Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Distinct Subgroups of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as Identified by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy

Version 1 : Received: 29 May 2019 / Approved: 31 May 2019 / Online: 31 May 2019 (08:31:49 CEST)

How to cite: Tangwongchai, S.; Tawankanjanachot, I.; Tunvirachaisakul, C.; Supasitthumrong, T.; Hemrungrojn, S.; Chuchuen, P.; Snabboon, T.; Carvalho, A.; Maes, M. Distinct Subgroups of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as Identified by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy. Preprints 2019, 2019050377 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201905.0377.v1). Tangwongchai, S.; Tawankanjanachot, I.; Tunvirachaisakul, C.; Supasitthumrong, T.; Hemrungrojn, S.; Chuchuen, P.; Snabboon, T.; Carvalho, A.; Maes, M. Distinct Subgroups of Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as Identified by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy. Preprints 2019, 2019050377 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201905.0377.v1).

Abstract

Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a condition characterized by mild deficits in episodic and semantic memory and learning. The conversion rate of aMCI to Alzheimer disease (AD) is significantly higher in aMCI than in the general population. The aim of this study is to examine whether aMCI is a valid diagnostic category or whether aMCI comprises different subgroups based on cognitive functions. We recruited 60 aMCI patients, 60 with AD and 61 healthy controls who completed neuropsychological tests of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD-NP) and biomarkers including serum anion gap (AGAP). Principal component analysis, support vector machine and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) showed that AD patients and controls were highly significantly discrimanted from each other, while patients with aMCI overlap considerably with normal controls. SIMCA showed that 68.3% of the aMCI patients were assigned to the control class (named: aMCI-HC), 15% to AD (aMCI-AD), while 16.6% did not belong to either class (aMCI-strangers). aMCI-HC subjects showed sings of very mild cognitive decline and impaired recall. aMCI-strangers showed signs of mild cognitive impairment with impaired fluency and naming. aMCI-AD cases showed a cognitive profile reminiscent of AD an increased AGAP levels. In conclusion, our SIMCA model may classify subjects afforded a clinical diagnosis of aMCI according to Petersens criteria into three clinically relevant subgroups and help in the early detection of AD by identifying aMCI patients at risk to develop AD and those that have an AD prodrome.

Subject Areas

dementia; AGAP; bicarbonate; cognitive function; Mild cognitive impairment; CERAD

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