Working Paper Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Permutation Entropy and Irreversibility in Gait Kinematic Time Series from Patients with Mild Cognitive Decline and Early Alzheimer's Dementia

Version 1 : Received: 13 August 2019 / Approved: 16 August 2019 / Online: 16 August 2019 (07:24:00 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Martín-Gonzalo, J.-A.; Pulido-Valdeolivas, I.; Wang, Y.; Wang, T.; Chiclana-Actis, G.; Algarra-Lucas, M.C.; Palmí-Cortés, I.; Travieso, J.F.; Torrecillas-Narváez, M.D.; Miralles-Martinez, A.A.; Rausell, E.; Gómez-Andrés, D.; Zanin, M. Permutation Entropy and Irreversibility in Gait Kinematic Time Series from Patients with Mild Cognitive Decline and Early Alzheimer’s Dementia. Entropy 2019, 21, 868. Martín-Gonzalo, J.-A.; Pulido-Valdeolivas, I.; Wang, Y.; Wang, T.; Chiclana-Actis, G.; Algarra-Lucas, M.C.; Palmí-Cortés, I.; Travieso, J.F.; Torrecillas-Narváez, M.D.; Miralles-Martinez, A.A.; Rausell, E.; Gómez-Andrés, D.; Zanin, M. Permutation Entropy and Irreversibility in Gait Kinematic Time Series from Patients with Mild Cognitive Decline and Early Alzheimer’s Dementia. Entropy 2019, 21, 868.

Journal reference: Entropy 2019, 21, 868
DOI: 10.3390/e21090868

Abstract

Gait is a basic cognitive propositive action that has been shown to be altered in late stages of neurodegenerative dementias. Nevertheless, alterations are less clear in mild forms of dementia, and the potential use of gait analysis as a biomarker of initial cognitive decline has hitherto mostly been neglected. We here report the results of a study of gait kinematic time series for two groups of patients (Mild Cognitive Impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease) and a group of matched control subjects. Two metrics based on permutation patterns are considered, respectively measuring the complexity and irreversibility of the time series. Results indicate that kinematic disorganisation is present at early phases of cognitive impairment; in addition, they depict a rich scenario, in which some joint movements display an increased complexity and irreversibility, while others a marked decrease. Beyond their potential use as biomarkers, complexity and irreversibility metrics can open a new door towards the understanding of the role of the nervous system in gait, as well as its adaptation and compensatory mechanisms.

Subject Areas

permutation entropy; irreversibility; gait; Alzheimer's disease; Mild Cognitive Impairment

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