ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0152.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: entrepreneurship; employees; Romanian rural area; development
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:27:24 CET)
The economic activities in the romanian rural areas have started to know new horizons with Romania's accession to the European Community. The rural society was and is focused on the level of entrepreneurial behavior strictly on agriculture, with all its derivatives. At present there is a variety of sectors of activity that are found in the rural society, which are waiting to know new dimensions. The higher the number of entrepreneurs, the more job vacancies will be created across different fields of activity. In these circumstances, the number of jobs will increase, and the society in the romanian rural area can enjoy a diversity of the population determined by the various professions of people, but also by the new dimension offered by the entrepreneurial area. This way, it will be done later the repopulation of the Romanian countryside, a national interest issue, after the great majority of the population went to work in the countries of the European Community, having to be forced by the poverty of the romanian rural area, determined by the lack of jobs to ensure a decent standard of living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: rural; stunting; household size; Indonesia
Online: 13 July 2021 (08:28:03 CEST)
(1) Background: Stunting remains a challenge in Indonesia, where 30.8% of under-five children are stunted and may never reach full potential height and cognitive function. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of stunting in Nangapanda subdistrict, East Nusa Tenggara; (2) Methods: The design was cross-sectional study located in rural area as part of PINTERMIDI UI project. We collected quantitative data on social determinants, weight, height, hemoglobin, ferritin, serum zinc, CRP, worm infection, history of deworming, co-morbidity, food security, and nutrient intake; (3) Results: A total of 196 under-five children included and 74% households were food insecure. The prevalence of stunting was 29.9% in this population (31.8% worm infection, 30.3% iron deficiency, and 28.1% zinc deficiency). Multivariate analysis showed household with 5-8 members (AOR 3.076; 95% CI 1.132 – 8.356) and unsafe drinking water (AOR 1.702; 95% CI 0.825 – 3.512) were significant independent risk factors of stunting after adjusted by child’s gender, father’s occupation, caregiver’s education, monthly expenses, sanitary facilities, and food security status; (4) Conclusions: The number of household members is the only independent risk factor of stunting among children age 24-59 months in rural area of Eastern Indonesia. Development of nutrition sensitive intervention and promotion of family planning are needed in order to increase adequate child’s care and feeding practices in rural area of Eastern Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0365.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Traditional; Communication; Media; Rural; Information Service Delivery; Adolescent
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:25:56 CEST)
This research work examined the various communication media used in the rural areas for the purpose of conveying messages to Adolescents in the selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria - Woji, Rumuigbo, Rumuola, Rumuokwuta and Elelenwo communities. The Taro Yammane Statistical formula for determination of sample size was used in drawing a sample of 363 respondents from a population of 3,630 Adolescents. The simple random sampling method was used in the distribution of the questionnaire to target respondents in the selected communities. Two hundred and eighty two (282) copies of the questionnaire were returned valid, and data from them was analysed and interpreted with the use of frequency tables and percentages. The result shows that traditional communication media is still relevant in the dissemination of information to rural dwellers in general and to Adolescents in particular. The agencies that make use of these media are; village authority, age groups, etc. The research work recommend among others that the government and rural dwellers should hold our traditional and cultural values in high esteem through the use of these media, harmonizing the use of traditional communication media and modern media for effective rural information service delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: skill accumulation; regional advantages; rural-urban migrant workers; global production networks; upgrading
Online: 1 December 2016 (09:42:02 CET)
Extant research pays little attention to migrant workers’ skill accumulation/upgrading from the perspective of the labor supply. This paper takes China as an example to explore the factors influencing skill accumulation of rural-urban migrant workers (RUMWs), with a purpose to discover how to sustain or reshape regional competitive advantage through improving RUMWs’ skill accumulation. Structured questionnaire surveys were adopted for data collection in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province and Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province located in the Yangtze River Delta in the east of China. 900 questionnaires were issued and 491 effective questionnaires were recovered totally. This paper takes a perspective of global production networks, and gets a broad viewpoint containing intra-firm coordination, inter-firm partnership and extra-firm bargaining with non-firm actors, beyond what the extant literature on laborers’ human capital focuses on. The ﬁnding indicates that firms’ skill-oriented preference, which concerns about employees’ skills and innovation ability and stimulates them to learn initiatively, have a significant influence on RUMWs’ skill accumulation. In terms of collective efficiency based on co-competitive relationship between local firms, the more intensive interactions are, the more opportunities of skill accumulation RUMWs get. The accessibility of local institutions and favorable policies benefit RUMWs’ skill accumulation. Besides, the place itself, as a synthesized space of labor-management relations inside a firm and inter-organization relations, exerts an influence on and cause the regional differences in RUMWs’ skill accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: sustainability; hatchery; SDG; lambari; conservation unit; rural farm; Deuterodon iguape
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:19:46 CEST)
Protected areas have been used worldwide to conserve natural resources. Nevertheless, economic activities to provide income for communities living inside and surrounding conservation areas remain an issue. This study aimed to assess the sustainability of a Deuterodon iguape hatchery, placed inside an Atlantic Rainforest Park, to leverage this small native fish's grow-out farming, affording income and food security for local families. We have used a set of indicators of economic, social, and environmental sustainability. The initial investment is about US$ 40,000, which returned in ~2 years. The internal rate of return is close to 50%, including the externality costs, which is attractive for public and private investments. The hatchery generated few direct jobs, but the workforce can be recruited in the community, and hatchery can enable the establishment of several small grow-out farms, leveraging the development of indirect jobs and self-employments. The system had a low environmental impact, showing minor release of pollutants, low risk for biodiversity, and absorption of 18 g of CO2 equivalent per thousand post-larvae produced, contributing to the struggle against climate change. Therefore, D. iguape hatchery demonstrates the potential of combining biodiversity conservation and income generation, meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of Agenda 2030.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0137.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Rural transformation; South Korea; Ethiopia; Rural
Online: 8 March 2023 (02:05:55 CET)
Abstract Most Asian countries like South Korea have transformed themselves from poor agrarian nations into one of the fastest-growing industrialized economies in the world. Rural transformation poses great challenges to rural people and areas, but also it also provides great opportunities for sustainable rural development. The evolution of South Korea's rural policies is embedded through the different national institutions with different sectors. Diversification of rural economic opportunities may further extend to the industries for economic development in rural regions alongside efforts to improve living. Examining the rural transformation in South Korea, mainly the rural development with land, agriculture, truism, politic,s and strategy they used that shaped the structure of the rural transformation and its activities over time and Ethiopia takes lessons is the objective of the study. Document analysis is a tool for achieving information. Ethiopia takes lessons from South Korea from the general sector of rural development to the particular agricultural development sector, rural truism development, land reform which is the core asset for the world people, health care reform, and market and trade transformation (indicates that the base for developed country development was trade reform from import to export), rural job employment transformation (which have the multidimensional impact to the development of nation) and rural political transformation are the basic areas of rural transformation in which Ethiopia focused to do. The country can grow with the integrated/ collaborative work of the stakeholders. The government of Ethiopia applying a functional regional strategy to shape the socio-economic and cultural changes of the rural people and working with civil societies and other non-governmental stakeholders must be the primary tasks
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: boring peripheries; mining tourism; rural destination; stakeholders; sustainable rural development.
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:49:29 CEST)
The crisis of mining-industrial activities in Western Europe since the middle of the 20th century caused the cessation of mining, triggering a structural crisis. It is necessary to look for alternatives, among which tourist activities based on mining heritage stand out. However, there are unattractive peripheral spaces in which new activities encounter obstacles to their development, facing the post-industrial and rural crises. The Riotinto Mining Basin (Huelva, Andalusia) represents an example of such spaces with an enormous cultural heritage. A central agent, the Río Tinto Foundation, has opted to enhance tourism value, while the mine has recently been reactivated. The objective of this research is to analyze the contribution of mining tourism to sustainable rural development. The methodology applied has been mixed based on conducting interviews and analyzing secondary data. The results are (a) achievement of the tourism value of the mining heritage; (b) difficulties for tourism to overcome its peripheral condition; (c) relative contribution of tourism to the improvement of the territorial image; (d) lack of coordination among stakeholders; (e) limited contribution of tourism to sustainable rural development, moving to a secondary economic role after the reopening of the mine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0408.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: rural clean heating project; rural Gansu; sustainability; potential solutions; benchmarking
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:23:11 CEST)
Rural clean heating project (RCHP) in China aims to increase flexibility in the rural energy system, enhance the integration of renewable energy and distributed generation, and reduce environmental impact. While RCHP-enabling routes have been studied from a technical perspective, the economic, ecological, regulatory, and policy dimensions of RCHP are yet to be analysed in depth, especially in the underdeveloped areas in China. This paper discusses RCHP in rural Gansu in a multi-dimension approach. We firstly focus on the current issues and challenges of RCHP in rural Gansu. Then the RCHP-enabling areas are briefly zoned into six typical regions based on the resource distribution in Gansu Province, and a matching framework of RCHP is recommended. Then we focus on the economics and sustainability of RCHP-enabling technologies. Based on the medium-term assessment of RCHP in the demonstration provinces, various technical schemes and routes are analysed and compared so as to be adopted in rural Gansu. In addition to technical and economic effects of those schemes, the corresponding ecology, policy, finance, and market implications are also concerned. We briefly discuss how the national regulators incentivise the implementation of RCHP in rural Gansu. Major barriers to RCHP are identified as the sustainability of technology, economy, ecology, policy, finance, and market. Subsequently, some policy solutions to overcome these barriers are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: rural road landscape; landscape character; landscape visual quality; rural tourism experience
Online: 30 June 2023 (02:43:44 CEST)
The rural road landscape is crucial in forming rural areas' landscape character (LC). As a platform for portraying the rural landscape, the rural roads demonstrate the area's unique natural and cultural characteristics to the visitors. However, with the continuous development of rural areas, the rural LC has been severely impacted, thus impacting visitors' visual experience. In order to preserve and protect the rural landscape, this study aims to assess the visual quality of rural road landscapes based on public preference and heatmap analysis. The results indicated that most of the participants had a higher level of preference for rural landscapes with open horizontal views represented by agricultural areas such as paddy fields. It was also found that different paddy field characters based on their planting stages can also positively affect the visual quality of rural road landscapes. The study also revealed that rural LCs with roadside settlements, commercial structures, mixed agricultural crops, and vegetation received low preference ratings. These characters negatively impact the visual quality of the rural road landscape. These findings provide significant insight for planners and decision-makers regarding protecting and preserving the essential rural road landscapes for the rural tourism experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Hybrid Mini-grid, Rural Electrification, Renewable Energy, Rural Development, Energy Access
Online: 6 October 2017 (15:45:54 CEST)
Rural electrification in remote areas of developing countries has several challenges which hinders energy access to the population. For instance the extension of the national grid to provide electricity in these areas is largely not viable. The Kenyan government has put a target to achieve universal energy access by the year 2020. In order to realize this objective, focus is being shifted to establishing off-grid power stations in rural areas.Among rural areas to be electrified, Habaswein is a settlement in Kenya's North Eastern region without connection to the National Power Grid where Kenya Power installed a stand alone hybrid mini-grid.Based on field observations, power generation data analysis, evaluation of the potential energy resource and simulations, this research intends to evaluate the performance of the Habaswein mini-grid and optimize the existing hybrid generation system to enhance its reliability and reduce the operation costs.The result will be a suggestion of how Kenyan rural areas could be sustainably electrified by using renewable energy based off-grid power stations. It will contribute to bridge the research gap currently existing on that area, and it will be a vital tool to researchers, implementers and the policy makers in energy sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0136.v1
Online: 31 October 2016 (07:59:32 CET)
Food is one of the basic necessities for all living things in this globe to grow, maintain life and develop. It is a source of energy for almost all bodily functions and it directly affects our health status and how we feel each day and the future. Yet, there are millions of people around the globe who do not have the sumptuousness to provide enough food to themselves and their beloved ones. Ethiopia is one of the highly food insecure countries in the world, it's name has been illustrious for famine and drought for decades. The study's main aim is to assess the livelihood resources and strategies of the smallholding farmers in their strive to achieve food security at household level. For this particular study, from Tigray region, Kilte Awelalo was taken as a study area and three Tabias were selected; Ayenalem, Genfel and Tahetay Adikesanded. The total sample number of households from these three Tabias was 370 and a formal interview schedule was employed to collect relevant primary inputs for the study. The study found that farmland holding size and its fertility as major impacting factors behind the livelihood strategies and food security condition of the smallholding farmers. It was also found that about one third of the total sample population were chronically food insecure, whereas about half of the population were transitory food insecure and rest very little number of households were food secure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: digital village; rural households; subjective well-being; digital transformation; rural digital economy
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:45:40 CEST)
With the advancement of the economy and society, policymakers acknowledge the significance of improving rural households' well-being as a crucial factor in promoting sustainable economic and social development. Based on the matching data of China Household Finance Survey and Digital Rural County Index, this study empirically examines the effect and mechanisms of digital village construction on subjective well-being of rural households. The results revealed that digital village construction has a significant improvement in their subjective well-being. The impact of digital village construction is particularly significant in rural areas located in the western regions of China, as well as among households possessing higher levels of human capital. The process through which digital village construction enhances the subjective well-being of rural households involves the augmentation of household income, the promotion of non-farm employment opportunities, and the enhancement of rural governance. This study provides robust micro-empirical evidence highlighting the positive welfare effects of digital rural construction. This study provides insights into the digital village construction within the happiness economy framework, offering a new perspective. The imperative to strengthen rural digital infrastructure and improve farmers' proficiency in modern information skills is a strategic policy aimed at enhancing well-being of rural households.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0058.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: rural development; multifunctionality; rural planning; participatory process; social multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE)
Online: 4 April 2018 (14:51:19 CEST)
The planning of rural land depends to a large extent on the agrarian and forestry development model agreed upon for it. Within the framework of agrarian multifunctionality, to evaluate different development alternatives and their effect on territorial planning, its multiple dimensions must be considered as well as the interests and needs of the stakeholders. This work thus addresses the comprehensive evaluation of development alternatives for the rural area of a municipality of the Basque Country (Spain) through the implementation of a multi-criteria evaluation method with social participation. The results show, firstly, the existence of trade-offs between the functions to be promoted in the various development models evaluated. Secondly, the results indicate the need to reverse recent trends in the sector and the convenience of moving towards an agro-livestock model of greater ecological and local character, independently of the followed forest model. In fact, the evaluation carried out also reveals, thirdly, the existence of more or less latent conflicts, in particular with regards to forest policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0698.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Health Shock, Credit, Rural Household Welfare, Sustainable Rural Devlopment, China Household Finance Survey
Online: 9 August 2023 (08:50:14 CEST)
Due to the incomplete of China's current social security system, health shocks are one of the main risks faced by rural families. Using data from the 2019 China Household Finance Survey, we examined the impact of borrowing on household welfare when rural households face health shocks. We found that household income and food expenditure both declined significantly when rural households faced health shocks; rural household borrowing was mainly used for the treatment of the diseases, and it had a crowding out effect on tourism and general health care expenditures, but not on education expenditures. We also found that the impact of borrowing on the western region was higher than that on the central and eastern regions from Looking at the impact of borrowing in different regions. Finally, we put forward some suggestions for promoting sustainable rural development from the perspective of medical security, such as accelerating the promotion of new rural medical insurance, helping rural low-income families improve health benefits, establishing diversified financing channels, improving rural financial platforms, and solving the financing difficulties of households to improve the ability of rural households to resist health shocks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0885.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; Farmers; Rural population.
Online: 13 June 2023 (07:31:49 CEST)
(1) Background: Metabolic syndrome is a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease thus the objective of the study was to verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in farmers, as well as to verify the association with sociodemographic, work and lifestyle factors. (2) Methods: Cross-sectional, observational study, carried out with 790 individuals. For the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria were used. Pearson's chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to verify factors associated with metabolic syndrome (3) Results: The prevalence of MS according to the IDF criteria was 16.3% overall, with 9.7% of women (95% CI: 6.66–16.16) and 6.6% of men (95% CI: 5.17–11.97). According to the NCEP/ATP III criterion, it was 12.3% overall, with 7.5% corresponding to women (95% CI: 6.62 – 13.13) and 4.8% to men (95% CI: 3.5 – 8.70). With regard to the conditions that make up metabolic syndrome, it was found that high density lipoprotein, high blood pressure and high waist circumference were the most prevalent. (4) Conclusions: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is considerable in the population when compared to other regions, both rural and urban, in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: leptospirosis; MAT; rural areas; zoonosis
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:04:29 CEST)
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that poses a significant threat to human and animal health worldwide. Among different animal species, pigs are known to play a crucial role in the transmission of the pathogenic Leptospira spp. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Leptospira spp. infection and associated risk factors in subsistence pig production in the state of Paraná, Brazil. A total of 1393 serum samples were collected from pigs on 188 subsistence properties in different regions of the state, and tested using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to detect antibodies against 24 different Leptospira spp serovars. The results revealed an overall seroprevalence of 68.78% for Leptospira spp. antibodies, with Icterohaemorrhagiae, Butembo, and Pomona being the most commonly detected serovars. Poor housing conditions, lack of rodent control, absence of veterinary assistance, and a history of reproductive problems were identified as significant risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. infection in the subsistence pig population. These findings highlight the urgent need for implementing effective control measures, such as improved housing conditions, rodent control, and veterinary assistance, to prevent the spread of this zoonotic disease in subsistence pig production systems in Paraná, Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0252.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: entrepreneurship; rural; sociodemographic; millennials; agriculture
Online: 9 April 2021 (09:55:53 CEST)
Entrepreneurship can help revitalize rural territories and agricultural development; consequently, it is important to know aspects that allow a better understanding of the subjects that undertake in the countryside, in this case, sociodemographic aspects, related to students and graduates of five Faculties of Agricultural Sciences in the Department of Antioquia in Colombia. For this purpose, a previously validated questionnaire was used, collecting 427 complete responses. Chi-square sta-tistical tests were performed to determine the degree of association of entrepreneurial activity with measured sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, schooling, family environment, and dependents. Once the existence of associations between the variables was ver-ified, a multiple correspondence analysis was performed to identify patterns and trends. A greater favorability for entrepreneurship was found in those subjects belonging to the upper strata of the population, mostly men, with postgraduate studies, from wealthy families, while the poorest and women are mainly oriented towards job search.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0271.v1
Online: 28 February 2019 (12:49:31 CET)
The majority of the population in developing countries resides in the rural area. Development itself cannot address the challenges of the rural area since its economic, political and environmental landscape is different from an urban area. The paper attempts to assess the rural dimension aspect of Nepali Agriculture Policy since rural development and agricultural development is closely resembled due to an agrarian-based economy of the country and a large rural population. Therefore, a critical review of National Agriculture Policy, 2004 (NAP-2004) was carried out under “Commercialization of Agriculture”, “Food Security”, “Rural Infrastructure”, “Gender”, “Climate Change” and “Social Inclusion” thematic area. The results showed that NAP-2004 satisfactorily address rural development albeit ample space for improvement. The findings of the paper could be beneficial to policymakers and development workers in the field of rural development and agriculture along with academicians having interest in it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: rural health; dementia care; telehealth
Online: 18 April 2018 (05:25:13 CEST)
Context: A clinical video telehealth (CVT) program was implemented improve access and quality of dementia care to patients and their caregivers in rural areas. The program was offered as part of an established dementia clinic/geriatric primary care clinic in collaboration with five community-based outpatient clinics (CBOC’s) affiliated with the Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (TVHS) in middle Tennessee. Telehealth support was provided by a physician – social worker team visit. Methods: Telehealth training and equipment were provided to clinic personnel, functioning part-time with other collateral clinical duties. Patients and caregivers were referred by primary care providers and had an average of 1 to 2 CVT encounters originating at their local CBOC lasting 20 to 30 minutes. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients and caregivers receiving CVT support were collected by retrospective electronic medical record (EMR) review. Results: Over a 3-year period 45 CVT encounters were performed on patient-caregiver pairs, followed for a mean of 15 (1-36) months. Some 80% patients had dementia confirmed and 89% of these had serious medical comorbidities, took an average of 8 medications, and resided at a distance of 103 (76-148) miles from the medical center. Dementia patients included 33% with late stage dementia, 25% received additional care from a mental health provider, 23% took antipsychotic medications, 19% transitioned to a higher level of care, and 19% expired an average of 10.2 months following consultation. Caregiver distress was present in 47% of family members. Consult recommendations included 64% community-based long-term care services and supports (LTSS), 36% medications, and 22% further diagnostic testing. Acceptance of the CVT encounter was 98%, with 8770 travel miles saved. Conclusion: CVT is well received and may be helpful in providing dementia care and supporting dementia caregivers to obtain LTSS for high-need older adults in rural areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0508.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: China’s Rural Pension Program; Pension contribution; Trust in government; Propensity Score Matching method; Rural China
Online: 27 December 2022 (03:22:26 CET)
This paper estimates the effect of trust in government on rural residents’ contributions in China’s rural pension program using the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method. We construct an analytical framework for rural residents' decision-making in pension program and provide analysis using data from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and 25 provincial Departments of the Human Resources and Social Security (DOHRSS) in China. Our analysis shows that rural residents’ trust in government will influence their contributions to the pension programs by affecting their expected return of the investments. Our results suggest that the government should improve rural residents’ trust in government in order to develop a successful and sustainable rural pension program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Rural dental care; Preventive visits; Rural Vs Urban; community health centers; Hispanic Vs Non-Hispanics
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:07:45 CEST)
Abstract: Background: To determine the impact of a patient's ethnicity on the seeking preventive dental services at the Community Health Centers (CHCs) in South-Central Texas. Methods: Pri-mary electronic health records (HER) data were collected regarding each patient's medical and dental history, and comprehensive treatment planning. The researchers retrieved EHR from Jan-uary 2016 to 2022. Bivariate analysis was completed to test outcome with predicator and covariates using appropriate statistical tests. A multiple linear regression model was used to understand the association between the predictor and outcome variable while controlling for confounders. Results: The study findings revealed significantly higher dental visits (2.26 ± 2.88) for Hispanic patients. The results from the multiple regression model indicated that non-Hispanic patients had a 8% fewer chance of visiting the CHCs for preventive dental services compared to the Hispanic population (p-value<0.001) when all other variables are held constant. However, the study results were not significant as the effect size was small to conclude the effect of ethnicity on the patients visiting the dental clinic at the CHCs for preventive services. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is no difference in the preventive dental services completed by Hispanics and Non-Hispanics when all other variables are controlled.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: rural health; COVID-19; health disparities
Online: 20 March 2023 (07:10:34 CET)
COVID-19 has proven to be detrimental across the globe, most notably affecting the United States at an alarming rate compared to comparable countries. The pandemic has had multifactorial implications on the way communities in the United States prevent, prepare for, and address the virus; however, the impact of the pandemic on rural health is less well understood. Historically, rural communities have faced a unique set of challenges regarding accessing and receiving adequate healthcare, addressing chronic illness, and eliminating health disparities closely associated with the population’s socioeconomic status; the pandemic has exacerbated these challenges. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural populations both at the individual and community level. Results indicated that rural health disparities increased both at the individual and system-wide levels as a direct result of the pandemic. Budget cuts significantly affected the infrastructure of rural hospitals resulting in them being unequipped to handle such high volumes of COVID-19 cases. The lack of infectious disease specialists, access to larger medical centers with substantial numbers of ICU beds and ventilators, and an overall lack of preparedness overwhelmed rural communities. Although comorbidities such as diabetes and heart disease were associated with poorer health outcomes for a multitude of reasons, the lack of clinic and physician availability for routine care during the pandemic further exacerbated the clinical link from COVID-19 positivity to comorbidities. Furthermore, mental health deteriorated as substance use increased to a greater extent in rural communities compared to urban, during the pandemic. This study shows that health comorbidities, mental health, substance use, health literacy, access to healthcare, among others can serve as key indicators for improving healthcare in rural communities. Future studies should seek to identify key issues that disproportionately affected rural communities in comparison to their urban counterparts considering the pandemic, as well as identify gaps in the availability of rural health resources that can improve the lives of millions of Americans now and during the next pandemic.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0101.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: SI4CARE; TELEMEDICINE; ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE; RURAL AREAS
Online: 5 January 2023 (09:11:00 CET)
The SI4CARE project is a transnational project which aims to develop both strategy and 1 action plans to improve health and social care in the Adriatic-Ionian region. Starting from the 2 survey of the status quo, each partner has developed some pilots to to support the development 3 and monitoring of the policy actions. In particular Partner number three, Municipality of Miglierina, 4 designed and developed a pilot related to the use of wearable device for monitoring elderly patients 5 in rural areas. With the collaboration of the complex unity of primary cares (UCCP) of the Reventino 6 area, the pilot is based on the use of smart wearable device to monitor some parameters of elderly 7 people after the vaccination for flu and covid. This paper focuses on the design and implementation 8 of the system and describe its application in the Municipality of Miglierina, the presentation of the 9 results and the discussion of the strengths and weaknesses will be presented in detail in a future work. 10 Finally, the possibility of extending the experiment to the other Adriatic-Ionian region is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Rural Health; Obesity abdominal; Metabolic syndrome
Online: 10 October 2022 (13:59:16 CEST)
(1) Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular complications. Therefore, this study aims to establish cut points for the conicity index based on the components of the metabolic syndrome and to associate it with characteristics sociodemographic, food consumption and occupational factors in Brazilian rural workers; (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out with farmers. The receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated and the cutoff points for the conicity index were identified by the area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity. The variables included in the binary logistic regression analysis were selected by considering p < 0.20 in the bivariate test; (3) Results: The cut points were similar in females according to both criteria, resulting in a single cut-off of 1.269. In males, the cut points showed differences, resulting in 1.272 according to the NCEP-ATP III and 1.252 according to the IDF. We have shown that younger people, those who work more than 40 hours a week and the lowest contribution of culinary ingredients are associated with increased odds of abdominal obesity. While the consumption of the products they sell or produce decreases these chances; (4) Conclusions: The conicity index showed high discriminatory power for the identification of abdominal obesity in rural workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0088.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Climate change; Female farmers; Rural; Ghana
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:25:00 CEST)
Climate change poses a major threat to development in most low and middle-income countries, especially the sub – Saharan Africa. Wurompo is a small farming community in the Wenchi Municipality of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana that depends on rain-fed agriculture activities for livelihood. In recent years, droughts, unpredictable rainfall pattern and crop failure have become common in the area. The study assessed knowledge and awareness, effects of climate change on female farmers, and their adaptation strategies. A case study in design, qualitative methods were used to collect data from 50 purposefully selected participants. Data were analyzed using themes and sub-themes generated from the research questions. Findings showed lack of adequate information and knowledge on climate change and its effects. Climate change has impacted negatively on these farmers stemming from decline in crop production and unavailability of adequate water supply in due season. Challenges to climate change adaptation are poverty, poor basic infrastructure, and modern farming practices. Farmers must be educated on climate change and its effects, with training on the necessary adaptation strategies to build their resilience. Policies that target rural farmers to adapt to climate change, and device modern agricultural techniques and practices are also necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0170.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: WHO-5; well-being; rural; urban
Online: 15 August 2019 (16:17:46 CEST)
As mental health problems tend to increase during adolescence and is a serious public health issue in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Early detection is necessary and monitoring at the population level can be used to evaluate the progress of national programmes promoting positive well-being. Physical activity (PA) can be protective whereas increased screen time behaviours (STB) can be a risk for low levels of well-being. A national representative sample (n=4,731) of young adolescents aged 11y, 13y, and 15y from the Republic of Kazakhstan took part in the WHO collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Respondents completed the WHO-5 Well-being scale, and items in on PA and STB. Internationally recognised, recommended cut-offs were used for analyses. Two models of binary logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations with PA (Model 1) and PA with STB (Model 2) after stratification by gender and controlling for age, locality and family affluence. Three quarters of young adolescents in the Republic of Kazakhstan have good overall well-being, despite the proportion reduces as adolescents age from 11y to 15y (boys, OR=0.66 CI=0.49-0.80; girls, OR=0.55, CI=0.43-0.71). The odds ratio for positive well-being were more than twice for boys and more than 3.5 for girls who reported daily PA than not being active daily. Spending less time on STB for girls was associated with positive well-being than spending more STB time (OR=1.28, CI=1.04-1.59). Well-being among young adolescents drops dramatically between the ages of 11y and 15y and is higher among rural schools attendees than in urban schools. The recommended amounts of PA can be protective of low well-being for both boys and girls. However, meeting reporting STB recommendations was only protective for girls and not boys. Designing and implementing positive well-being programmes require consideration of locality and amounts of PA and STB
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0040.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Savings mobilization, Table banking, Rural Poor
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:33:58 CET)
This study examined the determinants of domestic savings mobilization among the rural poor in Uasin-Gishu county, Kenya. The general notion is that the subsistence farmers are too poor to save. This seems to be unfounded given the fact that they are general excluded from formal financial services and studies on poverty in the country show that the average propensity of the rural households to save is higher than the national average. What are the factors which motivate small scale farmers to save? The study was conducted on 446 table banking groups under the aegis of JOYWO, a table banking grouping in Kenya. Data was collected using structured questionnaires from members of groups under the umbrella of JOYWO. The findings of the study indicates that household income had a positive and significant effect on savings mobilization while dependency ratio had a negative and significant effect on savings mobilization. Household size was not significant. The results point to the need to expose the rural poor to informal savings and financing models expected to enhance income generating capabilities of the rural poor and lower the level dependency through government welfare funding for senior citizens and essential services for the young.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0316.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agritourism; sustainability; rural policies; FADN; Italy
Online: 18 July 2018 (00:29:49 CEST)
This paper investigates how and to what extent European and national policies, through the analysis of financial support derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) (First and Second Pillar) and national and local subsidies, have financed Italian agritourism. For this purpose, the authors have proposed a comparative analysis between Italian agritourism and farms without tourism activities, by stressing the distribution of public financial supports concerning the 2007-2013 programming period of the European Union (EU) for Rural Development. The empirical analysis is based on the Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) dataset. The data were stratified by altimetry zone and farm size. Descriptive statistics and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for each group were used. The main results show how the Second Pillar has mainly supported small and medium-sized farms with tourism activities and located in disadvantaged areas. This study could be useful to policymakers regarding evaluation of the mission for diversification in agriculture, represented here by the carrying out of tourist activities on farms and the contribution for the retention of small-scale farms in marginal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0001.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: medical workforce shortage; rural and remote; recruitment and retention; sustainable rural medical workforce; medical school innitiatives.
Online: 1 December 2022 (01:05:35 CET)
.Abstract: Indonesia, one of the Asia Pacific LMICs, has suffered from a chronic medical workforce shortage. However, there are limited published studies describing the approaches implemented by the Indonesian government regarding the recruitment and retention of the medical workforce. This case study aimed to understand the current practices for recruitment and retention of the medical workforce in Indonesian rural and remote provinces. We conducted a case study of the Maluku Province of Indonesia with document analysis and key informant interviews with officials responsible for medical workforce recruitment and retention. We used the WHO’s guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the recruitment and retention practices under four domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and classified them into University/Medical School level and Government/Non-government level. Our findings suggest that Indonesia has implemented most of the WHO-recommended medical workforce recruitment and retention strategies. However, implementation is still problematic; hence, the aim of establishing an adequate, sustainable medical workforce has not been reached. Nationwide government intervention in educational aspects is important to magnify the impact of the regional medical school initiatives. Relevant programs must be re-evaluated and re-enforced concerning significance, comprehensiveness and effectiveness for sustainable rural and remote medical workforce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0216.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: cascading tank village system; sustainable livelihoods; resilience thinking; Sri Lanka; rural dry zone; community rural development
Online: 12 October 2020 (09:47:15 CEST)
Cascading Tank Village Systems (CTVSs) of Sri Lanka historically provided a resilient community-based social-ecological water management system in the rural dryzone of Sri Lanka . The CTVS has been described as the ‘lifeblood’ of communities in the rural dry zone  and as a globally important Agricultural Heritage System by the FAO . After being abandoned for many centuries, their restoration is now being pursued by different national and international actors as a key to climate change mitigation and sustainable livelihoods for communities . Rural livelihoods in the dry zone are at risk due to multiple factors, poor access and management of water, economic and health pressures, as well as resource limitations and degradation . Despite recent efforts to restore CTVS systems, no social-ecological approach (SES) nor sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF) focused approach to ensuring resilient and sustainable livelihood outcomes has been taken . As part of an on-going PhD project, this paper describes the background, current challenges and potential for an SES focused resilience thinking approach to CTVS combined with a focus on sustainable livelihoods for future sustainable livelihood opportunities and outcomes. The study finds current restoration efforts are at a crossroads between restoring the past (system adaptability) or transforming for the future. It introduces relevant SES and resilience thinking concepts and analyses the CTVS from this perspective. A particular contribution of this study is to point to the significant overlaps and complementarities in social-ecological (SES) resilience thinking and SLF approaches to analysis and proposals for resilient rural development. Employing resilience thinking principles it recommends strategies to create positive livelihood outcomes for communities and households. Keywords: cascading tank village system; sustainable livelihoods; resilience thinking; Sri Lanka; rural dry zone; community rural development
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1419.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: breast cancer; culture; belief; rural; South Africa
Online: 21 September 2023 (12:14:44 CEST)
Breast cancer remains one of the most deadly non-communicable diseases in the world. The incidence of breast cancer in South Africa is increasing, with rural African women presenting with advanced stages of the disease. In this study, we aim to explore sociocultural factors influencing breast cancer screening practices among rural African women. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 22 rural African women selected by purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. In this study, four sociocultural factors were identified as influencing breast cancer screening practices among rural African women. These factors included psychological factors, habits, beliefs, and healthcare perception. Women in rural African communities have deep-rooted traditional beliefs and practices regarding breast cancer. Consequently, this influences women's preventative health behaviours regarding breast cancer screening. To increase the number of women participating in breast cancer screenings, it is vital to develop culturally sensitive health education programs. Engaging community healers will also help to increase the number of women participating in breast cancer screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1916.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Fortune 40; Rural development; Youth; Sustainable Livelihoods
Online: 28 June 2023 (02:28:01 CEST)
The importance of agricultural programs in reducing poverty, improving livelihoods, and increasing productivity cannot be overstated. Poverty and unemployment remain the most pressing developmental concerns in rural communities of Africa in general and South Africa in particular. The study was derived from the contribution of the agricultural development programs and sought to discover how the Fortune 40 initiative impacted rural livelihoods of youth in Bushbuckridge Local Municipality. Primary data using cross-sectional research design was collected from beneficiaries of the Fortune 40 program, through use of a questionnaire. An ordered probit model was used to analyse the impact of Fortune 40 initiative to rural livelihoods. Empirical results revealed that age of beneficiaries, household size, type of farming, credit access and land size were the factors with the likelihood to influence the impact of the Fortune 40 program. Therefore, it can be concluded that the land size for production should increase or expanded to enhance production of vegetables; provision of credit facilities for youths in agriculture through micro-finance and rural commercial banks is essential; also, youth, such as agricultural graduates looking for practical experience and on-farm training, should be considered in the program.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1394.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Rural; well-being; infant welfare; risk factors
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:35:31 CEST)
Children from rural areas face numerous possibilities for neurodevelopmental conditions that may compromise their well-being and optimal development. Neuropsychology and electroencephalography (EEG) have shown strong agreement in detecting correlations between these two variables and suggest an association with specific environmental and social risk factors. The present meta-analysis aims to integrate the qualitative and quantitative EEG findings, their relationship with cognitive impairment in children living in vulnerable or rural environments, and the main risk factors influencing EEG abnormalities. The method for this purpose was based on a systematic string-based review from Ebscohost and Web of Science, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted from the outcomes that complied with the selected criteria. A total of 92 records were identified; however, only 20 were eligible, considering 11 for qualitative and 9 for quantitative analysis. The findings highlight a significant amount of literature on EEG and its relation with cognitive impairment from studies in children with epilepsy and malnutrition. In general, there is evidence about the advantages of implementing EEG diagnosis and research techniques in children living under risk conditions. Further research is needed to better describe and integrate the state of the art regarding EEG features extraction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0358.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: environmental knowledge; pollution; rural women; health; China
Online: 21 February 2023 (09:31:19 CET)
Rural women in developing nations are especially vulnerable to higher health risks due to environmental pollution exposure and are more likely to experience poorer health outcomes. Using data from the 2013 China General Social Survey CGSS2013, this study empirically examined the relationship among environmental knowledge (EK), pollution, health investment, and health status of women residing in rural regions in China. We employed a nationally representative sample of 1,930 female individuals for our analysis. Our results showed that the level of EK for women in rural China significantly impacted their self-reported physical and mental health. In order to account for potential endogeneity due to mutual causality, this study employed television usage and network usage as two instrument variables (IVs) of EK. We performed an IV-probit method to correct the estimated errors due to endogeneity. Additionally, to assess the reliability and robustness of our results, we re-estimated our model by replacing health status with the variable Body Mass Index (BMI). The results were consistent, providing evidence of robustness. Additionally, we examined the relationship between health investment (holding and purchasing a public health insurance policy, engaging in frequent physical activity, and acquiring commercial insurance) and health status. Our results indicate that the level of EK had no significant impact on participating in the new rural cooperative medical system. However, the preference of purchasing commercial insurance was positively impacted by EK, though it does not have a direct impact on the health condition. Conversely, an increase in EK and pollution is associated with a greater likelihood of engaging in physical exercise, which could, in turn, improve overall mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0098.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Green Infrastructures; Slow Tourism; Rural Tourism; Bioregion
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:55:00 CET)
In European countries many measures are carried out to improve the disadvantaged conditions and socio-economic marginality of rural areas in comparison with central places. These conditions also affect the quality of travel for visitors and tourists. Therefore, in response to a 'new' tourist demand, motivated also by the restrictions following the spread of the Covid-19 virus in recent years, the institutions and the different local actors are working more incisively to improve rural areas. The rural tourism services offer, combined with the Green Infrastructure (GI) project, at different scales - from local to regional - prove to be interesting territorial development strategies to achieve the Agenda 2030 objectives. This contribution considers the Sulcis Iglesiente - Guspinese area, in the Sardinia Region (IT), as a case study. In this area, the landscape context is marked by past mining activity and the project of a path of historical, cultural and religious values has proved to be an activator of regenerative processes, in environmental, social and economic terms. The present study proposes a methodological approach to develop an index (FI - Feasibility Index) to assess the feasibility of the Stop Places (SPs) schemes along a horse trail to integrate the current slow mobility by bicycle and pedestrian in the bioregion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0541.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Traditional practitioners; maternal health; roles; challenges; rural
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:59:55 CEST)
Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) are considered as the entry level of care in African societies and play an important role in the delivery of health services to the population. A phenomenological qualitative study was carried out among pur-posefully selected THPs in Mthatha to understand their roles and the challenges they face in providing maternal health services. The study included a focus group discussion with seven participants, which yielded three themes and seven sub-themes. The content analysis of descriptive data from the focus group discussion revealed threats posed by unregistered and counterfeit THPs to the lives of pregnant women in rural settings. THPs' wide range of services allowed pregnant women to receive prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care in close proximity. This level of care, however, was characterized by high levels of secrecy and counterfeit practitioners who used human body parts, which jeopardized the practice and made it unpopular. Traditional health practice must be protected through registration of THPs and the establishment of functional referral pathways between THPs and conventional health services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0130.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: rural aquaculture; water use; emergy; fish production
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:21:43 CET)
Freshwater pond aquaculture is the prevailing fish culture system worldwide, especially in developing countries. Climate change outcomes and inadequate environmental practices challenge its sustainability. This study applies emergy synthesis to assess the environmental performance of freshwater pond aquaculture in Brazil, aiming to identify and propose practices towards sustainability. As a study model, nine semi-intensive lambari farms operating at three levels of management were evaluated: low (LC), moderate (MC) and high (HC) control. Results showed that the main inputs for LC were services (27-46%), feed (7-39%), and water (15-21%), while for the MC and HC farms, they were feed (35-49% and 17-48%, respectively) and services (33-39% and 26-36%, respectively). All farms required more than 60% of their emergy from purchased inputs, resulting in low emergy sustainability index (ESI = 0.1-0.5). Replacing animal protein and oil on diet composition by vegetal sources, using superficial water instead of springwater, increasing juvenile productivity, and controlling pond fertilization can lead all systems to higher efficiency and resilience, increasing sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; Carriage; Resistance; PCVs; Urban; Rural.
Online: 1 July 2021 (13:42:52 CEST)
Background: Pneumococcal carriage surveillance study took place in urban and rural areas for Jordanian children in the period 2015-2019. Objectives: Determine urban and rural differences in pneumococcal carriage rate, resistance, and serotypes from healthy Jordanian children of Amman (urban) and eastern Madaba (rural). Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) were taken from 682 children aged 1 to 163 months. Pneumococcal identification, serotyping and resistance were done according to standard method. Results: Number of cases tested for Amman 267 and for eastern Madaba 415. Carriage rate for eastern Madaba was 39.5% and for Amman 31.1%. Predominant serotypes for eastern Madaba and Amman were 19F (21.3%; 15.7%), 23F (12.2%; 9.6%), 14 (6.7%; 2.4%), 19A (4.9%; 2.4%), 6A (5.5%; 3.6%). Resistance rates for eastern Madaba and Amman were: penicillin (95.8%; 81.9%), clarithromycin (68.9%; 59.0%), clindamycin (40.8%; 31.3%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.2%; 61.4%). Coverage of PCV7, PCV13, and the future PCV20 for Amman were 42.2%, 48.2%, and 60.2%; and for eastern Madaba were 50.0%, 62.2%, and 73.2%, respectively. In Amman 25.8% have received 1-3 PCV7 injections compared to 1.9% in eastern Madaba. Conclusions: There was significant differences in carriage, resistance and coverage in both regions. The potential inclusion of PCV vaccination program for rural areas is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0448.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: rural areas; smoke cooking; native gastronomy; sustainability
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:52:59 CEST)
The smoke house works as a tourism model that will directly impact women living across Quintana Roo communities and small towns, with the idea that this project will empower them, and provide them with a more dignified income, with the end goal to reduce the poverty rates in the state Likewise, to introduce an adequate formula of cuisine that promotes the regional gastronomic identity, since this typology of cultural heritage is linked to the experience of enjoying the state's native food. (Carrillo, J. and Vazquez, L., 2018) It should be noted that the main representatives and transmitters of gastronomy are women, usually housewives. Therefore, a methodology based on the qualitative approach was designed, taking as a basis the ethnographic method, which allows understanding the behavioral patterns of a society. In the first instance, a gastronomic laboratory is proposed for the university, which will later be used as a business model within the tourism industry, directed at people who seek to enjoy cultural and ex-periential tourism. And at the same time, it will benefit communities across the state by generating more income for them. In addition, the project of model smoke kitchen is oriented to go in accordance with the 2030 agenda. Which includes 17 objectives and 169 goals; six of those objectives are directly aligned with this project, and the rest can be observed to relate it in a more indirectly manner. In the same way, a summary of the results obtained by the five-year groundwork is presented, as well as the division of the gastronomy in the state according to the characteristics that conform the gastronomic region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0249.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Dazhai; local institutions; rural tourism; local development
Online: 11 May 2021 (15:00:54 CEST)
Rural tourism has been proved as an effective approach in many rural areas in China, and during the development processes, local institutions play significant roles in the context of China. This paper is to explore various roles of local institutions in the development of rural tourism in a typical community, Dazhai, in Guilin City. Within its limitations, it examines the roles by identifying the current situations of the community, formal and informal institutions that affect the rural tourism development.Obstacles still exist because of the “top-bottom”political system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0550.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: “Borghi”; Tourism development; Rural Area; Sustainable tourism
Online: 20 April 2021 (14:21:48 CEST)
The paper comes from the need to search for criteria useful for the valorization of heritage towns, located in rural and/or inland areas of Italy, now affected to depression and depopulation process. To this end, the authors point out how territorial identity can constitute the theoretical foundation to influence the development policies and, in particular, the tourism development for sustainability process It was therefore decided to interview a number of stakeholders who could contribute with their professionalism and expertise to identify possible paths and processes for the enhancement of these areas for tourism development. The methodology was based on be to be interviews with open questions, which allowed to identify a SWOT analysis, offering a guideline for a correct governance of these rural areas for their tourist enhancement, in terms of sustainability of development and tourist attractiveness. The study is an observatory that will monitor the implementation of sustainable tourism enhancement of the borghi, heritage town
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0058.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Rural; Food System; Inequities; Disparities; Food Security
Online: 5 July 2020 (09:13:17 CEST)
We seek to elucidate an aspirational vision for the food system and explore whether the characteristics of such a system inadvertently set unattainable standards for rural, low wealth communities. We apply discourse analysis to the following qualitative datasets: (1) interviews with food experts and advocates, (2) scholarly and grey literature, (3) industry websites, and (4) email exchanges between food advocates. The analysis revealed eight aspirational food system discourses: Production, Distribution, and Infrastructure; Healthy, Organic, Local Food; Behavioral Health and Education; Sustainability; Finance and Investment; Huger Relief; Demand Side Preferences; Romanticized, Community Led Transformations. Study findings reveal that of eight discourses only three encompass the experiences of rural, low wealth residents. This aspirational food system may result in the disempowerment of the needs of rural, low wealth groups; a perpetuation of the failure of groups who will be unable to reach the aspirational food vision; silencing of discourses that might question those that play a role in the inequitable distribution of income while sanctioning discourses that focus on personal or community solutions; and the absence of other policy-based solutions that address issues located within the food system. Further research is needed to inform policies and programs to mitigate food insecurity in rural, low wealth populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0327.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: agriculture; Africa; productivity; rural livelihoods; staple crops
Online: 27 January 2020 (13:24:18 CET)
Over the past few decades, there have been major advances in crop productivity across the world, which has been made possible through a combination of productivity enhancing technological innovations. Beyond this achievement however, most parts of Africa are still battling with low crop productivity resulting in food shortages and food insecurity. The yields of many staple crops are still far below their agronomic potentials with output increases being attributed largely to area expansion. This paper examines the implications of the current trends of crop/plant productivity for food security and rural livelihood development in Africa using Ghana as a case study. The paper argues that crop production in Africa is becoming a less viable and unattractive livelihood activity with farmers diversifying out of agriculture into non-agricultural activities such as illegal small-scale mining, which have negative consequences on the ability of African countries to attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0255.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Brazil; slavery; modern slavery; occupational hygiene; rural
Online: 21 May 2019 (03:04:03 CEST)
The Brazilian economy, the rural in particular, was until the end of the 19th century based on slave labour. In this research, it was intended to obtain, through a review of historical descriptive studies, a detailed picture of the occupational hygiene conditions related to the slaves’ work and their interactions with climatic and environmental conditions. The search was done in the following databases: Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Criminal Justice, Ebsco, Business Source Supplement, as well as original historical documents. Descriptive studies, without the restriction of language, were selected that involved the rural work of slaves in colonial and imperial Brazil. Working environmental conditions have been evaluated: environmental and occupational hygiene conditions to which the captive workers were exposed, as well as their accommodation and clothing. The analysed studies registered the existence of accommodation and similar dresses all over Brazil, regardless of the region's climate. In addition to these accommodation conditions, slaves were still exposed in a similar way to physical, chemical and biological agents throughout the country. Finally, it was also possible to identify a clear similarity with the occupational exposure conditions of the modern slaves in the 21st century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0873.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Rural building; Remote sensing interpretation; Density; Distribution; Vietnam
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:18:49 CET)
The research on the distribution of rural buildings is one of the fundamental works of urban-rural development in Vietnam. Adopting Mask R-CNN deep learning framework and collecting sub-meter remote sensing images, this research used a remote sensing interpretation model of rural buildings trained based on East Asian characteristics of rural buildings and successfully recognized about 2.87 million rural buildings in 34 Vietnamese provincial administrative districts with a total area of rural buildings of 2,492 million square meters. The reliability of the identification results was verified by manual detection and quantitative statistics, and a multi-scale database of rural buildings in Vietnam based on individual rural buildings was created. Based on the database, this paper analyzes the distribution characteristics of rural buildings and summarizes characteristics of rural buildings distribution at the country, regional, and provincial scales. The identification results lay the foundation for the next study of urban-rural relations in Southeast Asia and the construction of a basic database on villages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0322.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land consolidation; social consciousness; modernization; governance; rural China
Online: 9 October 2023 (03:11:34 CEST)
With the changing relationship between urban and rural areas in China, the rural areas are experiencing rapid social transformation. To ensure successful implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, land consolidation has become a major measure of rural economic reform. Existing research focuses on quantitative studies exploring the relationship between land consolidation and rural economic development, but there is a lack of studies on the relationship between land consolidation and social change. In this study, Jin’an Village is selected as the research area, using semi-structured interviews and semi-participatory observation to obtain original materials, aiming to make a detailed description of the specific practice of land consolidation, and to analyze the impact of land consolidation on the transformation of rural social consciousness. The study found that rural land consolidation involves villagers in the land consolidation process, which can effectively stimulate villagers’ participation in public affairs. Concurrently, the interaction between villagers and outside investors disrupts the conventional socialization model in rural areas and motivates villagers to act in accordance with contractual agreements. The conclusion is that land consolidation in rural areas can enhance the political democracy and legal consciousness of local villagers, which can lead to a change in local social consciousness. Our findings also emphasize the crucial necessity to grant rural villagers with improved accessibility to professional services and information, coupled with the continued promotion of land consolidation to advance modernization in these areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0631.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Rural territory; Spain; people; repopulation model; gender; immigration
Online: 10 July 2023 (12:08:43 CEST)
For the first time in human history the majority of people no longer live in a rural environment. According to the United Nations, over 50% of the global population now lives in cities. The abandonment of the rural environment has grave consequences for society in general, as these areas are healthier places to live, produce the food we all depend on, and are an important factor for preserving biodiversity and environmental sustainability. In this paper we will provide a historical overview of rural repopulation models and analyse a number of models currently being applied in several countries in Europe and Latin America. We will also offer observations on a pilot repopulation project called “Habita Tierra” currently being developed. The common characteristics of different repopulation models prompted us to develop a model based on active listening and accompaniment of people and local agents as well as other important factors. Rural depopulation in Spain involves a number of interrelated problems, one of the most salient being the aging rural population. The average farmer in Spain is 61 years of age. There is also the problem of gender imbalance in rural areas, where women enjoy few opportunities or alternatives. In turn, low fertility rates, increasing stress on limited public healthcare, education and transpor-tation resources, a lack of cultural activities and poor connectivity are also factors driving rural depopulation. The only group which is increasing the rural areas in Spain are immigrants, who now account for 10% of the rural population, often performing the agricultural, fishing and livestock farming ac-tivities abandoned by native residents. This group, along with young people, and women of all ages and the programs which support them may offer a solution to the challenge of depopulation. The paper concludes with a list of the key features of successful repopulation programs, drawn from a comparison of historic and contemporary models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0958.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: rural development; sustainable development; planning; working with people
Online: 12 May 2023 (13:48:27 CEST)
The contribution of academics and researchers to the discussion around sustainable rural development planning and its impact on rural communities has grown exponentially in recent years. Understanding trends in sustainable rural development research requires considering the different factors involved and affecting people from a holistic approach. This review examines, through bibliometric studies, the scientific knowledge generated on sustainable rural development planning in the last 50 years, analyzing 6,895 articles published in journals between 1970 and 2020. The results reveal the existence of three clusters and an important growth is observed to respond to the continuous needs in relation to sustainable rural development. This research shows the evolution of a new approach for the planning of sustainable rural development projects in postmodernity: Working with People (WWP). This WWP model, as a conceptual framework from social learning has been validated as a novel proposal in numerous contexts. The bibliometric analysis shows an evolution "From Putting the Last first" to "Working with People in Rural Development" research and the contributions of influential teachers such as Chambers and Cernea. These bibliometric analyses demonstrate the correct approach of WWP model, and open new fields of research in the planning of sustainable rural development projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0881.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Climate change; livestock farmers; rural livelihoods; climate education.
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:33:58 CEST)
Climate change mainly affects production and consumption systems, such as: food, livelihoods, production (e.g., reduced milk production), water, and land use. The role of local knowledge has been recognized as important for decision-making under changing circumstances. This study was conducted in the northern part of the Ecuadorian Andes using a sample of 170 dairy-cattle-producing households. The objectives were: i) to characterize the rural livelihoods of dairy cattle farmers, ii) to evaluate access to climate information and perceptions of climate change, and iii) to determine the relationship between livelihoods and perceptions of climate change. Significant differences were identified between the groups evaluated in relation to the dairy farmers’ livelihoods. In addition, 85.29% of the respondents mentioned that climate information is important, but 67.83% do not trust the sources of information. It was found that there is a significant relationship between the level of education and age with the variables of climate change perceptions. This combined knowledge allows people to promote agri-environmental and educational policies to achieve climate literacy at a rural level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: rural environment; sustainability; educational projects; representation; school geography.
Online: 14 October 2022 (13:48:13 CEST)
Rural environment has experienced changes as a result of Covid-19, which encourage the introduction of sustainability in education. However, the representation of rurality in school geography and in the 2030 Agenda are factors that continue to present rurality as a concept opposed to urban spaces. The objective was to investigate the perception that the student has about the rural environment from an instrument and his drawings to understand if the explanation of it allows to introduce elements related to sustainability in educational projects. The quantitative research approach allows analyzing the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the perception of the rural environment of a sample of 300 fifteen-year-old students from Brazil, Colombia and Spain. Those school knowledges that idealize rurality warn of the pedagogical difficulties to promote the teaching of rurality from sustainability criteria and condition the formation of students from a citizenship committed to social problems. This study is important because it diagnoses the elements that intervene in the teaching of rurality from school geography and provides some suggestions to include sustainability in educational projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0288.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Agricultural technology; Adoption; Multinomial Logit; Poverty; Rural Amhara
Online: 10 June 2021 (11:14:06 CEST)
The adoption of agricultural technology is an important path for raising agricultural productivity, and thereby for reducing food insecurity and poverty. Despite the efforts to promote adoption in most of the rural areas of Ethiopian farmers, the adoption rate has always been very low. So, it is essential to understand the barriers to adoption. As a result, this study examined the determinants of adoption of multiple agricultural technologies in rural Amhara region of Ethiopia. The study is based on Ethiopian socio-economic survey of 2015/16. A sample of 656 farm households was considered. The paper used multinomial logit model to assess the factors affecting adoption. The result shows that farmers with more educational level, family size, off-farm participation, livestock, extension contact, credit access, advisory service, and farmers closer to plot, all-weather road, zonal town, and farmers with lower remittance income are more likely to adopt new or improved agricultural technology. Therefore, the study recommends the need of policies and interventions on adoption of agricultural technology should pay attention and move along with those variables significantly influencing adoption of agricultural technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0732.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Grit; Perceived Parenting Style of Mother; rural adolescents
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:31:48 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between grit and parenting style of mother among Indian rural adolescents. Parental Authority Questionnaire  and Short Grit Scale  was used to meet objectives of the paper. A sample of 60 adolescents was chosen from private institution located at Bathinda (Punjab) by using convenience sampling technique. Results of correlation analysis revealed that significant (negative) relationship exists between mother’s authoritarian parenting style (only) and grit. This is true for both genders and for adolescents who comes from joint families. Educational implication of the study signifies that the suitable informative and counseling sessions should be organised for the parents to make them conscious of the appropriate parenting style for the development of gritty adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: rural revitalization; poverty caused by education; economic development
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:37:01 CEST)
The sample data are used from Shaanxi Statistical Yearbook （1999-2018）and poverty population in X County of Southern Shaanxi in 2018. By using Eviews and Excel, this report focuses on analyzing the relationship between education investment and economic growth, education for poverty population, per capita income and poverty caused by education in X county, which can explain reasons for the phenomenon of poverty caused by education. The countermeasures are proposed to solve the phenomenon of poverty caused by education, including establishing scientific education view, correctly understanding education investment and benefit, and improving the aid mechanism for poor students to realize the effective connect among poverty alleviation through education, accurate poverty alleviation and rural revitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: sustainability, innovation, local agri-food system, rural development
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:09:02 CEST)
Sustainability, as well as a concept related to a development model, is becoming a real guide to drive the governance choices of value chains. A sustainable policy has the objective of perpetuating production models over time while maintaining the environmental, economic and social dimensions that characterize a given production process. It is therefore important to measure the sustainability of a production system in its environmental, social and economic components and to understand the ongoing trends under the pressure of agricultural policies, market dynamics and innovation pattern introduced along the time in a production system. The purpose of the article is to assess the evolution of the level of sustainability of Parmigiano Reggiano production system under the effect of 20 years of innovation mechanism which impact on product quality, value chain performance and rural development. To this aim the paper discuss a holistic framework that allows the representation of stakeholder’s role considering the value chain and the territorial dimension. The paper discus also the use of dimensional indicators and propose a use of synthetic indexes to provide an overall picture of the evolution of sustainability of specific production system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Rural Development, Federalism, Developing Countries, Least Developed countries
Online: 1 March 2019 (13:14:54 CET)
The paper attempts to explore the relationship between federalism and rural development. Federalism is a division of power, responsibility and accountability to bring the administrative and political power closer to the ground and essentially to increase the good governance. On the other hand, rural development is a complex and multidimensional issue- especially much demanding for least developed and developing countries. A descriptive and qualitative approach was carried out to study the complex relationship between rural development and federalism. Similarly, a SWOT analysis was carried out to have a better understanding of the relationship. The study found that there is significant potentiality for accelerated development of rural landscape in federalism if carefully executed. However, on the other hand, federalism may pose several risks on rural development and may restrict the development pace if not executed with appropriate care and understanding. Therefore, the study concludes that cooperation and coordination among the federal structures are crucial for better development of the rural economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0344.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Rural Non-Farm Enterprises; dynamics; youth households; matured households
Online: 4 August 2023 (07:20:37 CEST)
Using LSMS-ISA panel data, we analyzed determinants of diversification into Rural Non-Farm Enterprises (RNFEs) and dynamics of the sector by studying the transition between farming and both low- and high-return RNFEs. We found that diversification into RNFE is determined by household characteristics mainly age and gender of the household head, whereas initial capital endowments such as assets, human capital, land and livestock significantly affect level of participation than entry into RNFE. Furthermore, analysing dynamics of RNFE separately for the youth and matured households, our study finds that continuous participation in RNFE is higher among the youth than among matured households. Similarly, initial capital endowments mainly educational level and access to credit are important factors for the youth to transit to high return RNFE, implying that entrepreneurial skills development and access to finance that enhance investments and gradual accumulation of capital are vital for the youth to benefit from RNFEs. Moreover, shocks that affect agricultural productivity are significant in increasing the probability of transition out of high-return RNFE signifying the need for social protection measures to ensure growth of RNFEs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0207.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: digital financial inclusion; migration; remittance; household; rural-urban; Bangladesh
Online: 3 August 2023 (02:36:56 CEST)
Globally, large numbers of adults remain unbanked and most of them live in rural areas of the Third World. The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has shown us how inequalities in accessing financial services continue to affect us. However, financial inclusion has emerged as an effective tool to tackle socioeconomic ills and drive economic development. In fact, due to these modern technological developments, the number of studies in this area is very limited, especially in the context of developing economies. This study examines the impacts of migrant remittances on digital financial inclusion within households using the Migration and Remittance Household Survey in Bangladesh. To meet the research objectives of this study, a household survey was conducted and interviewed 2,165 households in 2022-2023 in Bangladesh. This study finds that the coefficient of remittance has a positive relationship with the probability of using mobile banking for a household's financial transactions. However, the use of ATM cards by households for financial transactions has not been significantly affected. The article concludes that remittance flows may enhance access to and use of digital financial inclusion by reducing some of the barriers and costs in Bangladesh, which can greatly contribute to the country's economic growth by creating and increasing a strong fund for investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1303.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: rural settlement; spatial distribution; Shiyang River Basin; arid area
Online: 19 June 2023 (05:38:57 CEST)
In the context of the rural revitalization strategy, it is urgent to accurately grasp the spatial differentiation characteristics and influencing factors of rural settlements in underdeveloped arid inland river basins. Taking the Shiyang River Basin as an example, the rural settlements from 2000 to 2019 were obtained by visual interpretation using satellite remote sensing data and official statistical data. Following the logical of "state characteristics - evolutionary patterns - influence factors - layout optimization", the average nearest index, gravity-center migration model, spatial statistical analysis and other methods were used combine with GIS. The spatiotemporal pattern evolution characteristics of rural settlements in the past 20 years have been analyzed. The results revealed the following: 1) The distribution pattern of rural settlements in the study area is sheet-like and strip-shaped. The projects in the southeast are mostly distributed in a patchy pattern with high density, while the characteristics in the west and north are exactly opposite. The objects in the south are distributed in the alluvial area of rivers, while settlements in the north are located in the oasis area. 2) From 2000 to 2019, the scale of rural settlements in the Shiyang River Basin, where simultaneous occurrence of new-built and disappearing phenomena, shows an expansion trend that fast firstly and then slow. Spatially, rural settlements in the basin show a trend of clustering towards the southwest. 3) The distribution characteristics of rural settlements are close to water and roads, greatly influenced by urban-rural integration and ecological migration. The results will provide scientific basis for accelerating the modernization of rural areas, and the construction of new rural areas according to local conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0311.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Rural; Telemedicine; Telehealth; Patient-Centered; Attitudes; Perceptions; Audio-only
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:51:10 CEST)
Purpose: This study aims to provide a foundational understanding of patient-centric perceptions of telemedicine implementation in rural Minnesota. Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized a mail questionnaire to assess patient attitudes and behaviors regarding telemedicine during the emergency response to COVID-19. The target population was patients of a Primary Care clinic in eastern Minnesota. Descriptive statistics were used to assess respondents’ level of agreement with survey items scored on a 0-10 scale. Results: A majority of the respondents indicated that they were satisfied with using telemedicine (73.96%); that they gained an additional sense of control over their health condition due to the availability of telemedicine (52.08%); that they would support the use of telemedicine in the future (61.05%); that telemedicine increased access to care (65.63%); telemedicine was preferred over the clinic (61.46%), and that they would purchase new equipment to increase the utility of telemedicine services (54.17%). 51.04% of the respondents indicated a 10/10 level of satisfaction with telemedicine services. 48.96% indicated the strongest level of disagreement related to difficulty using telemedicine or a preference for in-person clinical appointments. Conclusions: Patients were found to have favorable perceptions of telemedicine overall. Though providers continue to recognize the benefit of face-to-face visits, their patients show an increased predilection for virtual care and telemedicine will likely remain an essential tool for providers to reach patients who would otherwise choose not to seek care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0016.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: rural; mental health; adolescents; access; service user experience; interventions
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:04:32 CET)
Background: Mental health difficulties during teenage years e are common and are a risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. Rural young people are at greater risk for mental health difficulties and have less access to services than their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore young people and their carers’ experiences of mental health support provided by a rural mobile service, and to identify access enablers from the service users’ perspective. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyse twelve interviews with current service users and eight interviews with family members of young people who had accessed the service.Results: Three main themes were identified: (a) Access and flexibility, (b) Clinicians’ qualities and strategies, and (c) Experiences of change. The mobile service was perceived to be effective in producing positive change in mental health, relationships and attainment of life goals. Key enablers to access included the flexibility of the mobile service, the variety of service delivery modes and therapeutic methods offered, the ease of access facilitated by location in schools, and young people’s autonomy in how they chose to utilise the service. Conclusion: This study provides information about what is important to rural young people and their families in mental health service provision. The findings have implications for changing the way services are organized and operated. Healthcare policy and services could support user-led model design that incorporates the access and use enablers and removes the barriers to rural mental health support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0407.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: public health; physical activity; rural resident; physical exercise; epidemiology
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:51:36 CEST)
Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Sufficient physical activity (PA) is essential for the prevention of NCDs and thus it is imperative to study the current status of PA and its influencing factors among rural residents in China. A population-based survey was conducted in rural areas of Shandong, Shanxi and Yunnan Provinces using a stratified random sampling method. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to collect the data on PA. A total of 3780 rural residents participated in the survey. The result showed that 22.2% of rural residents were physical inactivity. The proportion of rural residents reporting practice of physical exercise was 54.4%. The most frequently performed physical exercise was walking/brisk walking(78.3%).Binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female, people at age between 15 to 34 years or 60 years old and above, employees of governmental departments/retirees, school students, the unemployed, people with NCDs were risk factors of PA and ethnic minority groups,smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors of physical exercise. Health promotion programme aiming at increasing people’s PA in rural China is needed and it should focus on the populations groups of the female, people at age 60 years and above ,school students, the unemployed, and people with NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0186.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: food security; riverbank erosion; rural development; agriculture; local government
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:33:57 CEST)
Bangladesh is located in the alluvial floodplain of the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna (GMB) river system and its numerous tributaries. In this country, the frequency, as well as severity, of riverbank erosion is high. To examine the impacts of riverbank erosion on rural food security, a baseline survey was conducted in Zajira, Bangladesh. The findings show that most people in the study area are affected by riverbank erosion. Moreover, agricultural production is gradually decreasing as a result of loss of farmland due to the catastrophe and its impacts. In some cases, people lose their entire homestead and are left with few income opportunities and low purchasing power. Consequently, they face the constant threat of a food crisis. The affected people follow some coping mechanisms to face these stressful situations, such as relying on less expensive or less preferred food items. While the local-government authorities have implemented some programmes to assist them, such as food aid and social-safety-net schemes, these are insufficient, due to the government's limited institutional resources and capacities. These findings suggest that for formulating effective rural-development plans, assessing the impact of riverbank erosion on the food security of people living in the affected areas is a prerequisite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0141.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: rural areas; urban areas; cloud server; monitoring; road monitoring
Online: 10 March 2022 (07:47:15 CET)
We are living in a world where people always strive for the luxuries they can get with less hard work and for these smart systems are developed and established all over the world to make life easier for the people. However, in Pakistan being a third-world country we are unable to achieve better results due to the lack of proper transit from one area to another. Sometimes the roads are not in their optimum conditions and hence people have to face a lot of problems while traveling. In urban areas, people cannot reach their destination in time, in some cases, they damage their vehicles due to the cracks on the roads, in medical emergency patient dies most of the time in their transit from rescuing point to the hospital. Similarly, in rural areas where farmers face countless problems while bringing their yield of the season towards the markets. Therefore, having described the severe damage the bad quality of roads is making. A solution is proposed to solve the problems of both the rural and urban population in our project. The project aims to provide the solution to their problem to a certain extent by monitoring the conditions of the roads. The sensors in the system will calculate the values and send them to the cloud server. The cloud server used is the blynk platform where the data will be stored. Moreover, data can be provided to the government in the future for the timely maintenance of the roads, and hence the citizens and lifestyle of the people will be changed. It is expected that the problems of both urban and rural population will be solved to a greater percentage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: rural village; earthquake; vulnerability index; vulnerability analysis; damage matrix
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:26:28 CET)
This study investigated and classified typical structures in rural village and analyzed the vulnerability of various typical types of structures. Based on the statistics of earthquake damages with magnitudes above 5 from 1996 to 2013 in China, the damage matrixes of different types of structures in rural village are obtained. And The vulnerability index and the vulnerability equation of structure are crucial to assess the earthquake losses of typical structures under different magnitudes earthquakes. According to the seismic loss of different types of structures under different earthquake magnitudes, there are possible to improve the seismic resilience of the buildings in rural village. Moreover, the regional vulnerability is analyzed by β probability distribution function, and the comprehensive seismic performance index of different types of agricultural buildings in the region is obtained. The main research is to predict the loss of different types of structures under different earthquake magnitudes in the future, and to provide technical support for different types of building in rural village reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0509.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Hygiene; Cleanliness; Water; Rural water facility; Water shortage; Uganda
Online: 30 September 2021 (11:02:14 CEST)
This research contributes to the detailed discussion about the approach to secure, hygienic water and cleanliness in Uganda and its pastoral regions. The relationship between the sanitation and clean water access with destitution is also discussed. Although this document is not leading towards the policy recommendation but it is an overall idea of how Uganda progressed because of the provisions adopted by the government, local and international organizations, and NGOs, and how the country lacked before these steps taken. Most of the data mentioned is taken from the house surveys of a decade 2002-2013 alongside the qualitative data. Literature review is also considered and is divided in two sections: first included researches related to water accessibility and usage, while the second section included researches related to work done and progress for diarrheal diseases and sanitation. Afterwards, methodologies were discussed where, firstly, trends and then the limitations in access to the basic necessities of life that is clean water and hygiene are mentioned. At last, the implementations and how they affected the rural Ugandans was discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0289.v3
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: internet access; nutritional intake; rural China; propensity score matching
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:54:42 CEST)
Over the past four decades, China has experienced a nutritional transition and has developed the largest population of internet users. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of internet access on the nutritional intake in Chinese rural residents. An IV-Probit-based propensity score matching method was used to determine the impact of internet access on nutritional intake. The data were collected from 10042 rural households in six Chinese provinces. The results reveal that rural residents with internet access have significantly higher energy, protein, and fat intake than those without. Chinese rural residents with internet access consumed 1.35% (28.62 kcal), 5.02% (2.61 g), and 4.33% (3.30 g) more energy, protein, and fat, respectively. There was heterogeneity as regards the intake of energy, protein, and fat among those in different income groups. Moreover, non-staple food consumption is the main channel through which internet access affects nutritional intake. The results demonstrate that the local population should use the internet to improve their nutritional status. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of internet use on food consumed away from home and micronutrients intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0708.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Micro-grid, Rural Electrification, HOMER, Control strategy, Sensitivity analysis
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:27:25 CEST)
Around 14% of the global population does not have access to electricity. About 95% of those are living in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Often in these regions, diesel generators are the only source of electricity. The operating cost of these diesel generators is high. However, solar and wind energy are available in most of African countries. This study presents the analysis of designing an off-grid hybrid system with a wind turbine, PV, diesel generator, and battery to power a hospital, school, and 200 household village in four locations across Somalia. The research investigated the availability of wind-solar resources in selected locations. Designing of the system and economic-technical calculations were performed using HOMER. The selection of the optimum design was based on the Cost of Electricity and Net Present Cost. The results show that for Kabaal and Ceel Buur, a WT-PV-DG-Battery is the optimal system as the wind resource in these regions is high. For Saakov and Baki, a PV-DG-Battery system proves to be optimum as the wind resource is limited here. The study also evaluated the control strategy and proved that combined dispatch was the most cost-effective for these locations. The study concluded that hybrid systems are more economical than diesel systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0532.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: geothermal power plant; environment issues; rural Tompaso; competitive intelligence
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:01:29 CET)
The vision of the community around Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) is the development of GPP should be based on sustainable development principles, without jeopardizing the quality of life and justice for communities surrounding the power plant. This research aims to: (i) identifying issues that arise as an impact of the development of GPP in the rural Tompaso, and (ii) finding solutions to the issues to minimize the conflict that arises from further GPP development in rural Tompaso and its surroundings. This study is based on the competitive intelligence (CI) research method. The results show that the development of GPP in Tompaso has a negative impact on the natural environment and social environment. The technical solutions offered include: (i) bioremediation by cultivating plants that absorb arsenic; (ii) biosulfurization and desulfurization for reducing air pollution, especially sulfur; (iii ) floods and extreme drought are managed by improving infrastructure and reforestation; (iv) social conflicts (land acquisition, working days, labor recruitment and settlement security) are solved by intensifying program dissemination to the community and involving local communities in decision making. The recommended policy is providing incentives to the local community through strategic programs for the development of human and natural resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0002.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Peripheral areas; local development; heritagisation; sustainable rural tourism; stakeholders
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:42:54 CEST)
In the context of multiple repurposing of rural spaces, tourism represents a path for development, with the potential to revitalize these areas. The conservation and restoration of heritage, and its promotion through tourism, can become an opportunity for local development, in which a range of stakeholders fulfil different roles in the carrying out of the processes involved. The aim of the study was to analyse the process and results of channelling heritagisation through tourism in Mértola (Baixo Alentejo, Portugal). A series of interviews with the chief stakeholders in the process was conducted, from which the contexts and conceptualisations of development were determined. On the basis of secondary data (statistics), an analysis of the impacts of the process of heritagisation and the development of tourism was undertaken. The objectives of this study consisted in determining: a) the importance of the process of heritagisation in Mértola; b) the viability of the project, given the cost and lack of comprehensive conservation, in creating a unified whole; d) the performance of, and power relationships between, the various stakeholders; e) the limited participation of locals due to disaffection with the project; f) the correlation between heritage, rural tourism and local development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0294.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: approaches; extension services; market system; pluralistic; rural development; smallholder
Online: 13 August 2020 (08:07:40 CEST)
Agricultural extension and advisory services in Africa have significant impact on food security as well as economic and social development. Recent moves towards a pluralistic delivery system, including the emergence of private-sector led initiatives in many countries are subject of policy and academic discourse. Our study used an adapted, fit-for-purpose market systems development framework to review available research in extension and advisory services in selected sub-Sahara Africa countries. Using a literature survey methodology, we report evidence of multiple actors in extension delivery, findings that point towards evolution towards mixed delivery as well as objectives. While there are significant uptake of cost-recovery approaches among commercially-oriented farmers, many smallholder farmers still depended on donor-funded services. Our review adds to existing knowledge through incorporating a market systems development framework, which extends the often-used willingness to pay approach, and highlights the need for merger of the public and private-sector objectives to achieve developmental outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0159.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: awareness; livestock farmer; ICT-source; market information; rural; smallholder
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:46:42 CEST)
The utility of ICTs for providing market information to rural smallholder farmers is growing rapidly, and access to reliable information and sources is considered crucial for beneficial market interaction. This study explored critical factors contributing to usage of electronic sources for market information search among rural smallholder livestock farmers. Using data collected from 129 respondents through a non-random sampling technique; descriptive and regression analysis was applied to identify key factors responsible for their awareness and use of ICT-based market information sources. Level of education was found to be a driver of awareness of ICT-based sources, and use of these sources was influenced by farmer-specific characteristics such as household size, education, income, membership of cooperatives and herd-size. The key ICT tools used was radio and mobile phones, widely available in the study area. Identified constraints to use of these ICTs include cost and patchy network signals in some areas. Policy interventions to reduce cost of mobile phone services and expansion of base stations; including practical recommendations for improved programming in radio and television offerings, are considered indispensable for greater uptake of e-information sources among smallholder livestock farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0053.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Climate Change; Adaptative Practice; Paddy Production; Rural Hilly Nepal
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:59:07 CEST)
Climate change is a buzzword in the world. Scientist has approved it as global warming with its projection of undesired and unpredicted frequent extreme events and their vulnerabilities not only at present but also at future. There is an assumption of occurrence of adaptive capacity and behavior of farmers in agriculture production activity at some extent to neutralize climate change vulnerabilities of flood and landslides on paddy production. This paper empirically examines the effects of climate change in paddy production and farmer’s adaptive behaviors to neutralize such climatic shocks and events in paddy production by employing CD production function based econometric model. The study employed primary data collected through 642 household surveys. The study finds that climatic shocks and events have huge loss (60%) in paddy production and revenue income in such plot where farmers have not indigenous knowledge and practices. But both small and larger farmers who have adaptive capacity and behavior with their indigenous knowledge have less loss in paddy production and revenue income, although they have heterogeneity in their socio-economic characteristics (income, asset holding, literacy, experience, land holding and age). The farmers who have used adaptive behavior have indigenous knowledge and experiences including bamboo wall construction to control flood and landslides and seed change to resist climatic shocks and events. In hilly region, the farmers have not sufficient alternative measures, except both adaptive measures because of their poverty, illiteracy and remote locations. The study finds their higher effective level to minimize vulnerabilities to paddy production and revenue per farm plot, although these adaptive behaviors are cost effective and local entity. Comparatively, bamboo wall construction is more effective measure in the paddy production than others are (seed switch) to minimize the flooding materials from the flood and the landslides. Thus, low cost indigenous adaption behavior of farmers is effective measure to climate change and climate change induced disasters and events vulnerability in paddy production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0375.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: pesticides; spirometry; respiratory symptoms; cholinesterase; rural workers; family farmers
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:25:38 CEST)
Pesticide exposure is a growing concern for public health. Although Brazil is the world's largest consumer of pesticides, few studies addressed the health effects among farmers. This study aimed to evaluate whether pesticide exposure is associated with respiratory outcomes among rural workers and relatives in Brazil during the crop and off-seasons. 82 family farmers were interviewed about occupational history and respiratory symptoms, and cholinesterase tests were conducted in the crop-season. Spirometry was performed during the crop and off-season. Respiratory outcomes were compared between seasons and multiple regressions were conducted to search for associations with exposure indicators. Participants were occupationally and environmentally exposed to multiple pesticides from an early age. During the crop and off-season, respectively, they presented a prevalence of 40% and 30.7% for cough, 30.7% and 24% for nasal allergies, and 24% and 17.3% for chest tightness. Significant relations between spirometry impairments and exposure indicators were found both during the crop and off-season. These findings provide complementary evidence about the association of pesticide exposure with adverse respiratory effects among family farmers in Brazil. This situation requires special attention as it may increase the risk of pulmonary dysfunctions, and the morbidity and mortality burden associated with these diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0041.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Demography Keywords: Interagency partnership; Aboriginal health; Australian rural and remote communities
Online: 3 April 2018 (16:32:18 CEST)
Population based studies have associated poor living conditions with the persistent disparity in the health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This project assesses the applicability of the Health Community Assessment Tool and its role in improving the environment of a small community in the Midwest of WA. The action research cycles started with the initial reflection on the suitability of the HCAT version 2 for the local community context and whether it was fit-for-purpose. The researcher provided ‘critical companionship’, while the participants of the study were invited to be co-researchers (the Assessors) who critically examined the HCAT and assess the community. The relevant domains to the serviced town (an outer regional community) were pest control and animal management; healthy housing; food supply; community vibrancy, pride and safety; reducing environmental tobacco smoke; and promoting physical activity. The Assessors found the HCAT descriptors mostly aligned with their community context but found some of the items difficult to apply. Based on participant’s suggestions, some of the original scoring scales were reformatted. School attendance and illicit drug use were identified as a key outcome indicator for youth but were missing from the HCAT. The HCAT domains applied helped streamlining core business of agencies in the local community. The face validity of HCAT items were confirmed in this research with minor adjustments to reflect local context. Youth engagement to education is of high community concern and the development of an item would create similar interagency collaborative dialogues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: hypertension; GWAS; precision medicine; rural population; SNP-age interaction
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:34:37 CET)
Background: As part of the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, we developed a practice level intervention to improve blood pressure control. The goal of this study was: i) determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that associate with blood pressure variation, identified in large case-control studies, are applicable to blood pressure control in subjects from a rural population; ii) measure the association of these SNPs with subjects’ responsiveness to the hypertension intervention; and iii) identify other SNPs that may help understand patient-specific responses to an intervention. Methods and Results: We used a combination of candidate SNPs and genome-wide analyses to test associations with either baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) or change in systolic blood pressure one year after the intervention in two genetically defined ancestral groups: African Americans (AA) or Caucasian Americans (CAU). Of the 48 candidate SNPs, 13 SNPs associated with baseline SBP in our study; however, one candidate SNP, rs592582, also associated with a change in SBP after one year. Using our study data, we identified 4 and 15 additional loci that associated with a change in SBP in the AA and CAU groups, respectively. Our analysis of gene-age interactions identified genotypes associated with SBP improvement within different age groups of our populations. Moreover, our integrative analysis identified AQP4-AS1 and PADI2 as genes whose expression levels may contribute to the pleiotropy of complex traits involved in cardiovascular health and blood pressure regulation in response to an intervention targeting hypertension. Conclusions: Identification of SNPs associated with the success of a hypertension treatment intervention suggests that genetic factors in combination with age may contribute to an individual’s success in lowering SBP. If these findings prove to be applicable to other populations, the use of this genetic variation in making patient-specific interventions may help providers with making decisions to improve patient outcomes. Further investigation is required to determine the role of this genetic variance with respect to the management of hypertension such that more precise treatment recommendations may be made in the future as part of personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1714.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: climate change perception; farmers' agency; mountain area; resilience; rural development
Online: 24 August 2023 (07:17:13 CEST)
Mountains can be described as socio-ecological systems (SESs), a complex set of relations that involve natural aspects and human communities. Mountains provide indispensable ecosystem services, but they are affected by climate change. For this, stakeholders’ initiatives to face global warming, particularly farmers, are essential and participatory strategy are largely considered as a best solution to involve them in adopting resilience actions. Despite that, farmers are considered passive actors and their epistemology weak. Investigating mountain actors' vulnerability to climate change in the North of Molise (an Italian region), called «Alto Molise», we suggest considering farmers agency as a result of interconnections among heterogeneous elements present in the SES and their “lay” knowledge and epistemology equally relevant that experts one. Farmers’ perception of climate change impact is appropriate, although they lack a clear understanding of it. Their resilience actions or suggestions are coherent with their resources endowment (financial and knowledge) and their position in the economic system but not necessarily effective. The work contributes to the debate on climate resilience in mountain areas stressing the significance of local actors' agency, the presence of different epistemologies (lay and expert one) and the need to actively involve them in designed effective and suitable initiatives to face climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1475.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Grand Canal; rural residential land; remote sensing data; driving factors
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:48:20 CEST)
Land use is an embodiment of human socioeconomic activities and represents a bridge between these activities and natural systems. Through social activities, humans transform land use to promote social and economic development and improve production, living conditions, and eco-logical functions of land. Rural residential land represents a space for rural residents to reside in and exhibits spatial characteristics that evolve over time, which is proof of rural socioeconomic development. This paper observes rural residential land in 21 cities on the Grand Canal and analyses its spatial differentiation. Then, it explores the driving factors of this land using spatial grid analysis and the geographic detector model. Lastly, it proposes three different forms of rural residential land based on the results. The study found that: (1) the change of rural residential land in the northern part of the Grand Canal was more volatile than that in the southern part. The change of rural residential land from 1990 to 2020 conformed to the pattern of cultivated land - rural residential land - urban construction land; (2) Based on the driving factors of rural residen-tial land, the land is divided into one-dimensional cities, two-dimensional cities and three-dimensional cities. Circular, linear, and scattered cities of different sizes were affected by socioeconomic factors, transportation accessibility, and the natural environment, respectively; and (3) Finally, according to the spatial differentiation characteristics and the driving factors of rural residential land, the study proposes the construction of three types of villages through the strate-gies of constructing large-scale villages, relocating and reconstructing new villages, and con-structing high-quality villages, respectively. Enhancing the scientific planning of rural residential land and its efficiency can offer the protection of agricultural land and the integration of urban and rural areas in the new era.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Groundwater; Physicochemical properties; Water quality; Human Health; Rural (domestic) communities
Online: 16 June 2023 (14:22:40 CEST)
Groundwater use for domestic and agricultural purposes is every day in rural communities. However, groundwater quality in those communities is still being determined due to the lack of water quality monitoring programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate groundwater quality in rural communities using physiochemical parameters. Eight communities using communal boreholes were selected. Water samples were analysed for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite as Nitrogen. The pH means ranged from 6.6 to 8.1, whereas high TDS levels of 1390 mg/L and 1470 mg/L were observed in two boreholes. Three boreholes had higher electrical conductivity. Two boreholes had elevated nitrate levels of 15 and 21.5 mg/L. The high nitrate level correlates with the pH, EC, and TDS values. Our results suggest that high nitrate levels measured in communities’ boreholes pose ill health to the community, especially children, infants, and elders. Prenatal exposure to high nitrate has been found to have acute health effects in infants. Therefore, there is a need for further longitudinal studies on health risks among vulnerable groups in these communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: vaccination; acceptance; Covid-19; epidemiology; Cameroon; urban area; rural area
Online: 3 February 2023 (06:23:26 CET)
The Covid-19 pandemic has rapidly evolved in December 2019 and to prevent its spread, effective vaccines has been produced and made available to the population. Despite their availability so far in Cameroon, the vaccination coverage remains low. This study aimed at describing the epidemiology of the acceptance of vaccines against Covid-19 in some urban and rural areas of Cameroon. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical survey was conducted from March 2021 to August 2021 targeting unvaccinated individuals from urban and rural area. After getting appropriate administrative authorizations and an ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Board (or Ethics Committee) of Douala University (N° 3070CEI-Udo/05/2022/M), a cluster sampling at many degrees was performed and a language adapted questionnaire was filled by each consenting participant. Data were analyzed using Epi info version 188.8.131.52 software and for P-values ˂ 0.05, the difference was considered as statistically significant. Out of 1053 individuals, 58.02% (611/1053) participants were residing in urban and 41.98% (442/1053) in rural areas. Good knowledge relative to Covid-19 was significantly higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas (97.55%vs.85.07, P<0.000). The proportion of respondents who intended to accept the anti Covid-19 vaccine was significantly higher in urban areas than rural areas (42.55%vs.33.26, p=0.0047). Conversely, the proportion of anti Covid-19 reluctant respondents thinking that the vaccine can induce a disease was significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas (54 (35.07 vs 8.84, P<0.0001). The significant determinants of anti-COVID-19 acceptance were the level of education (p=0.0001) and profession in the rural areas (p=<0.0001), and only the profession (p=0.0046) in the urban areas. This study globally shows that anti-COVID-19 vaccination remains a major challenge in urban as well as rural area in Cameroon. We should keep sensitizing and educate population about vaccine importance in preventing the COVID-19 spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0067.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; nutritional intake; rural China; food consumption; food security
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:22:25 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced risks and challenges to global food and nutrition security. In this paper, we examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nutritional intake of China's rural residents using panel data and a fixed effect model. The data were collected in 2019 and 2020 and covered nine provinces and 2,631 households in rural China. The results reveal that an increase of 100 confirmed cases in a county resulted in a 1.48% (p<0.01), 1.46% (p<0.01), 1.77% (p<0.01), and 1.23% (p<0.01) decrease in per capita intake of dietary energy, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic only had a significant and negative effect on dietary energy intake in the low-income group at the 5% level of significance. Our study indicates that the potential insufficient nutrition situation, nutritional imbalance, and dietary imbalance of low-income rural residents should be addressed appropriately.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0323.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: rural health: urban health; health status; cancer survivors; United Kingdom
Online: 24 May 2022 (05:13:59 CEST)
Objective: To explore the effect of rural-urban residence on self-reported health status with UK cancer survivors. Design: A cross-sectional postal questionnaire that collected data on demographics, post-code and self-reported health status. Methods: Independent Samples t test was used to detect differences in health status between rural and urban respondents. Pearson’s χ2 was used to control for confounding variables and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stepwise linear regression. Setting: East Midlands of England. Participants: Adult cancer survivors who had undergone primary treatment in the last five years. Participants were excluded if they had recurrence or metastatic spread, started active oncology treatment in the last twelve months and were in receipt of palliative or end of life care. Main Outcome: Residence was measured using the UK ONS RUC2011 Rural-Urban Classifications and Health Status via the UK ONS self-reported health status measure. Results: 227 respondents returned a questionnaire. Forty-five per cent (N=103) were resident in a rural area and fifty-three per cent (N=120) in an urban area. Rural (4.11±0.85) respondents had significantly (p<0.001) higher self-reported health status compared to urban (3.65±0.93) respondents (MD 0.47; 95% CI 0.23, 0.70). Conclusion: Rural respondents had significantly higher self-reported health status compared to their urban counterparts. It is hoped that the results will stimulate further work in this area and that researchers will be encouraged to collect data on rural-urban residency where appropriate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0057.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Savings Propensity; Household Finance; Development; Tribals; Connectivity; Rural; Culture; India
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:53:39 CET)
Economic sustainability of rural areas is a concern given the increasing trend towards urbanization globally and in India. Self-reliant strategies, including increased savings and investment are more valuable in this regard than external interventions. This paper uses the results of a survey to examine the factors affecting saving in a rural part of Odisha populated primarily by tribals. Our tentative findings are that savings propensity is determined partly by the extent to which individuals feel connected to the broader economy, and partly by cultural factors. One implication of these findings is that connecting rural areas to other, possibly urban, locations could elicit greater saving and this could lead to greater development, employment possibilities, economic betterment and all the consequent social welfare implications. This paper relates savings propensity to new sociological population characteristics, such as perceived connectivity and food consumption patterns, and hence provides hitherto unexplored clues for policy initiatives to increase savings.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: respectful maternity care; disrepectful maternity care; violence; obsteteric; rural; kenya
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:21:16 CEST)
While disrespectful treatment of pregnant women attending health care facilities occurs globally, it is more prevalent in low resource countries. In Kenya, a large body of research studies or has studied disrespectful maternity care (DMC) from the perspective of the service users. This paper examines the perspective of health care workers (HWCs) on factors that influence DMC experienced by pregnant women at health care facilities in rural Kisii and Kilifi counties in Kenya. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with health care workers (HCWs) in these two sites. Data were analyzed deductively and inductively using NVIVO 12. Findings from HCWs reflective narratives identify four areas connected to the delivery of disrespectful care including poor infrastructure, understaffing, service users’ socio–cultural beliefs, and health care workers’ attitudes toward marginalized women. Investments are needed to address health systems influences on DMC including poor health infrastructure and understaffing. Additionally, it is important to reduce cultural barriers through training on HCWs interpersonal communication skills. Further, strategies are needed to affect positive behavior changes among HCWs directed at addressing stigma and discrimination of pregnant women due to socio-economic standing. To develop evidence-informed strategies to address DMC, a holistic understanding of the factors associated with pregnant women’s poor experiences of facility based maternity care is needed. This may best be achieved through an intersectional approach to address DMC by identifying systemic, cultural, and socio-economic inequities as well as the structural and policy features that contribute and determine peoples’ behaviors and choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0161.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: harmonic methodology tourism; sustainability attributes; rural tourism; knowledge; complex systems
Online: 12 December 2019 (04:33:50 CET)
According to the growing concern of various focus groups, in regard to the mitigation of the negative impacts generated because of the tourism, has born the interest of proposing sustainable tourism projects derivatives of the feeling within the communities (1) Background: the aim is to propose a differentiated diagnosis of the Subsystems (biophysical and anthropic) and their relationship with traditional-rational knowledge; (2) Methods: from the Theory of Complex Systems was propose the Harmonic Tourism Methodology, that try to correlation the subsystem and knowledge in the community of San Juan Tlahuica Atzingo, State of Mexico (4) Conclusions: Among the most outstanding results that are on the one hand, we must work through tourism projects to the rescue and preservation of natural and cultural resources, reassessing them through the strengthening of social cohesion. On the other hand, the application of this case allowed us to visualize that it is necessary to consolidate the elements and steps of the methodology in order to apply it to different communities that are beginning their journey in the field of the tourism and that can improve and potentiate their resources, seeking harmony between them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Brazil, agrarian reform policy, land less movement, rural social movements.
Online: 10 April 2017 (07:49:04 CEST)
In Brazil, during the four last administrations of Worker’s Party (PT) 2003-2015, the support to the agrarian reform seems to have stagnated, even with the influence of landless workers' movements. Thus in 2016, the impeachment President Dilma Roussef have marked a brutal stop in the agrarian reform process. How to explain that which seems at first to be a contradiction and has become a decadence of an important federal public policy?. Furthermore, how can we evaluate the debates within Brazilian society and the federal government on this theme? The article analyzes the tensions, debates, advances and impasses of the past fifteen years of agrarian reform policy in Brazil looking at the interaction between social movements and public policies. The method associates bibliography, official statistic synthesis and research results in Northeast, Amazônia and Cerrado regions among several projects. The first part results put on evidence the crescent reduction of agrarian reform settlements and beneficiary families since 2006. The second part presents the main reasons offering an analysis of government and society debates in Brazil about land reform. The analysis conclude to the less of power and representation in the society of the pro agrarian reform large and popular coalition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Sustainable rural development; EAFRD; LEADER Approach; GIS; Principal Component Analysis
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:16:38 CET)
The European Commission has been striving to achieve sustainable development in its rural areas for more than 25 years through funds aimed at modernizing the agricultural and forestry sectors, protecting the environment and improving the quality of life. But is sustainable rural development really being accomplished? This study sets out to answer this question in the case of Extremadura, a Spanish territory with Low Demographic Density and a Gross Domestic Product still below 75 % of the European average. Both qualitative and quantitative methodology have been employed, using a Principal Component Analysis the result of which has provided us with a model which shows how various behaviors coexist in the region in view of the distribution of current funding from the EAFRD. The most dynamic areas have received the largest amounts of funding and these are linked to the agricultural sector and to the protection of the environment, leaving aside the more depressed areas and the implementation of the LEADER Approach as well. Therefore, we have come to the conclusion that the current rural development in Extremadura is not sustainable enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1148.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: sustainable development education; environment protection; environmental psychology; reflex-ive process; responsible behavior; rural community; rural tourism; sustainability learning; sus-tainable tourism and hospitality; travel experience
Online: 18 July 2023 (04:15:18 CEST)
Eco-innovation denotes developing green practices using environmentally friendly innovative approaches or technologies. Although, eco-innovation has been broadly applied in different in-dustries, such as low-carbon production and manufacturing, how to implement such innovation in education for sustainable development (ESD) has rarely been studied. Therefore, this research considered a reflective and cooperative learning approach to science, technology, engineering, arts, and math (STEAM) education. A case study examined Wanluan Township of Pingtung County in southern Taiwan. Four departments’ students and teachers at Meiho University were involved in situated learning. Students of hospitality management played farm owners who en-gaged in organic agriculture to produce food and beverages. These agricultural products were farm-to-table, cooked and served for customers in a natural dining setting through the students’ teamwork. Students of tourism, sports & leisure management, and food science & nutrition played tourists in a self-guided travel context, who engaged in acts such as visiting buildings to understand heritage while observing that the houses were still in use a dwelling. This encouraged reflection on the importance of cultural preservation. According to the results from the role-play farm owners and tourists, eco-innovation can represent a sustainable marketing strategy for im-proving the local-community economy and can be implemented in a practical situation in STEAM. The goal of ESD for 2030 — societal transformation — is to foster students’ responsible behavior and attitudes in a personally authentic manner, thereby fostering sustainability learning and understanding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1762.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: rural industrial park; urban renewal; decision-making mechanism; cluster analysis; China
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:16:55 CET)
Since China’s economic reform launched in the late 1970s, rural industrial parks (RIPs) have played a crucial role in the rise of the manufacturing industry in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), transforming the former agricultural land into a location of world-famous factories. However, as China has put forward higher requirements for economic development and stricter control measures for environmental pollution, RIPs with low-end industries and low efficiency present an urgent need for renovation and upgrade. By analyzing the spatial and socioeconomic cross-sectional dataset of rural industrial parks in Nanhai District of Foshan City, this paper attempts to classify the existing industrial parks into groups and propose corresponding redevelopment strategies. The results of the spatial analysis show that the spatial distribution of rural industrial parks is closely related to their location and transportation conditions. Failure of the market has resulted in large tracts of advantageous land being taken up by inefficient industrial parks. Cluster analysis and overlay analysis are used evaluate the difficulty of redevelopment and divide the industrial parks into three clusters: retained RIPs, medium-term-removed RIPs, and near-term-removed RIPs. It is shown that some of the industrial parks are still in good form while the majority need substantial reconstruction. Taking economic and institutional factors into consideration, the authors put forward that different strategies should be adopted for the future renovation of medium-term-removed and near-term-removed RIPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1915.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: integration of rural industries; development level measurement; regional disparities; dynamic trend
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:04:11 CET)
China is a traditional agricultural country, and the integration of rural industries has become an essential policy direction for the current strategy of agricultural modernization in China. In recent years, the agricultural industrial chains across various regions of China have consistently expanded and extended. The multifunctionality of agriculture is continuously unearthed, and the principal entities managing agriculture have become increasingly diversified and have grown significantly. New industries and forms in agriculture emerge incessantly. Accurately and profoundly understanding the inherent features of the integration of industries in rural China, establishing a scientific and rational measurement index system in line with the current status and development goals of rural China, and employing appropriate measurement methods to assess its development level and process, is instrumental in comprehending the level of integrated development in various regions. This aids in identifying challenges in the developmental process and proposing targeted developmental strategies. Hence, this paper, rooted in the integration of rural industries, cross-industry, industry extension, industry agglomeration, and industry penetration, sets up an measurement index system. Using provincial panel data from 2011 to 2020, the paper measures the level of integrated development in rural industries across China and its 31 provinces. Based on the measurement results, further techniques such as kernel density estimation and Gini coefficient decomposition have been used to analyze the spatial distribution characteristics and dynamic trends of the integrated development of rural industries in China. Research indicates that during the sample period, the overall level of integrated development in rural industries in various provinces in China has shown an upward trend. Development among the eastern, central, and western regions is highly uneven, but this disparity has been gradually narrowing in recent years. Furthermore, the levels of integrated development in different provinces exhibit significant spatial agglomeration effects. The development level of neighboring regions significantly impacts the province's development status. In the process of integrated development of rural industries in China, there's a trend where "it's easier to downgrade than to upgrade," with very few regions achieving leapfrog development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1469.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: rural residents; post-retirement migration intention; logistic regression model; influencing variables
Online: 22 August 2023 (04:48:50 CEST)
With the intensification of population aging in rural areas, it becomes increasingly important to analyze the post-retirement migration intention of rural residents and the variables influencing these intentions. In this study, we focus on rural residents aged 45 to 60 and investigate the main variables that influence the post-retirement migration intention of rural residents, using survey data collected from 164 households in three different rural areas and the logistic regression model. From the result of this study, we found that gender, part-time employment, savings level, children's residence and occupation stability, and interest in urban living positively affect migration intention. In contrast, the number of rural companions, relationships with others in rural areas, and evaluation of rural living have a negative effect. In addition, we employ age and the proportion of mobile income as control variables to examine the variables that influence the post-retirement migration intention in different age groups and mobile income groups. The analysis reveals that, the variables influencing post-retirement migration intention varied across age groups and mobile income groups, and this variation can be attributed to the differences between groups' characteristics.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0488.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: disenfranchised grief; widowhood; rural India; COVID-19 pandemic; bioecological model; coping
Online: 18 April 2023 (05:02:59 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the past century's deadliest and most widespread viral outbreaks, with higher mortality rates in men than women. Disruptions in funeral rituals and customs, no social recognition of the loss, and limited social support intricate the grieving process and are linked with disenfranchised (not openly acknowledged, socially recognized, or publicly mourned) grief. Depression is also highly comorbid with complicated grief. Losing a spouse can be devastating, but more severe for women with limited or no resources, vulnerable to the patriarchal society. In the current COVID-19 era, increased uncertainty and disenfranchised grief can worsen the clinical scenario and intervention, as highlighted by the present case report of disenfranchised grief with depressive symptoms in a 30 years old woman from rural India who, after a year of her marriage, lost her husband due to COVID-19. This case study emphasizes the impact of multiple axes of disadvantages due to sociodemographic and cultural determinants that can complicate the grieving process in the current context. The bioecological model of grief recovery considered the individual features and the societal/environmental factors to postulate the appropriate intervention. Finding meaning and purpose in life, and restoration-oriented coping were successful for clinical management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0199.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Open defecation; rural women; Ghana; Environmental Health; Demographic and Health Survey
Online: 12 December 2022 (10:03:35 CET)
The study investigated determinants of open defecation among rural women in Ghana. The study extracted data from the female’s file of the 2003, 2008 and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). A total of 4,284 pooled sample size of rural women aged 15-49 with complete information about the variables analyzed in the study. The outcome variable was “open defecation” (i.e., defecating in an open space rather than a toilet facility) whilst fourteen (14) key explanatory variables were used. Two regression models were built, and output reported in odds ratio. Descriptively, 42 in every 100 women aged 15-49 practised open defecation (n=1811, 95’CI=49-52). Open defecation significantly correlated with educational attainment, wealth status, religion, access to mass media, partner's education, and zone of residence. The likelihood to practice open defecation reduced among those with formal education [aOR=0.69, CI=0.56-0.85], those whose partners had formal education [aOR=0.64, CI=0.52-0.80], women in the rich wealth quintile [aOR=0.12, CI=0.07-0.20], the traditionalist [aOR=0.33, CI=0.19-0.57], and those who had access to mass media [aOR=0.70, CI=0.57-0.85]. Residents in the Savannah zone were over 21-fold higher to defecate openly [aOR=21.06, CI=15.97-27.77]. The prevalence of open defecation is disproportionately pro-poor indicating that impoverished rural women are more likely to perform it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0284.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: urban; rural; millet; garden; orchard; Iberian Peninsula; High/Late Middle Ages
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:09:03 CET)
Towns emerged as dynamic economic and political centers during the Middle Ages, giving rise to the emergence of new social classes. As a result of these functions, a new relationship began to be forged with the rural world, which supplied towns with foodstuffs that satisfied new social demands. Archaeobotanical analysis (carpology) allows us to understand the flow of cash crops by tracing seeds and fruits produced in the countryside that were consumed in and redistributed from the towns. The study of waterlogged contexts from medieval archaeological sites in the Kingdom of Galicia (Santiago de Compostela, Padrón, and Pontevedra) has provided a set of species that played a crucial role in the economy of the urban dwellers and that possibly were related to differential access or food preferences. Evidence for fruits (grapes, chestnuts, figs, apples, and cherries, among others), garden crops (melon), and cereals (foxtail millet, rye, naked wheat, and oat) has been documented. Broomcorn millet is particularly abundant, demonstrating that it was important for subsistence. Some of the species found (medlar and turnip/grelo) are novel in the archaeobotanical literature of the medieval period in the Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0118.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: spatial heterogeneity; AOD-PM2.5; respiratory-cardiovascular; lag grids; urban-rural; season
Online: 28 March 2022 (13:52:49 CEST)
Optimal use of Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM) assembled aerosol optical depth (AOD)-PM2.5 fused surfaces in epidemiologic studies requires homogeneous temporal and spatial fused surfaces. No analytical method is available to evaluate spatial heterogeneity. The temporal case-crossover design was modified to assess the spatial association between four experimental AOD-PM2.5 fused surfaces and four respiratory-cardiovascular hospital events in 12 km2 grids. The maximum number of adjacent lag grids with significant odds ratios (ORs) identified homogeneous spatial areas (HOSAs). The largest HOSA included 5 grids (lag grids 04; 720 km2) and the smallest HOSA contained 2 grids (lag grids 01; 288 km2). Emergency department asthma and inpatient asthma, myocardial infarction, and heart failure ORs were significantly higher in rural grids without air monitors than in urban grids with air monitors at lag grids 0, 1, and 01. Rural grids had higher AOD-PM2.5 concentration levels, population density, and poverty percent than urban grids. Warm season ORs were significantly higher than cold season ORs for all health outcomes at lag grids 0, 1, 01, and 04. The possibility of elevated fine and ultrafine PM and other demographic and environmental risk factors synergistically contributing to elevated respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in persons residing in rural areas was discussed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Tele-exercise; physical activity; rural; older adults; knee osteoarthritis; clinical trial
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:36:22 CEST)
Enhance®Fitness (EF) is an evidence-based exercise program recommended for management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, access to EF is limited in rural areas. Accordingly, we evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of remotely delivered EF in rural, community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee OA. A single arm pilot trial of remotely delivered EF classes was conducted. Videoconferencing was used to livestream the instructor-led, 1-hour EF classes 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention. A total of 15 participants were enrolled with a median age of 70 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67-75) and 14 (93%) were women. Median EF class attendance rate was 91% (IQR: 85-94%). Knee pain, as measured by the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), improved significantly from baseline to 12-week endpoint (mean difference=-11.4 [95% CI:-20.9, -2.0); P=0.02). In addition, participants’ self-reported knee function improved significantly (mean difference in KOOS Function score=-11.8 [95% CI:-18.4, -5.2]; P<0.01) as well as their physical capacity (mean difference in Timed Up and Go test time=1.8 seconds [95% CI: 0.2, 3.4]; P=0.03). All participants (100%) were very satisfied with remotely delivered EF classes and there were no serious adverse events. Findings from this pilot trial indicate that remotely delivered EF is feasible and acceptable in rural older adults with knee OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis B virus; prevalence of HBsAg; rural and urban zone; Togo
Online: 1 January 2020 (14:31:28 CET)
Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a public health problem in many parts of the world, due to its frequency, complications and socio-economic consequences. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in rural areas and in urban areas. This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of HBV infection from 2015-2018 at CHR-Sokodé and USP of Ogaro. Biological data of 3000 participants (500 per year in each zone) enrolled and results of HBsAg were assessed during the study period. Female are represented 60% with average age comprised between [20, 29] years old. The high rate of participants enrolled (45.10%) are come for the monitoring of pregnancy. The prevalence of VHB during the study are 20.33% (610/3000), high prevalence (6.27%) and the means of VHB prevalence are shown in the age range between [30; 39] with 12.17% (365/3000) of female and 8.17% (235/3000) of male are positive after diagnostic detection of HBsAg (antigen of Hepatitis B virus). The prevalence of HBV in rural zone (Ogaro) are 5.23% and 15.07% in urban zone (Sokodé) and the high prevalence (17.50%) are shown in urban zone. The high prevalence of young suggests that some effort will be due to sensibilized young for HBV sexual transmission and the way of prevention. In addition, some research would be done in research of alternative therapy against this infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Healthcare; Internet of Things; IoT; Medical Assistance; Medical Kiosk; Rural people
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:29:46 CET)
After conducting a detailed survey among the villagers of Pallissery and Karukutty, it was observed that in most of the villages the native people have to travel long distances for their basic health needs. Also most of the villagers lack knowledge regarding live health updates. At times, these problems have even resulted in death of many people including pregnant women and children. The objective of our research is to propose an integrated and easy to use Medical Kiosk that can be installed at various locations in rural areas. The Kiosk will provide an integrated environment for all medical related activities and would perform numerous functions like sending notifications regarding medical camps, mobile medical help, important dates for vaccinations, child care, insurance policies and provide other live medical updates to the villagers. It would also support the basic facilities for measurement of body parameters like height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, and heartbeat and also facilitate live consultation facilities with specialized doctors through video and voice chats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: rural-urban fringe; walkability; road intersections; decision support methods; Electre Tri
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:50:46 CEST)
The study investigates the influence of road intersections on pedestrian accessibility in urban-rural fringe areas. An evaluation method to support planners and decision makers in the classification of crossing areas according to their effect on walking and in the prioritization of improvement interventions is proposed. In these peripheral parts of towns, pedestrians are almost ignored and people depend on car use for any necessity. Initiatives to improve livability can include the design of walkable friendly environments aiming at offering potential users good levels of security, comfort and convenience when walking to destinations. These spatial requirements have to be provided along road segments and even more on crossing areas which represent sensitive points of the entire connection system with a hindering influence on people’s propensity to walk. Starting with spatial basic interventions aiming at enhancing the continuity, safety and quality of pedestrian paths it is possible to reduce the physical and perceptual distance which separates fringe contexts from the rest of the city leading to a progressive integration of urban functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1654.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Rural tourism; tourism seasonality; World Heritage Site; sustainable livelihood; thematic analysis; fsQCA
Online: 24 August 2023 (04:00:22 CEST)
Although tourism seasonality significantly influences the livelihood activities of rural tourism households, limited research has explored how they adapt their livelihood strategies to achieve optimal outcomes. Employing an exploratory sequential mixed-methods design that combines thematic analysis and fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), we investigated the relationship between the livelihood strategies and outcomes of rural tourism households under the influence of tourism seasonality at the Guilin Karst World Heritage Site. The results indicate that livelihood strategies adopted by rural tourism households include "Tourism Persistence,” "Seasonal Employment,” and “Seasonal Farming” during the off-season, and “Extending Working Hours,” “Increasing Staffing Input,” and “Increasing Capital Input” during the peak season. Furthermore, these strategies form flexible combinations to realize livelihood outcomes, with “Extending Working Hours” being a necessary condition. The findings also revealed that the four configurations of seasonal livelihood strategies in the two patterns significantly contributed to high livelihood outcomes. One is named “Peak-Season Driven Pattern,” where “Extending Working Hours” and “Increasing Staffing Input” are the core conditions; the other is named “Peak-Off Blend-Driven Pattern,” where “Extending Working Hours,” “Increasing Capital Input,” and the absence of “Tourism Persistence” are the core conditions. These findings provide theoretical and practical insights for sustainable livelihood research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2263.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: fire risk; wildland-urban interface; rural-urban interface; machine learning classification; GIS
Online: 31 May 2023 (14:29:50 CEST)
As in many parts of the world, rural-urban, forest-urban interface areas surrounding urban regions expose the natural areas they interact with to a threat of fire risk that can reach various sizes. This risk has been assessed for various regions of the world using many different methods and numerical models so far. Among these, it is seen that machine learning models have successful applications in risk assessment and risk prediction studies. For the fire risk prediction of Istanbul's yet unurbanized regions, but where the city is anticipated to potentially shift, data was collected using the opportunities provided by Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing technologies based on fires that occurred between 2000-2021, and the region was examined. Machine learning methods' Random Forest (RF), Extreme Gradient Boosting (XGB), and Light Gradient Boosting (LGB) models were applied for the classification of factors effective in fire. The best result was given by the RF model with 0.93 accuracy, 0.062 F1 score, and 0.753 Area Under Curve (AUC) value. In the classification of factors in the RF model, the grouping between fire-initiating factors and factors effective in spreading is evident, while this distinction is partially noticeable in the other two models.