REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0193.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: mild cognitive impairment (MCI); mild dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; Ginkgo biloba (EGb761®); Tebonin; anti-dementia drugs; randomized controlled trials
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:37:05 CET)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia are a clinically relevant health problem in the elderly and Alzheimer's disease being the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Furthermore, MCI and mild dementia are characterized by a deterioration of cognitive function and their diagnosis is mainly based on cognitive examination and, the prognosis of the disease seems to be an essential reason for the diagnosis, because there is a high risk of cognitive decline in the two syndromes. This review describes the effectiveness of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761®) leaf extract for the treatment of dementia syndrome and EGb761® combination therapy with other medications for symptomatic dementia. Tebonin® is a drug of plant origin based on the active ingredient “Ginkgo biloba”. This drug has shown encouraging results, improving cognitive function, neuropsychiatric disorders and consequent reduction of caregiver stress and maintenance of autonomy in patients with age-related cognitive decline, MCI and mild dementia. Nowadays, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of EGb761® combination therapy with anti-dementia drugs and, therefore, more evidence is needed to evaluate the role of EGb761® in mixed therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0116.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: oxazole-triazole; inhibition corrosion; mild steel; EIS; DFT
Online: 15 March 2018 (05:10:29 CET)
1-[(4-ethyl-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-4-yl)methyl]-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (Ph4) and1-[(4-ethyl-2-phenyl-4,5-dihydro-1,3-oxazol-4-yl)methyl]-5-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole (Ph5) are new isomers of the triazole derivative family, were synthesized and tested on the corrosion of mild steel in molar hydrochloric acid molar media using weight loss, electrochemical polarization and impedance spectroscopy. Then the experimental results were confirmed by quantum chemical calculations using DFT at B3LYP /6-31G (d,p). The compound Ph4 is the best inhibitor and its inhibitory efficiency increased with increasing concentration and reaching 95% at 10−3 M. Polarization curves studies show that both compounds tested are mixed-type inhibitors. Nyquist curves presented a single capacitive loop, their diameter increases progressively with both inhibitors concentration. The change of the substitution phenyl from position 5 to position 4 in the triazole ring increases the inhibitory effect of the triazole compounds. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of iron indicates that the inhibitory efficiency of the two inhibitors decreases with increasing temperature in the range of 308 to 338K. DFT study is in good correlationwith the experimental results.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: permutation entropy; irreversibility; gait; Alzheimer's disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment
Online: 16 August 2019 (07:24:00 CEST)
Gait is a basic cognitive propositive action that has been shown to be altered in late stages of neurodegenerative dementias. Nevertheless, alterations are less clear in mild forms of dementia, and the potential use of gait analysis as a biomarker of initial cognitive decline has hitherto mostly been neglected. We here report the results of a study of gait kinematic time series for two groups of patients (Mild Cognitive Impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease) and a group of matched control subjects. Two metrics based on permutation patterns are considered, respectively measuring the complexity and irreversibility of the time series. Results indicate that kinematic disorganisation is present at early phases of cognitive impairment; in addition, they depict a rich scenario, in which some joint movements display an increased complexity and irreversibility, while others a marked decrease. Beyond their potential use as biomarkers, complexity and irreversibility metrics can open a new door towards the understanding of the role of the nervous system in gait, as well as its adaptation and compensatory mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0377.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: dementia; AGAP; bicarbonate; cognitive function; Mild cognitive impairment; CERAD
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:31:49 CEST)
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a condition characterized by mild deficits in episodic and semantic memory and learning. The conversion rate of aMCI to Alzheimer disease (AD) is significantly higher in aMCI than in the general population. The aim of this study is to examine whether aMCI is a valid diagnostic category or whether aMCI comprises different subgroups based on cognitive functions. We recruited 60 aMCI patients, 60 with AD and 61 healthy controls who completed neuropsychological tests of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD-NP) and biomarkers including serum anion gap (AGAP). Principal component analysis, support vector machine and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed that AD patients and controls were highly significantly discrimanted from each other, while patients with aMCI overlap considerably with normal controls. SIMCA showed that 68.3% of the aMCI patients were assigned to the control class (named: aMCI-HC), 15% to AD (aMCI-AD), while 16.6% did not belong to either class (aMCI-strangers). aMCI-HC subjects showed sings of very mild cognitive decline and impaired recall. aMCI-strangers showed signs of mild cognitive impairment with impaired fluency and naming. aMCI-AD cases showed a cognitive profile reminiscent of AD an increased AGAP levels. In conclusion, our SIMCA model may classify subjects afforded a clinical diagnosis of aMCI according to Petersen’s criteria into three clinically relevant subgroups and help in the early detection of AD by identifying aMCI patients at risk to develop AD and those that have an AD prodrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: APOE gene; Apolipoprotein E; DNA methylation; Mild cognitive impairment; Hispanics.
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:22:48 CET)
Background: Biomarkers are essential for identification of individuals at high risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) for potential prevention of dementia. We investigated DNA methylation in the ApoE gene and plasmatic apolipoprotein E (ApoE) levels as MCI biomarkers in Colombian subjects with MCI and controls. Methods: 100 participants were included (71% women, average age, 70 yrs., range 43-91). MCI was diagnosed by neuropsychological testing, medical and social history, activities of daily living, cognitive symptoms and neuroimaging. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted by age and gender were performed to examine the risk association of MCI with plasma ApoE and APOE methylation Results: MCI was diagnosed in 41 subjects (average age, 66.5±9.6 yrs.) and compared with 59 controls. Elevated plasma ApoE and APOE methylation of CpGs 165, 190, and 198 were risk factors for MCI (P<0.05). Higher CpG-227 methylation correlated with lower risk for MCI (P=0.002). Only CpG-227 was significantly correlated with plasmatic ApoE levels (correlation coefficient=-0.665; P=0.008). Conclusion: Differential APOE methylation and increased plasma ApoE levels were correlated with MCI. These epigenetic patterns can be used as potential biomarkers to identify early stages of MCI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0316.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: acute injury; antioxidant; behavior; mitochondria; mitoquinone; neuroinflammation; oxidative stress; repeated mild TBI
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:17:28 CEST)
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion accounts for the bulk of all head injuries and represents a major health concern. Although an mTBI event may not manifest in neurobehavioral impairment, repeated injuries, known as repeated mTBI (rmTBI), can result in a cumulative effect that may progress to long-term cognitive and functional deficits. To date, there is no FDA-approved drug for TBI in general and rmTBI in particular. In previous studies, we have demonstrated the neuroprotective role of mitoquinone (MitoQ), a mitochondrial antioxidant, in an open head injury model and a model of repeated mild TBI (rmTBI) at a chronic time point (30 days). In this work, we set out to assess the neuroprotective potential of MitoQ at acute (3 days) and subacute time points (7 days) post-injury in a controlled cortical impact model of rmTBI. C57BL/6 male mice were injected intraperitoneally with MitoQ (5 mg/kg) one hour after the first mTBI, and three days after the first injury in both the 3-day and 7-day MitoQ + rmTBI subgroups, with an additional injection four days after the second injection in the 7-day group. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) while gross and fine motor functions were evaluated by the pole climbing, grip strength, and ladder rung tests. Dihydroethidium (DHE) staining was performed to evaluate oxidative stress while qRT-PCR was used to measure the gene expression of different antioxidant enzymes. Also, immunofluorescence staining was performed on brain tissue to assess the degree of microgliosis and astrocytosis. Our results showed that MitoQ conferred significant protection on days 3 and 7 post-injury against fine motor function impairment induced by rmTBI. Moreover, MitoQ enhanced cognitive function and reduced astrogliosis, microgliosis, and levels of oxidative stress on day 7 post-injury. However, antioxidant gene expression generally remained unaffected. In light of our results, MitoQ administration may be considered a preventive approach that helps to alleviate the neurological manifestations associated with rmTBI early before symptoms progress to long-term deficits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0517.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Impulsive fractional differential inclusions; Nonlocal conditions; Fixed point theorems; 10 Mild solutions
Online: 23 February 2021 (14:16:13 CET)
In this article, we are interested in a new generic class of nonlocal fractional impulsive differential inclusions with linear sectorial operator and Lipschitz multivalued function in the setting of finite dimensional Banach spaces. By modifying the definition of PC-mild solutions initiated by Shu, we succeeded to determine new conditions that sufficiently guarantee the existence of the solutions. The results are obtained by combining techniques of fractional calculus and fixed point theorem for contraction maps. We also characterize the topological structure of the set of solutions. Finally, we provide a demonstration to address the applicability of the theoretical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0335.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Bacillus cereus; mild heating; dielectric barrier discharge plasma; red pepper powder; quality
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:46:00 CET)
The synergistic efficacy of combined treatment mild heat (MH) and dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma in Bacillus cereus-contaminated red pepper powder was tested. A cocktail of three strains of B. cereus (NCCP 10623, NCCP 14579, ATCC 11778) was inoculated onto red pepper powder and then treated with MH (60 ℃ for 5-20 min) and DBD plasma (5-20 min). Treatment with MH and DBD plasma alone for 5~20 min resulted in reductions of 0.23~1.43 and 0.12~0.96 log CFU/g, respectively. Combined treatment with MH and DBD plasma was the most effective at reducing B. cereus counts on red pepper powder and resulted in log-reductions of ≥ 6.0 log CFU/g. The largest synergistic values (4.24-4.42 log) against B. cereus in red pepper powder were obtained by the combination of 20 min MH and 5~15 min DBD plasma. Hunter color ‘‘L’’, ‘‘a’’, and ‘‘b’’ values of the combination-treated samples were not significantly different from those of non-treated samples. Also, no significant (p > 0.05) differences in pH values between samples were observed. Therefore, these results suggest that the combination of MH treatment and DBD plasma can be potentially utilized in the food industry to effectively inactivate B. cereus without incurring quality deterioration of red pepper powder.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0502.v1
Subject: Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; Onset Age; Bilingualism; Cognitive Reserve; Dementia; Mild Cognitive Impairment; ADNI database
Online: 23 February 2021 (09:20:19 CET)
Background: This paper investigates the statistical relationship between bilingualism and the Onset Age (OA) of AD and MCI across a clinical sample, consisting of 580 Alzheimer's Disease (AD) subjects and 1264 Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) subjects, via a statistical analysis conducted on the sample retrieved from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset. Method: To investigate whether bilingualism has any correlation with the OAs of AD or MCI subjects, our study leverages the full potential of the ADNI dataset, a dataset that covers both the OA and the bilingualism status of both the AD and MCI subjects. Prior to performing any meaningful statistical analysis, a regression model and a probabilistic model were developed in parallel to fill in the missing OA and bilingualism values. A simple least-square regression model that consists of an independent variable of registered age for Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was used to estimate the OA of the AD and MCI subjects in the ADNI dataset. After filling in the missing OA values, the number of subjects relevant for the statistical analysis increased from 816 (AD: 371, MCI: 445) to 1844 (AD: 580, MCI: 1264), which greatly enlarged the representation of the AD and MCI sample in the ADNI population. With increased sample size, a novel probabilistic classification model was introduced to infer an ADNI subject’s bilingualism when relevant demographic information and deterministic outcome were not readily available from the ADNI dataset. The weighted average OA for the bilinguals and the monolinguals was then computed, where the weights for the probabilistic labels were assigned based on the percentage of bilingualism in the general US population. Finally, a statistical analysis was performed to test whether any statistically significant correlation exists between the OA and the bilingualism of the AD and MCI subjects within the ADNI dataset. Findings: Our preliminary study demonstrates no significant statistical difference between the OA of the bilinguals and the monolinguals within the ADNI dataset. Thus, the monolingual speakers within the ADNI dataset do not statistically manifest earlier onset, as compared to the bilingual speakers, which is slightly inconsistent with some earlier statistical findings that bilingual speakers enjoy certain distinctive advantages, such as late onset of AD, as compared to monolingual counterparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0266.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; mild patients; quarantine facility; video-consultation; living and treatment support center
Online: 16 April 2020 (08:23:06 CEST)
With the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there is a need for efficient management of patients with mild or no symptoms, which account for the majority. The aim of this study is to introduce the structure and operation protocol of a living and treatment support centre (LTSC) operated by Seoul National University Hospital in South Korea. The existing accommodation facility was converted into a 'patient centre' where patients was isolated. A few Medical staff here performed medical tests and responded to emergencies. Another part of the LTSC was 'remote monitoring centre'. In this center, patients’ self-measured vital signs and symptoms were monitored twice a day, and the medical staff staying here provided video-consultation via a smartphone. During the 3 weeks from March 5 to March 26, 2020, 113 patients were admitted and treated. LTSC could be an efficient alternative to hospital admission in pandemic situation like COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mild virus-infected flu; home-based treatment; inhalation of volatile chemicals; onion; garlic
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:38:20 CET)
Virus-infected Flu is a common disease. To date, no specific drugs are available to manage the symptoms of cough, headache and sputum production. An alternative Chinese herb medicine is introduced for virus-infected Flu or similar infection. Before hospitalization, some of patients may scare for cross-infection with mild symptoms or hardly go to hospital if encountered a temporary lockdown or quarantine. Some Chinese practice self-treatment of cough, headache and sputum production by inhalation of volatile chemicals from onion and garlic. Author used to take the same alternative approach of inhalation of onion, garlic or scallions for self-treatment when suffered virus caused flu with cough, headache and sputum production at onset disease. In this article, the biomedical effects of onion and garlic are reviewed. To help patients with mild symptoms of virus infected Flu, a simple home-based treatment was suggested to self-treatment because of temporary isolation and hardly going to hospitalization. The alternative approach may also suggest for some mild virus infected respiratory diseases caused by virus at onset disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: mild cognitive impairment (MCI); speaker recognition; Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM); Universal Background Model (UBM)
Online: 30 January 2019 (05:11:27 CET)
This study aims to develop an elderly care system for improving the interpersonal relationship of the elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by employing the speaker recognition technique and association functionality of social network platforms. Firstly, the speaker recognition units based on the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Gaussian Mixture Model-Universal Background Model (GMM-UBM) are implemented to identify the visitor via individual input utterance. After the visitor is identified, the proposed system will be linked to the private database and social network platforms to extract the associated message of two parties. Experimental results indicate that the speaker recognition unit based on GMM-UBM achieves the best performance. Finally, five elderly persons are invited to measure the usability of the proposed system. A questionnaire is used to survey the five elderly persons, and the result indicates that the proposed system is highly potentially applicable in improving the interpersonal relationship of the elderly with MCI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0732.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Rosemary; Alzheimer’s disease; cognition; meta-analysis; preclinical study; mild cognitive dysfunction; herbal drugs; rosmarinic acid
Online: 30 September 2020 (10:04:01 CEST)
Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment end up progressing to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) leading to straining burden on public health. R. officinalis long been known as the herb of remembrance and can be a potential cognition enhancer for AD. The aims of the review were to summarize the qualitative and quantitative aspects of R.O and its active constituents in enhancing the cognition. MATERIALS AND METHOD Google scholar and PubMed structured search to find relevant studies that assessed the effect of R.O extract or any of its active constituents on cognitive performance in animals. Data extraction: Following information from each included study was extracted: (1) article information (2) characteristics of study animals (3) type of intervention; type, dose, duration, and frequency of administration of R.O (4) type of outcome measure. Data synthesis: Data were analyzed using Review Manager (RevMan 5.3, 2014] and meta-analysis was performed for the outcome measures on all relevant tasks within the included papers by computing the standardized mean difference ps. RESULTS. 23 studies for qualitative and fifteen for meta-analysis were selected. From fifteen included papers, 22 studies with 35 comparisons were meta-analyzed. Effect sizes for intact animals and impaired animals respectively was (mean g and 95% CI 1.19 [0.74, 1.64; 0.57 [0.19,0.96]. The R. officinalis had positive effect on both groups of animals. The subgroup analyses exhibited substantial unexplained heterogeneity between studies. Mechanisms of R.O was anticholinesterase, procholinergic, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agent CONCLUSIONS: R.O improves cognitive function. Limitations: Considerable heterogeneity between studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI; concussion; cognitive; sensorimotor; visual; postural balance; methylation; 5-mC%; blood
Online: 31 January 2020 (04:28:21 CET)
People who suffer a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have heterogeneous symptoms and disease trajectories, which make it difficult to precisely diagnose and assess complications long-term. Insufficient information is available regarding how to precisely diagnose and assess mTBI. This study identified and compared deficits in cognitive, psychosocial, visual functions, and balance performance between college students with and without histories of mTBI. Global DNA methylation ratio (5-mC%) in blood was also compared as a peripheral epigenetic marker. Twenty-five volunteers participated in this pilot study, including 11 mTBI cases (27.3% females; mean age of 28.7 years, SD=5.92) and 14 healthy controls (64.3% females; mean age of 22.0, SD=4.13). All the participants were assessed for cognitive (by NIH toolbox—executive function, memory, and processing speed), psychological (by PROMIS—depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances), visual function (by King-Devick and binocular accommodative tests), postural balance performance (by a force plate), and blood 5-mC% (global methylation) levels. Students with mTBI reported significantly poorer episodic memory, severe anxiety, and more sleep disturbance problems. They also had higher blood 5-mC% level (all p’s<.05). No significant differences were found in visual function and postural balance. These findings validate changes in cognitive, psychosocial, and global DNA methylation long after mTBI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0413.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: financial capacity instruments; Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity; deci-sional capacity; mild cognitive impairment; gamification
Online: 31 May 2022 (07:37:21 CEST)
Financial capacity instruments are psychometric tools designed to evaluate individual decisional capacity based on financial decisions. As tests are complex and need special conditions for administration and evaluation, it is difficult to use them in daily geriatric clinics. Our scoping review objective was to evaluate existing financial capacity instruments from the perspective of simplicity and portability. We evaluated one English speaking knowledge database (Medline) using a dedicated MeSH terminology. The review yielded one independent instrument, The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview for Financial Capacity, that can be easy adapted for every-day clinical use. It is simple to understand and perform and do not need trained personnel for administration. It can be finalized in 15 minutes. Initially validated on 261 subjects (with different forms of cognitive impairment), it showed good accuracy and precision mainly in subjects with cognitive impairment. The test is less apt to detect early or fluctuating cognitive impairment. Simplicity, the main advantage of the test, allows gamification fact that increases portability. Familiar images (coins, money) that are used for performing simple tasks does not need complex translation and adaptation. In form of a game, the test is suitable for serial administration, increasing the chance for early capacity reduction detection. Results reflect a physician judgement related to the subjects’ capacity to understand and execute simple financial instructions and not financial proficiency scores. The main limitation of our review is that we investigated only one, English speaking, knowledge database. The scoping strategy generated a financial capacity instrument that can be used in geriatric clinics for early diagnostic of decisional capacity reduction. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the test in conditions of serial administration and in populations having various financial experience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0264.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: concussion; mild traumatic brain injury; working memory; long-term cognitive outcome; support vector machine classifier; personalized prediction
Online: 16 December 2021 (10:24:08 CET)
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), commonly causes transient neurocognitive symptoms, but in some cases, it causes cognitive impairment, including working memory (WM) deficit, which can be long-lasting and impede a patient’s return to work. The predictors of long-term cognitive outcomes following mTBI remain unclear because abnormality is often absent in structural imaging findings. The purpose of the study was to determine whether machine learning-based models using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) biomarkers and demographic or neuropsychological measures at baseline could effectively predict 1-year cognitive outcomes of concussion. We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients with mTBI who were compared with demographically-matched healthy controls enrolled between September 2015 to August 2020. Baseline assessments were collected within the first week of injury, and follow-ups were conducted at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. Potential demographic, neuropsychological, and fMRI features were selected according to the significance of correlation with the estimated changes in WM ability. The support vector machine classifier was trained using these potential features and estimated changes in WM between the predefined time periods. Patients demonstrated significant cognitive recovery at the third month, followed by worsened performance after 6 months, which persisted until 1 year after concussion. Approximately half of the patients experienced prolonged cognitive impairment at 1-year follow up. Satisfactory predictions were achieved for patients whose WM function did not recover at 3 months (accuracy=87.5%), 6 months (accuracy=83.3%), 1 year (accuracy=83.3%), and performed worse at 1-year follow-up compared to baseline assessment (accuracy=83.3%). This study demonstrated the feasibility of personalized prediction for long-term postconcussive WM outcomes based on baseline fMRI and demographic features, opening a new avenue for early rehabilitation intervention in selected individuals with possible poor long-term cognitive outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0185.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Mild Cognitive Impairment; Ageing; Elderly; Executive Functions; Higher-Level Executive Functions; Planning; Reasoning; Fluid Intelligence; Problem Solving
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:37:48 CET)
Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a clinical syndrome characterized by a moderate decline in one or more cognitive functions with a preserved autonomy in daily life activities . MCI exhibits cognitive, behavioral, psychological symptoms . The executive functions (EFs) are a set of key functions for everyday life and physical and mental health; and allow adapting the behavior to external changes [3-5]. Higher-level executive functions develop from basic EFs (inhibition, working memory, attentional control, and cognitive flexibility). They are planning, reasoning, problem- solving, and fluid intelligence (Gf) . This systematic review investigates the relationship between higher-level executive functions and healthy and pathological aging, assuming the role of executive functions deficits as a predictor of cognitive decline. The systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA Statement [6-7]. A total of 73 studies were identified. The results indicate that 65.8% of the studies confirm significant EFs alterations in MCI (100% problem solving, 71.4% fluid intelligence, 56.8% planning, 50% reasoning). These results seem to highlight a strong prevalence of higher-level executive functions deficits in MCI elderly than in healthy elderly.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cytokines; chemokines; neuroinflammation; neurotrophic factors; pathophysiology; Blood brain barrier; mild cognitive impairment; brain health; therapeutics
Online: 10 August 2021 (15:49:12 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by the gradual decay in neuronal function as a consequence of diverse degenerating events primarily including mitochondria dysfunction and cascades of neuro-immune reactions. Besides the acquired harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS), neurotoxins, and amyloid-beta (Aβ) and TAU pathologies in neurons, accumulating evidence with time underlined the roles of cytokines and growth factors in the AD pathogenesis. It may help us in evaluating the propensities and specific mechanism(s) of cytokines and factors impacting neuron upon apoptotic decline. Proinflammatory cytokines often induce inflammation in AD and AD-like pathogenesis in response to the apoptotic scenarios where some growth factors are involved in cytokinetic reactions to activate microglia and causing inflammation in AD. In this report, we comprehensively reviewed role of cytokines and chemokines in immune response to AD and neuropsychiatry. We provided insights into the neuroinflammation and the role of diverse factors including the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, APP, TAU phosphorylation, glycation end products, complement system, and the role of glial cells. Also, we discussed the pathogenic and protective role of macrophage migration inhibitory factors, choroid plexus-, neurotrophic- and hematopoietic -related growth factors in AD. We further shed light on the availability and accessibility of the cytokines across the blood-brain barrier in AD pathophysiology. Taken together, the emerging role of these factors in AD pathology emphasized the importance of building novel strategies for an effective therapeutic/neuropsychiatric management of AD in clinics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0314.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Very mild Traumatic Brain Injury; Animal models (rodents); Post-concussion syndrome; neuro-behavioral changes; “inflammaging”; brain apoptosis
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:33:51 CET)
Post-concussion syndrome, recently recognized as a complication of mild traumatic brain injury, is considered a consequence of the summative effect of multiple concussions received over lifetime. In elderlies, the main mild brain trauma mechanism is fall (low impact force). Many falls are often not reported or noticed but may generate serious medical and medico-legal consequences. Our research question was to find if a single, very mild brain trauma can induce neuro-behavioral consequences in elderlies. One database was queried (PubMed – MeSH terminology) looking for histopathological, neuro-cognitive and behavioral changes that can be generated by sub-concussional trauma in senescent rodents, in comparison with young animals. 41 published research articles were selected. 17 of them used very mild brain trauma in young and senescent animals, in the same experiment (6 rats and 11 mice). 24 articles evaluated the effect of sub-threshold brain trauma in adult animals (no control group). Five trauma models were used (blast models were excluded). Neuro-inflammatory changes were detected immediate after very mild primary impact. In young animals, observed pathology disappeared fast (after 3 to 7 days). Increased apoptosis, mild axonal injury in white matter tracts plus maladaptive astrogliosis and microglial activation was stronger in aged animals, persisted over time (8 months) and significantly altered animals’ cognition and behavior. Associated preexisting pathology (hypertension, tau protein deposits, microbleeds, reactive inflammation) was often responsible for amplification of the primary impact results. As translation of observation is the weak spot of pathology and behavior animal research, further investigation is needed before to conclude that even a single, very mild brain trauma may have medical consequences on human senescent brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0421.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Brain morphometry; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Cognition; Mild cognitive impairment; Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment; Structural Cognitive Modifiability; Mediated Learning Experience
Online: 27 October 2021 (15:21:13 CEST)
There is increasing interest in identifying biological and imaging markers for the early detection of neurocognitive decline. In addition, non-pharmacological strategies including physical exercise and cognitive interventions may be beneficial for those developing cognitive impairment. The Feuerstein Instrumental Enrichment (FIE) Program is a cognitive intervention based on Structural Cognitive Modifiability and the Mediated Learning Experience (MLE) and aims to promote problem-solving strategies and metacognitive abilities. The FIE program uses a variety of instruments to enhance the cognitive capacity of the individual as a result of mediation. A specific version of the FIE program was developed for the cognitive enhancement of older adults, focusing on strengthening orientation skills, categorization skills, deductive reasoning and memory. We performed a prospective interventional pilot observational study on older subjects with MCI who participated in 30 mediated FIE sessions (two sessions weekly for 15 weeks). Of the 21 subjects who completed the study, there was a significant improvement in memory on the Neurotrax battery comparing pre- and post-intervention scores (pre: M=95.3, SD=12.2, post: M=101.2, SD=7.9, p<.05). Complete sets of anatomical MRI data for voxel-based morphometry, taken at the beginning and the end of the study, were obtained from 16 participants (mean age 83.5 years). Voxel-based morphometry showed an unexpected increase in grey matter (GM) in the anterolateral occipital border and the middle cingulate cortex. These initial findings of our pilot study support the design of randomized trials to evaluate the effect of cognitive training using the FIE Program on brain volumes and cognitive function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0532.v3
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Locus Coeruleus; Reserve; Brain Age; Visual Attention; Alzheimer’s Disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment; normal Aging; Neuroimaging; Voxel Based Morphometry
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:41:40 CEST)
The noradrenergic theory of Cognitive Reserve (Robertson, 2013-2014) postulates that the upregulation of the Locus Coeruleus - Noradrenergic System (LC-NA) originating in the Brainstem might facilitate cortical networks involved in attention, and protracted activation of this system throughout the lifespan may enhance cognitive stimulation contributing to Reserve. To test the above-mentioned theory, a study was conducted on a sample of 686 participants (395 controls, 156 Mild Cognitive Impairment, 135 Alzheimer’s Disease) investigating the relationship between LC volume, attentional performance and a biological index of brain maintenance (BrainPAD – an objective measure which compares an individual’s structural brain health, reflected by their voxel-wise grey matter density, to the state typically expected at that individual’s age). Further analyses were carried out on Reserve indices including education and occupational attainment. Volumetric variation across groups was also explored along with gender differences. Control analyses on the Serotoninergic (5-HT), Dopaminergic (DA) and Cholinergic (Ach) systems were contrasted with the Noradrenergic (NA) hypothesis. The antithetic relationships were also tested across the neuromodulatory subcortical systems.Results supported by bayesian modelling showed that LC volume disproportionately predicted higher attentional performance as well as biological brain maintenance across the three groups. These findings lend support to the role of the noradrenergic system as a key mediator underpinning the neuropsychology of Reserve, and they suggest that early prevention strategies focused on the noradrenergic system (e.g. cognitive-attentive training, physical exercise, pharmacological and dietary interventions) may yield important clinical benefits to mitigate cognitive impairment with age and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; outpatient cohort; seroprevalence; mild infections; asymptomatic cases; COVID-19 contacts; PCR-positivity and symptoms; first year of the pandemic; Hungary
Online: 22 September 2022 (02:08:09 CEST)
We aimed to estimate the proportion of the population infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the first year of the pandemic. The study population consisted of outpatient adults with mild or no COVID-19 symptoms, and was divided into subpopulations with different levels of exposures. Of the subpopulation without known previous COVID-19 contacts 4143, of the subpopulation with known COVID-19 contacts 594 persons were investigated. IgG- and IgA-seroprevalence and RT-PCR positivity were determined in context with COVID-19 symptoms. We hope to have contributed to the understanding of the significance of the asymptomatic and mild infections in the long persistence of the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0291.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; Multidimensional Analysis; HCA; Hierarchical cluster analysis; regression analysis; mild; moderate; severe; Age; Score index of the chest X-ray; percentage and quantity of neutrophils; Albumin; C reactive protein; ratio of Lymphocytes
Online: 20 September 2022 (04:50:36 CEST)
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the study was to determine (a) the overall preclinical character; (b) the cumulative cutoff values and the risk ratio, and (c) the factors associated with severity by a unidimensional and multidimensional analysis on 2173 Sars-Cov2 patients. METHODS: The machine learning study population consisted of 2173 patients (1587 mild and non symptoms patients, 377 moderate patients, 209 severe patients). The status of the patients was recorded from September 2021 to March 2022. RESULTS: The Covid19 Severity directly links with a significant correlation to Age, Score index of the chest X-ray, percentage and quantity of neutrophils, Albumin, C reactive protein, and ratio of Lymphocytes. Their important cut off values (from regression analysis) respectively are: 77.56 years old (the mild-moderate group), 5.53 (the mild-moderate group) and 10.51 (the moderate-severe group), 84.80% (the mild-moderate group) and 87.74%(the moderate-severe group), 11.77G/L (the moderate-severe group), 29.73g/L (the moderate-severe group), 7.46mg/dL (the mild-moderate group), 6.32% (the moderate-severe group). Their significant (p<0.0001) R score correlation with the severity of Covid19, are: 0.44, 0.52 and 0.52, 0.33 and 0.44, 0.42, -0.43, 0.40, -0.41. Their significant risk ratio (p<0.00001) from the meta-analysis, respectively are: 4.19 [3.58-4.95], 3.29 [2.76-3.92] and 3.03 [2.4023;3.8314], 3.18 [2.73-3.70] and 3.32 [2.6480;4.1529], 3.15 [2.6153;3.8025], 3.4[2.91-3.97], 0.46 [0.3650;0.5752] (p<0.00001), 0.34 [0.2743;0.4210]. The pair ALT – Leucocytes and Transferrin – Anion Chloride get the most important correlation shift. ALT – Leucocytes show the important negative link (R=-1, p<0.00001) in the mild group to the significant positive correlation in the moderate group (R=1, p<0.00001). Transferrin–anion Chloride has an important positive association (R=1, p<0.00001) in the mild group with a significant negative correlation in the moderate group (R=-0.59, p<0.00001). The network map and HCA show that in the mild-moderate group, the closest neighbors with the Covid19 severity are ferritins, Age. Then there is C-reactive protein, SI of X-ray, Albumin, and Lactate dehydrogenase, which are the next close neighbors of these three factors. In the moderate-severe group, the closest neighbors with the Covid19 severity are Ferritin, Fibrinogen, Albumin, the quantity of Lymphocytes, SI of X-ray, white blood cells count, Lactate dehydrogenase, and quantity of neutrophils. CONCLUSIONS: Complete multidimensional study in 2173 Covid19 patients in Vietnam shows the whole picture of all the preclinical factors, which may become the clinical reference marker for surveillance and diagnostic management