ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0039.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Hybrid Mini-grid, Rural Electrification, Renewable Energy, Rural Development, Energy Access
Online: 6 October 2017 (15:45:54 CEST)
Rural electrification in remote areas of developing countries has several challenges which hinders energy access to the population. For instance the extension of the national grid to provide electricity in these areas is largely not viable. The Kenyan government has put a target to achieve universal energy access by the year 2020. In order to realize this objective, focus is being shifted to establishing off-grid power stations in rural areas.Among rural areas to be electrified, Habaswein is a settlement in Kenya's North Eastern region without connection to the National Power Grid where Kenya Power installed a stand alone hybrid mini-grid.Based on field observations, power generation data analysis, evaluation of the potential energy resource and simulations, this research intends to evaluate the performance of the Habaswein mini-grid and optimize the existing hybrid generation system to enhance its reliability and reduce the operation costs.The result will be a suggestion of how Kenyan rural areas could be sustainably electrified by using renewable energy based off-grid power stations. It will contribute to bridge the research gap currently existing on that area, and it will be a vital tool to researchers, implementers and the policy makers in energy sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0001.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medical workforce shortage; rural and remote; recruitment and retention; sustainable rural medical workforce; medical school innitiatives.
Online: 1 December 2022 (01:05:35 CET)
.Abstract: Indonesia, one of the Asia Pacific LMICs, has suffered from a chronic medical workforce shortage. However, there are limited published studies describing the approaches implemented by the Indonesian government regarding the recruitment and retention of the medical workforce. This case study aimed to understand the current practices for recruitment and retention of the medical workforce in Indonesian rural and remote provinces. We conducted a case study of the Maluku Province of Indonesia with document analysis and key informant interviews with officials responsible for medical workforce recruitment and retention. We used the WHO’s guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the recruitment and retention practices under four domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and classified them into University/Medical School level and Government/Non-government level. Our findings suggest that Indonesia has implemented most of the WHO-recommended medical workforce recruitment and retention strategies. However, implementation is still problematic; hence, the aim of establishing an adequate, sustainable medical workforce has not been reached. Nationwide government intervention in educational aspects is important to magnify the impact of the regional medical school initiatives. Relevant programs must be re-evaluated and re-enforced concerning significance, comprehensiveness and effectiveness for sustainable rural and remote medical workforce.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: urban-rural gradient; spatiotemporal patterns; landscape metrics; a roadscape transect approach; rapid urbanization; Shanghai
Online: 29 July 2016 (08:06:50 CEST)
Quantifying the landscape pattern change can effectively demonstrate the ecological progresses and the consequences of urbanization. Based on remotely sensed land cover data in 1994, 2000, 2006 and a gradient analysis with landscape metrics at landscape- and class- level, we attempted to characterize the individual and entire landscape patterns of Shanghai metropolitan during the rapid urbanization. We highlighted that a roadscape transect approach that combined the buffer zone method and the transect-based approach was introduced to describe the urban-rural patterns of agricultural, residential, green, industrial, and public facilities land along the railway route. Our results of landscape metrics showed significant spatiotemporal patterns and gradient variations along the transect. The urban growth pattern in two time spans conform to the hypothesis for diffusion–coalescence processes, implying that the railway is adaptive as a gradient element to analyze the landscape patterns with urbanization. As the natural landscape was replaced by urban landscape gradually, the urban fringe expanded radically. The results also showed that the desakota region expanded its extent widely. Satellite towns witnessed the continual transformation from the predominantly rural landscape to peri-urban landscape. Furthermore, the gap between urban and rural areas remained large especially in public service. More reasonable urban plans and land use policies should push to make more of an effort to transition from the urban-rural separation to coordinated urban-rural development. This study is a meaningful trial in demonstrating a new form of urban–rural transects to study the landscape change of large cities from a strategic viewpoint. By combining gradient analysis with landscape metrics, we addressed the process of urbanization both spatially and temporally, and provided a more quantitative approach to urban studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; critical realism; emergency remote teaching; higher education; rural-based university; unintended pedagogical consequences
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:43:22 CET)
In this empirical article, we argue that, while emergency remote teaching (ERT) may have achieved its goal of saving the academic years during the COVID-19 pandemic, it also constructed unintended pedagogical consequences that were possibly overlooked at the time of advocating it. The research question that the article attempted to answer is, what unintended pedagogical consequences did students and lecturers suffer because of the move to ERT at rural-based universities (RBUs) in South Africa? Drawing on students' and lecturers’ lived experiences of ERT, this article foregrounds unintended pedagogical consequences that arose at one RBU in South Africa during the transition from face-to-face teaching to ERT. Underpinned by the tenets of critical realism philosophy, as well as student integration theory, in-depth interviews with three lecturers and six students were conducted. The findings of the study indicate that home conditions, individual characteristics, pre-COVID-19 blended learning experiences, university training and support, and teaching, learning, and assessment practices and policies altogether contributed to the construction of unintended pedagogical consequences of ERT presented in this article. These consequences include (1) exclusion of low-income students in active teaching and learning, (2) equipping middle-class students with better chances of success than working-class students. (3) distressing female students and lecturers more than their male counterparts, and (4) unproductive assessment practices. This study may be beneficial to academics and policymakers from similar contexts in their plight to continue with remote teaching and assessment (RTA) beyond the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0408.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: rural clean heating project; rural Gansu; sustainability; potential solutions; benchmarking
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:23:11 CEST)
Rural clean heating project (RCHP) in China aims to increase flexibility in the rural energy system, enhance the integration of renewable energy and distributed generation, and reduce environmental impact. While RCHP-enabling routes have been studied from a technical perspective, the economic, ecological, regulatory, and policy dimensions of RCHP are yet to be analysed in depth, especially in the underdeveloped areas in China. This paper discusses RCHP in rural Gansu in a multi-dimension approach. We firstly focus on the current issues and challenges of RCHP in rural Gansu. Then the RCHP-enabling areas are briefly zoned into six typical regions based on the resource distribution in Gansu Province, and a matching framework of RCHP is recommended. Then we focus on the economics and sustainability of RCHP-enabling technologies. Based on the medium-term assessment of RCHP in the demonstration provinces, various technical schemes and routes are analysed and compared so as to be adopted in rural Gansu. In addition to technical and economic effects of those schemes, the corresponding ecology, policy, finance, and market implications are also concerned. We briefly discuss how the national regulators incentivise the implementation of RCHP in rural Gansu. Major barriers to RCHP are identified as the sustainability of technology, economy, ecology, policy, finance, and market. Subsequently, some policy solutions to overcome these barriers are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: rural health; dementia care; telehealth
Online: 18 April 2018 (05:25:13 CEST)
Context: A clinical video telehealth (CVT) program was implemented improve access and quality of dementia care to patients and their caregivers in rural areas. The program was offered as part of an established dementia clinic/geriatric primary care clinic in collaboration with five community-based outpatient clinics (CBOC’s) affiliated with the Tennessee Valley Healthcare System (TVHS) in middle Tennessee. Telehealth support was provided by a physician – social worker team visit. Methods: Telehealth training and equipment were provided to clinic personnel, functioning part-time with other collateral clinical duties. Patients and caregivers were referred by primary care providers and had an average of 1 to 2 CVT encounters originating at their local CBOC lasting 20 to 30 minutes. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients and caregivers receiving CVT support were collected by retrospective electronic medical record (EMR) review. Results: Over a 3-year period 45 CVT encounters were performed on patient-caregiver pairs, followed for a mean of 15 (1-36) months. Some 80% patients had dementia confirmed and 89% of these had serious medical comorbidities, took an average of 8 medications, and resided at a distance of 103 (76-148) miles from the medical center. Dementia patients included 33% with late stage dementia, 25% received additional care from a mental health provider, 23% took antipsychotic medications, 19% transitioned to a higher level of care, and 19% expired an average of 10.2 months following consultation. Caregiver distress was present in 47% of family members. Consult recommendations included 64% community-based long-term care services and supports (LTSS), 36% medications, and 22% further diagnostic testing. Acceptance of the CVT encounter was 98%, with 8770 travel miles saved. Conclusion: CVT is well received and may be helpful in providing dementia care and supporting dementia caregivers to obtain LTSS for high-need older adults in rural areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: skill accumulation; regional advantages; rural-urban migrant workers; global production networks; upgrading
Online: 1 December 2016 (09:42:02 CET)
Extant research pays little attention to migrant workers’ skill accumulation/upgrading from the perspective of the labor supply. This paper takes China as an example to explore the factors influencing skill accumulation of rural-urban migrant workers (RUMWs), with a purpose to discover how to sustain or reshape regional competitive advantage through improving RUMWs’ skill accumulation. Structured questionnaire surveys were adopted for data collection in Suzhou City, Jiangsu Province and Taizhou City, Zhejiang Province located in the Yangtze River Delta in the east of China. 900 questionnaires were issued and 491 effective questionnaires were recovered totally. This paper takes a perspective of global production networks, and gets a broad viewpoint containing intra-firm coordination, inter-firm partnership and extra-firm bargaining with non-firm actors, beyond what the extant literature on laborers’ human capital focuses on. The ﬁnding indicates that firms’ skill-oriented preference, which concerns about employees’ skills and innovation ability and stimulates them to learn initiatively, have a significant influence on RUMWs’ skill accumulation. In terms of collective efficiency based on co-competitive relationship between local firms, the more intensive interactions are, the more opportunities of skill accumulation RUMWs get. The accessibility of local institutions and favorable policies benefit RUMWs’ skill accumulation. Besides, the place itself, as a synthesized space of labor-management relations inside a firm and inter-organization relations, exerts an influence on and cause the regional differences in RUMWs’ skill accumulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0279.v1
Online: 13 July 2021 (08:28:03 CEST)
(1) Background: Stunting remains a challenge in Indonesia, where 30.8% of under-five children are stunted and may never reach full potential height and cognitive function. We aimed to investigate the risk factors of stunting in Nangapanda subdistrict, East Nusa Tenggara; (2) Methods: The design was cross-sectional study located in rural area as part of PINTERMIDI UI project. We collected quantitative data on social determinants, weight, height, hemoglobin, ferritin, serum zinc, CRP, worm infection, history of deworming, co-morbidity, food security, and nutrient intake; (3) Results: A total of 196 under-five children included and 74% households were food insecure. The prevalence of stunting was 29.9% in this population (31.8% worm infection, 30.3% iron deficiency, and 28.1% zinc deficiency). Multivariate analysis showed household with 5-8 members (AOR 3.076; 95% CI 1.132 – 8.356) and unsafe drinking water (AOR 1.702; 95% CI 0.825 – 3.512) were significant independent risk factors of stunting after adjusted by child’s gender, father’s occupation, caregiver’s education, monthly expenses, sanitary facilities, and food security status; (4) Conclusions: The number of household members is the only independent risk factor of stunting among children age 24-59 months in rural area of Eastern Indonesia. Development of nutrition sensitive intervention and promotion of family planning are needed in order to increase adequate child’s care and feeding practices in rural area of Eastern Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Rural Health; Obesity abdominal; Metabolic syndrome
Online: 10 October 2022 (13:59:16 CEST)
(1) Background: Metabolic syndrome is associated with cardiovascular complications. Therefore, this study aims to establish cut points for the conicity index based on the components of the metabolic syndrome and to associate it with characteristics sociodemographic, food consumption and occupational factors in Brazilian rural workers; (2) Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out with farmers. The receiver operating characteristic curve was calculated and the cutoff points for the conicity index were identified by the area under the curve, sensitivity and specificity. The variables included in the binary logistic regression analysis were selected by considering p < 0.20 in the bivariate test; (3) Results: The cut points were similar in females according to both criteria, resulting in a single cut-off of 1.269. In males, the cut points showed differences, resulting in 1.272 according to the NCEP-ATP III and 1.252 according to the IDF. We have shown that younger people, those who work more than 40 hours a week and the lowest contribution of culinary ingredients are associated with increased odds of abdominal obesity. While the consumption of the products they sell or produce decreases these chances; (4) Conclusions: The conicity index showed high discriminatory power for the identification of abdominal obesity in rural workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0327.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: agriculture; Africa; productivity; rural livelihoods; staple crops
Online: 27 January 2020 (13:24:18 CET)
Over the past few decades, there have been major advances in crop productivity across the world, which has been made possible through a combination of productivity enhancing technological innovations. Beyond this achievement however, most parts of Africa are still battling with low crop productivity resulting in food shortages and food insecurity. The yields of many staple crops are still far below their agronomic potentials with output increases being attributed largely to area expansion. This paper examines the implications of the current trends of crop/plant productivity for food security and rural livelihood development in Africa using Ghana as a case study. The paper argues that crop production in Africa is becoming a less viable and unattractive livelihood activity with farmers diversifying out of agriculture into non-agricultural activities such as illegal small-scale mining, which have negative consequences on the ability of African countries to attain the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0088.v1
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:25:00 CEST)
Climate change poses a major threat to development in most low and middle-income countries, especially the sub – Saharan Africa. Wurompo is a small farming community in the Wenchi Municipality of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana that depends on rain-fed agriculture activities for livelihood. In recent years, droughts, unpredictable rainfall pattern and crop failure have become common in the area. The study assessed knowledge and awareness, effects of climate change on female farmers, and their adaptation strategies. A case study in design, qualitative methods were used to collect data from 50 purposefully selected participants. Data were analyzed using themes and sub-themes generated from the research questions. Findings showed lack of adequate information and knowledge on climate change and its effects. Climate change has impacted negatively on these farmers stemming from decline in crop production and unavailability of adequate water supply in due season. Challenges to climate change adaptation are poverty, poor basic infrastructure, and modern farming practices. Farmers must be educated on climate change and its effects, with training on the necessary adaptation strategies to build their resilience. Policies that target rural farmers to adapt to climate change, and device modern agricultural techniques and practices are also necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0029.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae; Carriage; Resistance; PCVs; Urban; Rural.
Online: 1 July 2021 (13:42:52 CEST)
Background: Pneumococcal carriage surveillance study took place in urban and rural areas for Jordanian children in the period 2015-2019. Objectives: Determine urban and rural differences in pneumococcal carriage rate, resistance, and serotypes from healthy Jordanian children of Amman (urban) and eastern Madaba (rural). Methods: Nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) were taken from 682 children aged 1 to 163 months. Pneumococcal identification, serotyping and resistance were done according to standard method. Results: Number of cases tested for Amman 267 and for eastern Madaba 415. Carriage rate for eastern Madaba was 39.5% and for Amman 31.1%. Predominant serotypes for eastern Madaba and Amman were 19F (21.3%; 15.7%), 23F (12.2%; 9.6%), 14 (6.7%; 2.4%), 19A (4.9%; 2.4%), 6A (5.5%; 3.6%). Resistance rates for eastern Madaba and Amman were: penicillin (95.8%; 81.9%), clarithromycin (68.9%; 59.0%), clindamycin (40.8%; 31.3%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (73.2%; 61.4%). Coverage of PCV7, PCV13, and the future PCV20 for Amman were 42.2%, 48.2%, and 60.2%; and for eastern Madaba were 50.0%, 62.2%, and 73.2%, respectively. In Amman 25.8% have received 1-3 PCV7 injections compared to 1.9% in eastern Madaba. Conclusions: There was significant differences in carriage, resistance and coverage in both regions. The potential inclusion of PCV vaccination program for rural areas is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0170.v1
Online: 15 August 2019 (16:17:46 CEST)
As mental health problems tend to increase during adolescence and is a serious public health issue in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Early detection is necessary and monitoring at the population level can be used to evaluate the progress of national programmes promoting positive well-being. Physical activity (PA) can be protective whereas increased screen time behaviours (STB) can be a risk for low levels of well-being. A national representative sample (n=4,731) of young adolescents aged 11y, 13y, and 15y from the Republic of Kazakhstan took part in the WHO collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Respondents completed the WHO-5 Well-being scale, and items in on PA and STB. Internationally recognised, recommended cut-offs were used for analyses. Two models of binary logistic regressions were performed to examine the associations with PA (Model 1) and PA with STB (Model 2) after stratification by gender and controlling for age, locality and family affluence. Three quarters of young adolescents in the Republic of Kazakhstan have good overall well-being, despite the proportion reduces as adolescents age from 11y to 15y (boys, OR=0.66 CI=0.49-0.80; girls, OR=0.55, CI=0.43-0.71). The odds ratio for positive well-being were more than twice for boys and more than 3.5 for girls who reported daily PA than not being active daily. Spending less time on STB for girls was associated with positive well-being than spending more STB time (OR=1.28, CI=1.04-1.59). Well-being among young adolescents drops dramatically between the ages of 11y and 15y and is higher among rural schools attendees than in urban schools. The recommended amounts of PA can be protective of low well-being for both boys and girls. However, meeting reporting STB recommendations was only protective for girls and not boys. Designing and implementing positive well-being programmes require consideration of locality and amounts of PA and STB
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0136.v1
Online: 31 October 2016 (07:59:32 CET)
Food is one of the basic necessities for all living things in this globe to grow, maintain life and develop. It is a source of energy for almost all bodily functions and it directly affects our health status and how we feel each day and the future. Yet, there are millions of people around the globe who do not have the sumptuousness to provide enough food to themselves and their beloved ones. Ethiopia is one of the highly food insecure countries in the world, it's name has been illustrious for famine and drought for decades. The study's main aim is to assess the livelihood resources and strategies of the smallholding farmers in their strive to achieve food security at household level. For this particular study, from Tigray region, Kilte Awelalo was taken as a study area and three Tabias were selected; Ayenalem, Genfel and Tahetay Adikesanded. The total sample number of households from these three Tabias was 370 and a formal interview schedule was employed to collect relevant primary inputs for the study. The study found that farmland holding size and its fertility as major impacting factors behind the livelihood strategies and food security condition of the smallholding farmers. It was also found that about one third of the total sample population were chronically food insecure, whereas about half of the population were transitory food insecure and rest very little number of households were food secure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0216.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: cascading tank village system; sustainable livelihoods; resilience thinking; Sri Lanka; rural dry zone; community rural development
Online: 12 October 2020 (09:47:15 CEST)
Cascading Tank Village Systems (CTVSs) of Sri Lanka historically provided a resilient community-based social-ecological water management system in the rural dryzone of Sri Lanka . The CTVS has been described as the ‘lifeblood’ of communities in the rural dry zone  and as a globally important Agricultural Heritage System by the FAO . After being abandoned for many centuries, their restoration is now being pursued by different national and international actors as a key to climate change mitigation and sustainable livelihoods for communities . Rural livelihoods in the dry zone are at risk due to multiple factors, poor access and management of water, economic and health pressures, as well as resource limitations and degradation . Despite recent efforts to restore CTVS systems, no social-ecological approach (SES) nor sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF) focused approach to ensuring resilient and sustainable livelihood outcomes has been taken . As part of an on-going PhD project, this paper describes the background, current challenges and potential for an SES focused resilience thinking approach to CTVS combined with a focus on sustainable livelihoods for future sustainable livelihood opportunities and outcomes. The study finds current restoration efforts are at a crossroads between restoring the past (system adaptability) or transforming for the future. It introduces relevant SES and resilience thinking concepts and analyses the CTVS from this perspective. A particular contribution of this study is to point to the significant overlaps and complementarities in social-ecological (SES) resilience thinking and SLF approaches to analysis and proposals for resilient rural development. Employing resilience thinking principles it recommends strategies to create positive livelihood outcomes for communities and households. Keywords: cascading tank village system; sustainable livelihoods; resilience thinking; Sri Lanka; rural dry zone; community rural development
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: rural development; multifunctionality; rural planning; participatory process; social multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE)
Online: 4 April 2018 (14:51:19 CEST)
The planning of rural land depends to a large extent on the agrarian and forestry development model agreed upon for it. Within the framework of agrarian multifunctionality, to evaluate different development alternatives and their effect on territorial planning, its multiple dimensions must be considered as well as the interests and needs of the stakeholders. This work thus addresses the comprehensive evaluation of development alternatives for the rural area of a municipality of the Basque Country (Spain) through the implementation of a multi-criteria evaluation method with social participation. The results show, firstly, the existence of trade-offs between the functions to be promoted in the various development models evaluated. Secondly, the results indicate the need to reverse recent trends in the sector and the convenience of moving towards an agro-livestock model of greater ecological and local character, independently of the followed forest model. In fact, the evaluation carried out also reveals, thirdly, the existence of more or less latent conflicts, in particular with regards to forest policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0014.v1
Online: 1 March 2019 (13:14:54 CET)
The paper attempts to explore the relationship between federalism and rural development. Federalism is a division of power, responsibility and accountability to bring the administrative and political power closer to the ground and essentially to increase the good governance. On the other hand, rural development is a complex and multidimensional issue- especially much demanding for least developed and developing countries. A descriptive and qualitative approach was carried out to study the complex relationship between rural development and federalism. Similarly, a SWOT analysis was carried out to have a better understanding of the relationship. The study found that there is significant potentiality for accelerated development of rural landscape in federalism if carefully executed. However, on the other hand, federalism may pose several risks on rural development and may restrict the development pace if not executed with appropriate care and understanding. Therefore, the study concludes that cooperation and coordination among the federal structures are crucial for better development of the rural economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0183.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: biocultural resources; biocultural design; alternative food networks; sustainable rural development; local food systems; Bolivia
Online: 8 September 2016 (10:19:43 CEST)
Biocultural heritage-based products, including regional specialty foods, are increasingly part of sustainable rural development strategies. While export-oriented biocultural products are often the most visible, we examine the role of campesino gastronomic heritage in the Central Valley of Tarija, Bolivia, as a case study of a local market-centered biocultural resource-based development strategy reflected in an alternative agri-food network. We develop a biocultural sustainability framework to examine this network from ecological, economic and sociocultural perspectives. Data are drawn from interviews (n=77), surveys (n=89) and participant observation, with primary and secondary producers of traditional and new products, as well as restaurant owners, market vendors and local consumers. We find that campesino biocultural heritage and the alternative agri-food network surrounding it represent an influential territorial project that underpins many household economies, particularly for women. We conclude that the relatively small investments by local governments to promote campesino gastronomic heritage are having positive ripple effects on small-scale producer livelihoods and on biocultural sustainability. We suggest that further support to increase market access and reduce other barriers to participation in alternative food networks will likely increase the options and benefits available to small-scale producers mobilising campesino gastronomic heritage within the local economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0541.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Traditional practitioners; maternal health; roles; challenges; rural
Online: 31 August 2022 (08:59:55 CEST)
Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) are considered as the entry level of care in African societies and play an important role in the delivery of health services to the population. A phenomenological qualitative study was carried out among pur-posefully selected THPs in Mthatha to understand their roles and the challenges they face in providing maternal health services. The study included a focus group discussion with seven participants, which yielded three themes and seven sub-themes. The content analysis of descriptive data from the focus group discussion revealed threats posed by unregistered and counterfeit THPs to the lives of pregnant women in rural settings. THPs' wide range of services allowed pregnant women to receive prenatal, antenatal, and postnatal care in close proximity. This level of care, however, was characterized by high levels of secrecy and counterfeit practitioners who used human body parts, which jeopardized the practice and made it unpopular. Traditional health practice must be protected through registration of THPs and the establishment of functional referral pathways between THPs and conventional health services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: entrepreneurship; rural; sociodemographic; millennials; agriculture
Online: 9 April 2021 (09:55:53 CEST)
Entrepreneurship can help revitalize rural territories and agricultural development; consequently, it is important to know aspects that allow a better understanding of the subjects that undertake in the countryside, in this case, sociodemographic aspects, related to students and graduates of five Faculties of Agricultural Sciences in the Department of Antioquia in Colombia. For this purpose, a previously validated questionnaire was used, collecting 427 complete responses. Chi-square sta-tistical tests were performed to determine the degree of association of entrepreneurial activity with measured sociodemographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, schooling, family environment, and dependents. Once the existence of associations between the variables was ver-ified, a multiple correspondence analysis was performed to identify patterns and trends. A greater favorability for entrepreneurship was found in those subjects belonging to the upper strata of the population, mostly men, with postgraduate studies, from wealthy families, while the poorest and women are mainly oriented towards job search.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0271.v1
Online: 28 February 2019 (12:49:31 CET)
The majority of the population in developing countries resides in the rural area. Development itself cannot address the challenges of the rural area since its economic, political and environmental landscape is different from an urban area. The paper attempts to assess the rural dimension aspect of Nepali Agriculture Policy since rural development and agricultural development is closely resembled due to an agrarian-based economy of the country and a large rural population. Therefore, a critical review of National Agriculture Policy, 2004 (NAP-2004) was carried out under “Commercialization of Agriculture”, “Food Security”, “Rural Infrastructure”, “Gender”, “Climate Change” and “Social Inclusion” thematic area. The results showed that NAP-2004 satisfactorily address rural development albeit ample space for improvement. The findings of the paper could be beneficial to policymakers and development workers in the field of rural development and agriculture along with academicians having interest in it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: sustainability, innovation, local agri-food system, rural development
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:09:02 CEST)
Sustainability, as well as a concept related to a development model, is becoming a real guide to drive the governance choices of value chains. A sustainable policy has the objective of perpetuating production models over time while maintaining the environmental, economic and social dimensions that characterize a given production process. It is therefore important to measure the sustainability of a production system in its environmental, social and economic components and to understand the ongoing trends under the pressure of agricultural policies, market dynamics and innovation pattern introduced along the time in a production system. The purpose of the article is to assess the evolution of the level of sustainability of Parmigiano Reggiano production system under the effect of 20 years of innovation mechanism which impact on product quality, value chain performance and rural development. To this aim the paper discuss a holistic framework that allows the representation of stakeholder’s role considering the value chain and the territorial dimension. The paper discus also the use of dimensional indicators and propose a use of synthetic indexes to provide an overall picture of the evolution of sustainability of specific production system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0732.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Grit; Perceived Parenting Style of Mother; rural adolescents
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:31:48 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between grit and parenting style of mother among Indian rural adolescents. Parental Authority Questionnaire  and Short Grit Scale  was used to meet objectives of the paper. A sample of 60 adolescents was chosen from private institution located at Bathinda (Punjab) by using convenience sampling technique. Results of correlation analysis revealed that significant (negative) relationship exists between mother’s authoritarian parenting style (only) and grit. This is true for both genders and for adolescents who comes from joint families. Educational implication of the study signifies that the suitable informative and counseling sessions should be organised for the parents to make them conscious of the appropriate parenting style for the development of gritty adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0508.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: China’s Rural Pension Program; Pension contribution; Trust in government; Propensity Score Matching method; Rural China
Online: 27 December 2022 (03:22:26 CET)
This paper estimates the effect of trust in government on rural residents’ contributions in China’s rural pension program using the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method. We construct an analytical framework for rural residents' decision-making in pension program and provide analysis using data from China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) and 25 provincial Departments of the Human Resources and Social Security (DOHRSS) in China. Our analysis shows that rural residents’ trust in government will influence their contributions to the pension programs by affecting their expected return of the investments. Our results suggest that the government should improve rural residents’ trust in government in order to develop a successful and sustainable rural pension program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Rural dental care; Preventive visits; Rural Vs Urban; community health centers; Hispanic Vs Non-Hispanics
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:07:45 CEST)
Abstract: Background: To determine the impact of a patient's ethnicity on the seeking preventive dental services at the Community Health Centers (CHCs) in South-Central Texas. Methods: Pri-mary electronic health records (HER) data were collected regarding each patient's medical and dental history, and comprehensive treatment planning. The researchers retrieved EHR from Jan-uary 2016 to 2022. Bivariate analysis was completed to test outcome with predicator and covariates using appropriate statistical tests. A multiple linear regression model was used to understand the association between the predictor and outcome variable while controlling for confounders. Results: The study findings revealed significantly higher dental visits (2.26 ± 2.88) for Hispanic patients. The results from the multiple regression model indicated that non-Hispanic patients had a 8% fewer chance of visiting the CHCs for preventive dental services compared to the Hispanic population (p-value<0.001) when all other variables are held constant. However, the study results were not significant as the effect size was small to conclude the effect of ethnicity on the patients visiting the dental clinic at the CHCs for preventive services. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is no difference in the preventive dental services completed by Hispanics and Non-Hispanics when all other variables are controlled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0289.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: internet access; nutritional intake; rural China; propensity score matching
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:54:42 CEST)
Over the past four decades, China has experienced a nutritional transition and has developed the largest population of internet users. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of internet access on the nutritional intake in Chinese rural residents. An IV-Probit-based propensity score matching method was used to determine the impact of internet access on nutritional intake. The data were collected from 10042 rural households in six Chinese provinces. The results reveal that rural residents with internet access have significantly higher energy, protein, and fat intake than those without. Chinese rural residents with internet access consumed 1.35% (28.62 kcal), 5.02% (2.61 g), and 4.33% (3.30 g) more energy, protein, and fat, respectively. There was heterogeneity as regards the intake of energy, protein, and fat among those in different income groups. Moreover, non-staple food consumption is the main channel through which internet access affects nutritional intake. The results demonstrate that the local population should use the internet to improve their nutritional status. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of internet use on food consumed away from home and micronutrients intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0509.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Hygiene; Cleanliness; Water; Rural water facility; Water shortage; Uganda
Online: 30 September 2021 (11:02:14 CEST)
This research contributes to the detailed discussion about the approach to secure, hygienic water and cleanliness in Uganda and its pastoral regions. The relationship between the sanitation and clean water access with destitution is also discussed. Although this document is not leading towards the policy recommendation but it is an overall idea of how Uganda progressed because of the provisions adopted by the government, local and international organizations, and NGOs, and how the country lacked before these steps taken. Most of the data mentioned is taken from the house surveys of a decade 2002-2013 alongside the qualitative data. Literature review is also considered and is divided in two sections: first included researches related to water accessibility and usage, while the second section included researches related to work done and progress for diarrheal diseases and sanitation. Afterwards, methodologies were discussed where, firstly, trends and then the limitations in access to the basic necessities of life that is clean water and hygiene are mentioned. At last, the implementations and how they affected the rural Ugandans was discussed.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0101.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: SI4CARE; TELEMEDICINE; ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE; RURAL AREAS
Online: 5 January 2023 (09:11:00 CET)
The SI4CARE project is a transnational project which aims to develop both strategy and 1 action plans to improve health and social care in the Adriatic-Ionian region. Starting from the 2 survey of the status quo, each partner has developed some pilots to to support the development 3 and monitoring of the policy actions. In particular Partner number three, Municipality of Miglierina, 4 designed and developed a pilot related to the use of wearable device for monitoring elderly patients 5 in rural areas. With the collaboration of the complex unity of primary cares (UCCP) of the Reventino 6 area, the pilot is based on the use of smart wearable device to monitor some parameters of elderly 7 people after the vaccination for flu and covid. This paper focuses on the design and implementation 8 of the system and describe its application in the Municipality of Miglierina, the presentation of the 9 results and the discussion of the strengths and weaknesses will be presented in detail in a future work. 10 Finally, the possibility of extending the experiment to the other Adriatic-Ionian region is presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0152.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: entrepreneurship; employees; Romanian rural area; development
Online: 15 January 2020 (12:27:24 CET)
The economic activities in the romanian rural areas have started to know new horizons with Romania's accession to the European Community. The rural society was and is focused on the level of entrepreneurial behavior strictly on agriculture, with all its derivatives. At present there is a variety of sectors of activity that are found in the rural society, which are waiting to know new dimensions. The higher the number of entrepreneurs, the more job vacancies will be created across different fields of activity. In these circumstances, the number of jobs will increase, and the society in the romanian rural area can enjoy a diversity of the population determined by the various professions of people, but also by the new dimension offered by the entrepreneurial area. This way, it will be done later the repopulation of the Romanian countryside, a national interest issue, after the great majority of the population went to work in the countries of the European Community, having to be forced by the poverty of the romanian rural area, determined by the lack of jobs to ensure a decent standard of living.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0040.v1
Online: 4 March 2019 (10:33:58 CET)
This study examined the determinants of domestic savings mobilization among the rural poor in Uasin-Gishu county, Kenya. The general notion is that the subsistence farmers are too poor to save. This seems to be unfounded given the fact that they are general excluded from formal financial services and studies on poverty in the country show that the average propensity of the rural households to save is higher than the national average. What are the factors which motivate small scale farmers to save? The study was conducted on 446 table banking groups under the aegis of JOYWO, a table banking grouping in Kenya. Data was collected using structured questionnaires from members of groups under the umbrella of JOYWO. The findings of the study indicates that household income had a positive and significant effect on savings mobilization while dependency ratio had a negative and significant effect on savings mobilization. Household size was not significant. The results point to the need to expose the rural poor to informal savings and financing models expected to enhance income generating capabilities of the rural poor and lower the level dependency through government welfare funding for senior citizens and essential services for the young.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0316.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: agritourism; sustainability; rural policies; FADN; Italy
Online: 18 July 2018 (00:29:49 CEST)
This paper investigates how and to what extent European and national policies, through the analysis of financial support derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) (First and Second Pillar) and national and local subsidies, have financed Italian agritourism. For this purpose, the authors have proposed a comparative analysis between Italian agritourism and farms without tourism activities, by stressing the distribution of public financial supports concerning the 2007-2013 programming period of the European Union (EU) for Rural Development. The empirical analysis is based on the Italian Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) dataset. The data were stratified by altimetry zone and farm size. Descriptive statistics and the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for each group were used. The main results show how the Second Pillar has mainly supported small and medium-sized farms with tourism activities and located in disadvantaged areas. This study could be useful to policymakers regarding evaluation of the mission for diversification in agriculture, represented here by the carrying out of tourist activities on farms and the contribution for the retention of small-scale farms in marginal areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Interagency partnership; Aboriginal health; Australian rural and remote communities
Online: 3 April 2018 (16:32:18 CEST)
Population based studies have associated poor living conditions with the persistent disparity in the health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. This project assesses the applicability of the Health Community Assessment Tool and its role in improving the environment of a small community in the Midwest of WA. The action research cycles started with the initial reflection on the suitability of the HCAT version 2 for the local community context and whether it was fit-for-purpose. The researcher provided ‘critical companionship’, while the participants of the study were invited to be co-researchers (the Assessors) who critically examined the HCAT and assess the community. The relevant domains to the serviced town (an outer regional community) were pest control and animal management; healthy housing; food supply; community vibrancy, pride and safety; reducing environmental tobacco smoke; and promoting physical activity. The Assessors found the HCAT descriptors mostly aligned with their community context but found some of the items difficult to apply. Based on participant’s suggestions, some of the original scoring scales were reformatted. School attendance and illicit drug use were identified as a key outcome indicator for youth but were missing from the HCAT. The HCAT domains applied helped streamlining core business of agencies in the local community. The face validity of HCAT items were confirmed in this research with minor adjustments to reflect local context. Youth engagement to education is of high community concern and the development of an item would create similar interagency collaborative dialogues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: rural revitalization; poverty caused by education; economic development
Online: 2 October 2019 (03:37:01 CEST)
The sample data are used from Shaanxi Statistical Yearbook （1999-2018）and poverty population in X County of Southern Shaanxi in 2018. By using Eviews and Excel, this report focuses on analyzing the relationship between education investment and economic growth, education for poverty population, per capita income and poverty caused by education in X county, which can explain reasons for the phenomenon of poverty caused by education. The countermeasures are proposed to solve the phenomenon of poverty caused by education, including establishing scientific education view, correctly understanding education investment and benefit, and improving the aid mechanism for poor students to realize the effective connect among poverty alleviation through education, accurate poverty alleviation and rural revitalization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0002.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Peripheral areas; local development; heritagisation; sustainable rural tourism; stakeholders
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:42:54 CEST)
In the context of multiple repurposing of rural spaces, tourism represents a path for development, with the potential to revitalize these areas. The conservation and restoration of heritage, and its promotion through tourism, can become an opportunity for local development, in which a range of stakeholders fulfil different roles in the carrying out of the processes involved. The aim of the study was to analyse the process and results of channelling heritagisation through tourism in Mértola (Baixo Alentejo, Portugal). A series of interviews with the chief stakeholders in the process was conducted, from which the contexts and conceptualisations of development were determined. On the basis of secondary data (statistics), an analysis of the impacts of the process of heritagisation and the development of tourism was undertaken. The objectives of this study consisted in determining: a) the importance of the process of heritagisation in Mértola; b) the viability of the project, given the cost and lack of comprehensive conservation, in creating a unified whole; d) the performance of, and power relationships between, the various stakeholders; e) the limited participation of locals due to disaffection with the project; f) the correlation between heritage, rural tourism and local development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0159.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: awareness; livestock farmer; ICT-source; market information; rural; smallholder
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:46:42 CEST)
The utility of ICTs for providing market information to rural smallholder farmers is growing rapidly, and access to reliable information and sources is considered crucial for beneficial market interaction. This study explored critical factors contributing to usage of electronic sources for market information search among rural smallholder livestock farmers. Using data collected from 129 respondents through a non-random sampling technique; descriptive and regression analysis was applied to identify key factors responsible for their awareness and use of ICT-based market information sources. Level of education was found to be a driver of awareness of ICT-based sources, and use of these sources was influenced by farmer-specific characteristics such as household size, education, income, membership of cooperatives and herd-size. The key ICT tools used was radio and mobile phones, widely available in the study area. Identified constraints to use of these ICTs include cost and patchy network signals in some areas. Policy interventions to reduce cost of mobile phone services and expansion of base stations; including practical recommendations for improved programming in radio and television offerings, are considered indispensable for greater uptake of e-information sources among smallholder livestock farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Savings Propensity; Household Finance; Development; Tribals; Connectivity; Rural; Culture; India
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:53:39 CET)
Economic sustainability of rural areas is a concern given the increasing trend towards urbanization globally and in India. Self-reliant strategies, including increased savings and investment are more valuable in this regard than external interventions. This paper uses the results of a survey to examine the factors affecting saving in a rural part of Odisha populated primarily by tribals. Our tentative findings are that savings propensity is determined partly by the extent to which individuals feel connected to the broader economy, and partly by cultural factors. One implication of these findings is that connecting rural areas to other, possibly urban, locations could elicit greater saving and this could lead to greater development, employment possibilities, economic betterment and all the consequent social welfare implications. This paper relates savings propensity to new sociological population characteristics, such as perceived connectivity and food consumption patterns, and hence provides hitherto unexplored clues for policy initiatives to increase savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0053.v1
Online: 4 October 2019 (11:59:07 CEST)
Climate change is a buzzword in the world. Scientist has approved it as global warming with its projection of undesired and unpredicted frequent extreme events and their vulnerabilities not only at present but also at future. There is an assumption of occurrence of adaptive capacity and behavior of farmers in agriculture production activity at some extent to neutralize climate change vulnerabilities of flood and landslides on paddy production. This paper empirically examines the effects of climate change in paddy production and farmer’s adaptive behaviors to neutralize such climatic shocks and events in paddy production by employing CD production function based econometric model. The study employed primary data collected through 642 household surveys. The study finds that climatic shocks and events have huge loss (60%) in paddy production and revenue income in such plot where farmers have not indigenous knowledge and practices. But both small and larger farmers who have adaptive capacity and behavior with their indigenous knowledge have less loss in paddy production and revenue income, although they have heterogeneity in their socio-economic characteristics (income, asset holding, literacy, experience, land holding and age). The farmers who have used adaptive behavior have indigenous knowledge and experiences including bamboo wall construction to control flood and landslides and seed change to resist climatic shocks and events. In hilly region, the farmers have not sufficient alternative measures, except both adaptive measures because of their poverty, illiteracy and remote locations. The study finds their higher effective level to minimize vulnerabilities to paddy production and revenue per farm plot, although these adaptive behaviors are cost effective and local entity. Comparatively, bamboo wall construction is more effective measure in the paddy production than others are (seed switch) to minimize the flooding materials from the flood and the landslides. Thus, low cost indigenous adaption behavior of farmers is effective measure to climate change and climate change induced disasters and events vulnerability in paddy production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0016.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: rural; mental health; adolescents; access; service user experience; interventions
Online: 16 January 2023 (02:04:32 CET)
Background: Mental health difficulties during teenage years e are common and are a risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. Rural young people are at greater risk for mental health difficulties and have less access to services than their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore young people and their carers’ experiences of mental health support provided by a rural mobile service, and to identify access enablers from the service users’ perspective. Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyse twelve interviews with current service users and eight interviews with family members of young people who had accessed the service.Results: Three main themes were identified: (a) Access and flexibility, (b) Clinicians’ qualities and strategies, and (c) Experiences of change. The mobile service was perceived to be effective in producing positive change in mental health, relationships and attainment of life goals. Key enablers to access included the flexibility of the mobile service, the variety of service delivery modes and therapeutic methods offered, the ease of access facilitated by location in schools, and young people’s autonomy in how they chose to utilise the service. Conclusion: This study provides information about what is important to rural young people and their families in mental health service provision. The findings have implications for changing the way services are organized and operated. Healthcare policy and services could support user-led model design that incorporates the access and use enablers and removes the barriers to rural mental health support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0407.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: public health; physical activity; rural resident; physical exercise; epidemiology
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:51:36 CEST)
Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for various non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Sufficient physical activity (PA) is essential for the prevention of NCDs and thus it is imperative to study the current status of PA and its influencing factors among rural residents in China. A population-based survey was conducted in rural areas of Shandong, Shanxi and Yunnan Provinces using a stratified random sampling method. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to collect the data on PA. A total of 3780 rural residents participated in the survey. The result showed that 22.2% of rural residents were physical inactivity. The proportion of rural residents reporting practice of physical exercise was 54.4%. The most frequently performed physical exercise was walking/brisk walking(78.3%).Binary logistic regression analyses showed that being female, people at age between 15 to 34 years or 60 years old and above, employees of governmental departments/retirees, school students, the unemployed, people with NCDs were risk factors of PA and ethnic minority groups,smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors of physical exercise. Health promotion programme aiming at increasing people’s PA in rural China is needed and it should focus on the populations groups of the female, people at age 60 years and above ,school students, the unemployed, and people with NCDs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0294.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: approaches; extension services; market system; pluralistic; rural development; smallholder
Online: 13 August 2020 (08:07:40 CEST)
Agricultural extension and advisory services in Africa have significant impact on food security as well as economic and social development. Recent moves towards a pluralistic delivery system, including the emergence of private-sector led initiatives in many countries are subject of policy and academic discourse. Our study used an adapted, fit-for-purpose market systems development framework to review available research in extension and advisory services in selected sub-Sahara Africa countries. Using a literature survey methodology, we report evidence of multiple actors in extension delivery, findings that point towards evolution towards mixed delivery as well as objectives. While there are significant uptake of cost-recovery approaches among commercially-oriented farmers, many smallholder farmers still depended on donor-funded services. Our review adds to existing knowledge through incorporating a market systems development framework, which extends the often-used willingness to pay approach, and highlights the need for merger of the public and private-sector objectives to achieve developmental outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0532.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: geothermal power plant; environment issues; rural Tompaso; competitive intelligence
Online: 23 February 2021 (19:01:29 CET)
The vision of the community around Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) is the development of GPP should be based on sustainable development principles, without jeopardizing the quality of life and justice for communities surrounding the power plant. This research aims to: (i) identifying issues that arise as an impact of the development of GPP in the rural Tompaso, and (ii) finding solutions to the issues to minimize the conflict that arises from further GPP development in rural Tompaso and its surroundings. This study is based on the competitive intelligence (CI) research method. The results show that the development of GPP in Tompaso has a negative impact on the natural environment and social environment. The technical solutions offered include: (i) bioremediation by cultivating plants that absorb arsenic; (ii) biosulfurization and desulfurization for reducing air pollution, especially sulfur; (iii ) floods and extreme drought are managed by improving infrastructure and reforestation; (iv) social conflicts (land acquisition, working days, labor recruitment and settlement security) are solved by intensifying program dissemination to the community and involving local communities in decision making. The recommended policy is providing incentives to the local community through strategic programs for the development of human and natural resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0130.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: rural aquaculture; water use; emergy; fish production
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:21:43 CET)
Freshwater pond aquaculture is the prevailing fish culture system worldwide, especially in developing countries. Climate change outcomes and inadequate environmental practices challenge its sustainability. This study applies emergy synthesis to assess the environmental performance of freshwater pond aquaculture in Brazil, aiming to identify and propose practices towards sustainability. As a study model, nine semi-intensive lambari farms operating at three levels of management were evaluated: low (LC), moderate (MC) and high (HC) control. Results showed that the main inputs for LC were services (27-46%), feed (7-39%), and water (15-21%), while for the MC and HC farms, they were feed (35-49% and 17-48%, respectively) and services (33-39% and 26-36%, respectively). All farms required more than 60% of their emergy from purchased inputs, resulting in low emergy sustainability index (ESI = 0.1-0.5). Replacing animal protein and oil on diet composition by vegetal sources, using superficial water instead of springwater, increasing juvenile productivity, and controlling pond fertilization can lead all systems to higher efficiency and resilience, increasing sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: rural areas; smoke cooking; native gastronomy; sustainability
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:52:59 CEST)
The smoke house works as a tourism model that will directly impact women living across Quintana Roo communities and small towns, with the idea that this project will empower them, and provide them with a more dignified income, with the end goal to reduce the poverty rates in the state Likewise, to introduce an adequate formula of cuisine that promotes the regional gastronomic identity, since this typology of cultural heritage is linked to the experience of enjoying the state's native food. (Carrillo, J. and Vazquez, L., 2018) It should be noted that the main representatives and transmitters of gastronomy are women, usually housewives. Therefore, a methodology based on the qualitative approach was designed, taking as a basis the ethnographic method, which allows understanding the behavioral patterns of a society. In the first instance, a gastronomic laboratory is proposed for the university, which will later be used as a business model within the tourism industry, directed at people who seek to enjoy cultural and ex-periential tourism. And at the same time, it will benefit communities across the state by generating more income for them. In addition, the project of model smoke kitchen is oriented to go in accordance with the 2030 agenda. Which includes 17 objectives and 169 goals; six of those objectives are directly aligned with this project, and the rest can be observed to relate it in a more indirectly manner. In the same way, a summary of the results obtained by the five-year groundwork is presented, as well as the division of the gastronomy in the state according to the characteristics that conform the gastronomic region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0249.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Dazhai; local institutions; rural tourism; local development
Online: 11 May 2021 (15:00:54 CEST)
Rural tourism has been proved as an effective approach in many rural areas in China, and during the development processes, local institutions play significant roles in the context of China. This paper is to explore various roles of local institutions in the development of rural tourism in a typical community, Dazhai, in Guilin City. Within its limitations, it examines the roles by identifying the current situations of the community, formal and informal institutions that affect the rural tourism development.Obstacles still exist because of the “top-bottom”political system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: “Borghi”; Tourism development; Rural Area; Sustainable tourism
Online: 20 April 2021 (14:21:48 CEST)
The paper comes from the need to search for criteria useful for the valorization of heritage towns, located in rural and/or inland areas of Italy, now affected to depression and depopulation process. To this end, the authors point out how territorial identity can constitute the theoretical foundation to influence the development policies and, in particular, the tourism development for sustainability process It was therefore decided to interview a number of stakeholders who could contribute with their professionalism and expertise to identify possible paths and processes for the enhancement of these areas for tourism development. The methodology was based on be to be interviews with open questions, which allowed to identify a SWOT analysis, offering a guideline for a correct governance of these rural areas for their tourist enhancement, in terms of sustainability of development and tourist attractiveness. The study is an observatory that will monitor the implementation of sustainable tourism enhancement of the borghi, heritage town
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0058.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Rural; Food System; Inequities; Disparities; Food Security
Online: 5 July 2020 (09:13:17 CEST)
We seek to elucidate an aspirational vision for the food system and explore whether the characteristics of such a system inadvertently set unattainable standards for rural, low wealth communities. We apply discourse analysis to the following qualitative datasets: (1) interviews with food experts and advocates, (2) scholarly and grey literature, (3) industry websites, and (4) email exchanges between food advocates. The analysis revealed eight aspirational food system discourses: Production, Distribution, and Infrastructure; Healthy, Organic, Local Food; Behavioral Health and Education; Sustainability; Finance and Investment; Huger Relief; Demand Side Preferences; Romanticized, Community Led Transformations. Study findings reveal that of eight discourses only three encompass the experiences of rural, low wealth residents. This aspirational food system may result in the disempowerment of the needs of rural, low wealth groups; a perpetuation of the failure of groups who will be unable to reach the aspirational food vision; silencing of discourses that might question those that play a role in the inequitable distribution of income while sanctioning discourses that focus on personal or community solutions; and the absence of other policy-based solutions that address issues located within the food system. Further research is needed to inform policies and programs to mitigate food insecurity in rural, low wealth populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0255.v1
Online: 21 May 2019 (03:04:03 CEST)
The Brazilian economy, the rural in particular, was until the end of the 19th century based on slave labour. In this research, it was intended to obtain, through a review of historical descriptive studies, a detailed picture of the occupational hygiene conditions related to the slaves’ work and their interactions with climatic and environmental conditions. The search was done in the following databases: Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Criminal Justice, Ebsco, Business Source Supplement, as well as original historical documents. Descriptive studies, without the restriction of language, were selected that involved the rural work of slaves in colonial and imperial Brazil. Working environmental conditions have been evaluated: environmental and occupational hygiene conditions to which the captive workers were exposed, as well as their accommodation and clothing. The analysed studies registered the existence of accommodation and similar dresses all over Brazil, regardless of the region's climate. In addition to these accommodation conditions, slaves were still exposed in a similar way to physical, chemical and biological agents throughout the country. Finally, it was also possible to identify a clear similarity with the occupational exposure conditions of the modern slaves in the 21st century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0199.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Open defecation; rural women; Ghana; Environmental Health; Demographic and Health Survey
Online: 12 December 2022 (10:03:35 CET)
The study investigated determinants of open defecation among rural women in Ghana. The study extracted data from the female’s file of the 2003, 2008 and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). A total of 4,284 pooled sample size of rural women aged 15-49 with complete information about the variables analyzed in the study. The outcome variable was “open defecation” (i.e., defecating in an open space rather than a toilet facility) whilst fourteen (14) key explanatory variables were used. Two regression models were built, and output reported in odds ratio. Descriptively, 42 in every 100 women aged 15-49 practised open defecation (n=1811, 95’CI=49-52). Open defecation significantly correlated with educational attainment, wealth status, religion, access to mass media, partner's education, and zone of residence. The likelihood to practice open defecation reduced among those with formal education [aOR=0.69, CI=0.56-0.85], those whose partners had formal education [aOR=0.64, CI=0.52-0.80], women in the rich wealth quintile [aOR=0.12, CI=0.07-0.20], the traditionalist [aOR=0.33, CI=0.19-0.57], and those who had access to mass media [aOR=0.70, CI=0.57-0.85]. Residents in the Savannah zone were over 21-fold higher to defecate openly [aOR=21.06, CI=15.97-27.77]. The prevalence of open defecation is disproportionately pro-poor indicating that impoverished rural women are more likely to perform it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0060.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: vaccination; acceptance; Covid-19; epidemiology; Cameroon; urban area; rural area
Online: 3 February 2023 (06:23:26 CET)
The Covid-19 pandemic has rapidly evolved in December 2019 and to prevent its spread, effective vaccines has been produced and made available to the population. Despite their availability so far in Cameroon, the vaccination coverage remains low. This study aimed at describing the epidemiology of the acceptance of vaccines against Covid-19 in some urban and rural areas of Cameroon. A cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical survey was conducted from March 2021 to August 2021 targeting unvaccinated individuals from urban and rural area. After getting appropriate administrative authorizations and an ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Board (or Ethics Committee) of Douala University (N° 3070CEI-Udo/05/2022/M), a cluster sampling at many degrees was performed and a language adapted questionnaire was filled by each consenting participant. Data were analyzed using Epi info version 188.8.131.52 software and for P-values ˂ 0.05, the difference was considered as statistically significant. Out of 1053 individuals, 58.02% (611/1053) participants were residing in urban and 41.98% (442/1053) in rural areas. Good knowledge relative to Covid-19 was significantly higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas (97.55%vs.85.07, P<0.000). The proportion of respondents who intended to accept the anti Covid-19 vaccine was significantly higher in urban areas than rural areas (42.55%vs.33.26, p=0.0047). Conversely, the proportion of anti Covid-19 reluctant respondents thinking that the vaccine can induce a disease was significantly higher in rural areas than urban areas (54 (35.07 vs 8.84, P<0.0001). The significant determinants of anti-COVID-19 acceptance were the level of education (p=0.0001) and profession in the rural areas (p=<0.0001), and only the profession (p=0.0046) in the urban areas. This study globally shows that anti-COVID-19 vaccination remains a major challenge in urban as well as rural area in Cameroon. We should keep sensitizing and educate population about vaccine importance in preventing the COVID-19 spread.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0001.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Hepatitis B virus; prevalence of HBsAg; rural and urban zone; Togo
Online: 1 January 2020 (14:31:28 CET)
Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a public health problem in many parts of the world, due to its frequency, complications and socio-economic consequences. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in rural areas and in urban areas. This cross-sectional study assessed the prevalence of HBV infection from 2015-2018 at CHR-Sokodé and USP of Ogaro. Biological data of 3000 participants (500 per year in each zone) enrolled and results of HBsAg were assessed during the study period. Female are represented 60% with average age comprised between [20, 29] years old. The high rate of participants enrolled (45.10%) are come for the monitoring of pregnancy. The prevalence of VHB during the study are 20.33% (610/3000), high prevalence (6.27%) and the means of VHB prevalence are shown in the age range between [30; 39] with 12.17% (365/3000) of female and 8.17% (235/3000) of male are positive after diagnostic detection of HBsAg (antigen of Hepatitis B virus). The prevalence of HBV in rural zone (Ogaro) are 5.23% and 15.07% in urban zone (Sokodé) and the high prevalence (17.50%) are shown in urban zone. The high prevalence of young suggests that some effort will be due to sensibilized young for HBV sexual transmission and the way of prevention. In addition, some research would be done in research of alternative therapy against this infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0118.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: spatial heterogeneity; AOD-PM2.5; respiratory-cardiovascular; lag grids; urban-rural; season
Online: 28 March 2022 (13:52:49 CEST)
Optimal use of Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM) assembled aerosol optical depth (AOD)-PM2.5 fused surfaces in epidemiologic studies requires homogeneous temporal and spatial fused surfaces. No analytical method is available to evaluate spatial heterogeneity. The temporal case-crossover design was modified to assess the spatial association between four experimental AOD-PM2.5 fused surfaces and four respiratory-cardiovascular hospital events in 12 km2 grids. The maximum number of adjacent lag grids with significant odds ratios (ORs) identified homogeneous spatial areas (HOSAs). The largest HOSA included 5 grids (lag grids 04; 720 km2) and the smallest HOSA contained 2 grids (lag grids 01; 288 km2). Emergency department asthma and inpatient asthma, myocardial infarction, and heart failure ORs were significantly higher in rural grids without air monitors than in urban grids with air monitors at lag grids 0, 1, and 01. Rural grids had higher AOD-PM2.5 concentration levels, population density, and poverty percent than urban grids. Warm season ORs were significantly higher than cold season ORs for all health outcomes at lag grids 0, 1, 01, and 04. The possibility of elevated fine and ultrafine PM and other demographic and environmental risk factors synergistically contributing to elevated respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in persons residing in rural areas was discussed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Urban; rural; COVID-19; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practices; vaccine acceptability; Vaccine hesitancy; Kenya
Online: 18 August 2022 (07:46:00 CEST)
An important step towards COVID-19 pandemic control is adequate knowledge and adherence to mitigation measures, including vaccination. We assessed the level of COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices among residents from an urban informal settlement in the City of Nairobi (Kibera), and a rural community in western Kenya (Asembo). A cross-sectional survey was implemented from April to May 2021 among randomly selected adult residents from a population-based infectious diseases surveillance (PBIDS) cohort in Nairobi and Siaya Counties. Factors associated with the level of COVID-19 KAP, were assessed using multivariable regression methods. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was 83.6% for the participants from Asembo and 59.8% in Kibera. The reasons cited for vaccine hesitancy in Kibera were safety concerns (34.0%), insufficient information available to decide (18.0%), and a lack of belief in the vaccine (21.0%), while the reasons in Asembo were safety concerns (55.0%), insufficient information to decide (26.0%) and lack of belief in the vaccine (11%). Our study findings suggest the need for continued public education to enhance COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices to ensure adherence to mitigation measures. Urban informal settlements require targeted messaging to improve vaccine awareness, acceptability, and uptake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0207.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Fair and sustainable well-being; rural area; complementarities; policies multidimensionality; terri-torial differentials
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:06:31 CET)
Predominantly rural areas make up half of Europe and account for about 20 per cent of the population. Yet most of them are among the least privileged regions in the European Union, with a GDP per capita significantly below the European average and with an average population age higher than in urban areas, although this gap will only slowly begin to narrow in the next decade. Together with a lack of connectivity, inadequate infrastructure, lack of diversified job opportunities and limited access to services, this makes rural areas a less attractive place to live and work. At the same time, however, rural areas actively participate in the EU's green and digital transition. Achieving the EU's digital goals for 2030 can offer more opportunities for the sustainable development of rural areas in areas other than agriculture, livestock and forestry, opening up new perspectives for the growth of manufacturing and, even more, service industries, and contributing to a better geographical distribution of services and industries. In this context, the objective of this work is the construction of a synthetic index of the welfare of European nations, through the Wroclaw taxonomic method and through the use of logit models, for the identification of best practices of local realities and the interpretation in a more im-mediated way of the fair and sustainable welfare of each European nation at a rural level
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0274.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: digital inclusive finance; rural revitalization; spatio-temporal evolution; Gini coefficient; GWR model
Online: 19 July 2022 (04:12:41 CEST)
Using the 2011-2020 digital inclusive finance data released by Peking University and the index system constructed by the Blue Book of China Rural Revitalization and Development Index (2018), this paper analyzes the dynamic evolution of the digital inclusive finance and the rural revitaliza-tion from time and space dimensions with the help of kernel density estimation, Markov chain and Moran index. Using The Gini coefficient decomposition method to analyze the source of differ-ences in digital inclusive finance, and then using the spatial autoregressive (SAR) model and ge-ographically weighted regression (GWR) model to study the boosting effect of digital inclusive finance on rural revitalization from the perspective of spatial aggregation and spatial differentia-tion, respectively. The results show that: (1) The growth rate of China's digital inclusive finance slows down year by year, and the inter-provincial differences increase year by year and show gradient characteristics, indicating that there may be a trend of multipolar differentiation. The overall level of Rural Revitalization shows an increasing trend, and the gap between provinces is still apparent. (2) The evolution of digital inclusive finance and rural revitalization is a slow ad-justment process, and there has been no cross-level jump in the past ten years. In digital inclusive finance, the liquidity from the highest and lowest levels to the medium level is high. However, the liquidity in the states of rural revitalization development level is not high. (3) Rural revitalization has a positive spatial spillover effect. The level of rural revitalization in the western area is signif-icantly lower than in the eastern area. At the same time, there is no significant difference between the east and central areas. The depth of the use of digital inclusive finance has a significant positive impact on the revitalization and development of rural areas, indicating that the further promotion of digital inclusive finance business in rural areas can substantially boost the revitalization of rural areas. (4) The boosting effect of digital inclusive finance on rural revitalization shows prominent spatial differentiation characteristics. The depth of use and the degree of digitization generally show a positive impact. The central and eastern coastal cities have the highest impact, decreasing toward the southwest and northeast. The areas with the lowest usage depth impact are clustered in the northeast, and the areas with the lowest digitization impact are clustered in the southwest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: rural environment; sustainability; educational projects; representation; school geography.
Online: 14 October 2022 (13:48:13 CEST)
Rural environment has experienced changes as a result of Covid-19, which encourage the introduction of sustainability in education. However, the representation of rurality in school geography and in the 2030 Agenda are factors that continue to present rurality as a concept opposed to urban spaces. The objective was to investigate the perception that the student has about the rural environment from an instrument and his drawings to understand if the explanation of it allows to introduce elements related to sustainability in educational projects. The quantitative research approach allows analyzing the psychometric properties of an instrument to measure the perception of the rural environment of a sample of 300 fifteen-year-old students from Brazil, Colombia and Spain. Those school knowledges that idealize rurality warn of the pedagogical difficulties to promote the teaching of rurality from sustainability criteria and condition the formation of students from a citizenship committed to social problems. This study is important because it diagnoses the elements that intervene in the teaching of rurality from school geography and provides some suggestions to include sustainability in educational projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0288.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Agricultural technology; Adoption; Multinomial Logit; Poverty; Rural Amhara
Online: 10 June 2021 (11:14:06 CEST)
The adoption of agricultural technology is an important path for raising agricultural productivity, and thereby for reducing food insecurity and poverty. Despite the efforts to promote adoption in most of the rural areas of Ethiopian farmers, the adoption rate has always been very low. So, it is essential to understand the barriers to adoption. As a result, this study examined the determinants of adoption of multiple agricultural technologies in rural Amhara region of Ethiopia. The study is based on Ethiopian socio-economic survey of 2015/16. A sample of 656 farm households was considered. The paper used multinomial logit model to assess the factors affecting adoption. The result shows that farmers with more educational level, family size, off-farm participation, livestock, extension contact, credit access, advisory service, and farmers closer to plot, all-weather road, zonal town, and farmers with lower remittance income are more likely to adopt new or improved agricultural technology. Therefore, the study recommends the need of policies and interventions on adoption of agricultural technology should pay attention and move along with those variables significantly influencing adoption of agricultural technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0365.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Traditional; Communication; Media; Rural; Information Service Delivery; Adolescent
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:25:56 CEST)
This research work examined the various communication media used in the rural areas for the purpose of conveying messages to Adolescents in the selected communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria - Woji, Rumuigbo, Rumuola, Rumuokwuta and Elelenwo communities. The Taro Yammane Statistical formula for determination of sample size was used in drawing a sample of 363 respondents from a population of 3,630 Adolescents. The simple random sampling method was used in the distribution of the questionnaire to target respondents in the selected communities. Two hundred and eighty two (282) copies of the questionnaire were returned valid, and data from them was analysed and interpreted with the use of frequency tables and percentages. The result shows that traditional communication media is still relevant in the dissemination of information to rural dwellers in general and to Adolescents in particular. The agencies that make use of these media are; village authority, age groups, etc. The research work recommend among others that the government and rural dwellers should hold our traditional and cultural values in high esteem through the use of these media, harmonizing the use of traditional communication media and modern media for effective rural information service delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0295.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: public-private partnership; rural community development; Taiwanese farmer associations; farmer cooperative organizations
Online: 15 October 2018 (10:22:16 CEST)
This paper discusses a significant public-private partnership (PPP) formed by the government and Taiwanese Farmer Associations. Particularly, it will investigate a pattern of the PPP that has successfully promoted rural development and agricultural modernization in Taiwan since 1950s. Taiwanese Farmer Associations (hereafter TFAs), similar to agricultural cooperatives in South Korea and Japan, have played a policy agent in fostering rural development in this island state since 1950s. TFA’s performance inherently came from Japanese Cooperatives before World War II. The Performances of those farmer organizations are combinations of economic, social, and educational synergies. The rural development experiences in Taiwan demonstrate that success of rural modernization is carried out by a special public-private partnership (PPP). First, this paper discusses formation and development of farmer cooperative organizations in East Asian societies and compare the similarities and differences of practice of those organizations and their relations to the governments among Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan. Secondly, this paper examines collaborative mold and process in which both the government and Taiwan Farmer Associations have been extensively involved. A specific cooperative apparatus between the government and TFA functioning and operating as a perfect PPP has been formed under administrative guidance of the state. Thirdly, this paper looks at input and various supports in financial and policy perspective by the public sector. Fourthly, the paper discusses legal framework, administrative apparatus, and governance pattern for TFA. Fifthly, the paper discuses that a specific PPP successfully involving in rural modernization in Taiwan is significantly derived from the state’ guidance that properly regulates a collaboration between the government and TFA. So-call East Asian model of PPP in agricultural modernization and rural community development may become a valuable experience for most of developing countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0406.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: cultures; heritage; indigenous knowledge; local people; losers; management; rural stakeholders; tourism; winners
Online: 6 January 2023 (10:06:05 CET)
Rural tourism plays an increasing role in maintaining sustainable rural development. In-11 tegrating culture into rural tourism is multifaceted. Local communities have often been regarded as 12 homogeneous, and different voices within them are selectively presented or re-interpreted by pow-13 ers. A better understanding of how and why cultures are integrated into rural tourism is urgently 14 needed. This paper aims to investigate (1) the aims and motives of tourism managers to integrate 15 cultural concepts into rural tourism; (2) who has participated in the cultural integration process; and 16 (3) how cultures have been integrated into rural tourism. Based on a scoping literature review, we 17 found that cultures could add more attractions, such as historical heritage, artwork, cultural land-18 scape, customs, food, and language, to the natural landscape and bring more tourists to rural areas. 19 However, integrating cultures into rural tourism is not always successful. Conflicts of interest 20 among different stakeholders are also often found. Some of the worst cases of cultural integration 21 have even destroyed the original natural landscape and local cultures. While cultural integration is 22 complicated, injustice and perverse effects do not have to be a consequence of integrating cultures 23 into rural tourism. Multi-way communication among tourism providers, managers, and consumers 24 can mitigate disruptive outcomes and unlock positive social outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0186.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: food security; riverbank erosion; rural development; agriculture; local government
Online: 12 July 2022 (09:33:57 CEST)
Bangladesh is located in the alluvial floodplain of the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna (GMB) river system and its numerous tributaries. In this country, the frequency, as well as severity, of riverbank erosion is high. To examine the impacts of riverbank erosion on rural food security, a baseline survey was conducted in Zajira, Bangladesh. The findings show that most people in the study area are affected by riverbank erosion. Moreover, agricultural production is gradually decreasing as a result of loss of farmland due to the catastrophe and its impacts. In some cases, people lose their entire homestead and are left with few income opportunities and low purchasing power. Consequently, they face the constant threat of a food crisis. The affected people follow some coping mechanisms to face these stressful situations, such as relying on less expensive or less preferred food items. While the local-government authorities have implemented some programmes to assist them, such as food aid and social-safety-net schemes, these are insufficient, due to the government's limited institutional resources and capacities. These findings suggest that for formulating effective rural-development plans, assessing the impact of riverbank erosion on the food security of people living in the affected areas is a prerequisite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0141.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: rural areas; urban areas; cloud server; monitoring; road monitoring
Online: 10 March 2022 (07:47:15 CET)
We are living in a world where people always strive for the luxuries they can get with less hard work and for these smart systems are developed and established all over the world to make life easier for the people. However, in Pakistan being a third-world country we are unable to achieve better results due to the lack of proper transit from one area to another. Sometimes the roads are not in their optimum conditions and hence people have to face a lot of problems while traveling. In urban areas, people cannot reach their destination in time, in some cases, they damage their vehicles due to the cracks on the roads, in medical emergency patient dies most of the time in their transit from rescuing point to the hospital. Similarly, in rural areas where farmers face countless problems while bringing their yield of the season towards the markets. Therefore, having described the severe damage the bad quality of roads is making. A solution is proposed to solve the problems of both the rural and urban population in our project. The project aims to provide the solution to their problem to a certain extent by monitoring the conditions of the roads. The sensors in the system will calculate the values and send them to the cloud server. The cloud server used is the blynk platform where the data will be stored. Moreover, data can be provided to the government in the future for the timely maintenance of the roads, and hence the citizens and lifestyle of the people will be changed. It is expected that the problems of both urban and rural population will be solved to a greater percentage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0192.v1
Subject: Keywords: rural village; earthquake; vulnerability index; vulnerability analysis; damage matrix
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:26:28 CET)
This study investigated and classified typical structures in rural village and analyzed the vulnerability of various typical types of structures. Based on the statistics of earthquake damages with magnitudes above 5 from 1996 to 2013 in China, the damage matrixes of different types of structures in rural village are obtained. And The vulnerability index and the vulnerability equation of structure are crucial to assess the earthquake losses of typical structures under different magnitudes earthquakes. According to the seismic loss of different types of structures under different earthquake magnitudes, there are possible to improve the seismic resilience of the buildings in rural village. Moreover, the regional vulnerability is analyzed by β probability distribution function, and the comprehensive seismic performance index of different types of agricultural buildings in the region is obtained. The main research is to predict the loss of different types of structures under different earthquake magnitudes in the future, and to provide technical support for different types of building in rural village reinforcement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0708.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Micro-grid, Rural Electrification, HOMER, Control strategy, Sensitivity analysis
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:27:25 CEST)
Around 14% of the global population does not have access to electricity. About 95% of those are living in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Often in these regions, diesel generators are the only source of electricity. The operating cost of these diesel generators is high. However, solar and wind energy are available in most of African countries. This study presents the analysis of designing an off-grid hybrid system with a wind turbine, PV, diesel generator, and battery to power a hospital, school, and 200 household village in four locations across Somalia. The research investigated the availability of wind-solar resources in selected locations. Designing of the system and economic-technical calculations were performed using HOMER. The selection of the optimum design was based on the Cost of Electricity and Net Present Cost. The results show that for Kabaal and Ceel Buur, a WT-PV-DG-Battery is the optimal system as the wind resource in these regions is high. For Saakov and Baki, a PV-DG-Battery system proves to be optimum as the wind resource is limited here. The study also evaluated the control strategy and proved that combined dispatch was the most cost-effective for these locations. The study concluded that hybrid systems are more economical than diesel systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pesticides; spirometry; respiratory symptoms; cholinesterase; rural workers; family farmers
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:25:38 CEST)
Pesticide exposure is a growing concern for public health. Although Brazil is the world's largest consumer of pesticides, few studies addressed the health effects among farmers. This study aimed to evaluate whether pesticide exposure is associated with respiratory outcomes among rural workers and relatives in Brazil during the crop and off-seasons. 82 family farmers were interviewed about occupational history and respiratory symptoms, and cholinesterase tests were conducted in the crop-season. Spirometry was performed during the crop and off-season. Respiratory outcomes were compared between seasons and multiple regressions were conducted to search for associations with exposure indicators. Participants were occupationally and environmentally exposed to multiple pesticides from an early age. During the crop and off-season, respectively, they presented a prevalence of 40% and 30.7% for cough, 30.7% and 24% for nasal allergies, and 24% and 17.3% for chest tightness. Significant relations between spirometry impairments and exposure indicators were found both during the crop and off-season. These findings provide complementary evidence about the association of pesticide exposure with adverse respiratory effects among family farmers in Brazil. This situation requires special attention as it may increase the risk of pulmonary dysfunctions, and the morbidity and mortality burden associated with these diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: hypertension; GWAS; precision medicine; rural population; SNP-age interaction
Online: 12 January 2018 (07:34:37 CET)
Background: As part of the Heart Healthy Lenoir Project, we developed a practice level intervention to improve blood pressure control. The goal of this study was: i) determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that associate with blood pressure variation, identified in large case-control studies, are applicable to blood pressure control in subjects from a rural population; ii) measure the association of these SNPs with subjects’ responsiveness to the hypertension intervention; and iii) identify other SNPs that may help understand patient-specific responses to an intervention. Methods and Results: We used a combination of candidate SNPs and genome-wide analyses to test associations with either baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) or change in systolic blood pressure one year after the intervention in two genetically defined ancestral groups: African Americans (AA) or Caucasian Americans (CAU). Of the 48 candidate SNPs, 13 SNPs associated with baseline SBP in our study; however, one candidate SNP, rs592582, also associated with a change in SBP after one year. Using our study data, we identified 4 and 15 additional loci that associated with a change in SBP in the AA and CAU groups, respectively. Our analysis of gene-age interactions identified genotypes associated with SBP improvement within different age groups of our populations. Moreover, our integrative analysis identified AQP4-AS1 and PADI2 as genes whose expression levels may contribute to the pleiotropy of complex traits involved in cardiovascular health and blood pressure regulation in response to an intervention targeting hypertension. Conclusions: Identification of SNPs associated with the success of a hypertension treatment intervention suggests that genetic factors in combination with age may contribute to an individual’s success in lowering SBP. If these findings prove to be applicable to other populations, the use of this genetic variation in making patient-specific interventions may help providers with making decisions to improve patient outcomes. Further investigation is required to determine the role of this genetic variance with respect to the management of hypertension such that more precise treatment recommendations may be made in the future as part of personalized medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0036.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: opioid use disorder; chronic pain; medications for opioid use disorder; stigma; rural health
Online: 4 July 2022 (07:54:04 CEST)
Providing patient-centered care to manage chronic pain and opioid use disorder (OUD) is associated with improved health outcomes. However, adopting a holistic approach to providing care is often challenging in rural communities. This study aims to identify and contrast challenges to providing patient-centered care from the perspective of patients and providers. A participatory design approach was adopted to elicit the perceptions of providers and patients with lived experiences of chronic pain and OUD in Jefferson County, Wisconsin. Two focus groups were conducted with each stakeholder group to identify problems that participants face with respect to chronic pain management and OUD and possible solutions. Four interviews were conducted with providers experienced in chronic pain management. Analysis of focus group sessions and interviews show consensus among patients and providers that lack of behavioral health and recovery resources create barriers to effectively manage OUD and chronic pain. However, there was discordance among the two groups about other barriers such as patient and provider attitudes, tapering approach, and access to medications for OUD. This tension among patients and providers can influence patients’ retention in therapy. More efforts are needed to mitigate stigma among providers in rural communities and support psychosocial needs of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0314.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: community health; rural Latino immigrants; mental well-being; network analysis; spatial statistics; intervention
Online: 23 May 2018 (07:40:58 CEST)
Social and spatial characteristics of a population often interact to influence health outcomes, suggesting a need to jointly analyze both to offer useful insights in community health. However, researchers have used either social or spatial analyses to examine community-based health issues and inform intervention programs. We propose a combined socio-spatial analytic approach to develop a social network with spatial weights and a spatial statistic with social weights, and apply them to an ongoing study of mental and physical well-being of rural Latino immigrants in North Florida, USA. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to calculate measures, such as social network centrality, support contact dyads, and spatial kernel density based on a health survey data. Findings reveal that the integrated approach accurately reflected interactions between social and spatial elements, and identified community members (who) and locations (where) that should be prioritized for community-based health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0730.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Prospective analysis; strategic actors; scenarios; objectives; policies; phosphate extraction; mining project; rural communities
Online: 28 April 2021 (07:47:34 CEST)
Followed by the aspect of respect for rights 20, the social and environmental issue has a score of 19.9, the dialogue issue is 19. In short, the proximity plan indicates that the policies used regarding the issue of generating employment and economic growth (Empresa Mantaro Perú SAC), continue to be the strategic variables in the first instance, but they are far from the social actors (rural communities of Aco, Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín environmental dialogue table) and Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor from the Archbishop of Huancayo referred to communication is one of the driving variables of power. The proximity plan shows us that the policies used regarding the issue of generating employment and economic growth (Empresa Mantaro Perú SAC), continue to be the strategic variables in the first instance, but that they are far from the social actors (Rural Communities of Aco , Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor from the Archbishop of Huancayo referred to communication is one of the driving variables of power. The proximity plan shows us that the policies used regarding the issue of generating employment and economic growth (Empresa Mantaro Perú SAC), continue to be the strategic variables in the first instance, but that they are far from the social actors (Rural Communities of Aco , Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor from the Archbishop of Huancayo referred to communication is one of the driving variables of power. but they are far from the social actors (rural communities of Aco, Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and the Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are closer together today. The actor from the Archbishopric of Huancayo referred to communication, is within the driving variables of power. but they are far from the social actors (rural communities of Aco, Vico, Cruz Pampa and others) and environmental (Junín Environmental Dialogue Table) and the Ombudsman's Office (rights) that are currently closer together. The actor of the Archbishopric of Huancayo referred to communication, is within the driving variables of power.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0069.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic; Smallholder rural farmers’ vulnerability; Humane buying; Nigeria; sustainable development goals
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:04:31 CET)
While several studies have examined the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on smallholder rural farmers and possible efforts to scale up their livelihood and food security, the role of consumers’ buying orientation in addressing farmers’ vulnerability in the post-pandemic era has not been explored. The paper, therefore, aims to propose and conceptualize humane buying orientation, and further explore its role in attenuating smallholder rural farmers’ vulnerability in the new normal. The qualitative design approach has been employed in two different studies. Collected data were analyzed using the SPSS 23.0 and following the interpretative phenomenological analysis. Findings validate humane buying as an altruistic orientation that will contribute to lessening the vulnerability of smallholder rural farmers in the post-pandemic era. It also shows that an enlarged-stakeholders’ (government, international agencies, corporate bodies, institutions, privileged individuals/consumers, religious organizations, etc.) effort that is rooted in morality and empathy, is required to successfully tackle the vulnerability of smallholder rural farmers, especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. The study is the first to propose, conceptualize and validate humane buying as a post-Covid-19 orientation that is capable of attenuating the vulnerability of smallholder rural farmers which has been worsened by the pandemic. The paper contributes to the understanding of emerging strategic actions required for the attainment of the United Nation’s sustainable development goals - ending poverty and hunger by 2030, and how consumers can play a key role.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0335.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: knowledge; attitude; practice; children’s oral health practice; school going children; rural area
Online: 21 May 2020 (04:01:10 CEST)
Introduction: Oral health knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of parents have a direct influence on their child’s oral health maintenance, dietary habits and encourage healthy behaviors. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, and attitude of parents with regards to the oral health practice of their children and its associated factors. Methods: A self -administered structured questionnaire was administered to parents or guardians of learners aged 5 to 12 years at a low socio-economic rural primary school in the uGu district, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa to collect demographic variables, knowledge of dental health, use of toothbrush, use of toothpaste, dietary practices and dental visits; practice with respect to dental care and attitudes towards oral health. The questionnaire was translated from English to IsiZulu was used. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to assess the association between parent’s sociodemographic factors with their oral health knowledge and practice scores. Results: One hundred and forty four completed survey instruments were received with an eighty percent (118) representation of mothers. Ninety five percent of the parents (136) had a positive attitude towards oral health with 86% (124) of the children brushed their tongue and 89% (128) of the children brushed their teeth happily. The mean knowledge score was 70% with a median of 72%. Children were significantly more likely to brush their tongues (AOR: 3.20 95% CI: 1.06-9.66) and were more likely to be happier when brushing their teeth (AOR: 4.65 95% CI: 1.41-15.38) when the caregivers were their mothers, and when parents had an above average knowledge score (AOR: 1.86 95% CI: 0.72-4.85) and had positive attitudes (AOR: 3.20 95%CI: 0.46-22.00). Conclusion: To reduce the gaps in knowledge, oral health promotion should be integrated into all point of care contact with parents at health facilities, increased community awareness and advertising campaigns as well as a more focused school health oral program that addresses primary prevention, screening and appropriate referrals to health facilities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0424.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: digital inclusive finance; rural income; Henan Province, China; empirical analysis; countermeasures and suggestions
Online: 29 July 2021 (11:16:10 CEST)
This paper empirically analyzes the relationship between digital inclusive finance and rural income, and demonstrates that digital inclusive finance plays a significant role in promoting rural income, based on the 2012-2018 panel data of 17 cities in Henan Province of China. Further dimensional research unveils that all of its breadth of coverage, depth of use and degree of digitization present significant positive correlation with rural income, and a robustness test was conducted through the sub-sample method. In addition, according to regression analysis on the influencing factors of digital inclusive finance through the Tobit model, the level of economic development, the Internet popularity rate and the urbanization rate have a positive effect on the development of digital inclusive finance in Henan, while the income gap between urban and rural areas and the degree of opening up have a negative effect. Finally, predicated on the analysis of the restrictive factors of Henan’s digital inclusive finance in increasing rural income, the paper puts forward specific policy proposals based on the native state quo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; nutritional intake; rural China; food consumption; food security
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:22:25 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced risks and challenges to global food and nutrition security. In this paper, we examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nutritional intake of China's rural residents using panel data and a fixed effect model. The data were collected in 2019 and 2020 and covered nine provinces and 2,631 households in rural China. The results reveal that an increase of 100 confirmed cases in a county resulted in a 1.48% (p<0.01), 1.46% (p<0.01), 1.77% (p<0.01), and 1.23% (p<0.01) decrease in per capita intake of dietary energy, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic only had a significant and negative effect on dietary energy intake in the low-income group at the 5% level of significance. Our study indicates that the potential insufficient nutrition situation, nutritional imbalance, and dietary imbalance of low-income rural residents should be addressed appropriately.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: rural health: urban health; health status; cancer survivors; United Kingdom
Online: 24 May 2022 (05:13:59 CEST)
Objective: To explore the effect of rural-urban residence on self-reported health status with UK cancer survivors. Design: A cross-sectional postal questionnaire that collected data on demographics, post-code and self-reported health status. Methods: Independent Samples t test was used to detect differences in health status between rural and urban respondents. Pearson’s χ2 was used to control for confounding variables and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stepwise linear regression. Setting: East Midlands of England. Participants: Adult cancer survivors who had undergone primary treatment in the last five years. Participants were excluded if they had recurrence or metastatic spread, started active oncology treatment in the last twelve months and were in receipt of palliative or end of life care. Main Outcome: Residence was measured using the UK ONS RUC2011 Rural-Urban Classifications and Health Status via the UK ONS self-reported health status measure. Results: 227 respondents returned a questionnaire. Forty-five per cent (N=103) were resident in a rural area and fifty-three per cent (N=120) in an urban area. Rural (4.11±0.85) respondents had significantly (p<0.001) higher self-reported health status compared to urban (3.65±0.93) respondents (MD 0.47; 95% CI 0.23, 0.70). Conclusion: Rural respondents had significantly higher self-reported health status compared to their urban counterparts. It is hoped that the results will stimulate further work in this area and that researchers will be encouraged to collect data on rural-urban residency where appropriate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0115.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: sustainability; hatchery; SDG; lambari; conservation unit; rural farm; Deuterodon iguape
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:19:46 CEST)
Protected areas have been used worldwide to conserve natural resources. Nevertheless, economic activities to provide income for communities living inside and surrounding conservation areas remain an issue. This study aimed to assess the sustainability of a Deuterodon iguape hatchery, placed inside an Atlantic Rainforest Park, to leverage this small native fish's grow-out farming, affording income and food security for local families. We have used a set of indicators of economic, social, and environmental sustainability. The initial investment is about US$ 40,000, which returned in ~2 years. The internal rate of return is close to 50%, including the externality costs, which is attractive for public and private investments. The hatchery generated few direct jobs, but the workforce can be recruited in the community, and hatchery can enable the establishment of several small grow-out farms, leveraging the development of indirect jobs and self-employments. The system had a low environmental impact, showing minor release of pollutants, low risk for biodiversity, and absorption of 18 g of CO2 equivalent per thousand post-larvae produced, contributing to the struggle against climate change. Therefore, D. iguape hatchery demonstrates the potential of combining biodiversity conservation and income generation, meeting the Sustainable Development Goals of Agenda 2030.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: respectful maternity care; disrepectful maternity care; violence; obsteteric; rural; kenya
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:21:16 CEST)
While disrespectful treatment of pregnant women attending health care facilities occurs globally, it is more prevalent in low resource countries. In Kenya, a large body of research studies or has studied disrespectful maternity care (DMC) from the perspective of the service users. This paper examines the perspective of health care workers (HWCs) on factors that influence DMC experienced by pregnant women at health care facilities in rural Kisii and Kilifi counties in Kenya. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with health care workers (HCWs) in these two sites. Data were analyzed deductively and inductively using NVIVO 12. Findings from HCWs reflective narratives identify four areas connected to the delivery of disrespectful care including poor infrastructure, understaffing, service users’ socio–cultural beliefs, and health care workers’ attitudes toward marginalized women. Investments are needed to address health systems influences on DMC including poor health infrastructure and understaffing. Additionally, it is important to reduce cultural barriers through training on HCWs interpersonal communication skills. Further, strategies are needed to affect positive behavior changes among HCWs directed at addressing stigma and discrimination of pregnant women due to socio-economic standing. To develop evidence-informed strategies to address DMC, a holistic understanding of the factors associated with pregnant women’s poor experiences of facility based maternity care is needed. This may best be achieved through an intersectional approach to address DMC by identifying systemic, cultural, and socio-economic inequities as well as the structural and policy features that contribute and determine peoples’ behaviors and choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0161.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: harmonic methodology tourism; sustainability attributes; rural tourism; knowledge; complex systems
Online: 12 December 2019 (04:33:50 CET)
According to the growing concern of various focus groups, in regard to the mitigation of the negative impacts generated because of the tourism, has born the interest of proposing sustainable tourism projects derivatives of the feeling within the communities (1) Background: the aim is to propose a differentiated diagnosis of the Subsystems (biophysical and anthropic) and their relationship with traditional-rational knowledge; (2) Methods: from the Theory of Complex Systems was propose the Harmonic Tourism Methodology, that try to correlation the subsystem and knowledge in the community of San Juan Tlahuica Atzingo, State of Mexico (4) Conclusions: Among the most outstanding results that are on the one hand, we must work through tourism projects to the rescue and preservation of natural and cultural resources, reassessing them through the strengthening of social cohesion. On the other hand, the application of this case allowed us to visualize that it is necessary to consolidate the elements and steps of the methodology in order to apply it to different communities that are beginning their journey in the field of the tourism and that can improve and potentiate their resources, seeking harmony between them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Brazil, agrarian reform policy, land less movement, rural social movements.
Online: 10 April 2017 (07:49:04 CEST)
In Brazil, during the four last administrations of Worker’s Party (PT) 2003-2015, the support to the agrarian reform seems to have stagnated, even with the influence of landless workers' movements. Thus in 2016, the impeachment President Dilma Roussef have marked a brutal stop in the agrarian reform process. How to explain that which seems at first to be a contradiction and has become a decadence of an important federal public policy?. Furthermore, how can we evaluate the debates within Brazilian society and the federal government on this theme? The article analyzes the tensions, debates, advances and impasses of the past fifteen years of agrarian reform policy in Brazil looking at the interaction between social movements and public policies. The method associates bibliography, official statistic synthesis and research results in Northeast, Amazônia and Cerrado regions among several projects. The first part results put on evidence the crescent reduction of agrarian reform settlements and beneficiary families since 2006. The second part presents the main reasons offering an analysis of government and society debates in Brazil about land reform. The analysis conclude to the less of power and representation in the society of the pro agrarian reform large and popular coalition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Sustainable rural development; EAFRD; LEADER Approach; GIS; Principal Component Analysis
Online: 28 February 2017 (12:16:38 CET)
The European Commission has been striving to achieve sustainable development in its rural areas for more than 25 years through funds aimed at modernizing the agricultural and forestry sectors, protecting the environment and improving the quality of life. But is sustainable rural development really being accomplished? This study sets out to answer this question in the case of Extremadura, a Spanish territory with Low Demographic Density and a Gross Domestic Product still below 75 % of the European average. Both qualitative and quantitative methodology have been employed, using a Principal Component Analysis the result of which has provided us with a model which shows how various behaviors coexist in the region in view of the distribution of current funding from the EAFRD. The most dynamic areas have received the largest amounts of funding and these are linked to the agricultural sector and to the protection of the environment, leaving aside the more depressed areas and the implementation of the LEADER Approach as well. Therefore, we have come to the conclusion that the current rural development in Extremadura is not sustainable enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0034.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; health behaviour; health education; survey; development studies; rural; LMICs; Lao PDR
Online: 9 October 2018 (15:47:58 CEST)
Education and awareness raising are the primary tools of global health policy to change public behaviour. Considering the limitations of awareness agenda and the lack of social research to inform alternative approaches, our objective was to generate new empirical evidence on the consequences of antibiotic-related awareness raising in a low-income country context. We implemented an educational activity in two Lao villages to share general antibiotic-related messages, but also to learn about people’s conceptions and health behaviours. Two rounds of census survey data enabled us to assess the activity’s outputs, its knowledge outcomes, and its immediate behavioural impacts in a difference-in-difference design. Our panel data covered 1,130 adults over two rounds, including 58 activity participants and 208 villagers exposed indirectly via conversations in the village. We found that activity-related communication circulated among more privileged groups, which limited its indirect effects. Among participants, the activity influenced the awareness and understanding of “drug resistance,” while effects on attitudes were minor. Evidence on behavioural impacts was sparse and mixed, but the range of possible consequences included a disproportionate uptake of antibiotics from formal healthcare providers. Our study casts doubt on the continued dominance of awareness raising as a behavioural tool to address antibiotic resistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0370.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: building materials; rural architecture; Ischia Island; radiological characterization; radon; radiological risk assessment; sustainable buildings
Online: 17 September 2020 (04:16:06 CEST)
Radiological risk affect the quality of the environment in buildings since population and workers can be potentially exposed to high level of dose. Radon gas emanated from both subsoil and building materials represents the most important source of radiation exposure for people. This study investigates the sustainability concept of a small rural village of Ischia Island, named Ciglio, in relation to the radiological risk. Radon activity concentration was measured in typical green tuff dwellings and in water samples collected from a local spring using E-Perm devices. Moreover, for green-tuff as building material, the radon emanation coefficient was calculated by gamma spectroscopy. The results highlight the importance to perform environmental radon monitoring and to investigate the radon content of building materials, especially in geographical areas characterized by traditional use of typical stones for constructions. In conclusion, the sustainability development of rural buildings is possible if the radiological risk for inhabitants and workers was assessed.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: China Rural Pension Scheme, retirement sustainability, labor supply, grandchildren care, Western China, ceaseless toil
Online: 3 October 2018 (13:47:21 CEST)
This paper evaluates the effect of China’s New Rural Pension Scheme (NRPS) on the retirement sustainability in forms of both formal labor supply and informal labor supply, using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). We explore the regional differences of the NRPS effect on labor supply between the Western regions and the other regions of China. Our analysis shows that western rural China has a more severe problem of “ceaseless toil” compared to the rest of the country. We find that NRPS improves the “ceaseless toil” situation of the Chinese rural elderly, and the results show a very different pattern between western China and other parts of the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0284.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: urban; rural; millet; garden; orchard; Iberian Peninsula; High/Late Middle Ages
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:09:03 CET)
Towns emerged as dynamic economic and political centers during the Middle Ages, giving rise to the emergence of new social classes. As a result of these functions, a new relationship began to be forged with the rural world, which supplied towns with foodstuffs that satisfied new social demands. Archaeobotanical analysis (carpology) allows us to understand the flow of cash crops by tracing seeds and fruits produced in the countryside that were consumed in and redistributed from the towns. The study of waterlogged contexts from medieval archaeological sites in the Kingdom of Galicia (Santiago de Compostela, Padrón, and Pontevedra) has provided a set of species that played a crucial role in the economy of the urban dwellers and that possibly were related to differential access or food preferences. Evidence for fruits (grapes, chestnuts, figs, apples, and cherries, among others), garden crops (melon), and cereals (foxtail millet, rye, naked wheat, and oat) has been documented. Broomcorn millet is particularly abundant, demonstrating that it was important for subsistence. Some of the species found (medlar and turnip/grelo) are novel in the archaeobotanical literature of the medieval period in the Iberian Peninsula.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Tele-exercise; physical activity; rural; older adults; knee osteoarthritis; clinical trial
Online: 20 July 2021 (09:36:22 CEST)
Enhance®Fitness (EF) is an evidence-based exercise program recommended for management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, access to EF is limited in rural areas. Accordingly, we evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of remotely delivered EF in rural, community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic knee OA. A single arm pilot trial of remotely delivered EF classes was conducted. Videoconferencing was used to livestream the instructor-led, 1-hour EF classes 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention. A total of 15 participants were enrolled with a median age of 70 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 67-75) and 14 (93%) were women. Median EF class attendance rate was 91% (IQR: 85-94%). Knee pain, as measured by the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), improved significantly from baseline to 12-week endpoint (mean difference=-11.4 [95% CI:-20.9, -2.0); P=0.02). In addition, participants’ self-reported knee function improved significantly (mean difference in KOOS Function score=-11.8 [95% CI:-18.4, -5.2]; P<0.01) as well as their physical capacity (mean difference in Timed Up and Go test time=1.8 seconds [95% CI: 0.2, 3.4]; P=0.03). All participants (100%) were very satisfied with remotely delivered EF classes and there were no serious adverse events. Findings from this pilot trial indicate that remotely delivered EF is feasible and acceptable in rural older adults with knee OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Healthcare; Internet of Things; IoT; Medical Assistance; Medical Kiosk; Rural people
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:29:46 CET)
After conducting a detailed survey among the villagers of Pallissery and Karukutty, it was observed that in most of the villages the native people have to travel long distances for their basic health needs. Also most of the villagers lack knowledge regarding live health updates. At times, these problems have even resulted in death of many people including pregnant women and children. The objective of our research is to propose an integrated and easy to use Medical Kiosk that can be installed at various locations in rural areas. The Kiosk will provide an integrated environment for all medical related activities and would perform numerous functions like sending notifications regarding medical camps, mobile medical help, important dates for vaccinations, child care, insurance policies and provide other live medical updates to the villagers. It would also support the basic facilities for measurement of body parameters like height, weight, BMI, blood pressure, and heartbeat and also facilitate live consultation facilities with specialized doctors through video and voice chats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: rural-urban fringe; walkability; road intersections; decision support methods; Electre Tri
Online: 16 May 2017 (13:50:46 CEST)
The study investigates the influence of road intersections on pedestrian accessibility in urban-rural fringe areas. An evaluation method to support planners and decision makers in the classification of crossing areas according to their effect on walking and in the prioritization of improvement interventions is proposed. In these peripheral parts of towns, pedestrians are almost ignored and people depend on car use for any necessity. Initiatives to improve livability can include the design of walkable friendly environments aiming at offering potential users good levels of security, comfort and convenience when walking to destinations. These spatial requirements have to be provided along road segments and even more on crossing areas which represent sensitive points of the entire connection system with a hindering influence on people’s propensity to walk. Starting with spatial basic interventions aiming at enhancing the continuity, safety and quality of pedestrian paths it is possible to reduce the physical and perceptual distance which separates fringe contexts from the rest of the city leading to a progressive integration of urban functions.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: early childhood development; stimulating parenting practices; effective early childhood reading practices; rural China; mixed methodology
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:26:49 CET)
Studies have shown that nearly half of rural toddlers in China have cognitive delays due to an absence of stimulating parenting practices, such as early childhood reading, during the critical first three years of life. However, few studies have examined the reasons behind these low levels of stimulating parenting, and no studies have sought to identify the factors that limit caregivers from providing effective early childhood reading practices (EECRP). This mixed-methods study investigates the perceptions, prevalence and correlates of EECRP in rural China, as well as associations with child cognitive development. We use quantitative survey results from 1,720 caregiver-child dyads across 100 rural villages/townships in northwestern China and field observation and interview data with 60 caregivers from these same sites. The quantitative results show significantly low rates of EECRP despite positive perceptions of early reading and positive associations between EECRP and cognitive development. Qualitative results suggest that low rates of EECRP in rural China are not due to the inability to access books, financial or time constraints, or the absence of aspirations. Rather, the low rate of book ownership and absence of reading to young children is driven by the insufficient and inaccurate knowledge of EECRP among caregivers, which leads to their delayed, misinformed reading decisions with their young children, ultimately contributing to developmental delays.
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: definition of agritourism; comparative studies; rural development; sustainable tourism; mountain development; alpine regions, Chinese mountains
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:25:21 CEST)
After World War II, the economic recovery of Western Europe implied a swift economic transition for all regions, including the area of the Alps, although affecting various parts at different pace and stages. The resulting out-migration led to population decline in some mountain valleys and regions already since the 1950s. A similar out-migration movement began in China after its rural reform started in the 1970s. The effect was in some cases even more significant than in the Alps, with the first village being deserted in the 1980s. Current estimations report of about 380,000 abandoned rural villages in China between 2000 and 2016, particularly in its mountain regions. While lower population densities might alleviate the pressures on ecology and contribute to environmental benefits, these movements aggravate a spiraling-down process of local economies and culture. In the Alps many regions facing challenges of out-migration and economic changes elaborated agritourism schemes that provided both economic incentives and stability to involved mountain farmers, and continuation of local land management systems. In contrast, in China hardly any comparable trends of rural tourism developed. However, in recent years China's interest for tourism-oriented farm diversification increased and a range of rural tourism and agricultural tourism initiatives emerged. This paper focuses on the analysis of successful initiatives, problems and development prospects in the Alps and China's rural areas, redefining agritourism as a systematic integrated activity. Agritourism might therefore be assessed as a core element of the future sustainable development of the Alps and the Chinese countryside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0456.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Rural land right; farmers’ income; farm income; non-farm income; land transfer
Online: 26 August 2022 (09:44:58 CEST)
Based on data from the Yunnan Province farm household survey, we examine the effect of rural land rights policy on farmers’ income. The regression results show that right significantly raises the total income of farmers, with farm income serving as the primary source of total income. After performing numerous robustness tests, using instrumental variables to handle endogeneity and arriving at the same conclusion, the result is still valid. According to the heterogeneity analysis, in the sample of households with long-term migrant workers, the confirmation of rural land rights significantly increases total and nonfarm income while decreasing farm income. Furthermore, total income includes nonfarm income, which reflects the effect of different farmers' optimal labor allocation based on the external market environment. According to the impact mechanism anal-ysis, right can increase farmers' total income by promoting land transfer, and farmers in less developed areas are more willing to increase their income by land transfer out.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0485.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Single wire earth return (SWER); power distribution networks; rural electrification rate (RER)
Online: 25 August 2021 (10:49:21 CEST)
Rural electrification rate (RER) in Africa is still low to date. Several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have tried to address this problem using conventional single-phase two-wire or three-phase three-wire systems, however at large costs due to the nature of dispersed rural load centers, low load demand, and low population density. Another solution of off-grid generation creates associated health problems. Therefore, this paper undertakes a review of a single wire earth return (SWER) network as a RER improvement solution. The paper undertakes intensive literature review to elucidate challenges and solutions to the implementation of SWER technology. Advantages of SWER technology discussed make it the choice for RER improvement in Sub-Saharan African countries. After that, a case study is selected in rural Tanzania, and a preliminary SWER network design is undertaken.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0468.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Pollinator; landscape; land use; urban rural gradient; Japanese honeybee; honey; pollen; nutrition.
Online: 16 July 2021 (13:04:52 CEST)
Pollinators are being threatened globally by urbanisation and agricultural intensification, driv-en by a growing human population. Understanding these impacts on landscapes and pollinators is critical to ensuring a robust pollination system. Remote sensing data on land use attributes have previously linked honeybee nutrition to land use in the Western Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Here, we instead focus on the less commonly studied Apis cerana japonica – the Japanese Honeybee. Our study presents preliminary data comparing forage (honey and pollen) with land use across a rural-urban gradient from 22 sites in Kyushu, southern Japan. Honey samples were collected from hives between June 2018 and August 2019. Pollen were collected and biotyped from hives in urban and rural locations (n = 4). Previous studies of honey show substantial vari-ation in monosaccharide content. Our analysis of A. cerana japonica honey found very little varia-tion in glucose and fructose (which accounted for 97% of monosaccharides), despite substantial differences in surrounding forage composition. As expected, we observed temporal variation in pollen foraged by A. cerana japonica, likely dependent on flowering phenology. These prelimi-nary results suggest that the forage and nutrition of A. cerana japonica may not be negatively af-fected by urban land use. This highlights the need for further comparative studies between A. cerana japonica and A. mellifera as it could suggest a resilience in pollinators foraging in their na-tive range.
Subject: Keywords: Straw Hat University; Farmer's Professor; Rural Transformation; Targeted poverty alleviation in China
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:40:08 CEST)
China is out of extreme poverty in 2020 on schedule and one decade in advance to fulfill the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and became the first developing country to alleviate poverty in half century. Therefore, a large numbers of effective approaches are emerging, and the intellectual’s technology-led poverty reduction, which locally known as the “Straw Hat University”initiated by “Farmer's professor”mode, is the most tried and tested approach motivated by the intellectual’s “Serve the people” tradition and supported by the all nation. This research conduct case analysis with three most remarkable organic intellectuals as Agronomist Yuan longping, Mycologist Lin Zhanxi and Plant pathologist Zhu Youyong with their bridging gaps in food security, regional imbalance and ethnic disparity respectively to sort out the sustainable modules and universal experiences. The conclusion indicates that“Farmer's Professor” Initiated “Straw Hat University” is an effective approach to solve human beings’ development problems and benefit the livelihoods, especially in the under development regions; and the authentic down to earth experiments into productivity as well as the Intellectual property transformation is the perfect path to deploy offline and online resources building the effective production and supply chain to integrate industries by intellectual’s critical innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0347.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: local economic development (LED) index; basic infrastructure; rural development; Romania; impact assessment
Online: 20 August 2018 (08:01:18 CEST)
This article investigates if public investments in rural basic infrastructure represent the best strategy for boosting the local economy of rural communities from Romania. The article focuses on one specific program implemented under the Cohesion policy in the framework of the National Plan for Rural Development called Measure 322. Geographically, the research included a sample of rural communes from the North-Western Region of Romania. Moreover, the study also looks at other determinants of local economic development (LED) than infrastructure investments, with a focus on certain feature characterizing Romanian rural communities such as population size, isolation from urban centers, connection with European and national roads networks, educational stock, etc. The research included three steps, namely the construction of the LED Index, a cvasi-experimental research, and a regression model. Our main findings seem to suggest that while investments in infrastructure help the development gap between beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries remains relatively the same. In terms of determinants of LED, percentage of population with a university degree and connection to a European road are the most significant in the Romanian rural context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0298.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: policy evaluation; sustainable rural policy; spatial econometrics model; decomposition method; South Korea
Online: 22 May 2018 (10:53:25 CEST)
An imperative challenge emerges from the demand to construct a scientific method to recent agricultural and rural policies throughout the world. The objective of the present study is to conduct an ex-post quantitative evaluation of the Comprehensive Rural Village Development Project, a representative rural development project operated by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, a central government agency in South Korea. The primary purpose of the project is to ensure sustainable rural society. This study found a moderate but significant positive impact of the policy in enhancing the standard of living in rural areas. The present study concludes with suggesting some policy implications and future directions of policy evaluation studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0692.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5); cognition; neurodegeneration; neurology; air pollution; environment; rural; urban; neurocognitive development; neurodegeneration
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:26:49 CEST)
This review documents an emerging body of evidence concerning the neurological effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, with regard to cognitive function and increased risk of neurodegeneration. Two electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched. The 37/428 studies selected included outcomes measuring cognitive function, neurobehavioral symptoms of impaired cognition, and pathologies associated with neurodegeneration from prenatal (21/37 studies), childhood (14/37 studies), and adult (8/37 studies) PAH exposure. Sufficient evidence surrounding prenatal exposure negatively impacting child intelligence, mental development, average overall development, verbal IQ, memory impairment, externalizing, internalizing, anxious, depressed behaviours, behavioural development and child attentiveness was found. Evidence concerning exposure during childhood and as an adult was scarce and highly heterogeneous, however presence of neurodegenerative biomarkers and increased concentrations of cryptic “self” antigens in serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples suggest a higher risk of neurodegenerative disease. Associations with lowered cognitive ability, and impaired attentiveness were found in children and memory disturbances, specifically auditory memory, verbal learning and general memory in adults. Although evidence is not yet conclusive and further research is needed the studies included supported the hypothesis that PAH exposure negatively impacts cognitive function and increases the risk of neurodegeneration in humans, and recommends considering the introduction of a variable “rural vs. urban” as covariate for adjusting analyses where the neurological functions affected (as result of our review) are outcome variables.
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Climate change; rural-urban migration; innovation; Bangladesh; adaptation strategies; politicization of technology; Dhaka; urban climate solutions; informal settlements
Online: 29 October 2020 (09:14:33 CET)
Climate change-induced events amplify existing social, political, economic, infrastructural and environmental concerns in many Global South cities, and perhaps no city is more vulnerable than Bangladesh’s capital of Dhaka. Climate-induced rural-urban migration is a profound concern, and Dhaka’s political leaders have embraced technology-based innovation as a solution pathway. This article explores the societal impact of Dhaka’s innovation environment strategies for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Employing a case study qualitative methodology, our three findings expand knowledge about innovation-urban climate mitigation as understood by Dhaka-based entrepreneurs: First, the most effective innovations were not the most technologically advanced, but those with the highest degree of participant ownership. Second, gaps between recipient, corporate and governmental understandings of effective mitigation and adaptation harmed projects, and were driven by different definitions of risk and competing understandings of vulnerability. Third, even the most technical climate adaptation measures were inherently political in their application. We discuss how to better position urban climate innovation infrastructures in Bangladesh and beyond, including developing a better recognition of innovation lifecycles for urban climate adaptation and widening our definitions of ‘innovation’ to better incorporate more effective and inclusive climate adaptation solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0496.v1
Subject: Keywords: School feeding programme; Osun Elementary School Feeding and Health Programme (O-MEALS); enrolment and retention; rural pupils; primary schools
Online: 26 November 2021 (10:08:06 CET)
School Feeding Programmes are social safety net interventions providing educational and health benefits to vulnerable children in developing countries. This study assessed the impact of Osun Elementary School Feeding and Health Programme (O-MEALS) on the enrolment and retention of rural primary schools in Osun State. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 188 respondents while data was collected through interview schedule. Percentages, Chi-square, PPMC and T-test were used for data analysis. Findings revealed that over half (51.6%) of the respondents were male, aged 9.38 ± 1.84 years and majority (83.0%) had a family size of 6-10 people. Food incentives (=1.25), health challenge (=0.69), and peer influence (=0.67) were major factors affecting school attendance. More than half (53.2%) of the respondents had unfavourable perception towards the school feeding programme. Results showed a significant difference between pupils’ enrolment (t = 5.332, p = 0.006) and retention rate (t = 58.386, p = 0.000) before and after the commencement of O-MEALS. Furthermore, pupils’ enrolment and retention (r = 0.993, p = 0.001) after the commencement of O-MEALS was significantly related. Food incentive was a major factor affecting school attendance, which fostered an improvement in the poor enrolment and retention previously experienced. Since a good number of the pupils possessed unfavourably perception towards the school feeding programme, it was recommended that effective monitoring be established to checkmate food vendors’ activities in delivering quality and satisfactory services. Likewise, the Government’s policies on school restructuring and levy, which had proved counterproductive, should be reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0115.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: family farming; agroecology; rural settlements; circle of sustainability; agricultural ecology; Paulo Freire; participant research; land reform; generating themes
Online: 9 May 2019 (13:05:59 CEST)
In the Brazilian Amazon, rural settlements are increasingly isolated by large-scale production farms, jeopardizing their sustainability and the good living of family farmers. Works were carried out in settlements to measure sustainability. However, the majority does not consider the participation and the collectively of those involved. In this way, we propose to evaluate, in a collective and participatory way, the sustainability and good living of the SDP São Paulo Rural Settlement, of the northern Amazon of Mato Grosso. We used the didactic-pedagogical method Circle of Sustainability, developed from five points: 1st - circle of investigation of generating themes; 2nd - circle of the history of the subject world; 3rd - circle of diagnosis of rural settlements; 4th - circle of exchange of knowledge; and 5th - circle of sustainable perceptions and narratives. The historical, socioeconomic and cultural characterization of the settlement allowed us to understand how sustainability and good living are being built in the settlement history process. Sustainability and good living are dialectical processes, are under construction, in movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community-based transportation; para-transit; school going children; social security; participa-tory rural appraisal
Online: 28 February 2022 (02:57:13 CET)
Social safety, security, and comfort of school-going children during the travel time to school becomes a subject of anxiety to the parents and is a crucial issue in recent times. In this regard, community-based transport can be a significant way to address social security issues in travel at a reasonable cost and reduce the burden on private mode. In Dhaka city, school van service already exists but due to some sort of problems the service has not been proved an efficient and formal mode of transport for solving mobility problems. This study seeks to identify the existing problems and prospects of the school van service and provide a unique, healthy, safe, and reliable transport mode for children. Applying different tools of the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method, the problems and solutions have been drawn from the community. The recommendations of this study will help the school van services (a community-managed para-transit system) to be more functional in playing a vital role in solving the problems of short-distance travel. This service has great potentialities to be adopted in other trips such as trips to and from offices which will lessen the road congestion at the peak periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0185.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: WiMAX IEEE 802.16e; National Broadband Project; rural area connectivity; Connectivity challenges in developing countries
Online: 18 October 2021 (12:55:20 CEST)
Amongst the advantages of using Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access (WiMAX) technology at the last-mile level as access technology include an extensive range of 50 km Line of Sight (LOS), 5 to 15 km Non-Line of Sight and few infrastructure installations compared to other wireless broadband access technologies. Despite positive investments in ICT fibre infrastructure by developing countries, including Botswana, servicing end-users is subjected to high prices and service disparities. The alternative, the Wi-Fi hotspot initiative by the Botswana government, falls short as a solution for last-mile connectivity and access. This study used OPNET simulation Modeller 14,5 to investigate whether Botswana’s national broadband project could adopt WiMAX IEEE 802.16e as an access technology. Therefore, using the simulation method, this paper evaluates the WiMAX IEEE 802.16e/m over three subscriber locations in Botswana. The results obtained indicate that the deployment of the WiMAX IEEE 802.16e standard can solve most of the deployment issues and access at the last-mile level. Although the findings suggest that WiMAX IEEE 802.16e is more suitable for high-density areas, it could also solve rural areas’ infrastructure development challenges and provide the required high-speed connectivity access. However, unlike the Wi-Fi initiative, which requires more infrastructure deployment and less on institutional and regulatory frameworks, the deployment of WiMAX IEEE802.16e requires institutional and regulatory standards.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: village independence; village; building the village; sustainability; regional analysis; region; rural development; governance; government
Online: 25 February 2021 (13:38:18 CET)
Village has a vital role in the national development efforts. The concept of development considered village as an object instead of a subject of development. This study focused on determining the important points in enabling a village to be independent by shifting the paradigm of “building the village” into “the building village”. This study was an exploratory research of public policies with qualitative legal studies. This study was conducted in 3 villages in Bandung regency with different characteristics, namely Neglawangi with urban characteristics, Cibiru Wetan with sub-urban characteristics, and Rancamanyar with plural characteristics. The results of this study showed that the wise step in building an independent village is through “the building village” road maps. First, encourage the inception of critical and care community and community organizations who dynamically interact in the policy making processes of village development. Second, implement a participative, accountable, and transparent planning and budgeting system within the limits of their authorities. Third, empower inclusive village economic institutions. The three road maps can succeed if they are supported by good implementation of participative, systematic, effective and efficient planning and budgeting system, as well as good monitoring.