90 ± 0.39 ×105 tonne CO2e yr-1 ) when SAV was accounted for within the calculation. At the hectare scale, inclusion of SAV resulted in an increase of ~60% for net GHG sink in shallow areas adjacent to emergent marsh where SAV was abundant. This is the first attempt at remotely mapping SAV in coastal Louisiana as well as a first quantification of net GHG flux at the scale of hectares to thousands of hectares, accounting for SAV within these sub-tropical coastal delta marshes. Remote sensing and deep learning models have high potential for mapping and monitoring of SAV in turbid sub-tropical coastal deltas as a component of increasing accuracy of net GHG flux estimates at small (hectare) and large (coastal basin) scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0060.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Environmental Health; Education; Climate Change
Online: 1 June 2023 (08:04:49 CEST)
Introduction. Environmental Health in a Global World at New York University was re-designed as a class participatory effort, challenging undergraduate students to understand environmental hazards and the resultant adverse health outcomes by embracing the inherent complexity of environmental risks and proposing solutions. Methods. Following introductory lectures, students are placed into teams and assigned a specific perspective, or avatar, which includes learning to see the challenge from the perspective of a technical expert such as a biologist, an engineer, or an anthropologist. The teams then design specific systems maps to visualize the complex interactions that lead to adverse health outcomes after a given environmental exposure. The maps highlight potential leverage points, where relatively minor interventions can provide a disproportionate benefit in health outcomes. The teams then explore potential interventions and identify the potential unintended consequences of those actions, develop and advocate for innovative new strategies to mitigate risk and improve outcomes. Results and Discussion. Over the past 5 years we have taught this methodology to over 680 students with strong, student-oriented results. The teams created and presented more than 100 strategies, addressing a diverse set of environmental challenges that include water contamination, gun violence, air pollution, environmental justice, health security, and climate change. Developing the strategies helped the students understand environmental threats in a more holistic way, provided them with some agency in finding solutions, and offered an opportunity for them to improve their presentation skills. The responses in course evaluations have been enthusiastic, with many students reporting a deep impact on their college experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2158.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Carbon intensity; carbon footprint; charcoal; carbon efficiency; grilling
Online: 30 May 2023 (14:01:22 CEST)
There are four commercial pathways to make grill charcoal from wood. These have been modelled to calculate a carbon intensity (CI) for each. Results are presented along with discussion of the sensitivities: biogenic carbon; quality of the charcoal; classification of products, wastes and residues; and division of burden. Grill charcoal’s CI ranges greatly, depending on the pathway by which it is produced. Wood distillation, a commercial process that once was common but now is rare, has a CI 50+% lower than that of the next-lowest commercial process, Kilns. Earth mounds/pits and external-fuelled Retorts have CIs considerably higher still. The carbon efficiency (CE) of Wood distillation is more than twice that of the next-best, again Kilns. CE is defined as normalised, total carbon emitted. This is not the same as CI, it is not usually considered in studies such as this, yet it is important for climate impact. CE could be a useful measure in assessments (such as this) where biogenic carbon is significant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2157.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Precipitation monitoring; rainfall measurement biases; rain gauge; measurement error; hydrological forecast
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:58:36 CEST)
Tipping bucket rain gauges (TBRs) have been, and apparently will continue to be one of the most widely used pieces of equipment for rainfall monitoring, being frequently used for the calibration, validation and downscaling of radar and remote sensing data, due to their major advantages–low cost, simplicity, and low energy consumption. Thus, many works have focused and continue to focus on their main disadvantage–measurement biases (mainly in wind and mechanical underestimations). However, despite arduous scientific effort, calibration methodologies are not frequently implemented by monitoring networks operators or data users, propagating bias in databases and in the different applications of such data, causing uncertainty in the modeling, management, and forecasting in hydrological research, mainly due to a lack of knowledge. Within this context, this work presents a review of the scientific advances in TBR measurement uncertainties, calibration, and error reduction strategies from a hydrological point of view, by describing different rainfall monitoring techniques in Section 2, summarizing TBR measurement uncertainties in Section 3, focusing on calibration, and error reduction strategies in Section 4, a discussion and perspectives in Section 5, and conclusions in Section 6, providing an overview of the of the state of the art and future perspectives of the technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2103.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Cameroon; mining; Small Scale mining; Sustainable development; Betare Oya
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:00:47 CEST)
Considering the differences between the European and African continents concerning the management of the mining production sector, we decided to carry out this study with the main objective of demonstrating that, in Africa, mining can positively change the quality of life of the populations where it develops and, at the same time, it is possible to respect the environment, which is our main wealth. To achieve these objectives, it is necessary to present the mining activity of the continent, emphasizing both the negative aspects and its strong points. The most important thing is to make a good diagnosis of the situation, which will allow us to cure our "patient", that is, African mining production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2099.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Ibu Kota Nusantara (IKN); urban heat island (UHI); land surface temperature (LST); seasonal; Terra-MODIS; Google Earth Engine (GEE); buffer cities
Online: 30 May 2023 (09:39:42 CEST)
The relocation of the Indonesian capital from Jakarta to Ibu Kota Nusantara (IKN) East Kalimantan IKN will affect several sectors. The change in land use from vegetated to developed land will lead to local climate changes, including the emergence of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon, which is reflected in a higher land surface temperature (LST) than the surrounding area. In this study, an analysis of UHI propagation was conducted on a seasonal (DJF, MAM, JJA, and SON), with 5 yearly periods from 2001 to 2020, study area in IKN and its buffer cities (Balikpapan, Samarinda, and Bontang). Terra-MODIS satellite data are processed using Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform and output is done using GrADS. UHI (high LST) is found in urban areas/buffer cities both spatially and temporally in every season, while UHI has not yet occurred in IKN (low LST) and suburban, rural, hilly areas, vegetated areas, and water bodies (lakes, rivers). The cross-sectional latitudinal and longitudinal analysis showed that the LST DJF2015-2020 from highest to lowest temperature are in Balikpapan City (36.84 OC), Samarinda City (36.13 OC), Bontang City (32.3 OC); and IKN zero point (28.82 OC). The UHI propagation was observed in 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015, and most during 2016-2020. Seasonally, the UHI was most pronounced in the SON season, while on lowest UHI was observed in the MAM season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1950.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: species distribution modeling; tuna species; climate change scenarios; potential suitability habitat; predictor variables; ensemble models
Online: 29 May 2023 (03:02:46 CEST)
The potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of tuna in Pacific Island Countries’ Exclusive Economic Zones have yet to be investigated rigorously, and so their persistence and abundance in these areas remain uncertain. Here, we estimate optimal fisheries areas for four tuna species; Albacore (Thunnus alalunga), Bigeye (Thunnus obesus), Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), and Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares). We consider different climate change scenarios, RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0 and RCP 8.5, within a set of tuna catch records in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Tonga. Using environmental and CPUE datasets, species distribution modelling estimated and predicted these fisheries areas in the current and future climatic scenarios. Our projections indicate an expansion in area and a shift of productive areas to the southern part of this Exclusive Economic Zone of Tonga. This is an indication that future climatic scenarios might be suitable for the species under study however, changes in trophic layers, ocean currents and ocean chemistry might alter this finding. Information provided here will be relevant in planning future national actions towards proper management of these species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1928.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Deforestation; Land-use change; Surface albedo; Diurnal thermal range; Temperate region; México.
Online: 26 May 2023 (11:04:10 CEST)
Deforestation is an important environmental problem in México and a key promoter of regional climate change through modifying the surface albedo. The objective of this research was to characterize the impact of deforestation and land use changes on surface albedo (α) and climate patterns in the Municipality of Tapalpa, Jalisco, México between the years 2014 and 2021. The main land cover types are coniferous forests (CF), oak and gallery woodlands (OGW), and annual agriculture (AA); which represent more than 88% of the regional territory (1066.03 km2). We used 2014 and 2021 Landsat 8 OLI images with topographic and atmospheric correction, in order to develop an inventory of albedo values for each land cover type in both time scenarios. Albedo images were generated by using the equation proposed by Liang in 2001, which is based on the reflectance of the bands 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7. Differences in albedo values were calculated between the years 2014 and 2021, and those differences were correlated with variations in climate parameters, for which we used climate data derived from the WRF model. In addition, the different land use changes found were classified in terms of triggers for increasing or decreasing surface albedo. Results showed that between 2014 and 2021, at least 38 events of land use change or deforestation occurred, with albedo increments between 1 and 11%, which triggered an average increment of 0.57% of the regional surface albedo in comparison to 2014 scenario. From 2014 to 2021, the albedo for CF, OGW, and AA, increased significantly (p<0.001; Mann-Whitney U Test) by 79, 12, and 9%, respectively. In addition, the regional albedo increment was found to be significant and negatively correlated (p<0.01 Spearman’s coefficient) with relative humidity (RH), maximum temperature (Tmax), minimum temperature (Tmin), and diurnal thermal range (DTR). The decrease in the regional values of relative humidity in 2021, occurred even when in that year the annual precipitation levels were higher than those of 2014, hence, reinforcing the fact of a possible climatic effect of the regional albedo changes. Conversion of CF and OGW into AA, perennial agriculture (PA), or grassland (GR) always yielded an albedo increment, whilst the conversion of AA to irrigation agriculture or PA triggered a decrease in albedo, and finally, the pass from GR or AA to protected agriculture caused albedo increase or decrease, depending on the greenhouse covers materials. Reducing deforestation of CF and OGW, conversion of AA or GR into PA, and selecting adequate greenhouse covers could help to mitigate regional climate change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1848.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Copper; Nanomaterials; Organic pollutants; Sensors; Antimicrobial; Photocatalysts; Environmnetal remediation.
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:31:47 CEST)
Copper-based nanomaterials in the last decade attracted many researchers due to their extensive practical applications, unique, inexpensiveness, and wide availability. In addition to this, copper-based nanomaterials possess good thermal stability, and selectivity and also possess high activity. This review emphasis on the recent advances in the synthesis of copper nanomaterials and their wide applications in the field of environmental catalysis. This review aims to fill a significant knowledge gap in the different areas of environmental pollution management. Also, the paper concentrates on the recent applications of copper-based nanomaterials for environmental remediation, including the removal of heavy metals, and degradation of organic pollutants such as pharmaceuticals, and other environmental contaminants. Also, it will be helpful to young researchers in improving the suitability of implementing the Copper nanomaterials in the right way establishing and achieving sustainable goals for environmental remediation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1781.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: behavior; emotion; forest management; Gephi; landscape; perception; restorative space; TEXTOM
Online: 25 May 2023 (09:32:03 CEST)
Since the COVID-19 pandemic, urban forest mountains have become important restorative environmental spaces, and demand-customized management based on users’ experiences is needed. We collected 21,557 data points from blogs from January 2020 to December 2021. For data analysis, keyword frequency, term frequency-inverse document frequency, and sentiment analyses were conducted using TEXTOM 4.0, and a semantic linkage network was established and analyzed using Gephi 0.92. In the analyses, the restorative environment components of “being away” “fascination,” “extent,” and “compatibility” were derived from users’ experiences. Fascination, which stems from natural objects such as rocks, valleys, and trails, was derived the most frequently, and being away and compatibility, representing leisure activities such as climbing and walking, formed the largest cluster in cluster analysis. Sentiment analysis revealed a high positive word rate of 91.6%, with favorable feelings accounting for 87.5%, whereas the proportions of joy and interest (12.5%) were relatively low. This study showed that leisure activities related to nature objects had a positive impact. However, joy and interest, which correspond to vitality, were relatively lacking in the restorative experience. To improve restorative experience quality, diversification of leisure activities should be promoted and customized management plans corresponding to restorative environment components developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1760.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ecosystem disservices; ecosystem services; environmental equity; landcover; urban forest governance
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:00:48 CEST)
Background: Public engagement is needed to make sure urban forestry management efforts align with the values of the public being served. Noting this, we determined current and desired urban forest access of Florida (United States) residents using the criteria from the 3-30-300 rule (i.e., 3 trees visible from home, 30% canopy in neighborhood, and a green space within 300 meters of home). Methods: A survey of 1,716 Florida residents was conducted to assess canopy coverage and green space access. Respondents were then asked if this level of urban forest access was sufficient for their needs. We also asked their perceptions of the benefits and drawbacks of urban trees and whether they had any negative interactions with trees in the past. Results: We found that 37.3% of Florida residents met all three criteria of the 3-30-300 rule. Despite this, half the respondents would prefer more trees in their neighborhoods. When asked to name the top benefits provided by trees, the most common responses were shade, beauty, and attracting wildlife. The most common drawbacks to urban trees included risk to property, leaves/debris, and fears regarding storms and hurricanes. Conclusions: Florida residents largely value their urban forest and would like to see it maintained or enhanced. Improving access to greenspaces for recreation is the most pressing concern for urban forest managers in Florida looking to meet the requirements of the 3-30-300 rule. Results from this study can inform and test urban forest management at national and global scales.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1754.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Alum sludge; Ceramsite; Physicochemical property; Phosphorus adsorption
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:35:31 CEST)
Alum sludge, an inevitable by-product from the water purification process, which had been applied as substrates in some constructed wetlands with good performance, especially for phosphorus (P) adsorption. The raw alum sludge is like clay lump with irregular shape and has a leaching concern used in the water. For a better reuse, herein, sludge was fired to produce alum sludge ceramsite (ASC) with a uniform spherical shape via four-step process of kneading sludge ball, air drying, preheating at 400°C for 10 min and firing at 600℃ for 5 min. Thereafter the physicochemical properties and P adsorption ability of ceramsite were investigated. Through XRD and FT-IR tests, there was no obvious difference between ASC and air-dried alum sludge ball (adASB) on the phase structure, but a certain amount of Al-OH group loss on the surface of ASC. The structure of ASC was still amorphous as same as adASB, while ASC possessed more micropore structure and bigger specific surface area than those of adASB. Adsorption experiments showed the P adsorption behaviors of ASC and adASB were much similar, and their adsorption kinetics all accorded with the two-step adsorption kinetics rate equation and pseudo-second-order kinetics equation. The maximum adsorption capacities of ASC and adASB fitted by Langmuir model were 1.66 mg/g and 1.89 mg/g respectively. It should be pointed that, compared with other adsorbents, ASC produced in this study still had a higher ability to adsorb P. Therefore, ASC should have a great application potential for P removal in the wastewater treatment in China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1745.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fluorinated greenhouse gas; emission trend analysis; regulatory policy; abatement technology
Online: 25 May 2023 (05:45:34 CEST)
Due to their excellent physicochemical properties, fluorinated greenhouse gases (F-gases), including hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), are used in a variety of applications, but they are potent greenhouse gases. Therefore, they have been blanketed into the list of phase-out under the international protocols or treaties. In this work, the updated statistics of the Taiwan’s national inventory report (NIR) were used to analyze the trends of F-gases (i.e., HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3) emissions during the period of 2000-2020. Furthermore, the regulatory strategies and measures for reducing the emissions of the four F-gases will be summarized to be in accordance with the national and international regulations. With the progressive efforts by the regulatory requirements and the industry’s voluntary reduction, the total F-gases emissions indicated a significant increase from 2,462 kilotons of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2eq) in 2000 to the peak value (i.e., 12,643 kilotons) of CO2eq in 2004, but sharply decreased from 10,284 kilotons of CO2eq in 2005 to 3,906 kilotons of CO2eq in 2020. It was also found that the most commonly used method for controlling the emissions of F-gases from the semiconductor and optoelectronic industries was based on the thermal destruction-local scrubbing technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1645.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: radon and CO2 monitoring; anomaly detection; multidisciplinary monitoring; precursor phe-nomena; air ionization monitoring; OEF (Operational Earthquake Forecasting).
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:56:15 CEST)
The analysis of the radon-seismicity relationship has been carried out so far in the Vrancea (Ro-mania) seismic zone, with monitoring stations positioned on tectonic faults. The article analyzes the evolution of radon under the conditions of the existence of deep and surface seismicity and the presence of mud volcanoes along with live fires caused by gases emitted from the soil. The monitoring area was extended to the Black Sea and the area of the Făgăraș Câmpulung fault, where a special radon detection system was set up, which was proposed for patenting. A case study is the effect of the earthquakes in Turkey (7.8 R and 7.5 R on 2023/02/06) on the seismically active areas in Romania in terms of gas emissions (radon, CO2). The main analysis methods on radon (we also included CO2) are applied to integrated time series and the use of anomaly detection algorithms. Data analysis shows that the effects of global warming introduce deviations in seasonal gas emissions compared to previous years. This makes it difficult to analyze the data and correlate them with seismicity. The main conclusions related to the development of a radon monitoring network and in general the emission of gases in seismic areas refer to the importance of the choice of equipment, the monitoring location and the installation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1554.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: microplastics; beach; measurement; simple method; accuracy
Online: 23 May 2023 (03:56:22 CEST)
The environmental pollution by microplastics (MPs) has become a growing concern, and measures are being taken in many countries. Long-term and extensive MPs investigations involving not only professional researchers but also the citizenry are needed to understand the pollution situation and to confirm the decreasing trend of MPs pollution as a result of pollution control measures. In this study, the author evaluated the accuracy of a simple method of investigating MPs on sandy beaches that can be conducted even by high school students. In a land survey using such simple tools as a tape measure and cardboard, 70% of the deviations were within approximately 20 cm when multiple surveys of approximately 20 m distance were performed. Even without heavy liquid, 89% of MPs could be recovered using only seawater. An investigation of MPs content by sampling 0.5 cm of the surface layer of sand could explain more than half of the MPs content when the sand was sampled to a depth of approximately 50 cm below the surface layer. A method in which the recovered MPs are not visually sorted but floating matter after boiling is considered as MPs is acceptable. If there was no concern about pumice contamination, the overestimation was within approximately 1.5 times. Simple laboratory equipment such as buckets, sieves, seawater, hot plates, dryers, and electronic balances could achieve lower limits of quantification of MPs of 13 mg-MPs/m2-sand and 2 mg-MPs/kg-sand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1537.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: global gas; LNG; supply and demand dynamics; market outlook; investment needs
Online: 23 May 2023 (02:57:40 CEST)
This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the global gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) markets. The article begins by discussing the increasing demand for gas and LNG, particularly in Asia, as countries aim to transition to cleaner sources of energy. It explores how market volatility has led to energy security interventions and lasting economic and emissions impacts. It then explores the global supply and demand dynamics, highlighting the structural change expected in the market and the competition between Europe and Asia for limited new LNG supply. The article also focuses on Europe's increased flexibility and dependence on LNG imports, which have risen by 60% to 121 million tonnes, offsetting lower Russian pipeline imports. Furthermore, the article delves into global supply and demand dynamics, how the market is expected to remain tight, and how record gas and LNG prices have led to demand reductions. Additionally, it analyzes the future outlook and investment needs, highlighting the continued uptake of gas in heavy-duty transport and the need for further investment to avoid a supply-demand gap. The article concludes with an analysis of the implications for the future of the global gas and LNG markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1422.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Correlation Matrix; Drain Locations; Quality Parameters; River Yamuna; S.T.P.S; Wastewater Management; Water
Online: 19 May 2023 (10:01:09 CEST)
The Yamuna River in Delhi is a prevalent epitome of the depleted ecosystem that has transformed into a sewage drain due to intense pollution and blooming anthropogenic pressure. As a leading polluter, Delhi contributes to more than 70% of Yamuna's pollution load. Its drains discharge a massive B.O.D. load daily into the river, making it severely polluted, as reflected by the water quality index. The paper uses secondary data to analyze the parameters to determine the water quality of Yamuna at different monitoring sites. It performs correlation analysis to determine the relationship among factors contributing to river water pollution. The results of correlation analysis suggest a highly significant association between parameters COD-BOD, but the association is mild to a minimum among other parameters such as BOD-DO, BOD-pH, COD-DO, COD-pH and DO-pH. Most parameters were observed to be above the hazardous level acceptable for using river water. The analysis of S.T.P.s indicates the need to increase the capacity in terms of treatment, storage, reopening of closed plants and efficient operation to meet the increasing demand for fresh Water. Also, there is a need to create demand for wastewater in different sectors of urban areas like construction, horticulture, industrial coolants, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1266.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Ecotourism; Artificial wetland; Nansha wetland; Wetland conservation
Online: 18 May 2023 (04:57:12 CEST)
After more than 20 years of market-oriented reforms, China's economy has developed significantly so far. Guangzhou, in particular, has been developing rapidly, with its urbanisation rate increasing and its gross domestic product climbing, all of which have prompted Guangzhou to pay more attention to the ecological aspects of its development. The Nansha Coastal Wetland Scenic Area, located in the southernmost part of Guangzhou, is the largest coastal wetland in Guangzhou and the largest habitat for migratory birds in the city, as well as an important exemplary ecological reserve in Guangzhou's "Road to Ecological Civilisation". With the inclusion of Nansha in the national development strategy of Guangzhou's "Southward Expansion", the conflict between ecological protection of coastal wetlands and urban development has become increasingly prominent. In this regard, this study intends to use theoretical analysis, literature research, comparative analysis, fieldwork, data analysis and case studies to analyse the current state of the ecological environment in Nansha, explore the main problems in the process of its "southern development", and propose practical solutions for the construction and development of the ecological environment in Guangzhou, combining the theories of ecological economy, public goods and dissipative structure in Nansha. This paper is divided into seven chapters. This paper is divided into seven chapters. Chapter 1 presents the significance, purpose, content, methodology and technical approach of the study. Chapter 2 defines the basic concepts and the characteristics of the terms "Nantuo", "Nansha New Area", "coastal wetland" and "Nansha Binhai Wetland Scenic Area". The terms "Nansha New Area", "coastal wetland" and "Nansha Coastal Wetland Scenic Area" are defined. The theoretical basis of ecological economy theory, public goods theory, dissipative structure theory and sustainable development theory is used to explain the importance of protecting wetlands. It also demonstrates the importance that countries attach to the conservation of wetland ecology through a review of domestic and international literature. Chapter 3 describes the formation process, development status, conservation content and conservation actions of the Nansha Binhai wetland. Chapter 4 analyses the apparent and invisible problems faced by the Nansha coastal wetlands. Chapter 5 draws lessons from the experience of wetland resources development and conservation in China and overseas. Chapter 6 presents recommendations and solutions to the existing wetland problems in the Nansha coastal area. Chapter 7 provides conclusions and outlook. The ecological vulnerability of the Nansha wetlands is obvious. The government has to speed up the construction of logistics, industries, railways and ports while protecting a large area of wetlands. In the conflict between industrial civilization and ecological civilization, maintaining the integrity of the Nansha wetland requires the participation of the whole society, so as to finally achieve a balance between economic development and ecological protection, providing important theoretical guidance for the protection of the ecological environment of the Nansha wetland, ecological planning and scenic area development under the development strategy of the "southern expansion" of Guangzhou's urban space.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1166.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: devulcanization; transmission loss; transfer matrix method; rubber waste; multilayer construction.
Online: 17 May 2023 (02:19:34 CEST)
According to circular economy principles, the recycling and reuse of waste tyre rubber is one of the most advanced and ecological waste disposal technologies. Each year about 19 million tons of tyres are produced, and this amount is increasing each year. One of the most innovative ways to recycle rubber waste is devulcanization. There are many methods of rubber devulcanization, but the most popular are grinding and chemical. In this article devulcanized rubber granules were used for the preparation of rubber samples. Two of them were obtained by the grinding method and one by chemical devulcanization. 15 different rubber samples were produced for the experimental measurements. Multilayer constructions with two solid layers of plasterboard on both sides (GKB and GKFI) and porous acoustic material of rubber sample inside were produced. Measurements were made in an impedance tube and compared with the results of TMM analysis. The same trends of resonant frequencies were determined. According to the results, the resonant frequencies depended on the thickness of the material, since transmission loss values depended on the mass of construction. According to the test results of transmission loss, constructions with 50mm thick rubber samples had on average 3dB better results than the structures with 25mm samples and 5dB better results than structures with 12 mm thick rubber samples. In addition, it was found that higher density plasterboards (GKFI) increased the overall transmission loss value of the structure by 5 dB. The same trends were determined by the TMM method. The test results showed that multi-layered constructions with devulcanized waste rubber had high transmission loss result and could be used for sound insulating structures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0812.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: nature-based solution; seaweed; seagrass; platform; coastal protection
Online: 16 May 2023 (04:12:32 CEST)
One-fifth of the world’s population and critical infrastructures are near the coast and regions at high risk of sea level elevation. Climate change is expected to increase coastal extreme events, rising sea levels, and impact on ecosystem. This paper reviews coastal physical processes, wave and impacts, and the introduction of nature-based models for the mitigation of flooding, erosion, and recovery. Hard engineering like seawalls has been used to prevent, protect, and control water-based environmental forces with an extended impact on the land. A nature-based engineering solution, such as growing vegetation, is being adopted as a sustainable solution to help make existing technology live its design life and provide climate change adaptation and resilience for coastal and riverine communities. This paper presents applications of seaweed farms as an advanced nature-based mitigation approach. The result of the experiments conducted at RWTH Aachen University on wave damping of seaweed types and farming structures to validate the hypothesis will be presented in part B. A soft engineering approach to designing future vegetated protection systems using seaweed as a nature-based solution can help existing coastal infrastructure design life and protect against climate-induced SLR rise and adaptation, coastal risk mitigation, ecosystem restoration, and blue bio-economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0164.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Labelling; Seafood Guides; Consumers
Online: 15 May 2023 (10:50:22 CEST)
Context; Seafood is a nutritious source of protein. However, seafood production can have perverse environmental impacts. Seafood sustainability differs depending on species, origin, and production/fishing method. Australian consumers seeking sustainable seafood rely on independent sustainability guides and detailed labels at point of sale. Aims; We aimed to determine consumer accessibility to sustainable seafood products in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Methods; We assessed the sustainability of 52,447 seafood products from 2,110 restaurants, supermarkets, and takeaway shops. Key results; We determined the sustainability of 36% of products according to Australia’s Good Fish Guide. Of these, 4.9% were classified as sustainable, 4.1% as ‘Eat Less’, and 27% as ‘Say No’. Australian farmed barramundi was the most common sustainable product and farmed Australian Atlantic salmon the most common ‘Say No’ product. We could not assess 64% of products because of a lack of information (16%) or the product was not included in the Good Fish Guide (48%). Conclusions; Inadequate labelling of species, origin and/or production/fishing method reduces the accessibility of sustainable seafood in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Implications; Improving labelling, especially origin information at point of sale is critical for changing consumer behaviour, which represents a significant hurdle to improving the sustainability of the seafood industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0994.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: The Yellow River basin; The Xiliugou tributary; underlying surface; wind-sand flow; wind erosion characteristics; sediment transport flux
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:39:22 CEST)
The survey findings reveal that rivers worldwide carry an annual sediment load of 15 billion tons into the sea, and the Yellow River basin alone contributes 1.6 billion tons of sand. Therefore, understanding the science of wind and sand in the Yellow River is crucial to ensuring the safe development of similar basins across China and the world. This study examines the midstream wind and sand area of the Xiliugou tributary, a part of the upper Yellow River. The researchers used a stepped sand collector combined with an anemometer to measure the sand transport flux at 0-50 cm height on various underlying surfaces of the basin. Then, they estimated the amount of wind and sand entering the Yellow River using a function model based on the measured factors. Furthermore, the team analyzed the particle size composition of wind-eroded sand to better understand the principles of wind and sand erosion and accumulation in the basin. The results of the study show that the sand transport flux per unit area varies significantly across different underlying surfaces. Moreover, the contribution of moving sandy land, semi-fixed sand, and fixed sand to wind and sand deposition in the Yellow River basin was 77.08%, 15.30%, and 7.62%, respectively. The vertical change of sand transport rate on the basin's surface demonstrates that the total sand transport rate is an exponential function of wind speed. Based on this relationship, the researchers estimated that the total annual average wind and sand entering the Yellow River basin via the Xiliugou tributary is approximately 8.09×105t. Due to the basin's unique geography and sand source, the particle size composition of wind-eroded sand differs between the east and west sides of the river channel. On the west side, desert sand, mainly fine sand, and very fine sand constitutes the sand source. Conversely, on the east side, sand collected in the riverbed by secondary wind erosion is the primary sand source. Furthermore, human activities have disturbed the grain composition, mainly comprising powder and clay particles. This phenomenon, known as "wind-blown mud and water-washed sand," is evident in this geographical unit. In conclusion, the Yellow River basin still faces significant ecological security hazards. Understanding the coupling relationship between desert-basin-sand and wind is the foundation for effectively controlling wind and sand flow into the Yellow River basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0966.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: hydrogeological map; interconnected surface-groundwater systems; water resources management
Online: 15 May 2023 (02:58:07 CEST)
Hydrogeological maps must synthesize the scientific knowledge about the hydraulic features and the hydrogeological behavior of a specific area, and, at the same time, they must meet the expectations of land planners and administrators. Thus, especially in complex interconnected systems, hydrogeological maps can be fully effective when they are purpose-designed. In these contexts, usual graphical approaches in creating hydrogeological maps could result uncomplete and/or ineffective. Therefore, in case of complex systems and/or specific management/protection aims, new and purpose-designed graphical solutions must be applied to enhance the maps effectiveness. In the case study, these solutions show and emphasize all the hydraulic interconnections playing significant roles in recharging the multilayered alluvial aquifer, where the majority of wells have been drilled for drinking/industrial/agricultural purposes, artificial channels are used for agricultural purposes, and the shallow groundwater feeds protected groundwater-dependent-ecosystems. The hydrogeological map was then designed to be the synthesis of three different and hydraulically interconnected main contexts: (i) the main heterogeneous alluvial aquifer (the main target of the purpose-designed map), (ii) the hydrographic basin of a losing river that feeds the main alluvial aquifer, and (iii) those hard-rock aquifers (mainly turbiditic and ophiolitic) whose springs feed the same river.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: lime; the Yangtze River basin; carbon emissions characteristics; life cycle; IPCC emission factor method; carbon emission reduction measures
Online: 12 May 2023 (10:29:19 CEST)
A scientific carbon accounting system can help enterprises reduce carbon emissions. This study took the enterprise in the Yangtze River basin as a case study. The accounting classification of carbon emissions in the life cycle of lime production was assessed, and the composition of the sources of carbon emission was analyzed, covering mining explosives, fuel (diesel, coal), electricity and high temperature limestone decomposition. Using the IPCC emission factor method, a carbon life cycle emission accounting model for lime production was established. We determined that a total of 354,200 tons of carbon emissions were generated from producing 321,000 tons of lime in a year. The decomposition of limestone at a high temperature was the largest carbon emission source, accounting for 62.34% of the total carbon emission. Coal combustion was also an important source of carbon emissions, accounting for 32.66% of total carbon emissions. The carbon emission for one ton of activated lime was 1.46kg, 1.49kg, 1100kg and 1102.95kg respectively for the open-pit, mining stage, crushing stage, and the calcination stage. Based upon the main sources of carbon emission for lime production, carbon emission reduction should focus on CO2 capture technology, fuel optimization and energy control. Using our analysis of carbon emissions, the carbon emission factor of producing unit quicklime of the lime enterprise in the Yangtze River basin was determined. Furthermore, the research into carbon emission reduction for lime production can provide a point of reference for the promotion of carbon neutrality in the same industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0886.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Green development; Low-carbon development; Difference-in-difference method; New Energy Demonstration City Policy; City heterogeneity
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:04:12 CEST)
Developing new energy is critical to China's green and low-carbon development. And the New Energy Demonstration City Policy (NEDCP) is a vital innovation policy that inspires the development of new energy. Is the NEDCP facilitating green and low-carbon development, if so, how? Employing unbalanced panel data from 2003 to 2017, the impact of NEDCP on green and low-carbon development was studied by using the "difference in difference" (DID) model. We find that this policy can take significantly role. After various robustness tests, our results are still valid. According to the heterogeneity analysis, non-resource and non-old industrial base cities have a greater positive impact from this policy. The mechanism analysis denotes that the positive policy effect works through upgrading the industrial structure and stimulating urban innovation. The substantial empirical evidence presented in this article supports the continued promotion and implementation of new energy demonstration cities.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0768.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate; Contiguous United States; Deep Neural Network; Land Cover; Large Wildfire
Online: 10 May 2023 (14:46:12 CEST)
Over the last several decades, large wildfires are increasingly common across the United States causing disproportionate impact on forest health and function, human well-being, and economy. Here, we examine the severity of large wildfires across the Contiguous United States over the past decade (2011-2020) using a wide array of meteorological, vegetational, and topographical features in the Deep Neural Network model. A total of 4,538 wildfire incidents were used in the analysis covering 87,305 square miles of burned area. We observed the highest number of large wildfires in California, Texas, and Idaho, with lightning causing 43 % of these incidents. Importantly, results indicate that the severity of wildfire occurrences is highly correlated with the climatological forcings, land cover, location, and elevation of the ecosystem. Overall, results may serve useful guide in managing landscapes under changing climate and disturbance regimes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0642.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pennisetum hybridum; Cadmium; Phytoextration; Migration; Removal pathways
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:15:46 CEST)
This study was conducted to identify soil cadmium (Cd) removal pathways and their contribution rates during phytoremediation by Pennisetum hybridum, as well as to comprehensively assess its phytoremediation potential. Multilayered soil column tests and farmland simulating lysimeter tests were conducted to investigate the Cd phytoextraction and migration patterns in topsoil and subsoil simultaneously. The aboveground annual yield of P. hybridum grown in the lysimeter was 206 ton·ha–1. The total amount of Cd extracted in P. hybridum shoots was 234 g·ha–1, which was similar to that of other typical phytoremediation plants. After the test, the topsoil Cd removal rate was 21.50%–35.81%, whereas the extraction efficiency in P. hybridum shoots was only 4.17%–8.53%. These findings indicate that extraction by plant shoots was not the most important contributor to the decrease of Cd in the topsoil. The proportions of Cd retained by root cell wall was approximately 50% of the total Cd in root. Based on column test results, P. hybridum treatment led to a significant decrease in soil pH and considerably enhanced Cd migration to subsoil and groundwater. P. hybridum decreases Cd in the topsoil through multiple pathways and provides a relatively ideal material for phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0703.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: enteric fermentation; cattle population; agriculture; greenhouse gas emissions
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:06:31 CEST)
Methane (CH4) emissions from agricultural sources make a significant contribution to the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. According to the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for calculating greenhouse gas emissions, agriculture is responsible for approximately 10% of total CH4 emissions from anthropogenic sources. CH4 is mainly emitted from livestock farming, especially from cattle production during enteric fermentation and from manure. The article describes the results of multivariate statistical analyzes carried out on data collected in 1961–2020 based on the data for 30 countries with the largest cattle population. The trends of temporal changes in cattle population were evaluated and groups of countries with similar patterns in the study period were distinguished. Variables which are correlated with changes in the number of cattle were indicated. Forecasts of cattle population and CH4 emission related to cattle for the coming years are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0610.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Jiangxi Province; agriculture green total factor productivity; EBM-GML; fixed effect model
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:41:08 CEST)
Increasing green total factor productivity is the key to achieving green development in agriculture. This study measured the green total factor productivity of Jiangxi’s agriculture, and its regional and temporal evolution characteristics were examined. The fixed-effects model was then used to investigate the model’s fundamental components empirically. The study’s findings reveal the following: During the period under review, technical change was the primary element driving the rise in the green total factor productivity of agriculture. A rising “U”-shaped trend with notable regional variances characterizes the spatial and temporal evolution. The primary factors that affect changes in green total factor productivity in agriculture include the ease of transportation, the per capita disposable income of rural residents, the level of agricultural mechanization, the degree of urbanization, the level of financial support for agriculture, and the percentage of workers in secondary industries. As a result, it is suggested that, in order to substantially increase agricultural green total factor productivity, agricultural green technological support should be strengthened, more fully developed, and promoted in a multi-pronged approach.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0506.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: AIQS-DB; GC/MS; LC/MS; simultaneous analysis
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:11:22 CEST)
This article summarizes studies using the AIQS-DB method to analyze various types of samples for different purposes. This is a method developed to simultaneously analyze nearly 1500 compounds and is widely used worldwide. The method is highly effective for environmental samples such as water, soil, sediment, and air. Recognizing its potential, this article aims to promote the further application and development of AIQS-DB in research related to food analysis and source tracing. Furthermore, if a suitable dataset can be constructed, it could help research quickly and cost-effectively discover the new bioactive compounds from plant medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0488.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: solar energy potential; maximum energy; inclined surfaces; solar tracking; Greece
Online: 8 May 2023 (09:08:20 CEST)
The objective of the present work is to investigate the performance of flat-plate solar panels in Greece that continuously follow the daily motion of the Sun. To that end, the annual energy sums are estimated on such surfaces from hourly solar horizontal radiation values at 43 locations covering all of Greece. The solar horizontal radiation values are embedded in the typical meteorological years of the sites obtained from the PV-GIS tool. All calculations use a near-real surface albedo; an isotropic and an anisotropic model are used to estimate the diffuse-inclined radiation. The analysis provides regression equations for the energy sums as a function of time (month, season). The annual energy sums are found to vary between 2247 kWhm−2 and 2878 kWhm−2 under all-sky conditions with the anisotropic transposition model. Finally, maps of Greece showing the distribution of the annual and seasonal solar energy sums under all- and clear-sky conditions are derived for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0865.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: MEvAR; work environment; construction; certainty; risks
Online: 6 May 2023 (02:49:43 CEST)
Aspects are presented on the interpretation of certainties by assessing risks with maximum level in order to establish reasonable limits of acceptance, tolerance or assumption of risks, supplementing environmental risk factors with external, social, financial elements and introducing a category in the work system analysis.Comparative aspects between INCDPM and MEvAR methods are presented as proposals in the associated tables.The conclusions highlight the current aspects implemented in the method and their usefulness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0348.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Discharge permit; Environmental Gini coefficient; multi-indicator; total allocation; contribution coefficient
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:14:54 CEST)
Water pollution is the main cause of global ecological degradation and seriously affects people's water supply. In order to respond to the water environmental protection policy and provide management departments with a basis for refining water quality, this paper used the environmental Gini coefficient (EGC) method based on four indicators such as water environmental capacity, population, land area, and gross domestic production (GDP) to represent social factors, economic factors, and environmental factors, respectively. After the optimization, for COD, the EGC based on the land area was 0.30, EGC based on population was 0.21, EGC based on environment capacity was 0.02, and the EGC based on GDP was 0.45, and the sum of EGC was 0.962. From this result, we observed that the change in the Gini coefficient of each indicator was not very big. Hence, the most significant change in the Gini coefficient was that of GDP, with a higher rate than other criteria. Then, the COD, AND, and TP discharge allocation model was constructed to obtain the total allocated discharge permit in Lushui Basin. The results found that the total discharge permit allocation of COD, AN, and TP to the Lushui basin were 51483.304 tons/year, 843.119 tons/year, and 340.926 tons/year, respectively. Based on the GIS spatial analysis technology, the distribution of unfair factors that cause pollution inequity was investigated. Finally, the reduction measures were proposed to implement environmental supervision and strengthen water environment management strictly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0225.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: radiation and chemical pollution; speciation; Yenisei River
Online: 4 May 2023 (08:09:11 CEST)
Man-made chemicals have played an important role in the development of our modern society. They have revolutionized such areas as healthcare and farming and they are essential in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. In studying the behavior of radionuclides and metals in the bottom sediment-water system, special attention is paid to identifying the forms of existence of pollutants in terms of substantiating their migration ability and, as a result, the po-tential for their subsequent spread, i.e. secondary pollution. On the example of bottom sediments of the Yenisei River, such radionuclides as K-40, Cs-137 are shown to be present mostly in the undecomposed residue. Eu-252 and Am-241 are associated with the organic component of bottom sediments, consisting of plant and animal remains, as well as soil washed away from the floodplain part of the river bed. The radionuclide Co-60, depending on the mineralogical composition of bottom sediments, can either be almost evenly distributed between the undecomposed residue and organic matter, or dominate in the undecomposed residue. Thus, it is shown that man-made ra-dionuclides can have a high tendency to migrate, both in the thickness of bottom sediments and between such phases as bottom sediments and water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0064.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Bird response; burn severity indices; land-use legacy; Poisson GLMs; time since fire; time series of satellite images
Online: 4 May 2023 (02:51:32 CEST)
Fire regimes in mountain landscapes of southern Europe have been shifting from their baselines due to rural abandonment and fire exclusion policies. Understanding the effects of fire on biodiversity is paramount to implement adequate management. Herein, we evaluated the relative role of burn severity and heterogeneity on bird abundance in an abandoned mountain range located in the biogeographic transition between the Eurosiberian and Mediterranean region (the Natural Park ‘Baixa Limia–Serra do Xurés’). We surveyed the bird community in 206 census plots distributed across the Natural Park, both inside and outside areas affected by wildfires over the last 11 years (from 2010 to 2020). We used satellite images of Sentinel 2 and Landsat missions to quantify the burn severity and heterogeneity of each fire within each surveyed plot. We also accounted for the past land use (forestry or agropastoral use) by using a land cover information for year 2010 derived from satellite image classification. We recorded 1,735 contacts from 28 bird species. Our models, fitted by using GLMs with Poisson error distribution (pseudo-R2-average of 0.22 ± 0.13), showed that up to 71% of the modelled species were linearly correlated with at least one attribute of the fire regime. The spatiotemporal variation in burnt area and severity were relevant factors for explaining the local abundance of our target species (39% of the species; Akaike weights > 0.75). We also found a quadratic effect of at least one fire regime attribute on bird abundance for 60% of the modeled species. The past land use, and its legacy after 10 years, was critical to understand the role of fire (Akaike weights > 0.75). Our findings confirm the importance of incorporating remotely sensed indicators of burn severity into the toolkit of decision makers to accurately anticipate the response of birds to fire management.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate change; Human health; World Health Organization (WHO); Anthropogenic activity
Online: 3 May 2023 (14:41:37 CEST)
Anthropogenic activities are the main cause of climate change globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized that heating and precipitation are the reason for climate change due to anthropogenic actions over the past 30 years and claim 150,000 lives annually. Climate change is also affecting the atmospheres of polar regions. Numerous diseases are linked with climate change like cardiovascular mortality and respiratory illnesses. Due to climate change, lack of long-term and high-quality data sets, variations in drug resistance and immunity, the amplification or the resurgence of diseases, as well as many socio-economic factors, are uncertain.Potentially susceptible regions consist of the temperate latitudes, the regions near the Indian and Pacific oceans are affected due to the heavy rainfall where the heat of the cities could increase life-threatening climatic proceedings. The association between climate and health poses a risk to health under future guesses. Over the current decades, warming has contributed to increased mortality and morbidity in various provinces of the globe. The current study reviews the potential effects of climate change on temperature, human health, air quality, food & nutrition, livelihoods, and livestock & fisheries in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0153.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: CS gas; O-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CBM); ecotoxicity; Chlorella; FTIR spectroscopy; GC-MS
Online: 3 May 2023 (12:55:08 CEST)
The military taxonomy of class indices for chemical and biological warfare agents considers halogenated tear agents (CS) to be incapacitating causing local pain and discomfort with associated reflexe. The removal yield of the organic substances present in the water depends on the environmental conditions, on the chemical composition of the water and on the chemical substance dissolved in the water, which constitutes the substrate of the metabolic activities of the microorganisms that use these substances in the biochemical reactions of the cellular enzyme complexes. The two -CN groups in the malonic nitrile molecule are strongly electron-attracting and activate the CH2 group to which they are linked, and because of this, malononitrile has the role of a methylene component in condensation reactions with aldehydes or ketones. The results obtained after analyzing the degree of hydrolysis in the samples that contained the biological suspension indicated that no CBM metabolites were detected in any biological sample, regardless of the test concentration, analyzed 24 h after incubation. In the parallel samples, the aqueous solutions of CBM without biological treatment had metabolites in the samples., at 30 minutes the degree of hydrolysis is 0.21%, at 60 minutes, the degree of hydrolysis is 5.42%, after 90 minutes, the degree of hydrolysis is 6.19%, and after 24 hours. the degree of hydrolysis is 23.41%. Chemical substances in contact with microorganisms are used by them in the biochemical processes in which they are involved, the retention time and biodegradation capacity have led to an increased effect of the metabolism of toxic substances, in metabolic reactions, organic substances are the source of carbon and energy for biochemical processes. The tests performed indicate that the suspension of Chlorella sp. consumed the entire amount of CBM and metabolites from the analyzed samples The tests prove that the biological material can be used for the decontamination of the affected areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0092.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: mountain lake/mire complexes; diatoms; botanical composition; inundation and dry periods; monsoon; cyclogenesis
Online: 3 May 2023 (04:15:37 CEST)
There is little information about moisture changes in different altitudinal belts in mountainous regions of the Southern Russian Far East. We present ecological-taxonomic composition of the diatom flora, the botanical composition of peat of small mountain lake/mire complexes located in the Central Sikhote-Alin within large landslides on the paleovolcano slopes are identified. Frequent changes in diatom assemblages and peat-forming plants indicate unstable hydroclimatic conditions with varying degrees of watering and dry condition up to complete overgrowth of the lakes. Frequent change of sphagnum mosses with different trophic preferences was established. The chronology is based on 11 radiocarbon dates. Accumulation rates reached up to 1.9 mm/year, the temporal resolution for the reconstructions is up to 30–40 years. The tendencies of lake evolution depended on different-scale hydroclimatic changes for the last 4400 yr. The most detailed data for the last 2600 yr were obtained from the Nizhnee Lake sequence, more sensitive to climatic changes. The main reason for the change in the hydrological regime of the lakes was variations in precipitation during short-term climatic changes. The sediment record moisture fluctuations are relatively well correlated with regional patterns reflecting summer monsoon intensity and cyclogenesis activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1157.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: neonicotinoids; imidacloprid; heat treatment; rice; drinking water
Online: 28 April 2023 (09:45:10 CEST)
Neonicotinoids (NEOs) have become the most widely used insecticides in the world since the mid-1990s. According to Chinese dietary habits, rice and water are usually heated before being consumed, but the information about the alteration through the heat treatment process is very limited. In this study, the parents of NEOs (p-NEOs) accounted for >99% of the total NEOs mass (∑NEOs) in both uncooked (median: 66.8 ng/g) and cooked (median: 41.4 ng/g) rice samples from Guangdong Province, China, while the metabolites of NEOs (m-NEOs) involved in this study accounted for less than 1%. We aimed to reveal the concentration changes of NEOs through heat treatment process, thus, several groups of rice and water samples from Guangdong were cooked and boiled, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) reductions in acetamiprid, imidacloprid (IMI), thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam (THM) have been observed after the heat treatment of the rice samples. In water samples, the concentrations of THM and dinotefuran decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the heat treatment. These results indicate the degradation of p-NEOs and m-NEOs during the heat treatment process. However, the concentrations of IMI increased significantly in tap water samples (p < 0.05) after heat treatment process, which might be caused by the potential IMI precursors in those industrial pesticide products. The concentrations of NEOs in rice and water can be shifted by the heat treatment process, so this process should be considered in relevant human exposure studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0881.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: silvopastoral systems; regeneration growth; daily stem dynamics; dendrometers; microclimate; soil water content
Online: 25 April 2023 (04:05:44 CEST)
Regeneration is crucial for forest continuity in natural and managed stands. Analyzing intra-annual dynamics improves the understanding between growth and climate, identifying survival thresholds. The objective was to determine microclimate constraints (rainfall, air and soil temperatures) over Nothofagus antarctica regeneration growing at closed, open, and edge forests in Patagonia. We measured stand characteristics (forest structure, understory, soil properties, animal use), microclimate, and daily growth of regeneration using dendrometers (n = 6) during two growing seasons. We found significant differences in the studied variables (e.g. overstory, light, soil, understory, animal use). These changes defined microclimate across overstory gradient (e.g. soil moisture), influencing the daily growth across seasons (lag, exponential, stationary). Rainfall influenced more than temperature. Daily growth in closed forests indicating shrinkage (-0.0082 mm day-1 without rain, and -0.0008 mm day-1 with 0.0-0.2 mm day-1 rainfall), while above 0.2 mm day-1 rainfall, growth always increased. Open forests presented shrinkage during days without rain (-0.0051 mm day-1), showing positive growths according rainfall. Edge forests always presented positive daily growths. The resilience of regeneration under these changed conditions was related with overstory. Main outputs indicated that regeneration was vulnerable during non-rainy days, suggesting the needs of long-term monitoring to develop better silvicultural proposals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0851.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Herbicides; mixed toxicity; microbial diversity; microbial community structure
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:49:58 CEST)
As two commonly-used non-selective herbicides, glyphosate (GP) and diquat (DQ) are easily co-resided in lateritic paddy soil due to the rich iron/aluminum oxides, nevertheless there is limited information on their co-impact on microbial diversity and community structure in this type soil. In this study, the short-term effects of combined GP and DQ on soil microbial diversity and community structure shifts were investigated in lateritic paddy soil from a tropical agricultural region (Hainan, China) based on 16S rRNA and ITS high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that mixed herbicides promoted the abundance of Streptomyces in bacteria (0.45-1.84%) and Curvularia in fungi (0.01-5.85%), while GP and DQ had inhibitory effects on the abundance of Streptomyces (0.13-2.21%) and Curvularia (0.03-1.13%), which were significantly different with their single exposure (p < 0.05); the combined application of the two herbicides aggravate the adverse effect on the diversity of soil fungal community (p < 0.05), although their mixture did not have a greater impact on the soil bacteria abundance/diversity and fungi abundance (p > 0.05). Results suggested that the combined application of GP and DQ affected the fungal diversity although they did not cause other significant negative effects on soil microorganisms, hinting that more attention should be paid to the mixed effect caused by GP and DQ on specific fungal populations in lateritic paddy soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0759.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Eco-label; Customer; WTP; PLS-SEM; Cocoa powder; Biosphere reserve; Dong Nai; Vietnam.
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:10:32 CEST)
This study examines the Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) of consumers and the determinants of eco-labeling for the organic cocoa powder produced in the Dong Nai UNESCO Biosphere Reserve (DNBR), Southern Vietnam. Eco-labels are designed according to Tiers of eco-labeling for biosphere reserves (BR) introduced by UNESCO include BR Destination (Tier 1), BR Quality Label (Tier 2), and Professional Certification Label (Tier 3). Questionnaires are delivered to 203 customers in the DNBR and nearby places, such as Dong Nai and HCMC. This study employs a hybrid approach using descriptive statistics, ANOVA test, and Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM). The results indicate that gender and educational level have a positive effect on consumers' preferences. Customers are willing to pay more for cocoa powder with an eco-label than one with an organic label. Perceived food safety and product knowledge lower customers’ WTP, whereas agricultural environment and pricing concerns increase it. Tier 2 is suggested for labeling cocoa powder in the DNBR. The DNBR Management Board, together with the federal and provincial governments, should all follow a similar certification process. Increased eco-label awareness is crucial for the future of environmentally responsible shopping and responsible business practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0732.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: pipeline sediment; reclaimed water; surface water; release of TP and NH4+-N
Online: 23 April 2023 (02:56:37 CEST)
Differences in the physical and chemical properties of reclaimed water (RW) and natural surface water (SW) lead to the differences in terms of nitrogen and phosphorus release when pipeline sediments enter these water bodies. The nitrogen and phosphorus release kinetics from pipe sediments with different particle sizes have been investigated. The results demonstrated that both SW and RW had a pH buffering effect after sediment addition, and the final pH (approximately 8.1) of RW was lower. The release of total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia nitrogen ( NH4+-N) fitted the first-order kinetic model where the release of TP reached equilibrium; TP release was inhibited in both SW and RW, where RW exhibited the lowest (by a factor of 1.23~2.44) release (0.002 mg/g). The release of NH4+-N was promoted in both SW and RW; the maximum release in RW was 0.0188 mg/g. The amounts of NH4+-N released in SW and RW were 1.02-1.40 and 1.30-1.80 times that of the control group (CG), respectively. The percentage of TP and NH4+-N release in the three groups was highest in 75-154 μm pipe sediment, reaching 34.53% and 43.51% in SW and RW, respectively. These results can assist in the development of water quality evolution models for specific urban scenarios, and provide important guidance for the precise regulation of recharge water quality during and after rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0728.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Irrigation water management; Agriculture; Remote sensing; Optimization
Online: 23 April 2023 (02:29:15 CEST)
Due to the impacts from climate change, the allocation of water resources must urgently be optimized worldwide to ensure that the needs of both water managers and farmers are balanced. In this study, manager-oriented and farmer-oriented assessment models were developed for irrigation water optimization and allocation. The distance from water sources and hydraulic head were the main factors in the manager-oriented assessment model; crop value, water demand of crops, and soil type were additional factors in the farmer-oriented assessment model. The developed assessment models were used to assess irrigation water allocation in five villages in Neimen District. Cadasters at high elevation were discovered to not be suitable for cultivation of crops because of the difficulties in constructing irrigation facilities and the loss of irrigation water during transportation. The result obtained from the manager-oriented assessment system was related to the costs involved in the construction and maintenance of irrigation facilities, which indicated that cadasters located at long distances from water sources and at high elevation are unsuitable for cultivation. By contrast, the result obtained from the farmer-oriented assessment system was related to the profits of farmers and revealed that more cadasters would be suitable for cultivation if suitable crops were chosen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0654.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Southwest Ethiopia; Farming Communities; Climate change; Perception, Vulnerability; Capital; Livelihood vulnerability index
Online: 20 April 2023 (10:56:29 CEST)
This study assesses the perception and vulnerability of the farming communities to climate change in the southwestern parts of Ethiopia. Data were collected from 442 households in four districts: Jimma Arjo, Bako Tibe, Chewaka, and Sekoru. The vulnerability of the farming communities was assessed using the households’ livelihood vulnerability index. A total of 40 indicators were applied to calculate household livelihood vulnera-bility to climate change, which were categorized into five major capitals: natural, social, financial, physical, and human. The household percep-tions of climate change results showed that there existed a statistically significant relationship between climate change perceptions and changes in rainfall pattern (75.6%, p<0.001), temperature pattern (69.7%, p<0.001), drought (41.6%, p=0.016), flood (44.1%, p=0.000), and occurrence of early (53.2%, p<0.001) and late rain (55.9%, p<0.001). The results showed that households in Sekoru district were the most vulnerable (0.61), while Jimma Arjo district were less vulnerable (0.47) to the effect of climate change. The vulnerability of the households in the study areas is mainly related to the occurrence of drought, lack of much-needed infrastructure facilities and weak institutional support. Links with the financial organization are also lacking among the household. The findings of this study will support policymakers to design climate change adap-tation strategies to combat climate change impacts. To support disaster risk management on the one hand and increase the resilience of vulnera-ble societies to climate change on the other hand, we recommend a detailed assessment in the remaining districts of the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0629.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: accretion; adaptive responses; Bangladesh; erosion; floods; geophysical; hazards; river basin; river channel migration; resettlement.
Online: 20 April 2023 (08:01:29 CEST)
This study posits that for appropriately explaining the complex charland (mid-channel island) processes and formulating policy and planning measures, a comprehensive understanding of the dynamic characteristics of the geomorphological, ecological, and human systems holistically is essential. This is also valid for the territorial and maritime areas of Bangladesh. The objectives of this study are: (i) to analyze the salient features and characteristics of the geomorphological and riparian systems of the Bengal Delta; (ii) to analyze the evolutionary discourse of the legal systems concerning eroded (diluvion) and accreted (alluvion) land in Bangladesh; and (iii) to assess characteristics of coping and adaptation strategies of the charland inhabitants. The findings reveal that the delta-building processes, characterized by the dynamic shifts of river channels, and erosion and accretion of charlands have made the land and water systems of the territory very dynamic and unstable – resulting in consistent displacement of settlers and serious deterioration of their socioeconomic status. The historical evolution of land laws and regulations concerning the accreted land favoured vested interests. As no effective institutional framework and structure presently exists in Bangladesh for resettlement planning, formulation of a comprehensive national resettlement policy is therefore urgently needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0615.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: emerging pollutants; wastewater treatment; electrochemical oxidation; role of operational parameters; cost analysis assessment; photoelectrocatalysis
Online: 20 April 2023 (07:20:41 CEST)
In recent years, the discharge of various emerging pollutants, chemicals and dyes in water and wastewater has represented one of the prominent human problems. Since water pollution is directly related to human health, highly resistant and emerging compounds in aquatic environments will pose many potential risks to the health of all living. Therefore, water pollution is a very acute problem that has constantly increased in recent years with the expansion of various industries. Consequently, choosing efficient and innovative wastewater treatment methods to remove contaminants is crucial. Among advanced oxidation processes, electrochemical oxidation (EO) is the most common and effective method for removing persistent pollutants from municipal and industrial wastewater. However, there are still many gaps despite the great progress in using EO to treat real wastewater. This is due to the lack of comprehensive information on the operating parameters which affect the process and its operating costs. In this paper, among various scientific articles, the impact of operational parameters on the EO performances, a comparison between different electrochemical reactor configurations, and a report on general mechanisms of electrochemical oxidation of organic pollutants have been reported. Moreover, an evaluation of cost analysis and energy consumption requirements have also been discussed. Finally, the combination process between EO and another important advanced oxidation technology, PEC, called photoelectrocatalysis (PEC), has shortly been discussed and reviewed. This article showed that there is a direct relationship between important operating parameters with the amount of costs and the final removal efficiency of emerging pollutants. Optimal operating conditions can be achieved by paying special attention to reactor design, which can lead to higher efficiency and more efficient treatment. The rapid development of EO for removing emerging pollutants from impacted water and its combination with other green methods can result in more efficient approaches to face the pressing water pollution challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0446.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Solar Electricity increase; Channel Mediterranean Dead Sea; water desalination.
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:33:05 CEST)
Currently, the Israeli energy industry faces the challenge of a considerable increase in solar electricity production. Being a relatively isolated system, the significant expansion of solar electricity may cause problems with electricity quality. The electrical storage installation can resolve this problem. In Israel's situation, the optimal solution can be the creation of a channel between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. The channel can solve three closely related problems: the increased production of desalinated water for domestic, industrial, and agricultural needs; the prevention of a permanent Dead Sea level decline and its imminent disappearance; the development of hydro-pumping electrical storage stations; and the creation of numerous PV facilities in the Negev area for national electricity generation. However, a detailed analysis should be done for the estimation of the possible increase of solar electric generation with the consideration of a stochastic PV outcome and a potential ability to use the Dead Sea for the brine discharge from electrical hydro-storage plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0400.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biochar; charcoal; pyrogenic carbon; road salt; salinity stress; plant performance
Online: 17 April 2023 (04:36:59 CEST)
Pyrolyzed waste biomass, or biochar, has been suggested as a means to increase plant growth and to mitigate soil salinization, which is a widespread agricultural issue and can reach extreme levels in urban soils impacted by de-icing salts. Soil mixing is enhanced by reduced biochar particle size; however, biochar properties vary with particle size and recent studies suggest that plant growth responses may be maximized at intermediate particle sizes. We examined the responses of two plant species (cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti)) to biochar amendments that spanned a wide range of particle sizes obtained by sieving, with and without de-icing salt additions. The smallest size fractions of biochar reduced plant growth relative to unamended controls. Plant biomass production was generally maximized at intermediate biochar particle size treatments, with particles sizes of 0.5-2.0 mm showing the best response. Mitigation of salt effects was also improved at intermediate biochar particle sizes in this particles size range. Our results emphasize the importance of optimizing biochar particle size to best enhance plant responses to biochar, with particular reference to saline soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0330.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Ecosystem Services; Value Transfer Method; Replacement Cost Method; Unit Value Database; Land Cover Resolution; Grand River Watershed
Online: 14 April 2023 (02:29:36 CEST)
Economic valuations of ecosystem services often transfer previously estimated global unit values to the geographical setting of interest. While this approach produces quick results, its reliability depends on how representative the large-scale average unit values are for the given local context. Here, we estimate the values of three ecosystem services (ES) – water filtration, nutrient cycling and carbon sequestration – in the Grand River watershed (GRW) of southern Ontario, Canada. The watershed covers nearly 7000 km2, has a humid continental climate and a population of close to one million people. Land cover is dominated by agriculture. We compare ES valuations using locally derived (i.e., GRW-specific) unit values to valuations based on unit values from a regional database and those compiled in the global Ecosystem Services Valuation Database (ESVD). The regional database includes mean unit values from three case studies within southern Ontario and one boreal watershed in British Columbia. As expected, the regional database yields average monetary values for the three ES that are close to those obtained with the local unit values but with larger associated uncertainties. Using the ESVD, however, results in significantly higher monetary values for the ES. For water filtration, the ESVD value is more than five times higher than the regional and local estimates. We further illustrate the effect of the extent of aggregation of forested and agricultural land categories on the ES values. For example, by subdividing the forest category into three sub-categories (deciduous, coniferous, and mixed forest), the estimated value of the carbon sequestration ES of forested areas within the GRW increases by 15%. Overall, our results emphasize the importance of critically assessing the origin of unit values and the land cover resolution in ES valuation, especially when the latter is used as a policy-guiding tool.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0322.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Afforestation; Edge effects; Landscape management; dry tropical forests; connectivity
Online: 13 April 2023 (12:31:20 CEST)
In many tropical regions, national forests plantations programs have been promoted. Those plantations contribute frequently to habitat changes. However, it is unclear associated effects on habitat fragmentation and landscape connectivity. From 2008 to 2018, we examined plantation and deforestation data base of Manabí province (Ecuador) for assessing fragmentation and connectivity. At regional scale, forest plantations had a significant effect on land uses changes and fragmentation during the study period. Forests decreased from 33.7% to 32.45% between 2008 and 2018 in the study area, although other natural land uses, mostly shrubs, increased almost double (from 2.4% to 4.68%). Most of the deforestation affected native forests during this period, and most of reforested and afforested areas in 2018 covered former agricultural land. In this period, fragmentation data shows a decrease in the number of patches and an increase in patch average size. When considering reforestation, deforestation was higher than the afforested area (58 km2 of difference) increasing the number of patches but with smaller size. The scenarios that presented better connectivity were those where forest areas increased: avoiding deforestation and considering reforestation. Those scenarios had in general a higher number of links and distance. Regionally, the avoiding deforestation scenario increased connectivity for Puma yagouaroundi in the west part of the Manabí province. On the other hand, for the reforested scenario, the number of links also increased on central and extreme northeast areas. Our findings suggest that plantations may contribute to conservation thanks to an increase in forest plantations connectivity between fragmented patches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0296.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biochar; crop straws; heavy metal adsorption; adsorption kinetics; characterization
Online: 13 April 2023 (05:08:11 CEST)
China is a large agricultural country that produces a large amount of crop straw every year. Thus, the development of cost-effective and economic application of invasive plants is warranted. Biochars derived from crop straw has been proven to be promising for adsorbent materials. However, less studies have focused on biochar derived from different types of crop straw as adsorbent under the same conditions to compare their adsorption performance. Here, we characterized the five biochars in the same system (600 ℃). In results, GBC has higher ash content, pH, CEC, specific surface area, mineral composition and oxygen-containing functional groups. The adsorption kinetics can be explained adequately by pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir model, indicating that the adsorption behavior of the biochar is both physical adsorption and chemical adsorption, the adsorption process includes complexation reaction, cationic π bond, ion precipitation and electrostatic adsorption. In conclusion, GBC exhibited higher metal equilibrium adsorption capacities (125 mg·g-1 for Pb2+, 29 mg·g-1 for Cd2+). The solution pH, biochar dosing, pyrolysis temperature and the properties of these heavy metals were responsible for adsorption capacity, thus showing stronger affinity and better adsorption effect. Our results are important for the selection and utilization of plant-based biochar for different heavy metals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0279.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: flood risk; urban areas; vulnerability; exposure; pluvial floods; Analytic Hierarchy Process
Online: 13 April 2023 (02:45:09 CEST)
The report  shows that in many European cities the sewer system is older than 40 years, potentially reducing their ability to cope with more intense pluvial flooding  addition to climate change, urbanization is an important factor increasing the flooding risk, as it increases of impervious surfaces. Flash floods are particularly troublesome, causing not only the overloading of drainage systems , but also urban transport disruption, affecting human health, and contributing to pollution due to untreated sewage discharges . Pluvial floods in urban areas are caused by short-duration precipitation, high intensity and on small scale. Such rainfall is difficult to predict and does not always apply to catchment areas. In Poland, heavy rainfall lasts relatively short, from a few minutes to a few, at most, several hours . The method of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was used to rank the importance of criteria characterizing exposure in urban areas. The ranking is based on expert judgements. The article focuses on exposure which is one of the components of risk. Geographical Information System (GIS) is integrated with Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) to evaluate exposure of urban area on pluvial floods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0182.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Agricultural pesticides; spray drift; MLC
Online: 11 April 2023 (03:38:13 CEST)
Agricultural workers utilize pesticides extensively on their farms to control weeds and insects, as well as increase crop productivity. Despite these advantages, their excessive use poses a seri-ous threat, particularly to the population living at the nexus of urban and rural areas. Exposure to pesticide drift can be investigated using geospatial tools. Remote sensing technology and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques have been used intensively and constitute trusted tools in different sectors, especially in agriculture. Remote sensing depends on pro-cessing the electromagnetic radiation reflected and emitted from the ground target and can be used to identify the spectral signature of crops exposed to pesticides. GIS has powerful tools for building a spatial geo-database of pesticide exposure drift. Therefore, the major objective of the research was to explore the effectiveness of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to estimate the exposure to pesticides in Macon County (Alabama). To achieve this objective, Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) was used to identify accurate cropland areas. The Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite images. Available agricultural pesticide usage data (seven of the seventeen organophosphates used in Alabama) were obtained through the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The results indicated that 6.6% of Macon County’s residents are considered potentially severely exposed, and the potentially affected population resides primarily in rural areas. While 23 percent of residents of rural edges are considered to have potentially medium to high expo-sure. In addition, 38% of residents living in suburban areas are considered to have potentially low-to-medium exposure. Also, the results indicated that both GIS and remote sensing can play an effective role in estimating pesticide exposure drift.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: high tunnel; protected structure; crop vigor; scientometric analysis
Online: 7 April 2023 (13:01:29 CEST)
This study assessed the literature about the use of high tunnels (HTs) in agricultural systems in the United States since the 2009 launch of the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) High Tunnel Initiative. This NRCS program led to an increase in HT adoption nationwide. The literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science (WoS) database. The final sample was 133 peer-reviewed articles published between 2009 and February 2023. We used CiteSpace 6.2.R1 and Gephi 0.9.2 to conduct co-citation, co-author, co-institution, and clustering techniques. The findings showed that the peer-reviewed literature about HT use has increased since 2009, substantially rising between 2017 and 2021. Horticulture was the top subject category in the literature, and most articles were published in peer-reviewed journals of the American Society for Horticultural Science (i.e., HortTechnology and HortScience). The research field evolved from general HT practices, nutrient management, and plant pathology to focus on trials of specific crops and integrated pest management. The institutions with the most contributions to the HT literature were Kansas State University, the University of Florida, Michigan State University, Purdue University, and the University of Minnesota. The patterns of HT research revealed in this study offer a greater understanding of the current state of knowledge to inform the focus of future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0526.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Social survey; Mago National Park; Landsat; GIS; Remote sensing; land use land cover
Online: 30 March 2023 (10:38:58 CEST)
Land use land cover change analysis is one of the most particular techniques to understand how land was used in the past, what types of changes are to be expected in the future, as well as the forces and processes behind the changes. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the land use land cover changes and its driving forces in Mago National Park, southern Ethiopia. Satellite image of Landsat5 TM (1988, 1998 and 2008) and Landsat8 OLI/TIRS (2018) with a time span of 30 years were employed. In addition, field observation, and social survey were conducted to study the drivers of land use land cover changes. QGIS 3.2 and SPSS (for social data analysis) software’s’ were used for satellite image processing, accuracy assessment, map preparation and descriptively analyze the driving forces of LULCC respectively. Supervised classification with maximum likelihood algorithm was conducted for satellite image analysis and generation of information using Quantum GIS 3.2 Post classification change detection method was applied to quantify the land use/land cover change. The result of the study indicated riverine forest, woodland, grassland, water body, degraded land and bare land as a major land use land cover class in the park. The result of land use land cover classification showed that in 1988 most of the study area was covered by woodland and grass land. In the first period (1988-1998), woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land decreased by 6.76%, 37.98%, 22.37% and 70.14% respectively, while grass land, and degraded land increased by 16.11% and 85.67% respectively. In the second period, (1998 -2008), woodland, riverine forest and degraded land were decreased by 5.44%, 4.61%, and 80.74% respectively, while grass land, water body and bare land is increased by 14.74%, 3.76% and 52.58% respectively. From 2008-2018 riverine forest, grassland, water body and bare land decreased by 1.33%, 15.16% and 4.82% and 25.02% respectively, while woodland increased by 11.84%, and degraded land increased by 85.49% respectively. Riverine forest, water body, grass land and bare land showed decrement and that of woodland, degraded land indicated increment during study period. From 1988-2018, woodland, riverine forest, water body and bare land indicated decrement and the remaining grass land and bare land cover types indicated increment during study period. The result of social survey indicated that expansion of agriculture, human induced fire, overgrazing and hunting are proximate driving forces of the change in Mago National Park. Population pressure from a different area, poverty, decreased farmlands productivity; education, weak law enforcement and cultural factors are the major underlying causes of the observed changes. Therefore, proper land use planning, legal support, and strong law enforcement are the key recommendations to sustain natural resources of the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: woody crop classification; Sentinel-2; random forest; crop phenology; olive; orchard; vineyards; Mediterranean
Online: 28 March 2023 (11:19:29 CEST)
The characteristics of the Sentinel-2 mission with a decametric resolution and frequent acquisitions allow to improve the identification of crops. The majority of the studies on crop classification using RS were targeted at herbaceous and gramineous crop classes while fewer results were obtained on woody crops which present a strong variability in management practices that make their identification difficult. Thus, this study aimed to propose a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective analytical approach for the delineation of fruit orchards (OC), vineyards (VY), and olive groves (OL) in the Mediterranean (Southern France) considering two locations. A classification based on phenology metrics (PM) de-rived from temporal Sentinel-2 time series was developed to perform the classification. The PM were computed by fitting a double logistic model on temporal profiles of vegeta-tion indices to delineate OC, VY, and a DC class gathering all remaining surfaces. The generated PM were introduced in a random forest (RF) algorithm to identify woody crops across the two sites. The method was tested on different vegetation indices, the best results being obtained with the leaf area index (LAI). To delineate OL in the DC class, the tem-poral features of the green chlorophyll vegetation index (GCVI) were found to be the most appropriated with a typical drop of the signal during the mid-season (DOY 150-250). As a final result, we obtained an overall accuracy ranging from 89-96% and Kappa of 0.86-0.95 by considering each study site and year (2016-2021), separately. This accuracy is much better than applying the RF algorithm on the LAI times series, which led to a Kappa rang-ing between 0.3 and 0.52 and demonstrates the interest of using phenological traits rather than the raw time series of the RS data. The method can be well reproduced from one year to another. Moreover, it is possible to apply the classification model of a given year to an-other, keeping good accuracy. This is an interesting feature to reduce the burden of col-lecting ground truth information. On the contrary, the use of a classification model cali-brated in one site and applied to another led to a strong degradation of the classification accuracy. Woody crop phenology is dependent on site climatic conditions as well as the cultivar and management practices that can differ from one site to another.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0412.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: asari clams; upwelling of hypoxic water masses; mass mortality; hydrogen sulfide; chain of biological die-off
Online: 23 March 2023 (09:49:49 CET)
To investigate the mass mortality of asari clams triggered by upwelling-driven hypoxia, we conducted biological and oceanographic observations of the Rokujo tidal flat in Mikawa Bay, central Japan. In addition, a simple laboratory experiment was conducted using sediments on a tidal flat containing macrobenthos to examine the possibility of hydrogen sulfide formation in tidal flats. The results of field observations showed that the number and biomass of asari clams decreased from September to October in the tidal flat when hypoxia was intermittent. In particular, hypoxia persisted for approximately one week from September 21, which was associated with the calm weather and stagnation of tidal currents owing to the neap tide. The hydrogen sulfide concentration in the water directly above the sediment exceeded 30 mg L-1 after 3 days of incubation. Our results suggest that the mass mortality of asari clams may be caused by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide produced by sulfate reduction, which is attributed to the chain of biological die-off caused by the upwelling of hypoxic water mass accompanied by meteorological events, and calm conditions such as the neap tide period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0398.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: browsing; alpine forest; elevation; tree rejuvenation; ungulate management; protected area
Online: 22 March 2023 (13:34:24 CET)
Browsing of wild ungulates can have profound effects on the structure and composition of forests. In the Swiss National Park, the density of wild ungulates including red deer (Cervus elaphus), ibex (Capra ibex), and chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) is exceptionally high due to strict protection and the absence of large predators. We examined count data of larch (Larix decidua), cembra pine (Pinus cembra), spruce (Picea abies), upright mountain pine (Pinus mugo subsp. uncinata), and mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia) of four sampling years between 1991 and 2021 and modelled how different topographic and location factors affected the probability of browsing on saplings of larch, cembra pine, and spruce. Despite the high density of wild ungulates, the numbers of saplings and young trees increased over the past 30 years. The probability of browsing on saplings was highest for larch at a height of 10 – 40 cm and increased with increasing elevation. In our study area, open grasslands are mainly located above the tree line, which might explain the positive correlation between elevation and the probability of browsing. Other factors like exposition and slope, available food resources and disturbance by humans did not have clear effects on the probability of browsing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0289.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: AOT; Bangladesh; Air pollution; Machine Learning; Remote Sensing
Online: 15 March 2023 (15:22:04 CET)
Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) is one of the critical factors for global atmospheric conditions, climate change, and air pollution. AOT has been exposed as a major component of air pollution in Bangladesh. This paper aims to map the seasonal distribution of AOT from 2002-2022 and to explore the internal relationship between AOT and ten air pollutants using remote sensing and machine learning tools. These ten air pollutants are Particulate matter (PM2.5), Methane (CH4), Carbon monoxide (CO), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Formaldehyde (HCHO), Ozone (O3), Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Aerosol Particulate Radius (APR), Nitrogen oxide (NOx) and Black carbon (BC). The results show that the concentrations of AOT were higher in December-January-February (mean value 0.50) and March-April-May (mean value 0.50) seasons, mostly in the central, western, and southern parts of Dhaka, Narayanganj, and Munshiganj districts. AOT was a bit less in June-July-August (mean value 0.33) and September-October-November (mean value 0.37). This paper also revealed that the AOT was correlated positively with PM2.5 (0.60), CH4 (0.80), NO (0.76), and BC (0.83) while correlated negatively with CO (-0.66), HCHO (-0.16), SO2 (-0.41), APR (-0.48), and NOx (-0.20). From the machine learning, the Rational quadratic GPR (RME-0.0024, MAE-0.0015, R2-0.96), Matern 5/2 GPR (RMSE-0.0023, MAE-0.0015, R2-0.96), and Squared Exponential GPR (RMSE-0.0015, MAE-0.0015, R2-0.96) were found good classifiers to predict AOT. UN agencies, government line departments, and local and regional development councils for air pollution mitigation and long-term protective measures may use the paper's key results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0249.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Bangladesh; Dhaka; climatic variables; land use; PM2.5; statistical relationship
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:17:28 CET)
The major industrial cities of Bangladesh are heavily experiencing air pollution-related problems due to the increased trend of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and other pollutants. This paper aimed to investigate and understand the relationship between PM2.5 and land use and climatic variables and to identify the riskiest area and population groups using a Geographic information system and regression analysis. The results show that about 41% of PM2.5 concentration increased within 19 years (2002-2021) in the study area, while the highest concentration of PM2.5 was found from 2012 to 2021. The concentrations of PM2.5 were higher over barren lands, forests, croplands, and urban areas. About 64%, 62.7%, 57%, and 55% concentrations were increased annually over barren lands, forests, cropland, and urban regions, respectively, from 2002-2021. The highest concentration level of PM2.5 (84 mg m-3) among other land use classes was found in urban areas in 2021. The regression analysis shows that air pressure (r2= - 0.26), evaporation (r2= - 0.01), humidity (r2= - 0.22), rainfall (r2= - 0.20), and water vapor (r2= - 0.03) were negatively correlated with PM2.5. On the other hand, air temperature (r2= 0.24), ground heat (r2= 0.60), and wind speed (r2= 0.34) were positively correlated with PM2.5. More than 60 Upazilas were the most polluted areas, with 1,948,029 populations (ages 0-5), 485,407 (ages 50-69), and a total population of 11,260,162 were in the high-risk/hotspot zone. The government line department may use the main results paper's key results, policymakers, stainable development practitioners, academicians, and others for integrated air pollution mitigation and management in Bangladesh and other geographical settings worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0200.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: peat; freezing; thawing; major; trace elements; organic carbon; experiments
Online: 13 March 2023 (01:55:48 CET)
The climate change is likely to modify the freezing-thawing cycles in soils and surface waters of permafrost-affected and subarctic regions. Yet, the change of solution chemical composition during ice formation and evolution of remaining fluids remain very poorly known. Towards better understanding of dissolved (< 0.45 µm) organic carbon, major and trace elements behavior in permafrost peatland environments, here we performed laboratory freezing of peat leachates, from complete freezing to complete thawing in order to quantify the partitioning of solutes between the aqueous solution and the remaining ice. We hypothesized the existence of two main groups of solutes, behaving conservatively or non-conservatively during freezing depending on their incorporation into the ice or ability to coagulate in the form of insoluble minerals or amorphous materials in the fluid phase. An unexpected result of this work was that, despite sizable degree of element concentration in the remaining fluid and possible coagulation of organic, organo-mineral and inorganic compounds, the freezing and subsequent thawing produced the final concentrations of most solutes which were not drastically different from initial concentrations in starting leachates, prior freezing. This demonstrates high stability of dissolved (< 0.45 µm) OC, Fe, Al and some trace metals to repetitive freezing and thawing of surface waters in permafrost peatlands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0197.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Alum sludge; Soil stabilization; Artificial intelligence; California bearing ratio; Genetic programming
Online: 10 March 2023 (13:25:54 CET)
Alum sludge is a byproduct of water treatment plants and its use as a soil stabilizer has gained increasing attention due to its economic and environmental benefits. Its application has been shown to improve the strength and stability of soil, making it suitable for various engineering applications. However, to go beyond just measuring the effects of alum sludge as a soil stabilizer, this paper explores the use of artificial intelligence (AI) methods to predict the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soils stabilized with alum sludge. Three AI methods, including two black box methods (artificial neural network and support vector machines) and one grey box method (genetic programming), were used to predict CBR based on a database with nine input parameters. The results showed that all three AI models were able to predict CBR with good accuracy, with coefficient of determination (R2) values ranging from 0.94 to 0.99 and mean absolute error (MAE) values ranging from 0.30 to 0.51. In a novel approach, the genetic programming method was used to produce an equation to estimate CBR, which included seven inputs and accurately predicted CBR. The analysis of sensitivity and importance of parameters showed that the number of hammer blows for compaction was the most important parameter, while the parameters for maximum dry density of soil and mixture were the least important. This study suggests that AI methods can effectively predict the performance of alum sludge as a soil stabilizer, and the proposed equation using genetic programming can be a useful tool for predicting CBR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0130.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Leukemias; Risk and prevention; Epidemiology and outreach; Chernobyl; Radiation
Online: 7 March 2023 (09:24:17 CET)
Employing data supplied by the Oxford-based UK Childhood Cancer Research Group in 2003 it is shown that after the Chernobyl accident, childhood leukemia by single age and year of birth in the 0-4y cohort increased significantly in Wales and Scotland combined in the period 1986-1990 compared with controls born 1970-1985 and 1991-1994. Relative risk RR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.20<RR<1.65; p = 0.00004. These exposure periods were chosen because whole body Caesium-137 monitoring had demonstrated that internal exposures persisted for more than 4 years. The dose-response exhibits saturation and reversal, interpreted as biological censoring effects in the developing individual.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0099.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Water quality; Sri Lankan lagoons; Threshold limits; Lagoon water pollution; Physiochemical characteristics; Sustainability
Online: 6 March 2023 (07:28:11 CET)
Lagoons are becoming sporadically utilised albeit they are equipped with high potential for the outsourcing of environmental and industrial benefits. It leads to the endangered pollution of lagoon water aquatic system. The prime reason is the lack of knowledge among stakeholders and researchers regarding the influential parameters in establishing the lagoon water quality. The optimal quality for lagoon water is critical for the longevity of aquatic ecosystem. This study focuses on using bibliographic references to find the most influential factors determining the water quality in lagoons for deriving a comprehensive long-term water quality monitoring plan to ensure the sustainability of the lagoon water ecosystem. The lagoon water quality was classified in this study into biological, physical, and chemical parameters and studied for their importance upon enhancing the water quality. Experiments were conducted on selected parameters using the water samples from the selected Sri Lankan lagoons with available facilities to observe the water quality. The overall findings on physiochemical and biological characteristics using the experiments temperature, turbidity, pH, salinity, DO, BOD, COD, phosphates, nitrates, ammonia content and faecal coliforms in water specimens suggest that the selected Sri Lankan lagoons are heavily polluted due to their distinctive variations from the allowable threshold limits specified in the literature sources. To increase such increased risks associated with lagoon water systems, a long-term monitoring strategy is recommended to be incorporated at lagoon waters in order to assure their sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP); Dinophysis norvegica; Mesodinium rubrum; Teleaulax amphioxeia; Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2); Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1); Okadaic acid (OA)
Online: 3 March 2023 (09:33:50 CET)
This study is the first report of the successful cultivation of Dinophysis norvegica isolated from Japanese coastal waters (7 of 48 isolated cells were established as the clonal cultures, 14.5%) and their toxin content and production. The strains were maintained at relatively high abundance (>2,000 cells mL-1) for more than one year when fed on Mesodinium rubrum with the addition of Teleaulax amphioxeia. At the end of the one-month incubation, the total amounts of pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) and okadaic acid (OA) were 132.0-375.0 ng mL-1 (n = 7), 0.7-3.6 ng mL-1 (n = 3) and trace level OA (n = 1), respectively. Similarly, the cell quota of PTX2 and DTX1 were 60.6-152.4 pg cell-1 (n = 7) and 0.5-1.2 pg cell-1 (n = 3), respectively. These data indicated that toxin production varies depending on the strains in this species. In the growth experiment, D. norvegica grew, but it was very slow first 12 days. However, after that they grew exponentially with the maximum growth rate of 0.56 divisions day-1 (during Day 24-27), reaching a maximum concentration of 3,000 cells mL-1 at the end of incubation (Day 36), suggesting that they have a long lag phase. In the toxin production, OA was not at a detectable level (≤ 0.010 ng mL-1) during the 36 days of incubation except for Day 6. The concentration of DTX1 and PTX2 showed similar patterns as described for vegetative growth, but the toxin production still increased on Day 36 (1.3 ng mL-1 and 154.7 ng mL-1 in DTX1 and PTX2, respectively). The findings of this study provide novel information on the toxin content and production in D. norvegica as well as details on the culturing and maintenance of the species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0016.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: indoor epidemiology (IE); respiratory diseases; low-cost air quality sensors; air quality assessment; sensing technologies (STs); fabrication; measurement; configurations; sensor assemblies; gas sensors calibration systems (GSCS)
Online: 1 March 2023 (08:59:13 CET)
Indoor air quality and public health have always been an area of prime interest across the globe. The significance of low-cost air quality sensing and indoor public health practices spikes during the time of pandemic and epidemics when indoor air pollution becomes a threat to living beings especially human beings. Indoor diseases are hard to diagnose if they are due to the indoor environmental conditions. A major challenge was observed in establishing a baseline between the indoor air quality sensors and associated diseases. In this work, 10,000+ articles from top literature databases were reviewed using bibliometric analysis to formulate indoor air quality sensors and diseases correlation rubrics to critically review 500+ articles. A set of 200+ articles were selected based on for detailed study based on seven bibliometric indices for publications that used WHO, NIH, US EPA, CDC, and FDA defined principles. This review has been conducted to assist end-users, public health facilities, state agencies, researchers, scientists and air quality protection agencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0083.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Multilinear Regression; Dissolve Oxygen; Modeling; Machine Learning; Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm; ANN; Urban Lake
Online: 27 February 2023 (07:25:06 CET)
The paper portrays predictive models for dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in an urban lake using common water quality parameters like Temperature, pH, Conductivity and ORP at a time. Data were sampled using three real-time, industry-standard sensors, OPTOD, CTZN, and PHEHT, and then interpolated using the ArcGIS kriging technique. Correlation studies were analyzed through the ML algorithm, the correlation study signified a highly positive correlation between DO and other water parameters and the model was corroborated by R-score in order to create the linear regression model. In addition, an artificial neural network- a machine learning method using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was developed to build a model to predict the do as well. Then, the performance of the models was validated and also the R2 accuracy was checked of the predicted data against the actual data. Thus, the appropriateness of the ANN model for the forecasting of investigated attributes is indicated by the fact that the discrepancy between the forecasted and real ANN model is significantly lesser than that of the regression model. However, the model can be used to reveal DO data from unknown urban lake water.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0359.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: uncertainty quantification; multigrid; multilevel; density-driven flow; salinization; coastal aquifers; groundwater; salt formations
Online: 21 February 2023 (09:54:29 CET)
We consider a class of density-driven flow problems. We are particularly interested in the problem of the salinization of coastal aquifers. We consider the Henry saltwater intrusion problem with uncertain porosity, permeability, and recharge parameters as a test case. The reason for the presence of uncertainties is the lack of knowledge, inaccurate measurements, and inability to measure parameters at each spatial or time location. This problem is nonlinear and time-dependent. The solution is the salt mass fraction, which is uncertain and changes in time. Uncertainties in porosity, permeability, recharge, and mass fraction are modeled using random fields. This work investigates the applicability of the well-known multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method for such problems. The MLMC method can reduce the total computational and storage costs. Moreover, the MLMC method runs multiple scenarios on different spatial and time meshes and then estimates the mean value of the mass fraction. The parallelization is performed in both the physical space and stochastic space. To solve every deterministic scenario, we run the parallel multigrid solver ug4 in a black-box fashion. We use the solution obtained from the quasi-Monte Carlo method as a reference solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0341.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: interpolation; SDM; ENM; precipitation; climatic surfaces
Online: 20 February 2023 (11:54:06 CET)
Ecological niche models have become exceptionally important, since their results allow to un-derstand many aspects related to the biology of the species being studied, even understanding its evolutionary relationships or their response to past or future projections. In this research, models were prepared to create climatic surfaces so as to produce bioclimatic layers based on the mete-orological data of the south of Peru. Temperature and precipitation data from 119 stations were obtained and homogenized. Then, using geographic and orographic covariates, models were prepared so as to obtain climatic surfaces of maximum and minimum temperature, and precipi-tation. The produced layers were evaluated through root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), mean absolute deviation of error (MAD) and goodness of fit (R2), and they were compared to other models for the area. Finally, the 19 bioclimatic surfaces were created. The results show general patterns for temperature and precipitation, some of them being particular. The climatic layers produced showed acceptable values for RMSD, MAD and R2. Comparison with other models shows statistically significant differences. Both the climatic and the produced bioclimatic surfaces were entered into a database for free access. Finally, comments are made on the importance and application of the bioclimatic layers produced here.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0331.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: n/a; airborne hyperspectral images, Sentinel-2, k-means, random forest, crop recognition
Online: 20 February 2023 (08:31:21 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the possibility of using one-shot hyperspectral airborne images to recognize crops for an area with many small plots. The results showed that unsupervised clustering methods could classify crops with an accuracy of 80%, which improved to 90% when restricted to only grain crops, using a single airborne hyperspectral recording. However, additional layers such as NDVI, DTM, slope, and aspect did not improve classification accuracy. For comparison, the accuracy of clustering time series Sentinel-2 images with NDVI layers and DTM-derived data yielded an accuracy of: 74% ,Sentinel-2 time series 68% and single one registration before harvest - 39%. The results of the random forest classification were slightly less accurate due to a lack of sufficient reference data. However, it is challenging to verify the reported accuracy of crop recognition in the literature above 90% due to differences in analysis methodologies, reference data selection, pixel/object approaches, metric choice, and calculation formulas used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0330.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: integration; climate change; sustainable forest management; information and communication technology; sustainable development goals; systems thinking approach
Online: 20 February 2023 (08:03:25 CET)
The 2030 global agenda of the United Nations emphasizes peace, human rights, gender equality, partnership, and women's empowerment. It balances the social, economic, and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The SDG framework was designed to be integrated and indivisible, making the interconnections of 17 Goals and 169 Sustainable Development Goals Targets (SDTs) more complex that need extensive and intensive investigative research. Recent studies have increased on the interrelationships of SDGs, but none of these have focused on integrating Climate Change (CC), Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), and Information and Communication Technology (ICT), also known as CSI Nexus. This study aims to investigate and identify the 169 SDTs linked to CC, SFM, and ICT and assesses the significance of the relationships between these variables. The alignment of SDTs to CSI Nexus was identified through clustering and mapping techniques. The result argued that 56 SDTs are directly connected within CC+SFM+ICT, 16 within CC+SFM, one within SFM+ICT, and 51 within ICT+CC. Our result suggests that CC is significantly associated with SFM; however, ICT has no significant association with CC and SFM. It further asserts that the ICT and SFM have minimal influence on the SDG 2030 framework. The proposed CSI Nexus and SDTs Integration Framework was a science-informed guide for priority-setting, policy coherence, and decision-making supporting the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. This study does not include interactions, network analysis and visualization, simulations, and modeling between SDG targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0293.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Black carbon; Aethalometer; Black summer wildfires 2019-2020; Radiative forcing; Aerosol direct effect; Aerosol indirect effect
Online: 17 February 2023 (03:17:15 CET)
The emission of black carbon (BC) particles, which cause atmospheric warming by affecting radiation budget in the atmosphere, is the result of an incomplete combustion process of organic materials. The recent wildfire event during the summer 2019-2020 in South-Eastern Australia was unprecedented in scale. The wildfires lasted for nearly 3 months over large areas of the two most populated states of New South Wales and Victoria. This study on the emission and dispersion of BC emitted from the biomass burnings of the wildfires using the Weather Research Forecast – Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model is aimed to determine the extent of the BC spatial dispersion and ground concentration distribution and the effect of BC on air quality and radiative transfer at the top of the atmosphere, the atmosphere and on the ground. The predicted aerosol concentration and AOD are compared with the observed data from the New South Wales Department of Planning and Environment (DPE) aethalometer and air quality network and from remote sensing data. The BC concentration as predicted from WRF-Chem model is in general less than the observed data as measured from the aethalometer monitoring network, but the spatial pattern corresponds well, and the correlation is relatively high. The total BC emission into the atmosphere during the event and the effect on radiation budget were also estimated. This study shows that the summer 2019-2020 wildfires affect not only the air quality and health impact on the east coast of Australia but also short-term weather in the region via aerosol interactions with radiation and cloud.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0212.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Airborne virus; Particulate matters; COVID-19; Building ventilation; aerosol
Online: 13 February 2023 (09:21:13 CET)
Airborne virus, such as COVID-19, caused pandemics all over the world. Virus-containing particles produced by infected individuals are suspended in the air for extended periods of time, actually results in viral aerosols and the spread of infectious diseases. Aerosol collection and detection devices are essential for limiting the spread of airborne virus diseases. This review provides an overview of the primary mechanisms and enhancement techniques for collecting and detecting airborne viruses. Indoor virus detection strategies for scenarios with varying ventilations are also summarized based on the excellent performance of existing advanced comprehensive devices. This review provides guidance for the development of future aerosol detection devices and aids in the control of airborne transmission diseases, such as COVID-19, monkeypox, and other airborne transmission viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0169.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: climate change mitigation and adaptation; economic structures; inequality; driving forces; consequential attributional; transitional risk; scope 3
Online: 9 February 2023 (14:44:07 CET)
To remain relevant in the green transition, companies are beginning to voluntarily account for the exchange of emissions in their supply chain transactions and using the resulting greenhouse gas inventories for climate resilient decision support. Market advantages of sustainability and transparency see a shift from internal decision support tools to external communication tools which potentially expose companies to the risk of uncovering greenwashing if claims are not supported by transparent data, sound modelling, and a climate just emissions inventory, which considers external impacts connected to the production system. The different methods and standards in place for such greenhouse gas inventories, despite all referring to the ISO life cycle analysis standards and guidelines, present mixed signals and leave room for different interpretations, that may ultimately lead to cascading greenwashing, misleading results, and false successes. The new GHG Protocol Land Sector and Removals Guidance draft addresses this in part. With the GHG Protocol moving into revision periods, we identify gaps that present barriers to companies, or allow for interpretations that goes against the intentions of reporting GHG emissions related to an activity or organisation. The literature agrees that not rectifying these subtle-ties present counterproductive decision support for the green transition’s overall goal: to reduce global emissions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0164.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: coastal transformation; ecosystem services; transdisciplinarity; nature-based solutions; southern North Sea; Gute Küste Niedersachsen
Online: 9 February 2023 (11:17:26 CET)
Novel strategies in coastal protection are needed to cope with climate change-induced sea level rise. They aim at the sustainable development of coastal areas in light of an intensification and land use changes. A promising approach is the design of nature-based solutions (NbS), complementing the safety levels of technical infrastructures. However, NbS lack a widespread and large-scale implementation. To address this deficit, co-design concepts are needed that combine experiences from science and practice. This work presents and discusses the approach of a coast-specific real-world laboratory (RwL) addressing the inclusive design of ecosystem-based coastal protection. Strategies of RwLs are applied for the first time in a coastal context along the North Sea coastline in Germany. We found the concept of RwLs suitable for coastal transdisciplinary research, although adaptions in the spatial reference level or flexibility in location and time of experimentation are necessary. A profound actor analysis is indispensable to specify participatory processes and interaction levels. A criteria-based cooperative selection of RwL sites helps to reveal and solve conflicting interests to achieve trust between science and practice. Addressing site-specific characteristics and practitioners’ needs, our coastal RwL provides a mutual learning space to develop and test NbS to complement technical coastal protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0153.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: long-term trend; meander planform; subcritical flow; width-depth ratio; riparian management
Online: 9 February 2023 (03:58:56 CET)
This study numerically evaluated the long-term and stable trends of meandering channel planform at different mean annual subcritical flows based on a depth-averaged linearized meander evolution model. The calculation cases included an idealized sine-generated meander with moderate max-deflection angle and a typical natural meander - Jiyun River (in China). Within the increase of the selection of the mean annual width-depth ratio in a certain scope, the results showed some specific phase characteristics of channel centerline evolution: (1) the meander straightening trend became weaker in phase 1 (B/H ≤ 16.5) and gradually turned into the meander developing trend in phase 2 (B/H ≤ 27) with the overall immunity to flow magnitude; (2) the symmetric development form along the transverse direction perpendicular to the flow average direction was broken starting from the downstream tail in phase 3 (B/H ≤ 28.9), meantime accompanied by the highlight of flow effects when the mean annual B/H exceeded 28; (3) in phase 4 (B/H ≤ 29.5), there occurred obvious incipience and jump process of the channel sensitivity responding to flow when the selected B/H crossed 29.3, which were very similar to the transition process from the laminar flow to turbulent flow. Besides, the initial sinuosity and curvature-ratio indicator could contribute much to the channel evolutionary state, as demonstrated in the comparison between natural Jiyun River case and the correspondingly idealized sine-generated meander case with the same level of mean annual B/H. This research provides innovation spaces for deeper meander mechanism exploration and effective riparian management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0140.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spatial network inference; water quality network; causality,; prediction; Florida Bay; algal blooms
Online: 8 February 2023 (07:17:43 CET)
Coastal marine ecosystems worldwide, like Florida Bay, are increasingly affected by tide alteration and anthropogenic disturbances which affect water quality imbalance leading to algal blooms. Increased bloom persistence is a serious threat due to the long-lasting impact on processes like carbon cycle and services like species presence. However, exploring eco-environmental feedback patterns of algal blooms remains challenging and poorly investigated, also due to the paucity of data. Florida Bay, taken as an epitome, has long experienced algal blooms in its central and western regions, and in 2006 an unprecedented bloom occurred in the eastern habitats. We analyzed the occurrence of blooms from three perspectives: (1) the spatial spreading networks of chlorophyll-a (CHLa) that pinpoints source and unbalanced habitats; (2) the fluctuations of water quality factors pre- and post-bloom outbreaks to in assess environmental impacts of ecological dysbiosis and target prevention and control of algal of blooms; and (3) the biogeochemical-spreading network topological co-evolution to quantify ecosystemic stability and ecological shift likelihood in long-term. Here, we propose Transfer Entropy (TE) to quantify dynamical interactions between spatial areas and biogeochemical factors (ecosystem connectome) underpinning bloom emergence and spreading, as well as environmental effects; the Pareto principle is defined for identifying the salient eco-environmental interactions of CHLa. We quantified the spatial dynamics of algal blooms, and thus obtained areas in need for ecological monitoring and potential bloom control. Results show that algal blooms are increasingly persistent over space with long-term negative effects on water quality factor. A dichotomy is reported between spatial ecological corridors of spreading and biogeochemical networks as well as divergence from the optimal eco-organization: randomization of the former due to nutrients' overload and temperature increase leads to scale-free CHLa spreading and extreme outbreaks a posteriori. Subsequently this increases bloom persistence, turbidity and salinity with potentially strong ecological effects on highly biodiverse and vulnerable areas such as tidal flats and marshes. Algal blooms are important ecosystem regulators of nutrient cycles; however, beyond limit chlorophyll-a outbreaks cause aquatic species mortality due to their effect on water turbidity, nutrient balance (nitrogen and phosphorus in particular), salinity and temperature. Beyond compromising local environmental quality, socio-ecological services are also compromised at large scales, yet ecological assessment models like the one presented are in need of application in subtropical and tropical bays worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Sentinel 5P; Time-series modelling; Observation versus Prediction; Geo-detector; Remote sensing; Air pollution; Urban transition
Online: 2 February 2023 (11:26:54 CET)
Cities exposed their vulnerabilities during COVID-19 pandemic. Unprecedented policies restricted human activities but left an unique opportunity to quantify anthropogenic effects on urban air pollution. This study aimed to address the key questions of urban development behind the restrictions with the goal of supporting sustainable transition. Data from ground stations and Sentinel-5P satellite were used to assess the temporal and spatial anomalies of NO2. Beijing China was selected for a case study because this mega city maintained a “dynamic zero-COVID” policy with adjusted restrictions, allowing us better to track the effects. The time-series decomposition and prediction regression model were employed to estimate the normal NO2 levels in 2020. The anomalies between the observations and predictions as the deviation were identified due to the policy interventions and quantified different effects using spatial stratified heterogeneity statistics. The top three restrictions showing dominant effects were workplace closures, restricted public transport usage, and school closures, accounting for 54.8%, 52.3%, and 46.4% of NO2 anomalies, respectively; and they are directly linked to the mismatch of employment and housing (deter-mining the commuting patterns), educational inequality and the long-term unsolved road con-gestion. Promoting the transformation of urban spatial structure will effectively alleviate air pollution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0013.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Groundwater quality; irrigation and drinking water; hydrochemistry; Water Quality Index; geochemical process; Senegal
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:45:43 CET)
Senegal central regions face rainfall deficit combined with scarcity of surface water and poor quality. Populations use groundwater for drinking and irrigation. A Groundwater assessment studiebased on 42 samples aims to determine their quality. Several parameters (TDS, TH, WQI, SAR, RSC, %N, PI, KR and MR) and ion chemistry determined . Samples exhibit an alcaline pH (7.6) and hydrochemical facies mainly Ca-Na-Mg-HCO3. The ionic dominance is Na+ ˃ Ca2+ ˃ Mg2+ ˃ K+ and HCO3- ˃ Cl- ˃ SO42- ˃ NO3- ˃ F-. From TDS and WQI index most of the groundwaters are suitable for drinking. Irrigation quality (based on SAR, %N, RSC, KR, MR) varie from excellent to good water type. Plotting chemical data (USSL salinity & Wilcox diagrams) reveals that the majority of the groundwater samples belong to the fields excellent to good and from good to permissible . Natural processes (rock weathering, mineral dissolution, evaporation and ion exchange) control groundwater quality. As the region faced a persistent rainfall deficit combine with fragile groundwater quality should alert the stakeholders. A sustainable development of the region can be faced if strong measures are planned to follow water quality evolution and quantity available for human purposes
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0554.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Field measurement; Typhoon; High-rise building; Strong wind
Online: 30 January 2023 (10:13:31 CET)
The overcrowding of high-rise buildings in the city adversely affects the wind environment by changing the air currents in the surrounding areas. In particular, extreme climate phenomena caused by climate change are stronger and more frequent, causing social damages in cities. To comprehensively better understand the wind properties around high-rise buildings, actual filed measurement is necessary to determine the environment assessment of wind effect. We performed the on-site measurement on LCT residential complex regions (411.6m tall) with highly concentrated high-rise buildings in coastal city Busan, South Korea under extreme weather conditions such as typhoon invasions to determine wind fluid characteristics. In the field monitoring, five anemometers were installed to analyze the wind environment around high-rise buildings when typhoon 'Hinnamnor' invaded. Compared to the nearby weather station operated by KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration), the gust was 3.7 times stronger and the max 1 min-mean wind speed was 3.1 times stronger, and the characteristics of the downward wind and the canyon wind were shown depending on the location characteristics of the point. Turbulence intensity decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to a certain value. Likewise, the gust factor also decreased as the wind speed increased and converged to 2.0, which is considered to be the parameter that best represents the intensity of the instantaneous gust caused by the skyscraper wind effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0530.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: crushed pumice stone; sand-capping material; submarine volcano; bivalve exposure
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:03:58 CET)
Large amounts of pumice stone generated by the submarine volcanic eruption at Fukutoku Okanoba on August 13, 2021, drifted ashore, affecting ship navigation and fishery operations. Through laboratory experiments, we investigated the possibility of using pumice as a sand-capping material for eutrophic sediments. Crushed pumice as a sand cover material effectively reduced the sedimentary oxygen consumption rate. Nutrient release from sediment showed a similar trend, with ~25% and 82% reduction in NH4-N and PO4-P release rates, respectively. Furthermore, the bivalve exposure experiments using crushed pumice suspended in seawater showed no adverse effects specific to pumice and lower bivalve mortality than that using kaolin at the same concentration. This could be owing to differences in gill accumulation and blockage owing to the particle size variation of the suspended particles. These results suggest that crushed pumice is effective for sand covering and suppresses oxygen consumption and nutrient release from the sediments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0477.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Water quality; remote sensing; Sentinel-2; Landsat 8; TSM; CDOM; Secchi depth; Turbidity; Chlorophyll-a
Online: 26 January 2023 (09:12:01 CET)
Water quality is the measure of chemical, physical and biological suitability of water in relation to natural effects and intended purpose which may affect human health and aquatic life. Assessment of water quality is very essential for the management of water resources and human health. Traditionally, in-situ measurements have been used to obtain the water quality parameters of the water bodies. However, with the availability of satellite images, researchers have shown that satellite images are a reliable tool that can be used to estimate water quality. Satellite image-derived water quality parameters provide extensive spatial extent and large temporal variations when compared to traditional in situ sample collection and laboratory measurements. The present work estimated several parameters for quality of water in the Kamuzu reservoir of Lilongwe River for the 2013-2020 period using Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 satellite images. The band ratio algorithms were used to retrieve Chlorophyll a (Chl-a), Turbidity, Total Suspended Matter (TSM), Secchi depth, Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), and Cyanobacteria from the reservoir. Turbidity and TSM were compared with the in-situ data collected over the same period. The comparison indicated R2 of 0.9 and 0.69 for TSM and Turbidity respectively from Sentinel-2 images whereas R2 of 0.56 and 0.61 was obtained using Landsat 8 images which are quite encouraging. The other set of results included the spatial distribution maps of water quality parameters using Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 satellite data. It was observed that the spatial distribution of water quality parameters, except for CDOM and Cyanobacteria, showed very good distribution and matches with the theoretical results. However, for CDOM and Cyanobacteria, the distribution was almost similar for the entire study area and the band ratio algorithm may not be able to estimate them quite reasonably. This research reiterates the need for the use of remote sensing in estimating the water quality parameters and may be a substitute to the in-situ data, in terms of spread and frequency, which is very common to most of the water bodies, across the globe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0476.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Life-centric lighting; solar light cycle; lunar light cycle; diurnal; nocturnal
Online: 26 January 2023 (09:00:04 CET)
The term ‘biodynamic’ lighting is proposed as a term to capture the true aspiration of ‘life-centric’ lighting: good human and non-human outcomes for all life-sustaining behaviours on earth driven by good design for phototropism, phototaxis, photoperiodism and circadian entrainment. While future studies are necessary to consolidate this aspiration, it is clear that lighting has immediate potential to better support planetary health. As many aspects of animal, human and plantbehaviour and survival are being perturbed by widespread exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN), lighting professionals are in the middle, attempting to make design decisions that directly affect these life forms. This paper empowers readers with fundamental understandings of how light information is used by these life forms in a way crucial for development, growth and survival. The paper then provides a process for life-centric lighting design by drawing inspiration from an existing process for human-centric lighting design which can dovetail with decision-making processes that are within the workflow of lighting professionals. Holistic consideration of life-centric lighting design should look beyond altruism and romanticism by firmly rooting itself into pragmatism about long-term considerations for planetary health. Key references are consolidated and synthesized with goals of supporting knowledge translation into pragmatic lighting strategies in a manner useful for lighting professionals. While the scientific community remains sceptical about the term ‘biodynamic’ – which is argued to be developed through mysticism instead of scientific methodology – this paper counter argues that with appropriate use, the term has the potential to comprehensively capture this aspiration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0437.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: NEE; IWUE; ET-GPP coupling; omega; potato
Online: 25 January 2023 (03:27:31 CET)
We studied the link between carbon and water fluxes to understand the response of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) to water availability conditions of three different potato water regimes cropping systems [full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and rainfed (RF)]. Through the eddy covariance technique, we measured CO2 and water vapor exchanges and determined surface resistances, omega factor, and inherent water use efficiency (IWUE). Additionally, continuous plant growth determinations of leaf area index (LAI) and specific leaf area (SLA) were made over the three cropping systems. The RF potato was a net carbon source (NEE = 187.21 ± 3.84 g C m−2), while both, FI (NEE= −311.96 ± 12.82 g C m−2) and DI (−17.3 ± 4.6 g C m−2) were a net carbon sink. Greater sink activity is due to high fluxes of gross primary productivity (GPP) [where the GPP > ecosystem respiration (Reco)] and evapotranspiration (ET), and the high efficiency in the exchange of carbon and water. Without water limitations, the larger canopy, with greater photosynthetic activity (GPP/Reco > 2) as well as with low internal resistance offers a greater area for water and carbon exchange, and the highly coupled and synchronized ET – GPP fluxes are primarily controlled by the radiative environment. The lower sink capacity of the DI potato crop and the carbon source activity from the RF, are consequences of a smaller area for water and carbon exchange due to the smaller canopy, and a low IWUE from decoupled and desynchronized carbon and water exchange caused by unbalanced restrictions on ET and GPP fluxes. Specifically, at DI potato, ET remained at a high rate, while GPP was reduced by means of non-stomatal limitations. In the rainfed potato, vapor pressure deficit (VPD) played a significant role increasing midday canopy resistance (Rc) up to 13 times compared to irrigated sites, when VPD was around 0.8 kPa. In consequence, ET and GPP fluxes decreased together, but GPP decreased more than ET because of stomatal and non-stomatal limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0253.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Selenium species; Maize plants; Se fractions; Rock-soil-plant interface; Selenium accumulation
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:55:32 CET)
Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important staple food and primary source of livestock feed in the world. As the consumption of maize grown on the selenium-enriched soils of Naore Valley is one of the apparent causes of selenosis in the area, this work collected and analyzed total Se, Se fractions, and Se species distributions in maize plant samples, including grains, leaves, stalks, roots, rhizosphere soils, and the most representative parent rock materials from Naore Valley, Ziyang County, China. The Se distribution in soils markedly correlated with the weathered Se-enriched bedrocks, but most of the Se in the analyzed soils is enclosed as recalcitrant residual Se and organic-sulfide bound Se. In contrast, Se in rocks had a comparatively higher bioavailability and is bounded mainly to organic matter and sulfides minerals, with very few of the Se enclosed in the residual fraction. Maize plants might take a large amount of Se from the organic-sulfide bound Se fraction in the Se-rich soils, the weathered products from bedrocks or plant litters. Total Se concentrations in the collected samples were observed in descending order soil>leaf>root>grain>stalk. The predominant Se species detected in maize plants was SeMet. Se inorganic forms, mainly Se(VI), decreased from root to grain and were possibly assimilated into organic forms. Se (IV) was barely present. The natural increases in Se concentration affected mainly leaf and root dry-weight biomass as they are the organs that coped with the highest Se accumulation. This paper offers an insight into the uptake, accumulation, and distribution of Se forms in natural Se-rich maize crops and an opportunity for shifting Se-rich soils from menaces to valuable resources for growing Se-rich agricultural products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0241.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: shoreline change; geomorphology; topography; correlation coefficient
Online: 13 January 2023 (07:56:13 CET)
Among the impacts of climate change in West Africa, coastal erosion is the most threatening disaster apart from floods and the increase in temperature. The southern coast of the Dakar region, as part of the most threatened coastal zones in West Africa, records the most current coastal damages in Dakar due to its coastline dynamics and low-lying area. This study was conducted in three littoral cells (Mbao, Bargny and Toubab Dialaw) and aims to investigate if there is a relationship between the coastline dynamic, topographic and slope and the contribution of the geomorphology along the southern coast of Dakar. It helps to understand better the role which plays the topography, Slope and geomorphology in coastal dynamics using remote sensing, cartographic tools and statistical methods. The Modified Normalized Different Water index (MNDWI) was employed to delineate the coastlines before computing the dynamic rate of the coastline using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) software. After that, Topography and Slope were determined using Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Then, the correlation between the coastline dynamic, topography and slope was analyzed through the coefficient of correlation and multiple linear regression model. High dynamic rates were noted in the littoral cells, where the topography and slope are low. In Mbao, there is a significant relationship between the coastline dynamic, topography and slope with a coefficient of correlation of about 0.63. In Bargny, the relationship is also significant, with a coefficient of 0.87. The relationship is not significant in Toubab Dialaw, where topography and Slope are high, with a coefficient of 0.15. We conclude that topography, slope and soil properties play an important role in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0232.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: activated sludge; carcinogenic; ecotoxicity; effluent; environmental footprint; impact category; MBR; non-carcinogenic; toxicity
Online: 13 January 2023 (02:05:11 CET)
The assessment of an organization/product's environmental footprint is based on the protocols developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Union, which take into account 16 impact categories. Among the categories covered are toxicity to freshwater ecosystems and to humans. Standard protocols use only chemical parameters as input data, preventing the true impact of entire complex mixtures, such as emissions discharged into the environment, from being determined. Biological assays allow us to bridge this gap: in the current study, assays were used to determine baseline toxicity towards aquatic organisms (green algae, luminescent bacteria, and crustaceans) as well as specific toxicity (mutagenicity and carcinogenicity). Expected impacts were compared using two approaches (standard and bioassay-centered results obtained are not always in line and, in general, the traditional method underestimates impacts). This demonstrates the importance of these assays and suggests that they be used in LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) protocols as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0226.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Biodiversity lossč driving forcesč land use intensityč fragmentationč Land Use Intensity index LUI
Online: 12 January 2023 (10:43:27 CET)
Biodiversity loss has been identified as the environmental impact where humankind has been trespassing planetary boundaries most ruthlessly. Going beyond the pressures causing damages and analysing their un-derlying driving forces, ipbes identified a series of drivers. The Montreal-Kunming Global Biodiversity Framework GBF is intended to and claims to be a policy response to such analyses. To enhance the resilience of ecological systems, to allow for their recovery and enable the restoration efforts foreseen in the GBF to be successful, the pressures/direct drivers have to be reduced and the drivers/indirect drivers of biodiversity loss have to be redirected. However, often the necessary (semi-)quantitative infor-mation needed to politically address the drivers is absent or patchy. The data collected under the United Nations System of Environmental-Economic Accounting—Ecosystem Accounting, to which the GBF is affiliated, monitors the state of ecosystems, with no priority for pressure/direct driver analysis. Hence we suggest LUI, a deliberately simple index designed for two purposes, as a tool for communicating where sophisticated statistics are available, and as an information collection tool elsewhere Its simple and intuitively understandable structure makes it suitable for citizens’ science applications, and thus for partici-pative monitoring when extensive statistical data gathering is not feasible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0207.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: land cover; Oueme basin; Oueme delta; forest areas; cultivated areas; residential areas
Online: 12 January 2023 (03:15:41 CET)
The modification of land use is a crucial factor in the dysfunction of ecosystems. It considerably influences the hydrological cycle of basins. This study focuses on the Oueme basin, which represents almost half of the total area of Benin, and describes the current and future evolution of its land cover using the maps of the Land Use Land Cover Dynamics project (1975, 2000 and 2013). A temporal analysis of the surface states was performed with QGIS and the potential land cover in 2025, 2050 and 2085 was estimated using the Markov chain algorithm in the IDRISI software. The results show that the Oueme basin is predominantly savanna (77.70% in 1975, 66.29% in 2000 and 57.10% in 2013). Forest areas, which represented the second class in 1975 with a total proportion of 13.34%, have gradually decreased to 8.66% and 6.89% respectively in 2000 and 2013. Conversely, cultivated areas more than tripled in 2000 and quadrupled in 2013. Residential areas are increasing very strongly in the southern part of the basin with an amplification in the recent period (6% between 2000-2013 against 2% between 1975-2000). The recent period is more exposed to changes in surface condition and these changes are likely to be amplified in the future (probable total disappearance of forested areas in 2085). We recommend clarifying the impacts that each land use category generates/will generate on the hydrological cycle of this basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0161.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: soil erosion; rainfall simulator; soil protection; USLE; soil loss ratio; cover crops; C-factor; runoff coefficient
Online: 9 January 2023 (10:54:58 CET)
In the Czech Republic, the Universal Soil Loss Equation provides the basis for defining the soil protection strategy. Field rainfall simulators were used to define the actual cover-management factor values of the most extensively seeded crops in the Czech Republic. More than 380 simulations between 2016 and 2021 provided data. The methodology focused on multi-seasonal measurements to cover the most important phenological phases. A comparison with the original USDA values for maize showed that it is desirable to redefine the C-factor. 71 fallow plot experiments showed that the rainfall-runoff relation is much easier to replicate than the actual sediment transport. For 30-minute intensive rainfall, the runoff ratio reached 62%, and the coefficient of variation was 25%. On saturated soil, the runoff ratio reached 81% and the coefficient of variation dropped to 12%. Soil protection techniques have a significant effect on runoff reduction. Maize seeded after cover crops and combined with reduced tillage or direct seeding can reduce the runoff ratio to 10-20% for ‘dry’ conditions and to 12-40% for ‘saturated’ conditions. Concerning soil loss, the variations are greater, with the coefficient of variation reaching 42% during fallow plot experiments. The reader should consider associated uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0152.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: riverine particulate material; phytoplankton; seawater; growth; organic carbon cycle; nutrients; primary production; carbon burial; CO2
Online: 9 January 2023 (07:52:27 CET)
Riverine particulates dominate the transport of vital nutrients like Si, Fe or P to the ocean mar-gins, where they may increase primary production by acting as slow release fertilizer. Further-more, the supply of particulate surface area to the ocean is considered to be a major control or-ganic carbon burial. Taken together, these observations suggest a close link between the supply of riverine particulate material and the organic carbon cycle. To explore this link, we conducted microcosm experiments to measure the growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii in the presence and absence of different types and concentrations of riverine particulate material. Results demonstrate a strong positive effect of riverine particulate material on diatom growth with increased total diatom concentrations and slowed post-exponential death rates with in-creasing particulate concentration. Moreover, SEM and optical microscope investigations con-firm that riverine particulates facilitates organic carbon burial through their role in the aggrega-tion and sedimentation of phytoplankton. The supply of riverine particulate material has been shown to be markedly climate sensitive with their fluxes increasing dramatically with increas-ing global temperature and runoff. This pronounced climate sensitivity implies that riverine particulates contribute substantially in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations through their role in the organic carbon cycle.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0144.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: drone surveys; weed management; weed mapping; VARI; St John’s wort
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:48:13 CET)
This paper presents a simple drone survey and image processing approach to identifying St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on grazing land in the Hunter Valley NSW, Australia. St John’s wort is an invasive species (weed) that competes with pasture, poisons livestock, can downgrade wool with ‘vegetable fault’, and decreases property values. Identifying the locations of St John wort from the ground can be difficult due to topography, limited access, and/or larger land areas of mixed vegetation. In this study, a drone was used to survey a 174-ha grazing property in the Hunter Valley NSW (Australia). The images were stitched together using commercially available software. A unique Visual Atmospheric Resistance Index (VARI) attribute was identified and used to highlight the presence of St John’s wort in the survey area. These sub-areas were then digitised onto high resolution maps for future planning use by land managers.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0201.v5
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Carbon sequestration; Elemental stoichiometry; Energy use efficiency; First principles; Sequestration scale; Sequestration time
Online: 9 January 2023 (01:14:28 CET)
Although several carbon sequestration methods have been proposed according to theories from various disciplines, it is not known which method is the best. This study evaluated and summarized the advantage and disadvantages of several major carbon sequestration methods, including carbon capture and sequestration, ocean alkalinization, algal cultivation, and wood burial, based on the first principles, namely, sequestration scale and time, elemental stoichiometry, and energy use efficiency. This study suggested that, at present, wood burial may be a leading candidate for carbon sequestration because it can be implemented immediately on a large scale, is cost-effective and efficient, has a long sequestration time, has low technical requirements, and has a relatively low impact on agriculture. This study also discussed the implementation of wood burial from the perspective of nutrient requirements. To achieve carbon neutrality by 2050, the present study proposed a 25-year project starting in 2025 with an average sequestration rate of 3 Pg C per year, which includes burying 1.5 Pg of dead wood carbon and the creation of 9.7 × 106 ha woodland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0556.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Three Lines One Permit; web-based interactive analysis; online environmental planning analysis platform; EIA approval; Web-GIS; geospatial data; Guangzhou
Online: 29 December 2022 (08:56:25 CET)
Currently, an interactive environmental planning analysis system platform based on " Three Lines One Permit " (TLOP) is being developed to support environmental planning, construction project approval, and the application of TLOP outcome data in Guangzhou. The main objective is to provide governments, businesses and the public with environmental planning analysis tools to determine the site of construction projects. The platform is using the system architecture of the browser and server. Its core functions are interactive environmental planning analysis tool for construction project and the results display tool supporting map viewing. It provides users with a large number of detailed geospatial data and TLOP results data access and environmental planning analysis functions. This article describes the system architecture and implementation of the system platform and has a case study illustrating the system functionality. At present, the platform has been deployed and trial-operated. The content of the analysis framework is constantly expanding. This promotes the matching of environmental planning and analysis with local conditions. This will implement the application of TLOP and improve the efficiency of project construction and the level of ecological environment planning and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0534.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Indoor air quality; forecasting; machine learning; IoT; Covid-19; environmental mapping; pandemic.
Online: 28 December 2022 (09:10:46 CET)
The current COVID19 pandemic has raised huge concerns for outdoor air quality due to expected lungs deterioration. These concerns include the challenges in the scalable prediction of harmful gases like carbon dioxide, iterative/repetitive inhaling due to mask and environmental temperature harshness. Even in the presence of air quality sensing devices, these challenges lead to failed planning and strategy against respiratory diseases, epidemics, and pandemics in severe cases. In this work, a dual time-series with bi-cluster sensor data-stream-based novel optimized regression algorithm was proposed with optimization predictors and optimization responses that use automated iterative optimization of the model based on the similarity coefficient index. The algorithm was implemented over SeReNoV2 sensor nodes data, i.e. multi-variate dual time-series of environmental and US Environmental Protection Agency standard sensor variables for air quality index measured from air quality sensors with geospatial profiling. The SeReNoV2 systems were placed at four locations that were 3 km apart to monitor air quality and their data was collected at Ubidots IoT platform over GSM. Results have shown that the proposed technique achieved a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.0042 with a training time of 469.28 seconds for normal and RMSE of 1.646 in the training time of 28.53 seconds for optimization. The estimated R-Squared error of 0.03 with Mean-Square Error for temperature 1.0084 ᵒC and 293.98 ppm for CO2 was observed. Furthermore, the Mean-Absolute Error (MAE) for temperature 0.66226 ᵒC and 10.252 ppm for CO2 at a prediction speed of ~5100 observations/second for temperature 45000 observations/second for CO2 due to iterative optimization of the training time 469.28 seconds for temperature and 28.53 seconds for CO2 was very promising in forecasting COVID19 countermeasures before time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0107.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: green infrastructure; transdisciplinary; water systems; Costa Rica; co-design; prototype
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:55:16 CET)
The management of urban water has evolved from single-function systems to more sustainable designs promoting society and nature as inputs to engineer novel infrastructure. In transdisciplinary research, co-design refers to a design thinking strategy in which people jointly frame a problem-solution. This article presents a conceptual framework to assess a case study focusing on the process of co-design and implementation of green infrastructure as a prototype for stormwater management. The evaluation is carried out from a self-reflective post-implementation perspective. Research activities are translated into the framework to evaluate conditions shaping the trajectory of the prototype. As a result, key aspects driving the research regarding levels of stakeholder participation and dimensions of power are identified. Planning resilient co-design strategies to retrofit urban spaces is necessary to avoid unintended consequences, especially at the initial experimental stages. This study aims to contribute to the continuous improvement of pilot strategies in urban spaces by providing a framework for a structured evaluation of research experiences.