ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0424.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: requirements engineering; tools; survey; practitioners
Online: 8 October 2023 (04:42:34 CEST)
Many requirements engineering tools have been existing for gathering, documenting and tracing requirements that can even be further processed for such purposes as analysis and transformation. In this study, we analysed 56 different requirements engineering tools for a comprehensive set of features that are categorised into multiple viewpoints (i.e., project management, specification, collaboration, customisation, interoperability, methodology, knowledge management). The analysis results led to many interesting findings. Some of them are as follows: (i) the project planning and execution activities are rarely supported, (ii) multi-user access and versioning are highly supported, (iii) the top-popular specification technique is natural languages, while precise specification via modeling languages is rarely supported, (iv) requirements analysis is rarely supported, (v) requirements transformation is considered for generating documents only, (vi) tool customisation via the tool integration and API support is highly popular, while customising the notation set is rarely supported, (vii) exchanging requirements is popular in such standards as ReqIF and Excel/CSV, while no single standard are accepted by all the tools, (viii agile development is very common, while other methodologies (e.g., MDE and SPLE) are rarely supported, and (viii) user-guide, telephone, e-mail, videos are the top methods for sharing knowledge. The analysis results will be useful for different stakeholders including practitioners, tool vendors and researchers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0869.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: patient flow; lean; communication; complexity; tools
Online: 13 September 2023 (09:37:43 CEST)
Background: Poor patient flow can lead to adverse outcomes for patients and organisational inefficiency. Many hospitals have addressed suboptimal patient flow by increasing resourcing, such as bed stock and staffing, however, this is an unsustainable approach. In determining the nature of poor patient flow issues, it is important to collect data from healthcare professionals who manage patient flow on a daily basis. Doing so provides insights into the current state of patient flow management in its entirety, whilst also helping with the development of sustainable solutions.; Methods: Thirteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians who were directly involved with patient flow at a tertiary care centre in Tasmania, Australia. Results: Through a thematic analysis method, four major themes were developed: managing patient flow, communication for decisions, tools as enablers and barriers and increasing complexity. Conclusions: The findings of this study provide great insights into patient flow issues, with potential solutions identified to address them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1517.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: random; vibrations; tillage; tools; complex; cultivator
Online: 21 July 2023 (11:39:13 CEST)
The article continues the exposition of the results obtained in the research of an agricultural machine for processing soil, designed for research with applications including exploitation. The MCLS complex cultivator was designed for the research of the working processes of the instruments intended for soil processing. The MCLS cultivator is a modulated machine (it can work for three working widths: 1, 2, and 4 m, with tractors of different powers) that is designed to use a wide range of working bodies. The experimental data obtained with the structure with a working width of 1 m and the results of their processing within the framework of the theory of random vibrations are presented in this article. The experimental results are analysed as random vibrations of the supports of the active body. As a result, the main characteristics of random vibrations are exposed: the distribution function, the average value, the autocorrelation, and the frequency spectrum. These general results regarding random vibrations are used for several critical applications in the design, execution, and exploitation of some subassemblies and assemblies of agricultural machines of this type. The main applications are: estimating the probability of the occurrence of dangerous load peaks, counting and selecting the load peaks that produce fatigue accumulation in the material of the supports of the working bodies, identifying some design deficiencies or defects in the work regime, estimating the effects of vibrations on the quality of soil processing. All the outcomes are comprised of applications in MCLS research and exploitation. The applications pursue well-known objectives of modeling the working processes of agricultural machines: safety at work, increasing the quality of work, optimizing energy consumption, and increasing productivity, all in a broad context to obtain a compromise situation
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0071.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nutrition screening tools; malnutrition; nutritional assessment
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:01:24 CEST)
Malnutrition is a serious problem with negative impact on the quality of life and the evolution of our patients, contributing to an increase in morbidity, hospital stay, mortality and health spending. Early identification is fundamental to implement the necessary therapeutic actions involving adequate nutritional support to prevent or reverse malnutrition. This review presents two complementary methods of fighting malnutrition: nutritional screening and nutritional assessment. Nutritional risk screening is conducted using simple, quick-to-perform tools and is the first line of action in detecting at-risk patients. It should be implemented systematically and periodically on admission to hospital or residential care, as well as on an outpatient basis for patients with chronic conditions. Once patients with a nutritional risk have been detected they should undergo a more detailed nutritional assessment to identify and quantify the type and degree of malnutrition. This should include health history and clinical examination, dietary history, anthropometric measurements, evaluation of the degree of aggression determined by the disease, functional assessment and, whenever possible, some method of measuring body composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Protein structure and dynamics; Molecular structure and modeling; Protein and macromolecules; Computational methods and bioinformatics; Computer-based teaching tools; Learning materials and teaching tools; Multimedia teaching tools
Online: 7 February 2020 (11:42:09 CET)
Biomolecular structure drives function, and computational capabilities have progressed such that the prediction and computational design of biomolecular structures is increasingly feasible. Because computational biophysics attracts students from many different backgrounds and with different levels of resources, teaching the subject can be challenging. One strategy to teach diverse learners is with interactive multimedia material that promotes self-paced, active learning. We have created a hands-on education strategy with a set of fifteen modules that teach topics in biomolecular structure and design, from fundamentals of conformational sampling and energy evaluation to applications like protein docking, antibody design, and RNA structure prediction. Our modules are based on PyRosetta, a Python library that encapsulates all computational modules and methods in the Rosetta software package. The workshop-style modules are implemented as Jupyter Notebooks that can be executed in the Google Colaboratory, allowing learners access with just a web browser. The digital format of Jupyter Notebooks allows us to embed images, molecular visualization movies, and interactive coding exercises. This multimodal approach may better reach students from different disciplines and experience levels as well as attract more researchers from smaller labs and cognate backgrounds to leverage PyRosetta in their science and engineering research. All materials are freely available at https://github.com/RosettaCommons/PyRosetta.notebooks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1712.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: software tools; bioinformatics; cancer prognostics; predictive modelling
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:23:11 CEST)
Precision medicine approaches often relies on complex and integrative analysis of multiple biomarkers from “omics” data to generate insights that can help either diagnostics, prognostics or therapeutical decisions. Such insights are often made using Machine learning (ML) models that make sample classification for a particular phenotype (yes/no). Building such models is a challenge and time-consuming, requiring advanced coding skills and mathematical modelling expertise. Artificial intelligence (AI) is a methodological solution that has the potential to facilitate, optimize and scale model development. In this work, we developed an AI-based, user-friendly and code-free platform (https://digitalphenomics.com) that fully automates the development of predictive models from quantitative “omics” data. Here, we show the application of this tool with the development of cancer survival prognostics models using real-life data from breast, lung and renal cancer transcriptomes. We report and compare their sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve Area Under the Curve (AUC). Further, we report the associated sets of genes (biomarkers) and their expression pattern that are predictive of cancer survival. Moreover, we made our models available as online tools to generate prognostic predictions based on the gene expression of the biomarkers. In conclusion, we demonstrated that our tool is a robust user-friendly solution to develop bespoke predictive tools from “omics” data which facilitate precision medicine introduction to the point-of-care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: length compensation; non-bar system; machine tools
Online: 13 December 2018 (08:10:36 CET)
Facing with errors of a product after machining was a big title in this field. That will affect to product’s quality with unpredictable situation when products is in use for some particular application such as in medical facilities. Improving the precision of machine tools by exploring temperature on multiple points and measuring differential locations of the spindle is going to be executed in this study. A temperature measurement tool and a software running on Windows platform have been developed and combining with Non-bar system in order to support analyzing the temperature rising with the changes of length of the spindle to find the compensation solution based on eccentricity and length distortion. In this study, the whole tests have done on UX300 five – axis CNC machine tools for this investigation and the errors after applying compensation function have reduced 70% at least, with respect to the errors after machining without using compensation function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0013.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: flexible abrasive tools; finishing; rounding edge; superalloys
Online: 3 December 2018 (08:57:22 CET)
Many manufacturing sectors require high surface finishing. After machining operations such as milling or drilling, undesirable burrs or insufficient edge finishing may be generated. For decades, many finishing processes have been handmade-basis; this fact is accentuated when dealing with complex geometries especially for high value-added parts. In recent years, it’s a tendency of trying to automate as far as possible this kind of processes, repeatability and time/money savings are main purposes. Based on that idea, the aim of this work is to check new tools and strategies for finishing aeronautical parts, especially critical engine parts made on Inconel 718, a very ductile nickel alloy. Automating edge finishing of chamfered holes is a complicated but really important goal. In this paper, flexible abrasive tools were used for this purpose. A complete study of different abrasive possibilities was carried out, mainly focusing on roughness analysis and final edge results obtained.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Falls; Falls risk assessment tools; geriatric medicine; sarcopenia
Online: 14 April 2023 (09:38:29 CEST)
Background: Falls risk assessment tools are used in hospital inpatient settings to identify pa-tients at increased risk of falls (which may be related to muscle loss/sarcopenia) to guide and target interventions for falls prevention. In 2022, Western Health, Melbourne, Australia, intro-duced a new falls risk assessment tool, the Western Health St. Thomas’ Risk Assessment Tool (WH-STRATIFY), a modified version of The Northern Hospital’s risk tool (TNH-STRATIFY), which replaced the Peninsula Health Risk Screening Tool (PH-FRAT). Aims: To determine the predictive accuracy of three falls risk assessment tools (PH-FRAT, TNH-STRATIFY and WH-STRATIFY) on admission to Geriatric Evaluation Management (GEM) units. Method: A retrospective observational study was conducted on four GEM units. Data was col-lected on 54 consecutive patients who fell during admission and 62 randomly sampled patients who did not fall between December 2020 and June 2021. Participants were scored against three falls risk assessment tools. The event rate Youden (Youden IndexER) indices were calculated and compared using default and optimal cut points to determine which tool was most accurate for predicting falls. Results: Using default cut points to compare falls assessment tools, TNH-STRATIFY had the highest predictive accuracy (Youden IndexER = 0.20, 95% confidence interval CI = 0.07, 0.34). The PH-FRAT (Youden IndexER = 0.01 and 95% CI = -0.04, 0.05) and WH-STRATIFY (Youden IndexER = 0.00 and 95% CI = -0.04, 0.03) were statistically equivalent and not predictive of falls compared to TNH-STRATIFY. When calculated optimal cut points were applied, predictive accuracy im-proved for PH-FRAT (Cut point 17, Youden IndexER = 0.14 and 95% CI = 0.01, 0.29) and WH-STRATIFY (Cut point 7, Youden IndexER = 0.18 and 95% CI = 0.00, 0.35). Overall, all tools had low predictive accuracy for falls. Conclusion: TNH-STRATIFY had the highest predictive accuracy for falls. The predictive accu-racy of WH-STRATIFY improved and was significant when the calculated optimal cut point was applied. The optimal cut points of falls risk assessment tools should be determined and validated in different clinical settings to optimise local predictive accuracy, enabling targeted falls risk mitigation strategies and resource allocation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0085.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Legal research; Disruption; Legal AI tools
Online: 5 October 2021 (13:04:06 CEST)
Legal research is an indispensable skill for lawyers. Therefore, it is always necessary for lawyers to engage in legal research in due course of trying to alleviate various legal problems. Although the purpose and methodology of the research may vary from lawyer to lawyer, doing research is a common activity. As a result, the quest to assess the impacts of artificial intelligence (hereinafter ‘AI’) on legal research allows one to measure the influence of AI on the legal profession in general. Moreover, with the advent of Legal AI, it is now evident that the legal profession is not immune from disruption. According to the above, this article discusses the impacts of AI on research in the legal profession in general in accomplishing various lawyerly tasks by different legal professionals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorders; Diagnostic Tools; Sex; Differential Diagnostic.
Online: 2 March 2021 (10:05:57 CET)
Studies on the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders show a gender disproportion. In the last years, there has been an increasing interest in the search for an explanation. There are two main lines of research; the first one looks for sex-related biological reasons that justifies the low prevalence of ASD in women (some protective factor related to hormones or immune system among others), and the second line of studies is related to the possible biases introduced in the diagnostic tools or procedures. In this article, a review of the latter line of research is made. Theoretical analysis following two objectives: a) Analysis of possible biases in diagnostic tools and b) Other non-biological explanations for gender differences in the prevalence of ASD. The literature analyzed provides contradictory results although it evidences the possible bias both in the construction of the diagnostic tools and in the assessment and determination of their standards. It is necessary to develop specific or complementary tools and diagnostic procedures differentiated by gender in order to control for this bias.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: molecular graphics; protein visualization; software tools; virtual reality
Online: 12 January 2020 (16:26:54 CET)
Molecular visualisation is fundamental in the current scientific literature, textbooks and dissemination materials, forming an essential support for presenting results, reasoning on and formulating hypotheses related to molecular structure. Visual exploration has become easily accessible on a broad variety of platforms thanks to advanced software tools that render a great service to the scientific community. These tools are often developed across disciplines bridging computer science, biology and chemistry. Here we first describe a few Swiss Army knives geared towards protein visualisation for everyday use with an existing large user base, then focus on more specialised tools for peculiar needs that are not yet as broadly known. Our selection is by no means exhaustive, but reflects a diverse snapshot of scenarios that we consider informative for the reader. We end with an account of future trends and perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0054.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: smart transport tools; ‘smart’ and sustainable; social-sustainability
Online: 3 May 2018 (08:17:38 CEST)
In the smart city, information and communications technologies (ICTs) are proposed as solutions to urban challenges, including sustainability concerns. While sustainability commonly refers to economic and environmental dimensions, the concept also contains a social component. Our study asked how smartphone applications (apps) address social sustainability challenges in urban transport, if at all. We focused on transport disadvantages experienced due to low income, physical disability, and language barriers. A review of 60 apps showed that transport apps respond to these equity and inclusion issues in two ways: (a) by employing universal design in general-use apps; including cost-conscious features; and providing language options (b) by specifically developing smartphone apps for persons with disabilities. The article discusses the study by positioning it in the literature of smart cities as well as socially sustainable transport.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0729.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: circular economy; circularity assessment; industries; circularity enhancement; digital tools
Online: 11 October 2023 (12:20:59 CEST)
Circular economy has recently emerged as a key strategy for promoting sustainability and reducing waste in various industrial sectors. This paper provides an overview of circularity in aerospace, wind energy, transportation, automotive and sports goods using data and information from the literature and the EC funded project "RECREATE". The survey reviews the different definitions, assessment methods and metrics used to explore and evaluate circularity, including assessment frameworks such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and assessment indicators. Furthermore, explores the challenges, possibilities and the available tools for enhancing circularity, such as digital tools. The survey highlights the importance of a holistic and systemic technique to circularity, concerning all stakeholders along the value chain. Overall, this study aims to contribute to a better understanding of circular economy and provides insights for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0050.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: groundwater exploration; fracture trace analysis; geophysics; geomorphology; geospatial tools
Online: 2 December 2022 (10:46:03 CET)
Groundwater is a strategic resource for economic development, social justice, environmental sustainability, and water governance. The Lower Casas Grandes Basin located in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico is in a semi-arid region that has increasing groundwater demands while confronting regional challenges such as adverse climate change scenarios and depleting aquifers. Even though there is official information about the availability of groundwater, comprehensive aquifer characterization is still uncertain and needs interdisciplinary investigation using a diverse suite of tools and multiple data sources. This study presents a multi-technique framework to evaluate potential sites to drill for groundwater resources. The main components of the methodology included: wellhead leveling correction with a differential global positioning survey to define piezometric levels, principal component analysis using Landsat-8 images, application of geospatial tools, geophysics using Time Domain Electromagnetic Surveys and Vertical Electric Soundings and structural geohydrology to define aquifer characteristics. Results show that the application of the framework enhances the possibility of successful drilling for groundwater while saving time and money using “pin-point” positioning for drilling sites as compared to a traditional extensive groundwater exploration approach. Low resistivity values (35 Ohm-m) were found at depths from 50m to 85m at sites where the regional static water level reached 245 m deep adding a shallow groundwater potential at sites where the intersection of fracture trace was identified. This procedure can be used at other sites where limited or minimum information is available for groundwater exploration to reduce the risk of drilling dry wells in complex hydrogeological environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0121.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: social criteria; building assessment tools; sustainable development; social sustainability
Online: 15 January 2018 (07:55:41 CET)
The social criteria of sustainable development have remained underexplored. Moreover, a large number of green building assessment tool and social sustainability documentations have been developed which, has had a direct impact on social criteria issues, but there seems to be a substantial gap in the study of social criteria in green building assessment tools. In examining the problem facing social sustainability, taking into consideration social sustainability in sustainable development reviews and green building assessment tool towards social aspects. This paper through analysis identified a centripetal conceptual framework composed of seven key components equity, education, participation & control, social cohesion, health & safety, accessibility & satisfaction, and cultural values. The interpretation of the social sustainability in green building assessment tool would impact building practitioners towards implementing social criteria in GBAT. The aim was to identify social categories as well as consider a starting point for the development of an effective social criteria assessment tool for green building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0466.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant metabolomics; metabolite identification; data visualisation; omics data; bioinformatics tools
Online: 10 July 2023 (13:49:20 CEST)
The advancement of mass spectrometry technologies has revolutionised plant metabolomics research by enabling the acquisition of raw metabolomics data. However, the identification, analysis, and visualisation of these data require specialised tools. Existing solutions lack a dedicated plant-specific metabolite database and pose usability challenges. To address these limitations, we developed PlantMetSuite, a web-based tool for comprehensive metabolomics analysis and visualisation. PlantMetSuite encompasses interactive bioinformatics tools and databases specifically tailored for plant metabolomics data, facilitating upstream-to-downstream analysis in metabolomics and supporting integrative multi-omics investigations. PlantMetSuite can be accessed directly through a user's browser without the need for installation or programming skills. The tool is freely available at https://plantmetsuite.verygenome.com/ and will undergo regular updates and expansions to incorporate additional libraries and newly published metabolomics analysis methods. The tool's significance lies in empowering researchers with an accessible and customisable platform for unlocking plant metabolomics insights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1521.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: potyvirus; in silico tools; sugarcane mosaic virus; miRNA; RNA interference
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:58:12 CEST)
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a deleterious pathogen which causes widespread Sugarcane mosaic disease (SCMD) and is classified in the genus Potyvirus (Potyviridae), disseminated by the aphid vector. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated antiviral innate immunity is a key biological process and antiviral defence system to interfere with viral genomes for controlling plant pathogens. The current study aims to analyze sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. and Saccharum spp.) locus-derived microRNAs (sof-miRNAs/ssp-miRNAs) with predicted potential for targeting the SCMV +ssRNA-encoded mRNAs, using ‘five algorithms’ approach. The ultimate goal in this research is to mobilize the in silico endogenous predicted sof-miRNAs/ssp-miRNAs to trigger RNAi catalytic pathway experimentally and generate sugarcane cultivars for evaluating potential antiviral resistance monitoring capability and capacity for SCMV. Experimentally validated mature sugarcane (S. officinarum, 2n = 8X = 80) and (S. spp., 2n = 100-120) sof-miRNAs/ssp-miRNAs (n = 28) were acquired for alignment with the SCMV genome. Of the 28 targeting mature locus-derived sof-miRNAs/ssp-miRNAs investigated, one sugarcane miRNA homolog, sof-miR159c, was concluded to localize potential binding site at genomic nucleotide site 3847 targeting CI ORF of SCMV. In order to validate target prediction accuracy, whether the sugarcane sof-miRNA/ssp-miRNA might bind predicted SCMV mRNA target(s), we created an integrated Circos plot. Genome-wide in-silico-predicted miRNA-mediated target gene regulatory network validated interactions that warrant in vivo analysis. The current work provides valuable evidence and biological material for generating SCMV-resistant sugarcane varieties.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1392.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Smart City; Smart City Assessment; Developing Economies; PRISMA; Assessment Tools
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:31:05 CEST)
There are limited research articles focusing on Smart City Assessment (SCA) applications since it is a relatively new field of research and practice. However, numerous studies have been conducted and published to date, particularly in developing countries, with the broad objective of building theoretical frameworks that are centered on smart city assessments. This scoping review systematically provides an examination on the available literature on SCA, with a goal of synthesizing smart city assessments in developing economies. In order to improve the quality and transparency of the reviews and meta-analysis, as well as to reduce the risk of bias, this paper adopted the PRISMA scoping review research design to analyze 25 journal articles. Results showed that conceptual modeling appears to be the most common method identified while industrial development emerged as the most common objective identified in the MFO Model. On the other hand, ISO 37122:2019 was the most prevalent framework used in the collected sample size with 6 journal articles followed by IoT-Enabled Smart City Framework with 5 journal articles while Smart Cities Index Framework obtained 3. Meanwhile, India emerged as a leader in the global Smart City movement followed by Malaysia and Africa. The Qualitative Research Design approach was the most common among the literatures while social science was the most common subject area among the 25 journals being studied. More so, sustainability and renewable energy are the two most important assessment categories in SCA tools. By collating and evaluating different criteria and metrics in existing SCA, cities can learn from their successes and failures, adjust their strategies, and share best practices with other cities. This can foster a culture of continuous improvement and innovation in urban governance, and ultimately lead to more livable, resilient, and prosperous cities for all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0242.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; mathematics; digital tools; digital skills; teacher; e-learning
Online: 14 March 2023 (03:42:56 CET)
This qualitative study explores the implementation and conformation process of digital devices in teaching and learning before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory as a framework, the study examines the adoption and adaptation of digital devices by in-service secondary mathematics teachers (n=62) and their perceptions and preferences towards instructional modality. The findings suggest that despite the increased reliance on digital devices during the pandemic, there is a less likelihood of using them in face-to-face classrooms in developing countries like Nepal. The adoption of online learning has not yet reached the confirmation stage, even after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to the pandemic, online learning was not widely implemented or confirmed by teachers in developing countries societies. The study also provides important insights into the challenges and opportunities of using digital devices in post-COVID-19 classrooms, and its implications for policymakers and educators in Nepal.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0020.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: heterogeneity; autism models; subgroups in autism; ASD-questionnaires; analysis tools
Online: 1 March 2022 (11:51:15 CET)
The goal of this paper is to review the relevant literature on autism questionnaires, models, analytic tools, and subgrouping, focusing on the opportunities and limitations. We examined how the size and nature of the database and the number and type of parameters measured determine the use of analytic tools and the expected type of results. To support our position about the examined aspects, we rely on various parts of the reviewed articles. We emphasize that the individual results in each article can only be interpreted in the light of the methods that brought about the conclusions. The reviewed literature suggests a heterogeneous palette in autism subtypes instead of distinct, well-characterized subgroups, or a single-dimensional continuous spectrum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0663.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: equine; arenas; sand; base layers; portable tools; safety; equine welfare
Online: 29 July 2021 (14:07:06 CEST)
Quantitative measurements of performance parameters has the potential to increase consistency and enhance performance of the surfaces as well as to contribute to the safety of horses and riders. This study investigates how factors known to influence the performance of the surface, incorpo-ration of a drainage package, control of the moisture control, and introduction of a geotextile reinforcement, affect quantitative measurements of arena materials. The measurements are made by using affordable lightweight testing tools which are readily available or easily constructed. Sixteen boxes with arena materials at a consistent depth were tested with the Going Stick (GS), both penetration resistance and shear, the impact test device (ITD), and the rotational peak shear device (RPS). Volumetric moisture content (VMC %) was also tested with time-domain reflectometry (TDR). Results obtained using GS, RPS, ITD, and TDR indicate that the presence of the drainage package, moisture content, and geotextile addition were detected. Alterations due to combinations of treatments could also be detected by GS, ITD, and TDR. While the testing showed some limi-tations of these devices, the potential exists to utilize them for quality control of new installations as well as for the monitoring of maintenance of the surfaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0454.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: LaiPen; Management Tools; Remote sensing; Vegetation indices; Spatio-temporal changes
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:26:34 CEST)
The leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation biophysical index that provides broad information on the dynamic behavior of ecosystems productivity and related climate, topography, and edaphic impacts. The spatio-temporal changes of LAI were assessed throughout Ardabil Province, a host of relevant plant communities within the critical ecoregion of a semi-arid climate. In a comparative study, novel data from Google Earth Engine- GEE was tested against traditional ENVI measures to provide LAI estimations. Besides, it is of important practical significance for institutional networks to quantitatively and accurately estimate LAI at large areas in a short time and using appropriate baseline vegetation indices. Therefore, LAI was characterized for ecoregions of Ardabil Province using remote sensing indices extracted from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), including Enhanced Vegetation Index calculated in GEE (EVIG) and ENVI5.3 software (EVIE), as well as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index estimated in ENVI5.3 software (NDVIE). Besides, a new field measurement method, i.e., the LaiPen LP 100 portable device (LP 100), was used to evaluate the accuracy of the derived indices. Accordingly, the LAI was measured on June and July 2020 in 822 ground points distributed in 16 different ecoregions-sub ecoregions having various Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the shrub, bush, and tree. The analyses revealed heterogeneous spatial and temporal variability in vegetation indices and LAIs within and between ecoregions. The mean (standard deviation) value of EVIG, EVIE, and NDVIE at Province scale yielded 1.1 (0.41), 2.20 (0.78), and 3.00 (1.01), respectively in June, and 0.67 (0.37), 0.80 (0.63), and 1.88 (1.23), in that respect in July. The highest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June are found in Meshginshahr (1.40), Meshginshahr (2.80), and Hir (4.33) ecoregions and in July are found in Andabil ecoregion respectively with values of 1.23, 1.5, and 3.64. The lowest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June were observed for Kowsar (0.67), Meshginshahr (1.8), and Neur (2.70), ecoregions and in July were for Bilesavar ecoregion respectively with values of 0.31, 0.31, and 0.81. High correlation and determination coefficients (r>0.83 and R2>0.68) between LP 100 and remote sensing derived LAI were observed in all three PFTs (except for NDVIE-LAI in June with r=0.56 and R2=0.31). On average, all three examined LAI measures tended to underestimation compared to LP 100-LAI (r>0.42). The findings of the present study can be promising for effective monitoring and proper management of vegetation and land use in Ardabil Province and other similar areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: virus bioinformatics; SARS-CoV-2; sequencing; epidemiology; drug design; tools
Online: 23 May 2020 (11:01:11 CEST)
SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) is a novel virus of the family Coronaviridae. The virus causes the infectious disease COVID-19. The biology of coronaviruses has been studied for many years. However, bioinformatics tools designed explicitly for SARS-CoV-2 have only recently been developed as a rapid reaction to the need for fast detection, understanding, and treatment of COVID-19. To control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is of utmost importance to get insight into the evolution and pathogenesis of the virus. In this review, we cover bioinformatics workflows and tools for the routine detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the reliable analysis of sequencing data, the tracking of the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluation of containment measures, the study of coronavirus evolution, the discovery of potential drug targets and development of therapeutic strategies. For each tool, we briefly describe its use case and how it advances research specifically for SARS-CoV-2. All tools are freely available online, either through web applications or public code repositories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0285.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: children with autism; education; learning tools; design; intervention; assistive technology
Online: 30 March 2019 (06:27:17 CET)
The prevalence of autism in children in the world is estimated as one per 62 children, higher levels reported in some countries. These children experience significant problems with the development of social, behavioural and verbal and non-verbal communication skills. The skills impairment levels varies from an individual to another and that made teaching autistics a challenge for caregivers such as teachers and relatives. Hence, there are quite a number of frameworks of a software learning systems which focus on gaining the children’s attention using representational visual illustration as a learning method instead of the textual form. However, majority of these tools are lacking the personalisation ability to suite everyone in the spectrum. Assistive technology offers an alternative way to attract children with autism. Therefore, this research is proposing an Adaptive Content Management Learning System (ACMLS) model to assist caregivers to produce, design and fine-tune or customise the learning materials appropriately so that the system interface and the materials are suitable for every individual in the spectrum according to each child personal profile aiming to make learning attractive and to contribute in improving their social, communication and behavioural skills and nonetheless, their attention level to the delivered educational topics. The ACMLS model design adopts four main components which are: (1) Design component: which covers the visual design, design principles and the mental model of the children with autism. (2) Technology component: which covers the assistive technology tools and the architecture of the ACMLS system. (3) Education component: Which covers the learning objectives, styles, strategies, methods and the cognitive model. (4) Participants component: which covers the main participants who’re playing a role in the ACMLS model such as: caregivers and children with autism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Tool wear; Prediction model; Ultrasonic vibration; Coated cutting tools; Tool temperature
Online: 19 May 2023 (05:26:01 CEST)
Nickel base superalloy GH4169 is a material with strong mechanical properties and is difficult to process. In order to reduce tool wear during material processing and improve workpiece surface processing quality, based on the finite element simulation software DEFORM, the influence of n, ap, and fz parameters on tool wear during carbide tool milling GH4169 was studied, and a simulation orthogonal experimental model was established, The prediction model of tool wear is obtained; The ultrasonic vibration milling is compared with ordinary milling, and the improvement degree of different coating materials on carbide tool wear is explored. The results show that the ultrasonic vibration signal is helpful to reduce tool wear, improve the surface quality of the workpiece, and improve the stability of the milling process. TIALN/TIN (WC) composite coated tools have good cutting performance, help to reduce tool temperature, reduce tool wear, and improve tool life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Requirements Engineering; Authoring Tools; 3D content; IEEE 830 standard; Social Media
Online: 8 April 2021 (10:16:52 CEST)
This paper presents a requirements specification analysis for driving the design of new systems that will allow 3D media creators to further promote and monetize from their work. The provided requirements analysis is based on the IEEE 830 standard for requirements specification. It allows us to elucidate system requirements through existing (AS-IS) and envisioned (TO-BE) scenarios affected by the latest trends on design methodologies and content promotion in social media. A total of 30 tools for content creation, promotion and monetization are reviewed. The target groups, i.e. creator groups, are divided in 10 types according to their role in 3D media production. Based on this division 10 candidate TO-BE scenarios have been identified and out of these 10 scenarios, we have selected 6 scenarios for validation by media creators. The validation was performed through a survey of 24 statements on a 5 Likert scale by 47 individuals from the domains of Media, Fine arts, Architecture, and Informatics. Useful evaluation results and comments have been collected that can be useful for future systems design.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: web server; rational design; functionalizing enzymes; enzyme discovery; user-friendly tools
Online: 28 January 2021 (07:51:45 CET)
Enzymes are in high demand for very diverse biotechnological applications. However, natural biocatalysts often need to be engineered for fine-tuning their properties towards the end applications, such as the activity, selectivity, stability to temperature or co-solvents, and solubility. Computational methods are increasingly used in this task, providing predictions that narrow down the space of possible mutations significantly and can enormously reduce the experimental burden. Many computational tools are available as web-based platforms, making them accessible to non-expert users. These platforms are typically user-friendly, contain walk-throughs, and do not require deep expertise and installations. Here we describe some of the most recent outstanding web-tools for enzyme engineering and formulate future perspectives in this field.
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: process design; sustainable development; chemical industry; process industry; megatrends; design tools
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:32:26 CET)
This paper describes the state of the art and future opportunities for process design and sustainable development. In the Introduction the main global megatrends and European Union's response to two of them, the European Green Deal, are presented. The organization of professionals in the field, their conferences and publications support the two topics. A brief analysis of the published documents in the two most popular databases shows that the environmental dimension predominates, followed by an economic one, while the social pillar of sustainable development is undervalued. The main design tools for sustainability are described. As an important practical case, the European chemical and process industries are analyzed and their achievements in sustainable development are highlighted; in particular, their strategies are presented in more detail. The conclusions cover the most urgent future development areas of the process industries, carbon capture with utilization or storage, process analysis, simulation, synthesis and optimization tools; zero waste, circular economy and resource efficiency already play an important role. However, more profound changes are needed in the coming decades, including a shift away from growth with changes in habits, lifestyles and business models. Lifelong education for sustainable development will play a very important role in the growth of democracy and happiness instead of consumerism and neoliberalism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cancer-related viruses; CRISPR-Cas diagnostic tools; DETECTR; infectious disease; SHERLOCKv2
Online: 7 April 2020 (09:43:22 CEST)
Sensitive and precise nucleic acid detection is critical for clinical diagnostics and biotechnological advancements. Diagnostic in infectious disease field is very unique from diagnosing any other disease, that is time is of the essence; in outbreaks people die even with each passing hour in some cases, if the correct diagnosis wasn't make; for example Zika in particularly is a very challenging virus to diagnose, because it's in very few numbers of copies in the infected person, so it need high sensitive diagnostic approach to spot it, In particular, the advanced tools SHERLOCKv2 and DETECTR, give almost an immediate detection of attomolar amounts of pathogenic nucleic acids with specificity similar to that of PCR but with slight technical settings and that will guide the correct intervention for the patient. SHERLOCKv2 and DETECTR technologies are game changers for our ability to identify infectious disease and rapid detection of tumor DNA or cancer-related viruses with ultra-sensitive tests that don’t require a lot of complicated processing to go through. In this paper, we will review cutting-edge infectious disease diagnosis by CRISPR-Cas systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0419.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: milling process; powder metallurgy; metallic matrix; diamond tools; mechanical properties; dylatometric test
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:18:15 CEST)
The main purpose of the work was to determine the powder composition and properties of iron-based sinters used as a matrix in metallic diamond tools. The FeCuSnNi sinters obtained from a mixture of commercial powders were used for research. The material was subjected to milling in a ball mill and sinter have been performed with the hot-pressing technique in a graphite mold. The physical and mechanical properties of the sinters were tested. The investigations of obtained sinters concerned density, porosity, hardness, oxygen content, static tensile test and analysis of microstructure. The static tensile test was carried out with the use of a universal testing machine UTS-100. The study of the microstructure of sinters was performed using the JSM-7100F scanning electron microscope. The sinters are characterized by a high coefficient of thermal expansion and good mechanical properties. The FeCuSnNi sinter revealed a complex phase structure. Spot chemical analysis revealed the presence of Fe solution, Cu solution and the presence of iron oxides oxides. Nickel atoms were present throughout the sinter volume. The obtained results indicate that the presented material can be used as a matrix of a diamond-metal composite in diamond tools for the processing of natural stones and building materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0517.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: trichovirus; in silico tools; apple chlorotic leaf spot virus; miRNA; RNA interference
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:31:09 CEST)
Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) is a widespread, deleterious and the most damaging pathogen of fruit tree plants including domesticated apple (Malus domestica) ―a great threat to apple production worldwide. The positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome of ACLSV (7.5 Kbp) encodes three proteins: RNA polymerase (Rep), movement protein (MP) and coat protein (CP). RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated antiviral innate immunity is a key sequence-specific biological phenomenon in eukaryotes to control plant viruses. The aim of this study was to analyze apple (M.domestica) locus-derived microRNAs (mdm-miRNAs) with predicted potential for targeting the ACLSV +ssRNA-encoded mRNAs, using ‘four algorithms’ approach. The ultimate goal in this research is to mobilize the in silico endogenous predicted mdm-miRNAs to trigger RNAi catalytic pathway experimentally and generate apple tree varieties for evaluating potential antiviral resistance monitoring capability and capacity for ACLSV. Experimentally validated mature apple (M.domestica, 2n = 2X = 34) mdm-miRNAs (n = 322) were acquired from miRBase database and tested for alignment with the ACLSV genome. Of the 322 targeting mature locus-derived mdm-miRNAs investigated, nine apple mdm-miRNA homologs (mdm-miR395k, mdm-miR5225c and mdm-miR7121 (a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h) were predicted by all ‘four algorithms’. Only fifty eight mdm-miRNAs were predicted consensus binding sites by union of consensus between two algorithms. The miRanda, RNA22, TAPIR algorithms predicted binding of mdm-miR395k at unique nucleotide position 4691, as the most effectively interacting mdm-miRNAs in targeting the ORF1 sequence. In order to validate target prediction accuracy, whether the apple mdm-miRNAs might bind predicted ACLSV mRNA target(s), we created an integrated Circos plot. Genome-wide in-silico-predicted miRNA-mediated target gene regulatory network validated interactions that warrant in vivo analysis. The current work provides valuable evidence and biological material for generating ACLSV-resistant apple varieties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0784.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: urban vitality index; urban morphology parameters; comparative approach; Andean region; GIS tools
Online: 23 April 2023 (07:34:36 CEST)
Urban vitality, understood as a key factor for the achievement of cities’ sustainability, shows a strong relationship with urban morphology. The city theorist Jane Jacobs suggested morphologi-cal aspects to promote vital cities already in the 1960s, which remain valid in the present. How-ever, few studies in the Andean region quantitatively exemplify this. This paper aims to test the measurement of urban vitality in a neighborhood of Quito, Ecuador, called La Mariscal, inte-grating Jacobs’ approach. In particular, three urban vitality indexes are evaluated with the appli-cation of GIS software using cadastral data obtained from the municipality and field data col-lection. Results show that the context-based previous knowledge and the scale of analysis are es-sential factors in the configuration of dimensions, indicators, and spatial representation of any urban vitality index. In the study area land use mixture, contact opportunity, and accessibility dimensions are fundamental. Regarding indicators, the incorporation of the informal small-scale commerce, the quality of sidewalks, the street slope, and the good-conditioned street furniture is recommended. Finally, a hybrid representation (raster and vectorial) is suggested to precisely measure urban vitality at a block scale. Altogether, by providing a comparative approach, we in-tend to bring a useful framework for researchers and planners to study urban vitality in Andean cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0282.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: content creation tools; plugin; Moodle; e-learning technologies; LMS; XML file; quiz
Online: 22 February 2022 (16:23:33 CET)
The use of Learning Management Systems (LMS) has had a rapid growth over the last decades. Great efforts have been recently made to assess the level of performance of the students online due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Faculty members with limited experience in the use of LMS such as Moodle, Edmodo, MOOC, Blackboard and Google Classroom can have some problems creat-ing online tests. In this work, a new plugin for Moodle is presented: FastTest PlugIn. This plugin is based on a Microsoft® Excel spreadsheet and it can be used to export questions to Moodle. Us-ers of FastTest PlugIn can create question pools in an easy and intuitive way. A literature review about plugins used to import/export questions in Moodle is carried out. Then, the characteristics of FastTest PlugIn are presented. At the end, the characteristics of the main plugins found in the literature are discussed and compared with the ones of FastTest PlugIn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Community Engagement; Needs Assessment; Digital Tools; Indigenous Health; Data Sovereignty; Evaluation Framework.
Online: 22 December 2021 (16:25:57 CET)
In community-based participatory projects, needs assessments are one of the first steps to identify priority areas. Access-related issues often pose significant barriers to participation for rural and remote communities, particularly Indigenous communities which have a complicated relationship with academia due to a history of exploitation and trauma. In order to bridge this gap, work with Indigenous communities requires consistent and meaningful engagement. The prominence of digital devices (i.e., smartphones) offers an unparalleled opportunity to ethically and equitably engage citizens across jurisdictions, particularly in remote communities. We propose a framework to guide needs assessments which embed digital tools in partnership with Indigenous communities. Guided by this framework, a needs assessment was conducted with a subarctic Métis community in Saskatchewan, Canada. This project is governed by a Citizen Scientist Advisory Council which includes Traditional Knowledge Keepers, Elders, and youth. An environmental scan of relevant programs, key informant interviews, and focus groups were conducted to systematically identify community priority areas. Given the timing of the needs assessment, the community identified the Coronavirus pandemic as a key priority area requiring digital initiatives. Recommendations for community-based needs assessments to conceptualize and implement digital infrastructure are put forward, with an emphasis on self-governance and data sovereignty.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0345.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: student academic performance; educational data mining; methods; algorithms; tools; higher education; overview
Online: 16 August 2021 (14:04:57 CEST)
This overview study set out to compare and synthesise the findings of review studies conducted on predicting student academic performance (SAP) in higher education using educational data mining (EDM) methods, EDM algorithms and EDM tools from 2013 to June 2020. It conducted multiple searches for suitable and relevant peer-reviewed articles on two online search engines, on nine online databases, and on two online academic social networks. It, then, selected 26 eligible articles from 2,050 articles. Some of the findings of this overview study are worth mentioning. First, only 2 studies explicitly stated their precise sample sizes with maths and science as the two most mentioned subject areas. Second, 16 review studies had purposes related to either EDM techniques, EDM methods, EDM models, or EDM algorithms employed to predict SAP and student success in the higher education sector. Third, there are six commonly used typologies of input variables reported by 26 review studies, of which student demographics was the most commonly utilised variable for predicting SAP. Fourth and last, seven common EDM algorithms employed for predicting SAP were identified, of which Decision Tree emerged both as the most used algorithm and as the algorithm with the highest prediction accuracy rate for predicting SAP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0018.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: emerging model organism; evo-devo; development; evolution; regeneration; genetic tools; live imaging
Online: 1 June 2021 (10:37:04 CEST)
Arthropods are the most abundant and diverse animals on earth. Among them, pancrustaceans are an ancient and morphologically diverse group, comprising a wide range of aquatic and semi-aquatic crustaceans as well as the insects, which emerged from crustacean ancestors to colonise most terrestrial habitats. Within insects, Drosophila stands out as one of the most powerful animal models, making major contributions to our understanding of development, physiology and behaviour. Given these attributes, crustaceans provide a fertile ground for exploring biological diversity through comparative studies. However, beyond insects, few crustaceans are developed sufficiently as experimental models to enable such studies. The marine amphipod Parhyale hawaiensis is currently the best established crustacean system, offering year-round accessibility to developmental stages, transgenic tools, genomic resources, and established genetics and imaging approaches. The Parhyale research community is small but diverse, investigating the evolution of development, regeneration, aspects of sensory biology, chronobiology, bioprocessing and ecotoxicology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0250.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Blockchain; Decentralization; Innovation Policy; National Innovation Systems; Policy Tools; Legal and Regulatory
Online: 9 March 2021 (09:50:38 CET)
Blockchain technology can achieve decentralization, multi-party verification, anti-tampering, anonymity, traceability of transactions, and the application of distributed ledger. Countries around the world continue to seek the blockchain business models, technologies and applications, and have different visions and policies for the development of blockchain. This study conducts a comparative policy framework of theoretical analysis of the blockchain technology between the USA and China. Using the innovative policy tools proposed by Rothwell and Zegveld, the above mentioned governments are analyzed from the viewpoint of twelve policy tools. The results show that the USA and China all prefer to use “Environmental-side” policy. The USA has paid more attention to “Legal and regulatory”, “Public services” and “Procurement”. China has the highest proportion of policies in “Political tools”, followed by “Legal & regulatory”, while “Scientific and technical”, “Education” and “Overseas agent” come in third . The blockchain technology has developed vigorously among industries and its applications have gradually diversified. The results are provided to various stakeholders as a reference for policy planning.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0127.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Tools and Metrology; Time and Frequency; Philosophy of Science; Special Relativity; Semiconductors
Online: 6 January 2021 (15:09:15 CET)
Time is a component quantity of various measurements and is also used on its own to sequence events, to compare the duration of events or the intervals between them, and to quantify rates of change of quantities in material reality or in the conscious experience . The measuring equipment well might happen to be a clock. By making a presupposition that clock is Time, it is perceived experimentally that “Time exhibits wave-like properties”
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: green infrastructure; urban heat island; human thermal comfort, modelling tools; ENVI-met.
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:19:13 CEST)
Research on urban heat mitigation has been growing in recent years with many of the studies focusing on green infrastructure (GI) as a strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of Urban Heat Island (UHI). This paper aims at presenting a review of the range of findings from GI research for urban heat mitigation through a review of scientific articles published during the years 2009-2019. This research includes a review of the different types of GI and its contribution for urban heat mitigation and human thermal comfort. In addition to analyzing different mitigation strategies, numerical simulation tools that are commonly used are also reviewed. It is seen that ENVI-met is one of the modelling tools that is considered as a reliable tool to simulate different mitigation strategies and hence has been widely used in the recent past. Considering its popularity in urban microclimate studies, this article also provides a review of ENVI-met simulation results that were reported in the reviewed papers. It was observed that the majority of the research was conducted on a limited spatial scale and focused on temperature and human thermal comfort.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: pathway optimization; machine learning tools; enzyme activity prediction; promoter classification; expression tuning
Online: 26 August 2020 (04:05:47 CEST)
Successful engineering of a microbial host for efficient production of a target product from a given substrate can be viewed as an extensive optimization task. Such a task involves the selection of high activity enzymes as well as their gene expression regulatory control elements (i.e., promoters and ribosome binding sites). Finally, there is also the need to tune expression of multiple genes along a heterologous pathway to relieve constraints from rate-limiting step and help reduce metabolic burden on cells from unnecessary over-expression of high activity enzymes. While the aforementioned tasks could be performed through combinatorial experiments, such an approach incurs significant cost, time and effort, which is a handicap that can be relieved by application of modern machine learning tools. Such tools could attempt to predict high activity enzymes from sequence, but they are currently most usefully applied in classifying strong promoters from weaker ones as well as combinatorial tuning of expression of multiple genes. This perspective reviews the application of machine learning tools to aid metabolic pathway optimization through identifying challenges in metabolic engineering that could be overcome with the help of machine learning tools.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: eating disorders; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; personality traits; screening tools; Covid-19
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:11:08 CEST)
This article aims to review the screening and diagnostic tools for eating disorders (ED). Eating disorders represent a complex pathology defined by an imbalance between hunger and satiety, installed in an emotional, traumatic, or conflictive context. Recently, the emphasis regarding ED is focused on the link between genetics, mental pathology, and the somatic and metabolic phenotype and early detection. Early detection and intervention can assure a better recovery and can improve a lot the quality of life of these patients. Methods: We selected ten articles of central importance on the topic in a systematic search on eight databases, articles selected on the type of scales, and size of the study. Results: We identified eight questionnaire scales used in large trials in ED disorders in the scanned literature, choose because we consider it the most accurate and the ones that evaluate best the pathology and the elements that are important as specific traits in ED. There are interview-type scales and self-administered scales. Interview scales are characterized by assessments of symptoms and diagnosis, while self-administered assess particular traits and the possibility of further development of eating disorders. The majority of the scales evaluated were described and used in adult populations. From all the scales assessed and analyzed, only three are described at the child population – it is EAT-26 (> 16 years), EDI-3 (>13 years), and ANSOCQ (> 13 years). Conclusions: It is essential to develop specific scales for people under 18 years of age, given the increasing incidence of ED among children and the need for early detection and appropriate intervention. Early detection of ED in children implies a simple and accurate evaluation at the primary care level or in schools, as the course of the disease can be subclinical for several years. Moreover, the need for accurate scales and telemedicine testing and diagnosis is of high importance during the COVID-19 pandemic as youth are at particular risk being psychologically affected due to disrupted education and social interactions - at a critical time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0297.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: genome engineering; synthetic biology; yeasts; Metschnikowia; genetic tools; DNA delivery; CUG-Ser
Online: 13 November 2018 (05:17:45 CET)
Yeasts belonging to the Metschnikowia genus are particularly interesting for the unusual formation of only two needle-shaped ascospores during their mating cycle. Presently, the meiotic process that can lead to only two spores from a diploid zygote is poorly understood. The expression of fluorescent nuclear proteins should allow the meiotic process to be visualized in vivo; however, no large-spored species of Metschnikowia has ever been transformed. Accordingly, we aimed to develop a transformation method for Metschnikowia borealis, a particularly large-spored species of Metschnikowia, with the goal of enabling the genetic manipulations required to study biological processes in detail. Genetic analyses confirmed that M. borealis, and many other Metchnikowiacea, are CUG-Ser yeasts. Codon-optimized selectable markers lacking CUG codons were used to successfully transform M. borealis by electroporation and lithium acetate, and transformants appeared to be the result of random integration. Mating experiments confirmed that transformed-strains were capable of generating large asci and undergoing recombination. Finally, random integration was used to transform an additional 18 yeast strains, and all attempts successfully generated transformants. The results provide a simple method to transform many yeasts from an array of different clades and can be used to study or develop many species for various applications.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: improve citations; research tools; research visibility; research impact; documents publishing; highly cited
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:20:47 CEST)
Researchers, journals, and universities want to receive more citations for their scholarly publications. However, a paper citations depend on its quality, visibility and author’s online profile. Research support documents (unpublished papers, white papers, project reports, datasets, software, posters, online resources and teaching materials) can be additional source for increasing the author’s visibility. To enhance research visibility and impact, the full range of scholarly output should be available online on the open access platform. With open access platform, key research findings are made accessible immediately to the scientific community. Therefore, the publicly available research support documents may result in receiving more citations in addition to the published papers. In this paper we conducted a simplified three stages study on the benefits of research support documents publications on open access platform. We also elaborated on approaches of improving your research visibility and impact through these document.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Management; Sustainability tools; Coaching process; Communication; Educational institution; Social sustainability of human beings.
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:23:21 CET)
The impetus for the development of coaching as a professional managerial activity is based on the needs and requirements of a modern sustainable society. The paper aims to explore the awareness of academic students about the coaching approach and to formu-late recommendations for its application in the academic environment. The article focuses on the views of experts in the field of coaching approach as a means of improving com-munication in the academic/educational setting, characterizes communication and coaching approach, coaching models and its benefits and barriers. The survey presents a survey of awareness of the coaching approach among college and university students of in Slovakia and the possibilities/options of its application in the academic environment. The research was carried out by the questionnaire method. The evaluation of the questionnaire and the statistical evaluation of established hypotheses and assumptions concerning the coaching approach. The proposion of students was the introduction of the subject "Basics of coaching" which could be taught for all students at University of Zilina, Slovakia. Acording to the survey, 468 students, representing 68%, have knowledge about coaching. Furthermore, 68% of students had or have doubts about achieving their goals during their studies. According to the results of the survey, only 24% of students had ex-perience with coaching. The cooperation with a coach was regarded as beneficial for 71% of participants of the survey, which had already experience the coaching lectures. The students of managerial fields would benefit in enhancing leadership skills and providing support of their working teams.Finally, suggest organizing an introductory full-day workshops for students of man-agement -future managers, followed by organizing individual thematic workshops for specific areas of coaching.Moreover, the usage of coaching skills is possible yet while they are students with applications in communication in their relationships, student jobs, searching the profes-sional job opportunities and accomplishing the final thesis.To raise awareness of coaching approach in the University of Zilina in a cooperation with The Counseling and Career Center and its activities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: metabolomics; plant biology; metabolomics databases; data analysis; metabolomics software tools; mass spectrometry; omics
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:46:55 CEST)
Metabolomics is now considered to be a wide-ranging, sensitive and practical approach to acquire useful information on the composition of a metabolite pool present in any organism, including plants. Investigating metabolomic regulation in plants is essential to understand their adaptation, acclimation and defense response to environmental stresses through the production of numerous metabolites. Moreover, metabolomics can be easily applied for the phenotyping of plants; and thus, it has great potential to be used in molecular breeding and genome editing programs to develop superior next generation crops. This review describes the recent analytical tools and techniques available to study plants metabolome, along with their significance of sample preparation using targeted and non-targeted method. Advanced analytical tools, like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography mass-spectroscopy (LC-MS), capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) have speed up metabolic profiling in plants. Further, we deliver a complete overview of bioinformatics tools and plant metabolome database that can be utilized to advance our knowledge to plant biology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1283.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: digital heritage; sustainable tourism development; minor heritage sites; heritage enhancement; digital tools; social inclusion
Online: 18 May 2023 (07:11:02 CEST)
Digital technologies are becoming increasingly relevant in the processes of documenting, surveying, enhancing and preserving Cultural Heritage, also through applications that are increasingly optimized and oriented towards new data management and accessibility processes. This great potential can find significant levels of application in the tourism sector, seeking new strategies to access, discover, understand cultural assets. In this direction, many digital applications have already found interesting outcomes in the tourism sector, but there is large room for improvement in the applications for “minor”, small or neglected cultural sites, not included in conventional tourism routes, which play a key-role in social inclusion and territorial cohesion, and for the development of social, economic and environmental sustainability. The paper presents a conceptual framework or possible outline to foster the use of digital technologies through a set of integrated bottom-up and top-down actions, to facilitate connections of minor sites into larger networks, contributing to search for new forms of active fruition and social participation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0291.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: virtual reality; authoring tools; intuitiveness; digitization; sustainability; user-centered design; human-computer interaction; metaverse
Online: 17 January 2023 (01:41:25 CET)
Virtual reality experiences are frequently created using game engines, yet they are not simple for novices and unskilled professionals who don’t have programming and 3D modeling skills. Concurrently, there is a knowledge gap in software project design for intuitive virtual reality authoring tools, which were supposed to be easier to use. This work compiles design guidelines derived from a systematic literature review to contribute in the development of more intuitive virtual reality authoring tools. We searched the Scopus and Web of Science databases for works published between 2018 and 2021 and discovered 14 papers. We compiled 14 requirement and feature design guidelines, such as Visual Programming, Immersive Authoring, Reutilization, Sharing and Collaboration, Metaphors, and Movement Freedom, among others. The collected guidelines have the potential to either guide the development of new authoring tools or to evaluate the intuitiveness of existing tools. Furthermore, they can also support the development of the metaverse, since virtual content creation is one of its bases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0447.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: circular economy; Covid-19; Voyant tools; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; economic sustainability; text mining
Online: 20 February 2021 (01:42:10 CET)
The emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic has created both negative and positive changes, including implementing the circular economy across the globe. This Systematic Review follows the PRISMA statement and employs the Text Mining (Voyant Tools) technique to visualize and analyze the impacts of the Covid-19 on three aspects of the circular economy: economic, social, and environmental. The research employs Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to identify five major topics: (1) Shortage of medical equipment but high medical waste during Covid-19 due to the high demand in healthcare; (2) The long term negative impacts of lockdown on economic and social activities because of Covid-19 pandemic; (3) The reports on impacts of Covid-19 pandemic on the manufacturing globally, and their coping strategies and new opportunities; (4) The impacts of international restriction on the tourism, trade, shipping, and aviation industry, causing billion-dollar losses; (5) The reduction of pollution with health environment improvements with example cases from China and EU. The research identifies current literature gaps in the circular economy and Covid- 19 topics and encourages the application of text mining tools into researching to stimulate the research process and assist in communicating with the public.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; evolution of SARS-CoV-2; replication; emerging disease 2019 and diagnostic tools
Online: 30 April 2020 (10:39:54 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an etiologic agent of the respiratory disease in humans that is known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19). The first outbreak of the disease was initially documented in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in late December 2019 where people had experienced SARS pneumonia-like symptoms with unknown etiology. Since then it has been observed that COVID-19 positive patients have been showing mild to severe upper respiratory illness symptoms. The type of virus is known to make its transfer from animals to humans and for the concerned virus; researchers have claimed its origin from bat coronavirus at whole-genome level with a 96 % sequence identity. The COVID-19 virus is very contagious and communicable in nature and has been spread throughout the globe since its first outbreak in China. On March 9, 2020, WHO declared it as a Pandemic, and within a month it was already reported to have shown its presence in 213 countries and territories or areas. As of April 29, 2020, this novel virus infected 3,218,183 people and caused 228,029 mortalities worldwide with a variable mortality rate from 3-13 % across the planet and also varied by age and gender. Diagnosis of the disease is a key component in understanding and controlling the spread of the virus and several techniques have been devised including RT-PCR, ELISA, and sequencing-based approaches. To cure COVID-19 patients as of now we do not have proven to be a safe and effective treatment. Therapeutic options currently under investigation in various parts of the world. However, there are various effective therapeutic targets to repurpose the present antiviral therapy for developing potential interventions against SARS-CoV-2. Boosting the immune system can also help to prevent and spread of COVID-19 using various medication and exercises. In this review, our goal to summarize and discussed the present scientific advancements to fight against this novel pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0016.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: open research practices; digital humanities; scholarly communication; publication formats; infrastructure; research methodology; research tools
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:50:52 CET)
The digital transformation has initiated a paradigm shift in research and scholarly communication practices towards a more open scholarly culture. Although this transformation is slowly happening in the Digital Humanities field, open is not yet default. The article introduces the OpenMethods metablog, a community platform that highlights open research methods, tools, and practices within the context of the Digital Humanities by republishing open access content around methods and tools in various formats and languages. It also describes the platform’s technical infrastructure based on its requirements and main functionalities, and especially the collaborative content sourcing and editorial workflows. The article concludes with a discussion of the potentials of the OpenMethods metablog to overcome barriers towards open practices by focusing on inclusive, community sourced information based around opening up research processes and the challenges that need to be overcome to achieve its goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0063.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: FABP4; A-FABP; aP2; antidiabetes; antiobesity; antiatherosclerosis; anticancer; computational tools; computer-aided drug discovery
Online: 5 September 2019 (15:39:58 CEST)
Small molecule inhibitors of adipocyte fatty-acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) have got interest following the recent publication of their pharmacologically beneficial effects. Recently it comes out that FABP4 is an attractive molecular target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, other metabolic diseases, and some type of cancers. In the past years, hundreds of effective FABP4 inhibitors have been synthesized and discovered but, unfortunately, none of them is in the clinical research phase. The field of computer-aided drug design seems to be promising and useful for the identification of FABP4 inhibitors; hence, different structure- and ligand-based computational approaches were already performed for their identification. In this paper, we searched for new potentially active FABP4 ligands in the Marine Natural Products (MNP) database. 14,492 compounds were retrieved from this database and filtered through a statistical and computational filter. Seven compounds were suggested by our methodology to possess a potential inhibitory activity upon FABP4 in the range of 79–245 nM. ADMET properties prediction were performed to validate the hypothesis of the interaction with the intended target and to assess the drug-likeness of these derivatives; from these analyses, three molecules resulted as excellent candidates for becoming new drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0328.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Software Keywords: built environment efficiency; CASBEE; MURNInets; climate change; low carbon; carbon emission; urban tools; city
Online: 31 January 2019 (14:18:50 CET)
CASBEE-City tool determines the city’s Built Environment Efficiency (BEE) by calculating the improvement of Quality of Life (Q) over human activities’ Environmental Load (L) within the city’s hypothetical boundary. A total of 58 variables (57 Q indicators and one variable for L) are used in the worldwide version of CASBEE-City which were grounded using ISO 37120:2014 Sustainable Development of Communities and 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations (UN). This paper examines the application of CASBEE-City for Malaysian cities using the case of Johor Bahru City and identifies assessment indicators which are customised based on the data availability, reliability and suitability through focus group discussions (FGDs) which involved 36 respondents (researchers, urban planners and stakeholders). This paper reveals Johor Bahru with moderate score B+ in 2010 and 2025. Consensus were also achieved from the 36 FGD respondents for the practicability and future potential of CASBEE-City and BEE framework in Johor Bahru.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0101.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: virtual reality; authoring tools; NVIDIA Omniverse; intuitiveness; user-centered design; human-computer interaction; design guidelines
Online: 4 October 2023 (06:57:59 CEST)
Virtual reality software might be challenging to utilize for beginners and unskilled professionals who do not have a programming or 3D modeling background. Concurrently, there is a knowledge gap in software project design for intuitive virtual reality authoring tools, which were supposed to be easier to use. These tools are frequently insufficient due to a lack of support and standard operating procedures. Adopting the Design Science Research paradigm, this study aims to evaluate the validity of fourteen design guidelines for the development of intuitive virtual reality authoring tools as an artifact. While a previous study completed the first steps of the Design Science Research, by identifying problems, defining solution objectives, and developing and demonstrating the design guidelines, this work seeks to qualitatively evaluate their application in a practical experiment. A group of engineering students with no prior experience in creating virtual worlds were tasked with examining the design guidelines while using the NVIDIA Omniverse Enterprise as an exemplary use case and responding to a questionnaire and a focus group interview about how they perceived these guidelines. A correlation analysis confirmed that most guidelines scores behaved as expected and were ranked according to the use-case functionality. The participants understood the guidelines' definition and could decide if they agreed or disagreed with their presence during the experiment. We conclude that, in accordance with the Design Science Research, the proposed artifact is useful, i.e., the design guidelines for virtual reality authoring tools perform what they are designed to do and are operationally reliable in accomplishing their goals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: micro machining; cutting tools; tungsten carbide; high speed steels; surface roughness; surface finish; edge preparation
Online: 6 September 2023 (09:39:15 CEST)
The performance and lifespan of cutting tools are significantly influenced by their surface quality. The present report highlights recent advances in enhancing the surface characteristics of tungsten carbide and high-speed steel cutting tools using a novel micro-machining technique for polishing and edge-honing. Notably, the main aim is to reduce the surface roughness while maintaining the hardness of the materials at an optimal level. By conducting a thorough analysis, of surfaces obtained with different techniques. It was that micro-machining method effectively decreased the surface roughness of the cutting tools, most effectively of the techniques investigated. Significantly, the surface roughness is reduced from an initial measurement of 400 nm to an impressive value of 60 nm. No significant change in hardness was observed, which guarantees the maintenance of the mechanical properties of the cutting tools. This analysis enhances the comprehension of surface enhancement methodologies for cutting tools through the presentation of these findings. The observed decrease in surface roughness, along with the consistent hardness, exhibits potential for improving tool performance. These enhancements possess the capacity to optimise manufacturing processes, increase tool reliability, and minimise waste generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0234.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: sonification apps; auditory displays; torpedo level; spirit level; tools; accessibility; auditory feedback; auditory user interface
Online: 8 April 2021 (11:25:41 CEST)
This paper presents Tiltification, a multi modal spirit level application for smartphones. The non-profit app was produced by students in the master project “Sonification Apps” in winter term 2020/21 at the University of Bremen. In the app, psychoacoustic sonification is used to give feedback on the device’s rotation angles in two plane dimensions, allowing users to level furniture or take perfectly horizontal photos. Tiltification supplements the market of spirit level apps with the unique feature of auditory information processing. This provides for additional benefit in comparison to a physical spirit level and for more accessibility for visu- ally and cognitively impaired people. We argue that the distribution of sonification apps through mainstream channels is a contribution to establish sonification in the market and make it better known to users outside the scientific domain. We hope that the auditory display community will support us by using and recommending the app and by providing valuable feedback on the app functionality and design, and on our communication, advertisement and distribution strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0997.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B; meningococcal vaccine; bioinformatics tools; machine learning methods; multiple amino acid sequence alignments
Online: 15 November 2023 (14:29:43 CET)
Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) serogroup B (MenB) is the leading cause of invasive meningococcal disease worldwide. The pathogen has a wide range of virulence factors, which are potential vaccine components. Studying the genetic variability of antigens within a population, especially their long-term persistence, is necessary to develop new vaccines and predict the effectiveness of existing ones. The multicomponent 4CMenB vaccine (Bexsero), used since 2014, contains three major genome-derived recombinant proteins: factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisserial Heparin-Binding Antigen (NHBA) and Neisserial adhesin A (NadA). Here, we assessed the prevalence and sequence variations of these vaccine antigens in a panel of 5667 meningococcal isolates collected worldwide over the past 10 years and deposited in the PubMLST database. Using multiple amino acid sequence alignments and machine learning methods, we estimated the potential strain coverage by fHbp and NHBA vaccine variants (51 and about 30%, respectively); the NadA antigen sequence was found in only 17.8% of MenB genomes analyzed, but cross-reactive variants were present in less than 1% of isolates. Based on our findings, we proposed various strategies to improve the 4CMenB vaccine and broaden coverage of N. meningitidis strains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0564.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Remote sensing data; variable rate irrigation; irrigation management; fuzzy systems; decision support tools; intelligent center pivot
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:03:08 CEST)
Growing agricultural demands for the global population are unlocking the path to developing innovative solutions for efficient water management. Herein, an intelligent variable rate irrigation system (fuzzy-VRI) is proposed for rapid decision-making to achieve optimized irrigation in various delimited zones. The proposed system automatically creates irrigation maps for a center pivot irrigation system for a variable-rate application of water. Primary inputs are spatial imagery on remotely sensed soil moisture (SSM), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), canopy temperature (CT), and nitrogen content (NI). To eliminate localized issues with soil characteristics, we used the crop nitrogen content map to provide a focused insight on issues related to water shortage. The system relates these inputs to set reference values for the rotation speed controllers and individual openings of each central pivot sprinkler valve. The results showed that the system can detect and characterize the spatial variability of the crop and further, the fuzzy logic solved the uncertainties of an irrigation system and defined a control model for high-precision irrigation. The proposed approach is validated through the comparison between the recommended irrigation and actual irrigation at two field sites, and the results showed that the developed approach gives an accurate estimation of irrigation with a reduction in the volume of irrigated water of up to 27% in some cases. Future research should implement the fuzzy-VRI real-time during field trials in order to quantify its effect on irrigation use, yield, and water use efficiency.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0286.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Clinical Neurology; Neuroinvasive Disease; Encephalitis; Meningitis; MRI Brain Scans; West-Nile Virus; Infectious Diseases; Diagnostic Tools
Online: 9 November 2020 (17:36:58 CET)
A case report of the diagnosis of Long Term Sequelae of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease in a patient with 9 years history. Empirical data of symptoms and test reports has been presented and based on the available data likely pathogenesis of the disease has been discussed. The empirical data has been compared to the published literature to reach a highly confident diagnosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0315.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Financial Viability; Life Cycle Cost Analysis; LPWAN; Pragmatic Computational Tools; Design Science Research, Data-driven decision making
Online: 5 June 2023 (12:00:41 CEST)
This paper focuses on quantifying the economic and financial viability of NB-IoT and LoRaWAN technologies, two low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies with unique characteristics that make them suitable for IoT applications. The purpose of the study is to propose an artefact for performing life cycle cost analysis and demonstrate its application to these technologies. The methodology uses pragmatic computational tools to facilitate the analysis and considers all relevant economic and financial factors, such as operating costs, equipment costs, and revenue potential. The main finding of the study is that NB-IoT and LoRaWAN technologies have different cost structures and revenue potentials, which may affect their economic and financial viability for different IoT applications. Ultimately, the study concludes that a comprehensive life cycle cost analysis is critical to making informed decisions about technology adoption, and that the proposed methodology can be applied to other IoT technologies to gain insight into their economic and financial viability.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Business Intelligence; Data warehouse; Data Marts; Architecture; Data; Information; cloud; Data Mining; evolution; technologic companies; tools; software
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:06:53 CET)
Information has been and will be a vital element for a person or department groups in an organization. That is why there are technologies that help us to give them the proper management of data; Business Intelligence is responsible for bringing technological solutions that correctly and effectively manage the entire volume of necessary and important information for companies. Among the solutions offered by Business Intelligence are Data Warehouses, Data Mining, among other business technologies that working together achieve the objectives proposed by an organization. It is important to highlight that these business technologies have been present since the 50's and have been evolving through time, improving processes, infrastructure, methodologies and implementing new technologies, which have helped to correct past mistakes based on information management for companies. There are questions about Business Intelligence. Could it be that in the not-too-distant future it will be used as an essential standard or norm in any organization for data management, since it provides many benefits and avoids failures at the time of classifying information. On the other hand, Cloud storage has been the best alternative to safeguard information and not depend on physical storage media, which are not 100% secure and are exposed to partial or total loss of information, by presenting hardware failures or security failures due to mishandling that can be given to such information.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0529.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Caver Web; databases; libraries; microbial products; PredictSNPonco; molecular docking; molecular targets; mutations; treatment; virtual screening; web tools
Online: 23 February 2021 (15:59:19 CET)
The development of microbial products for cancer treatment has been in the spotlight in recent years. In order to accelerate the lengthy and expensive drug development process, in silico screening tools are systematically employed, especially during the initial discovery phase. Moreover, considering the steadily increasing number of molecules approved by authorities for commercial use, there is a demand for faster methods to repurpose such drugs. Here we present a review on virtual screening web tools, publicly available databases of molecular targets and libraries of ligands, with the aim to facilitate the discovery of potential anticancer drugs based on microbial products. We provide an entry-level step-by-step description of the workflow for virtual screening of microbial metabolites with known protein targets, as well as two practical examples using freely available web tools. The first case presents a virtual screening study of drugs developed from microbial products using Caver Web, a web tool that performs docking along a tunnel. The second case comprises a comparative analysis between a healthy isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, a mutant that results in cancer, using the recently developed web tool PredictSNPOnco. In summary, this review provides the basic and essential background information necessary for virtual screening experiments, which may accelerate the discovery of novel anticancer drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0139.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: kinematic model; fiber Bragg grating; deformations; machine tools calibration; predicted model; multiple regression analysis; finite element analysis
Online: 29 December 2016 (07:39:26 CET)
Structural deformations are one of the most significant factor that affects machine tool (MT) positioning accuracy. These induced errors are complex to be represented by a model, nevertheless they need to be evaluated and predicted in order to increase the machining performance. This paper presents a novel approach to calibrate a machine tool in real-time, analyzing the thermo-mechanical errors through Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors embedded in the MT frame. The proposed configuration consists of an adaptronic structure of passive materials, Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP), equipped by FBG sensors that are able to measure in real-time the deformed conditions of the frame. By using a proper thermo-mechanical kinematic model, the displacement of the end effector may be predicted and corrected when it is subjected to external undesired factors. By starting from a set of FE simulations to develop a model able to describe the MT structure stresses, a prototype has been fabricated and tested. The scope was to compare the numerical model with the experimental tests using FBG sensors. The experimental campaign has been performed varying the structure temperature over time and measuring the tool tip point (TTP) positions. The obtained results showed a substantial matching between the real and the predicted position of TTP confirming the effectiveness of the proposed calibration system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1792.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: peripheral neighborhoods; public space assessment tools; co-location network; open access data; geospatial data science; network analysis; cartography.
Online: 25 August 2023 (09:18:00 CEST)
Adequate public spaces and urban green areas are key criteria for urban development and infrastructure implementation of healthy cities. Latterly, there has been an increasing number of research methods using artificial intelligence (AI) to monitor, quantify, and control the state of these spaces with an aim towards pioneering research in Urban Studies. However, in informal areas, open-data access tends to lack adequate and updated information, making it difficult to use AI methods. Hence, we propose a methodology for restricted open data collection and preparation for future use in machine learning or spatial data science models for similar areas. To that extent, we examine two peripheral and low-income neighborhoods in Quito, Ecuador, La Bota and Toctiuco, to analyze their public spaces, urban green areas, points of interest, and road networks, and how they address healthy cities criteria. We develop an original methodological approach that combines an index of proximity, accessibility, quantity, and quality of these spaces with geospatial and network analysis techniques. Results indicate that the connectivity and structure of these spaces are centralized and nodal, representing exclusion and segregation. This work provides insights on potential healthy spaces, and information to urban planners and policymakers in decision-making for healthy urban infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0574.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: activity cliff; activity landscape plotter; epigenetics; docking; drug discovery; D-tools; molecular dynamics; Epi-polypharmacology; SmART; structure-activity relationships
Online: 26 November 2018 (07:14:05 CET)
In this work we discuss the insights from activity landscape, docking and molecular dynamics towards the understanding of the structure-activity relationships of dual inhibitors of major epigenetic targets: lysine metiltransferase (G9a) and DNA metiltranferase 1 (DNMT1). The study was based on a novel data set of 50 published compounds with reported experimental activity for both targets. The activity landscape analysis revealed the presence of activity cliffs, e.g., pairs of compounds with high structure similarity but large activity difference. Activity cliffs were further rationalized at the molecular level by means of molecular docking and dynamics simulations that led to the identification of interactions with key residues involved in the dual activity or selectivity with the epigenetic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0047.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: organizational changes; ICT; management tools; work experience; employee outcomes; comparison of public and private sectors; linked employer-employee survey
Online: 6 March 2018 (16:30:15 CET)
We investigate the human sustainability of ICT and management changes using a French linked employer-employee survey on organizational changes and computerization (COI). We approach the human sustainability of changes through the evolutions of work intensity, skill utilization and the subjective relationship to work. We compare in the private sector and the State civil service the impacts of ICT and management changes on the evolution of these three dimensions of work experience. We find that when ICT and management changes are intense, they are positively associated in the public sector with work intensification and new knowledge. In the private sector ICT and management changes increase the use of skills, but at a rate decreasing with their intensity and without favoring the accumulation of new knowledge. However, their impacts on the subjective relationship to work are much stronger, with public sector employees expressing discouragement as well as the feeling of an increased effort-reward imbalance when private sector employees become more committed. We tested that the self-selection of employees, the specific sources and paths of changes and the implementation of performance pay did not explain this divergence. We identify two partial explanations: one is related with employee turnover in the private sector, the other one with the role of trade unions. These results suggest that the human sustainability of ICT and management changes depends on their intensity and on how their implementation takes into account the institutional context of the organization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2039.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: newborn screening; genome sequencing; ethical; legal; social implications (ELSI); NBSTRN; public health; databases; online tools; Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP)
Online: 29 September 2023 (04:28:14 CEST)
Rapid advances in the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of genetic disorders has increased the number of conditions that could be detected through universal newborn screening (NBS). However, addition of conditions to the Recommended Uniform Screening Panel (RUSP) and implementation of nationwide screening has been a slow process taking several years to accomplish for individual conditions. Here we describe web-based tools and resources developed and implemented by the newborn screening translational research network (NBSTRN) to advance newborn screening research and support NBS stakeholders. NBSTRN’s tools include the Longitudinal Pediatric Data Resource (LPDR), the NBS Condition Resource (NBS-CR), the NBS Virtual Repository (NBS-VR), and the Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) Advantage. Research programs including the Inborn Errors of Metabolism Information System (IBEM-IS), BabySeq, EarlyCheck, and Family Narratives Use Cases have utilized NBSTRN’s tools, and in turn contributed research data to further expand and refine these this resource. Additionally, we discuss ongoing tool development to facilitate expansion of genetic disease screening in increasingly diverse populations. In conclusion, NBSTRN’s tools and resources provide a trusted platform to enable NBS stakeholders to advance NBS research and improve clinical care for patients and their families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1702.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Triangular geometry. Radiative Heat Transfer; Form Factor Calculation Tools; Radiant interchanges. Design of radiators. Assessment and construction of LED emitters.
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:02:38 CEST)
Triangles are an ever present feature in nature, which the building construction industry duly echoes. However, an exact expression intended to offer the radiant field due to any triangle in an upright or inclined position had not been identified by previous research. In this case, the author has been able to solve by direct integration, the canonical expression of radiative transfer. This result alone confers a myriad of possibilities that had been inconceivable before, for studying in detail the three-dimensional heat transfer behavior of volumes and figures in which triangles do manifest, such as fins, windows, roof-gables and louvers of various kinds. Typically, shading devices, when tilted, give rise in their extremes to rhomboidal shapes which were difficult to take into account or had to be subject to discretization and subsequent Monte Carlo methods in order to perform an approximate calculation of their emission. This implied a lengthy and inexact procedure that induced many errors and consumed computing time. We can now avoid all the former downsides due to the advances hereby presented. As the novel expression can be converted into an algorithm it will be advantageously employed for simulation. This significant finding dovetails in the intricate puzzle of radiated heat and we believe that their consequences will greatly affect the conception and design of HVAC devices, aircraft manufacturing and specifically building or lighting industries among others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0298.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sustainability assessment; Sustainable Development Goals; Agenda 2030; peri-urban fringe; multidimensional indicators; evaluation tools; sustainable development; spatial decision support system
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:08:30 CEST)
This research experiments with a sustainability assessment based on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of Agenda 2030 through a process of their territorialisation and implementation. This process enables the development of a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS) that can be integrated with strategic environmental assessments in urban planning. The assessment takes place on the transversality of the sustainability concept by trying to consider together the three dimensions (environmental, social and economic) into a single assessment through the Spatial Sustainability Assessment Model (SSAM) by integrating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and multi-criteria analyses. Economic development, social equity, and ecological integrity represent three common visions for rethinking peri-urban edges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: life; paralife; utility-products; UP-paralife; utility-selection; UP-evolvability; coevolution; intelligence; stone tools; language-catalysis; creativity; exoplanet; intelligent life
Online: 17 November 2022 (03:06:22 CET)
When animals evolve sufficient intelligence and dexterity to be able to learn to fabricate utility products (UPs) like tools, the UP's they produce become part of an induced-reproduction system that intrinsically shares many life-like traits with biological organisms, including genome-like fabrication and operation information that is physically-encoded in the animal fabricator’s neural networks. When this set of life- like traits includes a sufficient capacity for system-improving cultural evolution (UP-evolvability), the UPs become ‘para-alive’, i.e., nearly alive, or a form of non-biological UP-paralife that is equivalent to the life- status of biological viruses, plasmids, and transposons. In the companion paper I focus on the evolution of UP-paralife in the context of modern, language-capable humans and its predicted evolution going forward in time (Rice 2022). Here I look backward in time and focus on the origin of UP-paralife and its subsequent coevolution with human intelligence. I begin by determining the pathways leading to the evolution of large brains in the rare lineages of biological life that have sufficient intelligence to learn to fabricate tools –a critical first step in the evolution of UP-paralife. The simplest forms of these learning- based UPs, made by species like chimpanzees and New Caledonian crows, represent only proto-UP- paralife because they lack sufficient UP-evolvability. Expanded UP-evolvability required a combination of three attributes that enabled continuous niche-expansion of the animal fabricator via a new and advanced form of UP-mediated teamwork (TW): i) self-domestication that facilitated TW among low-related individuals, ii) learned volitional words (protolanguage) that represent ephemeral UPs that coordinate TW, and iii) learned fabrication of simple flaked-stone tools with cutting and chopping capabilities (a UP to make other structural UPs) that expanded teammate phenotypes and TW capabilities. This specific triad of attributes is synergistic because each one acts as a TW-enhancer that can gradually erode different components of the three major constraints on TW operation and expansion: too much selfishness, insufficient coordination signals, and insufficient physical traits of teammates. The increase in UP- evolvability was transformative and marked the origin of UP-paralife and the initiation of coevolution between UP-paralife (cultural evolution) and the intelligence of its hominin/human symbiont (genetic evolution) that fostered 2.5 million years of: i) continuous brain size increase and niche-expansion within the genus Homo, and ii) parallel advances in the diversity, complexity and uses of UP-paralife. This coevolution also fostered evolutionary expansion of word-based communication, and eventually language, that acted in a catalyst-like manner to facilitate the evolution of increasingly complex forms of imagination, reasoning, mentalizing, and UP-generating technology. I next focus on the evolution of creativity in the human lineage –in the form of divergent thinking and creative imagination. I conclude that the evolution of this advanced cognitive feature required a preadaptation of sufficient intelligence and is the component of human cognition that was the major causal factor generating the greatly expanded diversity and complexity of UP-paralife currently associated with modern humans. Lastly, I apply my findings to the issue of the prevalence of extraterrestrial intelligent life. I conclude that any exoplanets with detected chemical life will very rarely (e.g., probability ~10-5 for a planet closely matching Earth’s characteristics) have evolved intelligence equalling or exceeding that of humans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Messenger RNA • Hospital-based mRNA therapeutics • circular mRNA • self-amplifying mRNA • RNA-based CAR T-cell • RNA-based gene-editing tools
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:20:59 CET)
Hospital-based programs democratize mRNA therapeutics by facilitating the processes to translate a novel RNA idea from the bench to the clinic. Because mRNA is essentially biological software, therapeutic RNA constructs can be rapidly developed. The generation of small batches of clinical grade mRNA to support IND applications and first-in-man clinical trials, as well as personalized mRNA therapeutics delivered at the point-of-care, is feasible at a modest scale of cGMP manufacturing. Advances in mRNA manufacturing science and innovations in mRNA biology, are increasing the scope of mRNA clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0229.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI); CLOs; educational tools; hybrid learning; integrated management system; learning management system; PLOs; technology-embedded teaching; web-based teaching
Online: 26 January 2022 (11:54:27 CET)
With the rapid surge in technological advancements, an equal amount of investment in technology-embedded teaching has become vital to pace up with the ongoing educational needs. Distance education has evolved from the era of postal services to the use of ICT tools in current times. With the aid of globally updated content across the board, technology usage ensures all students receive equal attention without any discrimination. Importantly, web-based teaching allows all kind of students to learn at their own pace, without the fear of being judged, including professionals who can learn remotely without disturbing their job schedules. Having web-based content allows low-cost and robust implementation of the content upgradation. An improved, yet effective, version of the education using such tools is Hybrid Learning (HL). This learning mode aims to provide luxurious reinforcement to its legitimate candidates while maintaining the quality standards of various elements. Incorporated with both traditional and distance learning methods, along with exploiting social media tools for increased comfort level and peer-to-peer collaboration, HL ultimately facilitates the end user and educational setup. The structure of such a hybrid model is realized by delivering the study material via a learning management system (LMS) designed in compliance with quality standards, which is one of the fundamental tackling techniques for controlling quality constraints. In this paper, we present the recently piloted project by COMSATS University Islamabad (previously known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology) which is driven by technology-embedded teaching model. This model is an amalgam of the traditional class room model with the aid of state-of-the-art online learning technologies. The students are enrolled as full-time students, with all the courses in traditional classroom mode, except one course offered as hybrid course. This globally adapted model helps the students to benefit from both face-to-face learning as well as gaining hands-on experience on technology-enriched education model providing flexibility of timings, learning pace, and boundaries. Our HL model is equipped with two major synchronous and asynchronous blocks. The synchronous block delivers real-time live interaction scenarios using discussion boards, thereby providing a face-to-face environment. Interactions via social network has witnessed equally surging improvement in the output performance. The asynchronous block refers to the lecture videos, slides and handouts, prepared by imminent professors, available 24/7 for students. To ensure quality output, our HL model follows the course learning outcomes (CLOs), and program learning outcomes (PLOs) as per international standards. As a proof of concept, we have deployed a mechanism at the end of each semester to verify the effectiveness of our model. This mechanism fundamentally surveys the satisfaction levels of all the students enrolled in the HL courses. With the surveys already conducted, a significant level of satisfaction has been noted. Extensive results from these surveys are presented in the paper to further validate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed HL model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0486.v1
Subject: Engineering, Metallurgy And Metallurgical Engineering Keywords: Surface engineering; Mining tools; harsh environments; microstructure; laser metal deposition; gas carburizing; metallurgical bond; heat-affected zone; metallurgical defects; durability; performance optimization
Online: 7 November 2023 (15:48:52 CET)
The fusion of surface-modified steel with tungsten carbide (WC) and NiCrBSi powder through laser metal deposition has emerged as a formidable strategy for fortifying components against wear and corrosion in extreme operating environments. Meticulous selection of WC content, innovative pre-alloying techniques, and precise control of laser metal deposition profoundly influence the mechanical properties and microstructural evolution of WC-NiCrBSi coatings applied to surface-enriched commercial alloy steel (805M2, 832M13, and 827M40). These tailored coatings exhibit exceptional resilience, ideal for harsh industrial settings in Oil and gas drilling, petrochemical, and Mining sectors. Advanced materials testing techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, light optical microscopies, and microhardness testing, unveil the innate hardness attributes, with findings highlighting the unassailable fortitude of the Mixed matrix layer's side face. The amalgamation of these testing methodologies with laser metal deposition promises an unparalleled path to extend the operational lifespan of critical components in challenging working conditions. The research horizon for WC-NiCrBSi coatings remains broad, with the potential to enhance durability, operational efficiency, and cost-effectiveness across diverse applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1836.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: personal monitoring tools; air pollution monitoring; air quality monitoring; commercial portable low-cost wearable sensor; portable air quality; field evaluation; public health; performance evaluation
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:56:50 CEST)
Low-cost personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to measure personal exposure to air pollution are potentially promising tools for health research. However, their adoption requires robust validation. This study evaluated the performance of twenty-one Plume Lab Flow2 (PLF) by comparing its air pollutant measurements, particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5), 10 μm or less (PM10), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), against several high-quality air pollution monitors under field conditions (at indoor, outdoor, and roadside locations). Correlation and regression analysis were used to evaluate measurements obtained by different PLFs against reference instrumentation. For all measured pollutants, the overall correlation coefficient between the PLFs and the reference instruments was often weak (r<0.4). Moderate correlation was observed for one PLF unit at indoor location and two units at roadside location, when measuring PM2.5, but not for PM10 and NO2 concentration. During periods of particularly higher pollution, 11 PLF tools showed stronger regression results (R2 values > 0.5) with one-hour and 9 PLF units with one-minute time interval. Results show that the PLF cannot be used robustly to determine high and low exposure to poor air. Therefore, the use of PLFs in research studies should be approached with caution if data quality is important to the research outputs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0215.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: visually impaired; smart mobility; sensors; LiDAR; ultrasonic; deep learning; obstacle detection; obstacle recognition; assistive tools; edge computing; green computing; sustainability; Arduino Uno; Smart App
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:12:58 CEST)
Over a billion people around the world are disabled, among them, 253 million are visually impaired or blind, and this number is greatly increasing due to ageing, chronic diseases, poor environment, and health. Despite many proposals, the current devices and systems lack maturity and do not completely fulfill user requirements and satisfaction. Increased research activity in this field is required to encourage the development, commercialization, and widespread acceptance of low-cost and affordable assistive technologies for visual impairment and other disabilities. This paper proposes a novel approach using a LiDAR with a servo motor and an ultrasonic sensor to collect data and predict objects using deep learning for environment perception and navigation. We adopted this approach in a pair of smart glasses, called LidSonic V2.0, to enable the identification of obstacles for the visually impaired. The LidSonic system consists of an Arduino Uno edge computing device integrated into the smart glasses and a smartphone app that transmits data via Bluetooth. Arduino gathers data, operates the sensors on smart glasses, detects obstacles using simple data processing, and provides buzzer feedback to visually impaired users. The smartphone application collects data from Arduino, detects and classifies items in the spatial environment, and gives spoken feedback to the user on the detected objects. In comparison to image processing-based glasses, LidSonic uses far less processing time and energy to classify obstacles using simple LiDAR data, according to several integer measurements. We comprehensively describe the proposed system's hardware and software design, construct their prototype implementations, and test them in real-world environments. Using the open platforms, WEKA and TensorFlow, the entire LidSonic system is built with affordable off-the-shelf sensors and a microcontroller board costing less than $80. Essentially, we provide designs of an inexpensive, miniature, green device that can be built into, or mounted on, any pair of glasses or even a wheelchair to help the visually impaired. Our approach affords faster inference and decision-making using relatively low energy with smaller data sizes as well as faster communications for the edge, fog, and cloud computing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0687.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: automatic speech recognition (ASR); automatic assessment tools; foreign language pronunciation; pronunciation training; computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT); automatic pronunciation assessment; learning environments; minimal pairs
Online: 29 June 2021 (07:31:41 CEST)
General–purpose automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems have improved their quality and are being used for pronunciation assessment. However, the assessment of isolated short utterances, as words in minimal pairs for segmental approaches, remains an important challenge, even more for non-native speakers. In this work, we compare the performance of our own tailored ASR system (kASR) with the one of Google ASR (gASR) for the assessment of Spanish minimal pair words produced by 33 native Japanese speakers in a computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) scenario. Participants of a pre/post-test training experiment spanning four weeks were split into three groups: experimental, in-classroom, and placebo. Experimental group used the CAPT tool described in the paper, which we specially designed for autonomous pronunciation training. Statistically significant improvement for experimental and in-classroom groups is revealed, and moderate correlation values between gASR and kASR results were obtained, beside strong correlations between the post-test scores of both ASR systems with the CAPT application scores found at the final stages of application use. These results suggest that both ASR alternatives are valid for assessing minimal pairs in CAPT tools, in the current configuration. Discussion on possible ways to improve our system and possibilities for future research are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0770.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Surgical navigation; maxillofacial surgey; Tracked instruments; Tracked tools; coronoid hyperplasia; Orbital reconstruction; Virtual surgical simulation; Piezoelectric surgery; Virtual surgery; computer-assisted surgey; simulated guided surgery
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:31:15 CEST)
Surgical navigation has evolved as a vital tool in maxillofacial surgery, offering precise and patient-specific data. This study explores the clinical applications and accuracy of intraoperative tool tracking in maxillofacial surgery. The research includes 37 patients with various pathologies who underwent surgery assisted by a surgical navigation system using tracked instruments. The study showcases two representative cases: one involving coronoid hyperplasia with mouth opening deficit and another addressing nose-orbital-ethmoidal-frontal ossifying fibroma resection. The results indicate that surgical navigation with tracked instruments provides high precision (<1.5 mm error), reduced surgical time, and less invasive approaches. The study highlights the potential for reproducible outcomes and increased safety, especially in complex cases. Despite some limitations, the synergy between surgical navigation and tracked instruments offers a promising approach in maxillofacial surgery, expanding its applications beyond current practices.