ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: shale; CO2-water-rock interaction; mechanical properties; crack propagation; microstructure
Online: 5 August 2016 (12:35:12 CEST)
The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) tests together with an acoustic emission (AE) system and SEM & EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days) in water dissoluted with sub-/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with sub-/super-critical CO2. Compared to intact samples, 30-days’ saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for sub-critical saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for intact samples to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with sub-critical CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with sub-/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to intact samples.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 29 April 2019 (07:51:38 CEST)
Forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various other forms of energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ESSAY | doi:10.3390/sci2020019
Subject: Keywords: origin of life; origins of life; mechanical energy; mechanochemistry; work; entropic forces; mica; biotite; Muscovite; wet/dry cycles; clay
Online: 25 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Mechanical forces and mechanical energy are prevalent in living cells. This may be because mechanical forces and mechanical energy preceded chemical energy at life’s origins. Mechanical energy is more readily available in non-living systems than the various forms of chemical energy used by living systems. Two possible prebiotic environments that might have provided mechanical energy are hot pools that experience wet/dry cycles and mica sheets as they move, open and shut, as heat pumps or in response to water movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: mechanical seal; non-contacting face seal; heat transfer; thermal analysis
Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:41 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model for non-contacting face seals to analyze how their performance is affected by thermoelastic phenomena. The model was used to solve thermal conductivity and thermoelasticity problems. The primary goal was to calculate the values of thermal deformations of the sealing rings in a non-contacting face seal with a flexibly mounted rotor (FMR) for a turbomachine. The model assumes conversion of mechanical energy into heat in the fluid film. The heat flux generated in the fluid film is transferred first to the sealing rings and then to the fluid surrounding them. An asymmetric distribution of temperature within the sealing rings leads to the occurrence of thermal stresses and, consequently, a change in the rings geometry. The model is solved analytically. The distributions of temperature fields for the sealing rings in the cross-sections are calculated using the Fourier-Bessel series as a superficial function of two variables (r,z). The thermoelasticity problems described by the Navier equations are solved by applying the Boussinesq harmonic functions and Goodier’s thermoelastic displacement potential function. The proposed method involves solving various theoretical and practical problems of thermoelasticity in FMR-type non-contacting face seals. The calculated thermal deformations of the sealing rings are used to determine the most important seal performance parameters such as the leakage rate and power loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0019.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: high-entropy alloys; Al-Ni-Co-Fe-Cr alloys; microstructure; precipitation morphology; mechanical property
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:30:17 CET)
The present work investigates primarily the morphology evolution of the body-centered-cubic (BCC)/B2 phases in AlxNiCoFeCr high-entropy alloys (HEAs) with increasing Al content, which has been neglected so far. There exist two types of microscopic morphologies of BCC and B2 phases in this HEA series: one is the weave-like morphology induced by the spinodal decomposition, and the other is the microstructure of a spherical disordered BCC precipitation on the ordered B2 matrix that appears in HEAs with a much higher Al content. The shape of coherent precipitates is found to be closely related to the lattice misfit between BCC and B2 phases, which is sensitive to Al. The mechanical properties, including the compressive yielding strength and microhardness of the AlxNiCoFeCr HEAs, are also discussed in light of the concept of the valence electron concentration (VEC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0638.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Al/nanoSiC; Mechanical Alloying Powder Metallurgy; Mechanical Properties; Microstructure
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:48:40 CEST)
Nano Silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (Al/nanoSiC) metal matrix composites are attractive because of their superior properties such as high strength and stiffness, Application of aluminum in technological and structural application is growing steadily. The major limitation for metal matrix nano composites, however, is their propensity to brittle fracture. The new technologies and new materials are two basic aims for companies. In this research, the effect of addition Al/SiC nano particles on microstructure and mechanical properties of pure aluminum has been investigated. Pure aluminum powder and various fractions of SiC particles with an average diameter of 50 nm were milled by a high-energy planetary ball mill to produce nanocrystalline Al–SiC nanocomposite powders. Pressing and sintering applied to consolidate powders to tablet shape. Then the samples were rolled to cylindrical shape. The nano SiC Percentage were 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% , 12,5% and 15%. Mechanical tests such as tensile, hardness, fracture toughness and young’s modules measurement carried out to study the mechanical behavior of each alloy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the morphology and microstructure of nanocomposite powders and bulk samples. The role of wt% fraction of SiC nanoparticles was investigated. The results shows that the addition of SiC nano particles has significant influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of composites and usually the optimum properties depends on wt% SiC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0439.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: mechanical ventilation design; low cost mechanical ventilator; experimental ventilation curves; mechanical ventilation mathematical model; COVID-19
Online: 17 December 2020 (16:25:13 CET)
A mechanical ventilation system is a big support for breathing complications, in which an external solution is quite necessary to keep oxygen compensation in the patients. Its knowledge is well widespread and different equipment has been developed. However, they are very expensive and their quantity in medical centers is not sufficient, especially in Peru. Hence, it has been required to develop new methods to provide oxygen by a low cost equipment; Protofy, a research group from Spain, designed one of the first low cost mechanical ventilation systems which was medically validated by its government. In this sense, a redesign of the mechanical ventilation system was carried out according to the local requirements and available technology, a different airbag resuscitator with different properties and geometry, but maintaining its working concept based on a cam compression mechanism. Sensors and a display were added to improve the performance with a control algorithm for the rotation frequency and to show the ventilation curves over time to the medical staff. It was necessary to develop a mathematical model to relate the behavior between ventilation curves for a patient and physical variables of the design, especially in the epidemic COVID 19, that many countries are dealing with at the time research is being conducted. The mechanical ventilation system was redesigned, fabricated, and tested measuring its ventilation curves over time. Results indicate that this redesign provides a sturdy equipment able to work during a longer lifetime than the original. The replicability of the ventilation curves behavior is assured, while the mechanism dimensions are adapted for a particular airbag resuscitator. The mathematical model of the whole system can predict satisfactorily the ventilation curves over time and was used to provide the air pressure, volume, and flow as a function of the rotation angle measured by sensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0464.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: rubber nanocomposites; mechanical properties; dynamical mechanical properties; Payne effect; Mullin effect.
Online: 24 September 2018 (15:08:58 CEST)
The reinforcing ability of the fillers results in significant improvements in properties of polymer matrix at extremely low filler loadings compared to conventional fillers. In view of this, present review article describes the different methods used in preparation of different rubber nanocomposites reinforced with nanodimensional individual carbonaceous fillers, such as graphene, expanded graphite, single walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and graphite oxide, graphene oxide and hybrid fillers consisting combination of individual fillers. This is followed by review of mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, Young modulus, and fracture toughness) and dynamic mechanical properties (glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, melting point) of these rubber nanocomposites. Finally, Payne and Mullin Effects have also been reviewed in rubber filled with different carbon based nanofillers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0232.v2
Subject: Keywords: Lithium-ion-cell; Electrode dilation; Mechanical strain; Cell-format; Layer resolved mechanical simulation
Online: 12 May 2021 (14:06:24 CEST)
Electrochemical-mechanical interactions, in particular pressure-induced ones, have been identified to be a cause for lithium-plating in lithium-ion cells. Mechanically-induced porosity inhomogeneities in the separator layers due to electrode expansion during charging especially lead to cell internal balancing currents and can cause localized plating. To identify cell-format and cell-material dependent mechanical weak spots, a layer-resolved mechanical simulation of different cell types and cell-material combinations is presented in this work. The simulation results show distinctive layer strain patterns for different cell-types that coincide with localized lithium-plating found in post-mortem cells. Additionally, the effects of cell bracing in battery modules is investigated and a method to mitigate the increased layer strain due to bracing counterforces is proposed that also increases cell energy density for hardcase-type automotive cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0040.v1
Online: 4 October 2021 (10:28:57 CEST)
Impure and pure casts have collected reasonable attentions over all the world. In this paper, Aluminum (Al) and Copper (Cu) cast alloys are considered to be studied. Multiple impure and pure Al-Cu cast alloys are established under the condition of very high temperatures. Then, all of the established alloys are examined by applying mechanical tests. More specifically, tests of hardness are exploited. Moreover, different quenching conditions are employed and analyzed. These are the water, air and oil. Consistent results are separately obtained for the impure and pure materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0159.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: electrophoresis; protein; mechanical treatment; quantification
Online: 6 July 2021 (14:54:12 CEST)
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) is widely used for studying proteins and protein-containing objects. However, it is employed most frequently as a qualitative method rather than a quantitative one. In this paper, we show the feasibility of routine digital image acquisition and mathematical processing of electrophoregrams for protein quantification. Both the well-studied model protein molecules (bovine serum albumin) and more complex real-world protein-based products (casein-containing isolate for sports nutrition), which were subjected to mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill to obtain samples characterized by different protein denaturation degrees, were used as study objects. Protein quantification in the mechanically activated samples was carried out. The degree of destruction of individual protein was shown to be higher compared to that of protein-containing mixture after mechanical treatment for an identical amount of time. The methodological approach used in this study can serve as guidance for other researchers who would like to use electrophoresis for protein quantification both in individual form and in protein mixtures. The findings prove that photographic imaging of gels followed by mathematical data processing can be applied for analyzing the electrophoretic data.
Online: 4 September 2020 (12:32:58 CEST)
As part of a plethora of global efforts to minimize the negative effects of the SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) pandemic, we developed two different mechanisms that, after further development, could potentially be of use in the future in order to increase the capacity of ventilators with low-cost devices based on single-use-bag-valve mask systems. We describe the concept behind the devices and report a characterization of them. Finally, we make a description of the solved and unsolved challenges and propose a series of measures in order to better cope with future contingencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Epoxy; tensile strength; mechanical properties
Online: 10 July 2019 (10:14:48 CEST)
Mechanical response of bisphenol-F based epoxy cured with amine hardener was investigated in tensile testing. Different types of methods were considered in preparing the tensile samples in order to evaluate their effects on the tensile strength of the cured epoxy system. Specifically, four types of preparation methods were discussed to prepare the tensile samples were considered in the study. Further, the effect of different type of tensile samples on tensile strength of specimens was also considered in the analysis. The experimental results showed that the preparation methods affected the tensile strength of the specimens. Starting from the experimental results, an appropriate testing methodology is proposed for epoxy based nanocomposite composite specimens in order to reduce problems that may arise during the test and to optimize procedures for preparation of specimens.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Dental Implants; fatigue; mechanical tests; torque
Online: 24 August 2021 (09:04:13 CEST)
The aim of this study was to compare the screw removal torque of mini conical prosthetic components and straight trunnion of indexed morse taper implants, after mechanical cycling. The sample consisted of 40 implants and 20 mini-conical prosthetic components (MC group) and 20 straight trunnion components (ST group). Each group consisted of 10 specimens, with 2 implants in each, and cobalt-chromium metallic crowns were screwed into each sample. The components of the MC group received a torque of 20 N.cm with a digital torque wrench and after 10 minutes were retightened with the same value as the initial torque. The components of the ST group received a torque of 30 N.cm, with a digital torque wrench and after 10 minutes, they were retightened with the same value. The screws of the respective crowns of the two groups received a torque of 10 N.cm and after 10 minutes were retightened with the same value. Each group was subjected to the fatigue test in a mechanical cycler at 2.000.000 cycles, with a load of 250 N and frequency of 4 Hz. At the end of the fatigue test, the loosening torque of each screw of the specimens was measured through a digital torque wrench. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test. In both groups, there were loss of torque. The results showed no statistic difference between MC and ST groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0458.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: GTR; Recycling; Reuse; Mechanical Properties; Composites
Online: 22 October 2020 (10:40:22 CEST)
Nowadays, the massive use of tires generates large stocks of waste material which is a serious environmental problem. The usual method used for processing wasted tires is mechanical crushing, in which fiber, steel, and rubber are separated. The aim of this research is the recycling of the obtained rubber, called also GTR (Ground Waste Tires). With this purpose, the paper analyses the mechanical properties of the composites produced by mixing GTR with several industrial polymers. These composites are characterized by the percentage of GTR in the composite and its particle size. These two variables along with seven industrial polymers define a set of composites from which the mechanical properties are analyzed and presented. From the results, it can be drawn that this proposal could be a way to enhance some polymer properties and to contribute in some way to reduce the environmental wasted tires problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0464.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Ti3SiC2; Si3N4; mechanical properties; fracture toughness
Online: 29 February 2020 (10:30:51 CET)
In-situ grown C0.3N0.7Ti and SiC, which derived from non-oxide additives Ti3SiC2, are proposed to densify silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramics with enhanced mechanical performance. Remarkable increase of density from 79.20% to 95.48% could be achieved for Si3N4 ceramics with 5vol% Ti3SiC2. The capillarity of decomposed Si from Ti3SiC2, and in-situ reaction between nonstoichiometric TiCx and Si3N4 were believed to be responsible for densification of Si3N4 ceramics. An obvious enhancement of flexural strength and fracture toughness for Ti3SiC2 doped Si3N4 ceramics was observed. The maximum flexural strength of 795 MPa for Si3N4 composites with 5vol% Ti3SiC2 and maximum fracture toughness of 6.97 MPa.m1/2 for Si3N4 composites with 20vol% Ti3SiC2 are achieved when mixed powders are hot-press sintered at 1700℃. Pull out of elongated Si3N4 grains, crack bridging, crack branching and crack deflection were demonstrated to dominate enhance fracture toughness of Si3N4 composites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0136.v1
Online: 11 April 2019 (08:52:43 CEST)
Abstract: Microstructural and mechanical properties of the eutectic Sn58Bi and micro-alloyed Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag solder alloys were compared. With the addition of Ag micro-alloy, the tensile strength was improved and this is attributed to a combination of microstructure refinement and an Ag3Sn precipitation hardening mechanism. However, ductility is slightly deteriorated due to the brittle nature of the Ag3Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs). Additionally, a board level reliability study of Ag micro-alloyed Sn58Bi solder joints produced utilising a surface-mount technology (SMT) process, were assessed under accelerated temperature cycling (ATC) conditions. Results reveal that micro-alloyed Sn57.6Bi0.4Ag has a higher characteristic lifetime with a narrower failure distribution. This enhanced reliability corresponds with improved bulk mechanical properties. It is postulated that Ag3Sn IMCs are located at the Sn-Bi phase boundaries and suppress the solder microstructure from coarsening during the temperature cycling, hereby extending the time to failure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Motion; Inert; Mechanical stimulation; Sensory proteins
Online: 11 January 2019 (15:51:51 CET)
Thought runs through the mind like blood runs through our body to keep us alive. Like the mind, the body does not stay inert and is in constant motion. Not a single cell in our body is left inert unless cell is under stress or dying. These scenarios are reflected upon when a person is sick, the person lies in bed with less movement; however, is active when the person is healthy. The topic of mechanical stimulation has emerged due to the increasing understanding of the physical stimulations we face each day. Further understanding of the mechanically-regulated mechanism can help us explore the pathological events in a disease. Here, we reviewed the role of sensory proteins in pathological events that are observed in cardiomyopathy, cancer, respiratory, renal, obesity, genetics, physical injury and bacterial infection. Taken together, sensory proteins are mechanically-activated which assist reception of external physical stimulation and convert into biochemical to trigger intracellular signaling cascade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0104.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: TRIP-assisted steel; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:37:56 CET)
: The effect that the microstructure exerts on the TRIP phenomenon and on the mechanical properties in a multiphase steel was studied. Samples of an initially cold-rolled ferrite-pearlite steel underwent different intercritical annealing treatments at 750 °C until an equal fractions of austenite/ferrite was reached; the intercritical treatment was followed by isothermal bainitic treatments before cooling the samples to room temperature. Samples in the first treatment were heated directly to the intercritical temperature, whereas other samples were heated to either 900 or 1100 °C to obtain a fully homogenized, single phase austenitic microstructure prior to the conducting the intercritical treatment. The high temperature homogenization of austenite resulted in the decrease in its stability, so a considerable austenite fraction transformed into martensite by cooling to room temperature after the bainitic heat treatment. Most of the retained austenite transformed during the tensile tests, and as a consequence, the previously homogenized steels showed the highest UTS. In turn, the steel with a ferritic-pearlitic initial microstructure, exhibited higher ductility than the other steels and texture components that favor forming processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0320.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: bionic composites; thin films; mechanical properties
Online: 11 July 2018 (13:10:32 CEST)
Regenerated silk (RS) is a protein-based “biopolymer” that enables the design of new materials; here, we called “bionic” the process of regenerated silk production by a fermentation-assisted method. Based on yeast’s fermentation, here we produced a living hybrid composite made of regenerated silk nanofibrils and a single-cell fungi, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast extract, by fermentation of such microorganisms at room temperature in a dissolution bath of silkworm silk fibers. The fermentation-based processing enhances the beta-sheet content of the RS, corresponding to a reduction in water permeability and CO2 diffusion through RS/yeast thin films enabling the fabrication of a mechanically robust film that enhances food storage durability. Finally, a transfer print method, which consists of transferring RS and RS/yeast film layers onto a self-adherent paraffin substrate, was used for the realization of heat-responsive wrinkles by exploiting the high thermal expansion of the paraffin substrate that regulates the applied strain, resulting in a switchable coating morphology from the wrinkle-free state to a wrinkled state if the food temperature overcomes a designed threshold. We envision that such efficient and smart coatings can be applied for the realization of smart packaging that, through such a temperature-sensing mechanism, can be used to control food storage conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0291.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: relativistic energy; energy conservation law; Einstein’s principle of relativity; rest mass in wave motion; relativity of simultaneity; time dilation; Lorentz contraction; mechanical transverse wave; special relativity
Online: 16 September 2021 (14:20:57 CEST)
We study the effect of the generation of the mechanical transverse wave (MTW) travelling in the opposite direction (OD) to a moving medium (MM) on the relativistic energy conservation law (RECL). From the viewpoint of the relativity of simultaneity (RS), the time on the coordinate coinciding with the advance end of the wave (AEW) travelling toward the rear of the MM passes faster than that on the coordinate coinciding with the wave source (WS). Then the AEW in the MM travels forward compared to that in the rest frame of reference (RFR) which is stationary relative to the medium when the time on the coordinate coinciding with the WS is same for each inertial frame of reference (IFR). Hence, the coordinate interval (CI) between the AEW and WS in the MM is observed to be larger than that between them in the RFR. We show that this difference holds true for the CI of any portion having transverse velocities mutually converted by the Lorentz transformation (LT). This difference in the CI leads to that in the rest mass (RM). We demonstrate that the RM included in wave motion (WM) in the MM is larger than one included in WM in the RFR when comparing the portions having transverse velocities mutually converted by the LT. This relation holds true for all portions in WM. Therefore, the total coordinate interval of the portion (CIP) and total RM (TRM) included in WM in the MM (WMMM) are large compared to them included in WM in the RFR. Furthermore, we compare the relativistic kinetic energy (RKE) of the MTW travelling in the OD to the MM (ODMM) with that of the MTW propagating in the direction vertical to the moving direction of the medium. We prove that the CIP and RM included in the former MTW are larger than them included in the latter MTW when comparing each portion with the same transverse velocity (TV). Moreover, the total CIP and TRM included in the former MTW are also large compared to them included in the latter MTW. The reason for these is that the latter CIP and RM are equal to them in the RFR when comparing the portions having transverse velocities mutually converted by the LT. On the other hand, the energy supplied to generate each MTW is the same. From these, we demonstrate that the RKE of the MTW travelling in the ODMM can be larger than the total relativistic energy (TRE) of the MTW propagating in the direction vertical to the moving direction of the medium. Consequently, we propose a violation of the RECL and Einstein’s principle of relativity (EPR) because the TRE is not necessarily conserved in the IFR in which the medium is moving.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0270.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: TiB2/Cr; Multilayer; Mechanical properties; Coherent interface
Online: 19 September 2022 (08:37:16 CEST)
Alternating TiB2-dcMS and Cr-HiPIMS layers are used to fabricate TiB2/Cr multilayer films. In-troducing a 5-nm-thick Cr interlayer deposited under a substrate bias of -60 V produces slight increases of both film hardness and elastic modulus. The TEM observation indicates that the Cr grains favor epitaxially growth on TiB2 interlayer, forming a coherent TiB2/Cr interface. This produces the hardness increasement. Mechanic measurement by using AFM illustrates that the coherent interface increases the elastic modulus of the Cr up to ~280 GPa, which is significantly higher than bulk material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0240.v2
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: graphene; dry ice; mechanical milling; magnesium oxide
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:44:03 CET)
Although the dry ice method used to synthesize exfoliated graphite/graphene is little known and used, it has significant advantages over others: it is low cost, simple, and a large quantity of material can be obtained using some inorganic and highly available acids (which can be reused). Despite the above advantages, the main reason for its incipient development is the resulting presence of magnesium oxide in the final product. In the present work, three different treat-ments were tested to remove this remnant using some acid chemical leaching processes, making use of hydrochloric acid, aqua regia, and piranha solution. Based on the experimental evidence, it was found that using aqua regia and combining the leaching process with mechanical milling was the most efficient way of removing such a remnant, the residue being only 0.9 wt.%. This value is low when compared to that obtained with the other acid leaching solutions and purifi-cation process (2.8 - 29.6 wt.%). A mandatory high-energy mechanical milling stage was neces-sary during this treatment, in order to expose and dissolve the highly insoluble oxide without secondary chemical reactions on the graphenes. High-energy mechanical milling is an effective route to exfoliate graphite/graphene, which allows the magnesium oxide to be more susceptible to acid treatment. The obtained surface area was 504 m2g-1; this high value resulting from the in-tense exfoliation can potentiate the use of this material for a wide variety of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0661.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: LMOGs; organogels; lipsticks; formulation; photoprotection; mechanical properties
Online: 27 May 2021 (09:14:52 CEST)
With the increase in occupation-specific risks of lip cancer associated with solar radiation, there is a need for developing photoprotective lipsticks to protect skin against harmful effects of UV radiation. Considering the unique chemical and physical properties of low-molecular-weight organogelators (LMOGs), the present study intended to assess the UV protective properties of LMOGs-based lipstick formulations. In this study, dibenzylidene-D-sorbitol (DBS) and 12-hydroxystearic acid (12-HSA) were used to formulate lipsticks : L1 (1% DBS), L2 (10% 12-HSA), L3 (1.5% DBS) and L4 (control, no LMOGs). The lipstick formulations were tested for in vitro sun protection factors (SPF), UVA protection factor (UVA-PF), thermal, mechanical and texture analyses. Lipsticks with LMOGs exhibited higher UVA-PF and SPF, and more particularly 12-HSA-based lipstick. Results showed also the viscoelastic and heat-resistant properties of LMOGs and their effect of increasing pay-off values. In general, texture analysis indicating that 12-HSA-based lipstick was significantly harder to bend compared to control, while other formulations became softer and easier to bend throughout the stability study. Finally, sensorial and instrumental analyses permitted to classify lipsticks into two groups. This work suggests the potential use of LMOGs as a structuring agent for lipsticks paving the way towards more photoprotective and sustainable-derived alternatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Mechanical transmissions; 2T6R robot; kinematic; direct kinematics.
Online: 2 March 2021 (09:04:51 CET)
The paper deals with the problems of direct kinematics related to a 2T6R robot, the direct kinematics of the plane mechanism of the robot. The direct kinematics of this proposed new robot help to study the movement, including the dynamic one, to determine the forces in the mechanism and to model the possible trajectories of the final effector point, thus determining the robot's working space and some of its multiple possible uses. Two totally different methods were used to verify the calculation relations, the results obtained by both methods being practically identical. The first method used is an original trigonometric method, and the second is an original geometrically analytical method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0568.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: die forging; isothermal annealing; thermo-mechanical treatment
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:13:53 CET)
The article discusses the results of investigations performed during a thermo-mechanical treatment of forgings made of chromium-molybdenum 42CrMo4 grade steel. The treatment was realized during a regular series production. The forging process was combined with a heat treatment carried out directly after forging on a specially adapted station. Such a production technology will make it possible to eliminate the step of repeated heating of the forgings. On the example of an element of a steering gear, it was demonstrated how it is possible to perform an isothermal annealing process starting from the temperature at which the trimming of the forgings ends. During the cooling of the forgings, it is enough to maintain the temperature at the proper level in order for the exothermal phase transformation of austenite into pearlite to take place. With an appropriate design of the processing line, the heat released during the transformation could be used to maintain the applied temperature, thus limiting the consumption of energy needed to power the devices. The test results show that, with the properly selected temperature of isothermal annealing, it is possible to obtain an equilibrial ferritic-pearlitic structure in the required hardness scope. Introducing such a solution into the industrial practice would allow significant savings of the energy used for the heat treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0660.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Alloy; nanocomposite; magnesium; synthesis; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 26 November 2020 (10:29:31 CET)
The present study investigated the effects of alloying and nano-reinforcement on the mechanical properties (microhardness, tensile strength, and compressive strength) of Mg-based alloys and composites. Pure Mg, Mg-3Sn alloy, and Mg-3Sn+0.2GNP alloy-nanocomposite were synthesized by powder metallurgy followed by hot extrusion. The microstructural characteristics of the bulk extruded samples were explored using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy and their mechanical properties were compared. The microhardness, tensile strength, and compressive strength of the Mg-3Sn alloy improved when compared to those of monolithic Mg sample and further improvements were displayed by Mg-3Sn+0.2GNP alloy-nanocomposite. No significant change in the compressive strain to failure was observed in both the alloy and the alloy-nanocomposite with respect to that of the pure Mg sample. However, an enhanced tensile strain to failure was displayed by both the alloy and the alloy-nanocomposite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0381.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: trolleybus brushes; recycling; mechanical and electrical properties
Online: 19 October 2020 (13:24:38 CEST)
The paper presents an analysis of the possibility of producing traction brushes from waste materials. Brushes are used to ensure good electrical contact between the rail and the pantograph. Slides are produced in the process of hot pressing, with parameters of heating up to max 175 ⁰C, at the minimal pressure value of 200 MPa. The developed brushes with a high (55-60%) content of recycled materials have comparable characteristics to commercial brushes, and some of the prototypes are even more durable and break-resistant.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0429.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: mechanical stress; vicious cycle; midkine; ARDS; GTEx
Online: 26 May 2020 (11:26:52 CEST)
The SARS-Cov-2 virus, which causes COVID 19, uses the cell surface protein ACE2 as receptor for entry into cells. Critically ill COVID-19 patients often require prolonged mechanical ventilation which can cause mechanical stress to lung tissue. In vitro studies have shown that expression of ACE2 in alveolar cells is increased following mechanical stretch and inflammation. Therefore, we analyzed transcriptome datasets of 480 (non-COVID-19) lung tissues in the GTex tissue gene expression database. We found that mechanical ventilation of the tissue donors increased the expression of ACE2 by more than two-fold (p<10-6). Analyses of transcriptomes of mechanically ventilated mice in the GEO database indicate that this alveolar cell response to stretch and inflammation is mediated by the chemokine midkine. Using a novel big knowledge network approach (SPOKE) we also found in transcriptomes of pharmacological perturbations (LINCS) that corticosteroids down-regulate midkine in pulmonal cells, and confirmed this in GEO transcriptomes of animal studies. Thus, mechanical ventilation of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia may eo ipso facilitate viral propagation in the lung, further accelerating the pulmonal pathology that has necessitated mechanical ventilation in the first place. This vicious cycle presents a rationale for the temporary treatment with corticosteroids to modulate the midkine-ACE2 axis in ventilated COVID19 patients and for gentler ventilation protocols.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0214.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: geopolymers; metakaolin; biomass bottom ash; mechanical properties
Online: 16 December 2019 (11:15:41 CET)
In this research, the feasibility of using bottom ashes generated by the combustion of biomass (olive pruning and pine pruning) as a source of aluminosilicates (OPBA) has been studied, replacing the metakaolin precursor (MK) in different proportions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 wt. % substitution) for the synthesis of geopolymers. As alkaline activator an 8 M NaOH solution and a Na2SiO3 have been used. The geopolymers were cured 24 hours in a climatic chamber at 60 ° C in a water-saturated atmosphere, subsequently demoulded and cured at room temperature for 28 days. The results indicated that the incorporation of OPBA waste, which have 19.7 wt. % of Ca, modifies the characteristics of the products formed after alkaline activation. In general terms, the incorporation of increasing amounts of calcium-rich ashes results in geopolymers with higher bulk density. The compressive strength increases with the addition of up to 50 wt. % of OPBA with respect to the control geopolymers, contributing the composition of the residue to the acquisition of a better behaviour mechanical. The results indicate the potential use of these OPBA waste as raw material to produce unconventional cements with 28-day curing strengths greater than 10 MPa, and thermal conductivities less than 0.35 W/mK.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0169.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: mortar mosaic; volubilis; characterization; mineralogical; testing; mechanical.
Online: 12 December 2019 (09:59:49 CET)
The objective of this study is to conduct a mineralogical and chemical characterization of the mortars Roman archaeological site of Volubilis to rebuild spare mortars for restoration. We take samples of mortar, broken tile palate garden, and pavement mosaic Falavius Germanus houses. The analysis by X-ray diffraction reveals the coarse mortar Flavius Germanus is made of quartz and calcite with feldspar and probably, mica and dolomite in small amounts. The binder end is formed calcite and quartz. However, the broken tile mortar is formed by coarse particles, clay base mixed with a binder phase dominated by calcite. These results allowed us to reformulate spare mortars for the restoration of damaged Roman mosaics. The mortars are made up by 63.6% of lime and 36.4% of sand(with 4.19% of large grain, 71, 04% of coarse sand, 24.22%, of fine sand and 0.55% fines parts).The performance of these mortars was tested by mechanical testing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0182.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: electrical properties; mechanical properties; recycling, epoxy resin
Online: 16 October 2019 (09:37:44 CEST)
In this work we produced biochar by coffee waste and use it as filler in epoxy resin composite with the aim to increase their electrical properties. The biochar and biochar based composite electrical conductivity were studied in function of applied pressure and compared with carbon black and carbon black composite. The applied pressure has the aim to investigate the behaviour of filler in powder or dispersed in composite in function of compression. Results showed that even if the coffee biochar has less conductivity if compared with carbon black in powder form, it has better conductivity in composite if compared with carbon black. Composite mechanical properties were tested and they are generally improved respect to neat epoxy resin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0344.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: brazing; alumina dispersion-strengthened copper; mechanical test
Online: 19 July 2018 (05:18:58 CEST)
Alumina dispersion-strengthened copper, Glidcop, is used widely in high-heat-load ultra-high-vacuum components for synchrotron light sources (absorbers), accelerator components (beam intercepting devices) and in nuclear power plants. Glidcop has similar thermal and electrical properties to OFE (oxygen free electrical) copper, but has superior mechanical properties, thus making it a feasible structural material; its yield and ultimate strength are equivalent to those of mild-carbon steel. The purpose of this work has been to develop a brazing technique to join Glidcop to Mo, using a commercial Cu-based alloy. The effects of the excessive diffusion of the braze along the grain boundaries on the interfacial chemistry and joint microstructure, as well as on the mechanical performance of the brazed joints, has been investigated. In order to prevent the diffusion of the braze into the Glidcop alloy, a copper barrier layer has been deposited on Glidcop by means of RF-sputtering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0074.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: titanium matrix composites; microstructure; mechanical properties; forging
Online: 6 June 2018 (05:54:56 CEST)
In this study, a 5vol. % (TiBw+TiCp)/Ti composite pancake with a diameter of 260mm was prepared by casting followed by open die forging in (α+β) phase region. The microstructures of the composite pancake are inhomogeneous, in terms of both matrix microstructure and distribution of reinforcements. The matrix microstructures were gradually refined from the periphery to centre of the pancake. The TiBw and TiCp reinforcements tend to be uniformly distributed in the centre region and. It is suggested that the microstructure difference can be mainly ascribed to the temperature variation from the periphery to the centre. Additionally, tensile testing results showed that the centre region of the composite pancake exhibits higher strength than the peripheral region. The strengthening mechanism and the softening behavior of the composite pancake with temperature is discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: two-dimensional semiconductor; first-principles; mechanical; thermal
Online: 14 May 2018 (11:46:59 CEST)
In this short communication, we conducted first-principles calculations to explore the stability of boron monochalcogenides (BX, X=S, Se or Te), as a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. We predicted BX monolayers with two different atomic stacking sequences of ABBA and ABBC, referred in this work to 2H and 1T, respectively. Analysis of phonon dispersions confirm the dynamical stability of BX nanosheets with the both 2H and 1T atomic lattices. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal the outstanding thermal stability of all predicted monolayers at high temperatures over 1500 K. BX structures were found to exhibit high elastic modulus and tensile strengths. It was found that BS and BTe nanosheets can show high stretchability, comparable to that of the graphene. It was found that all predicted monolayers exhibit semiconducting electronic character, in which 2H structures present lower band-gaps as compared with 1T lattices. The band-gap values were found to decrease from BS to BTe. According to the HSE06 results, 1T-BS and 2H-BTe show respectively, the maximum (4.0 eV) and minimum (2.06 eV) electronic band-gaps. This investigation introduces boron monochalcogenides as a novel class of 2D semiconductors with remarkable thermal, dynamical and mechanical stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0120.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water distribution; management; mechanical reliability; risk assessment
Online: 13 February 2018 (16:04:12 CET)
The management of existing water distribution system (WDS) is challenged by ageing of infrastructure, population growth, increasing of urbanization, climate change impacts and environmental pollution. Therefore, there is a need for integrated solutions that support decision makers to plan today, while taking into account the effect of these factors in the mid and long term. The paper is part of a more comprehensive project, where advanced hydraulic analysis for WDS is coupled with a dynamic resources input-output analysis model. The proposed modeling solution can be used to optimize the performance of a water supply system while considering also the energy consumption and consequently the environmental impacts. Therefore, as a support tool in the management of a water supply system also in the intervention planning. Here a possible application is presented for rehabilitation/replacement planning while maximizing the network mechanical reliability and minimizing risk of unsupplied demand and pressure deficit, under given economic constraints.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0236.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: noise pollution; mechanical wood industries; equipment; control
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:03:57 CEST)
High level of noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Noise in industries is also an occupational hazard because of its attendant effects on workers’ health. Noise presents health and social problems in industrial operations, and the source is related to the machineries used in the industries. One of the unique features of the noise associated with wood machinery is the level of exposure and duration. Equipment used in a factory can be extremely loud. They can produce noise at decibels high enough to cause environmental health and safety concerns. The mechanically driven transport and handling equipment, cutting, milling, shaping and dust extractor installations in the wood industry generate noise. The sources of noise pollution have increased due to non-compliance with basic safety practices. The increased use of locally fabricated machine in the industry has increased the level of noise and vibration. The effects of industrial noise pollution as discussed include: increase in blood pressure; increased stress; fatigue; vertigo; headaches; sleep disturbance; annoyance; speech problems; dysgraphia, which means reading/learning impairment; aggression; anxiety and withdrawal. As presented in this paper, noise control techniques include; sound insulation, sound absorption, vibration damping and Vibration isolation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0471.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Biodegradable polymers; Nanocomposite; Ultrasound-assisted; Mechanical properties; Montmorillonite
Online: 28 September 2021 (12:27:17 CEST)
The preparation of new materials based on starch for the development of biodegradable packaging is increasing, however, the poor properties of this biopolymer for this application causes an area of opportunities for the improvement of water vapour permeability (WVP), mechanical properties, thermal properties, hydrophilicity, water absorption, among others. Hence, starch has been combined with other polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, which has shown an improvement in the mechanical properties of starch, also, the use of clays suggests that the properties of response to water can be improved. Therefore, in this work, the preparation and characterization of starch-PVA-nanoclay films prepared by solvent casting is reported. The results obtained suggest that the sonication of nanoclay is necessary to reach a good dispersion, which promotes a strong interaction among starch-PVA-nanoclay. In addition, the properties of WVP and mechanical properties of films improved with incorporation of nanoclay, the concentration of 0.5% w/v of nanoclay showed to be the best concentration due to concentrations of 1.0 and 1.5% w/v were poorer than 0.5% w/v. Accordingly, the successful incorporation of nanoclays into the matrix starch-PVA suggests that this material is a good candidate for use as packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0330.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: critical care; enteral feeding; mechanical ventilation; nutritional status
Online: 10 June 2021 (14:21:06 CEST)
Objective: This study aims to identify the impact of nutritional factors on mechanical ventilation duration for critical patients. Patients and Methods: The current study was a single-center, prospective observational design which enrolled one-hundred critically ill patients who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). It demonstrates purposive sampling and also performs the descriptive nutritional factors influencing the mechanical ventilation duration. Daily calories target requirement scale (DCRS), subjective global assessment form (SGA), dyspnea assessment form, and APACHE II have been used as methods in the study along with time to initial enteral nutrition (EN) after 24-hour admission and daily calories target requirement over 7 days to assess patients. Data is analyzed using the multiple regressions. Results: As a result, nutritional status monitoring, time to initial EN, calories and target requirements are statistically positive significance associated with the mechanical ventilation duration respectively (R = 0.54, R = 0.30, R= 0.40, p < 0.05). However, age, illness severity, and dyspnea scales are not associated with the mechanical ventilation duration (p> 0.05). Therefore, the nutritional status, malnutrition scores and calorie target requirements can be used to significantly predict the mechanical ventilation duration. The predictive power is 58 and 28.0% of variance. The most proper influencer to predict the mechanical ventilation duration is nutritional status or malnutrition scores. Conclusion: The research findings show that the nutritional status, time to initial EN, and calorie target requirement within 7 days of admission are associated with the mechanical ventilation duration in the critical patients. Therefore, it can be used to develop guidelines reducing the mechanical ventilation duration and to promote the ventilator halting for critical patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0514.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: optical fiber; distributed sensor; mechanical vibrations; ϕ-OTDR
Online: 28 May 2021 (13:48:46 CEST)
The distributed long-range sensing system using the standard telecommunication single-mode optical fiber in a function of a distributed sensor for sensing of mechanical vibrations is described. Various events generating vibrations such as walking or running person, moving cars, trains and others can be detected, localized and classified. The sensor and related sensing system components were designed and constructed and the system was tested both in the laboratory and in the real situation with 88 km telecom optical link, and the results are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0570.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Polymethyl methacrylate, Cycloolefin copolymer, Mechanical test, Electron Beam
Online: 24 May 2021 (13:26:07 CEST)
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a transparent thermoplastic with excellent optical properties, transparent surface, low moisture absorption, tensile and electrical resistance. In this study, the alloy was prepared through PMMA and cycloolefin copolymer (COC) due to some similar properties. The mechanical test showed that properties such as impact resistance, elongation, tensile, and flexural strength decreased by adding COC by up to 20% due to less incompatibility and miscibility, but mentioned properties improved by adding COC 40% due to sub-phase generation. The DSC and DMTA tests showed improvement in the thermal properties of alloys by adding 40% COC. SEM micrographs exhibited a softer surface and more phase elongation of the alloy. Finally, the sample was selected as the optimal sample in terms of mechanical properties irradiated by electron beam, and amplification results showed that a dose of 50 KGY increased the mechanical and thermal properties relatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0573.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; stainless steel; microstructure; mechanical properties; simulation
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:18:37 CEST)
Metal 3D printing technology is a promising manufacturing method, especially in the case of complex shapes. The quality of the printed product is still a challenging issue for mechanical applications. The anisotropy of the microstructure, imperfections, and residual stress are some of the issues that diminish the mechanical properties of the printed sample. The simulation could be used to investigate some technical details, and this research has tried to computationally study the metal 3D printing of austenitic stainless steel to address austenite microstructure and local yield strength. Two computational codes were developed in Visual basics 2015 to simulate the local heating/cooling curve and subsequent austenite microstructure. A stochastic computational code was developed to simulate austenite grain morphology based on calculated thermal history. Then Hall-Pitch equation was used to estimate the yield strength of the printed sample. These codes were used to simulate the effect of temperature of the printer’s chamber on microstructure and subsequent yield strength. The austenite grain topology is more columnar at a lower temperature. The percentage of the equiaxed zone will be increased at a higher chamber’s temperature. Almost a fully equiaxed austenite microstructure will be achieved at 800 C chamber’s temperature, but the last printed layer, which is columnar and can be removed by cutting then. The estimated local austenite grain size and the local yield strength in the equiaxed regions are in the range of 15 to 30 μm and 270 to 330 MPa at 800 C temperature of printer’s chamber, respectively.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; ARDS; PEEP; mechanical ventilation; transpulmonary pressure
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:24:29 CEST)
With the emergence of COVID-19 we are confronted with a new clinical picture of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the intensive care unit. In the majority of patients, the respiratory mechanics are very different from the “normal” ARDS patient. We measured transpulmonary pressure and dead space ventilation to assess the effects of high and low PEEP levels on lung compliance and ventilation-perfusion mismatching. Advanced respiratory mechanics were assessed in 14 patients. Compared to ARDS patients, lung compliance was relatively high (61 ± 5 mL/cmH2O). COVID-19 patients had high dead space ventilation and gas exchange impairment (Bohr 52 ± 3%; Enghoff modification 67 ± 2%; ventilatory ratio 2.24 ± 0.23). we show that higher PEEP levels decrease lung compliance and in most cases increase dead space ventilation, indicating that high PEEP levels probably cause hyperinflation in patients with COVID-19. We suggest using prone position for an extended period of time, and apply lower PEEP levels as much as possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0285.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: additive manufacturing; biyomedikal alloy; micro structure; mechanical properties.
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:24:36 CEST)
The Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si) and Molybdenum (Mo) doped Co-Cr biomedical alloy were fabricated by additive manufacturing method, which is part of powder metadology. The mixture of Wolfram (W), Silicium (Si), Chrome (Cr) and Cobalt (Co) alloy is known good wear and corrosion resistance among of biomedical applications. By addition of Molybdenum (Mo) into the structure of alloy, the structure become more stbale also increase the corrosion and wear resistance. In addition, the effects of secondary annealing process on the alloy were investigated. The microstructure of the produced alloy was analyzed by X-ray diffraction method XRD, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis EDX and scanning electron microscope SEM. Moreover, Electrochemical corrosion test, micro hardness and density measurements were performed to investigate the mechanical properties of the alloy. As a result of the analyzes, the effects of Molydenum (Mo) doped and secondary annealing on the microstructure and mechanical properties of bioalloying were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0516.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: grass pea; bioplastics; mechanical properties; transglutaminase; zeta potential
Online: 23 October 2018 (04:23:21 CEST)
The aim of this work was to prepare bioplastics from renewable and biodegradable molecules. In particular, the bioplastics were produced by using as biopolymer source the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) flour, the proteins of which were structurally modified by means of microbial transglutaminase, an enzyme able to catalyze isopeptide bonds between glutamines and lysines. We analyzed, by means of Zeta-potential, the flour suspension with the aim to choose which pH is more stable for the production of film-forming solutions. The bioplastics were produced by casting and they were characterized according to several technological properties. Optical analysis demonstrated that films cast in the presence of the microbial enzyme are more transparent compared to the untreated ones. Moreover, the visualization by Scanning Electron Microscopy demonstrated that the enzyme-modified films possessed a more compact and homogeneous structure. Furthermore, the presence of microbial transglutaminase allowed to obtain film more mechanically resistant. Finally, digestion experiments under physiological conditions performed in order to obtain information useful for applying these novel biomaterials as carriers in the industrial field, indicated that the enzyme-treated coatings might allow the delivery of bioactive molecules in the gastro-intestinal tract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0330.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: elastic properties; laser ultrasonic; mechanical behavior; fiber-network
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:16:18 CEST)
For development and successful application of any material, a clear understanding of their mechanical behavior is one of the most important things, but when it comes to nanofibers networks it become a challenge due to, their high porosity, many scales in their structure, and characteristics non-linear. Therefore, an experimental methodology in conjunction with a theoretical model that can fully consider their characteristics is still needed. In this work we proposed a model that incorporates the propagation of the elastic waves in two-phase media to determine the effective elastic modulus of electrospun membranes of PLA/gelatin given the mechanical properties of nanofibers, shape, distribution and concentration. The model was verified via laser ultrasonic testing. It was found that the values predicted for the effective modulus by the model were higher than the values obtained from experimental results. One explanation is due to the experimental density. As a result, the P-Wave velocity from the model best fit to experimental results and it has the same behavior, decrees as the concentration of gelatin in the solution. These results indicate the model and experimental methodology can assist in the dressing of nanofibers networks and electrospun materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0328.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: vacuum brazing; metallic glasses; Ti-alloy; mechanical properties
Online: 21 June 2018 (04:12:23 CEST)
The developed microstructure features a long with mechanical properties in vacuum brazing of commercially pure Ti-alloy using Ti20Zr20Cu60-x-Nix (x=10, 20, 30, 40 and 50) metallic filler. Brazing temperatures and holding times employed in this study were 1240-1279 K (967-1006oC) for a period of 10 min, respectively. The mechanical properties of brazed joints were evaluated by nanoindention at a constant peak load of 5000 μN and tensile tests. The number of intermetallic phase, such as NiTi2, Ti2Cu, (Ti, Zr)2Cu, (Ti, Zr)2Ni, β(Ti, Zr), α-Ti and NiTi. The solid solution matrix have been identified at 1279 K out of these different regions the NiTi2 rich region had the highest nanohardness of 17 GPa, It is interesting to note that among five different glasses, the Ti20Zr20Cu10Ni50 has the highest yield strength of 17 GPa, which is mainly due to NiTi2 phase. Based on the tensile test results all cracks propagate along the brittle intermetallic compounds like NiTi2 in the reaction layer the reduction of the strength of the joints and fracture behaviour upon propagation of the crack, which shows the morphological cleavage including facets characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cu6Sn5 whiskers; Ag3Sn fibers; mechanical property; screw dislocation
Online: 16 March 2017 (08:50:05 CET)
Cu6Sn5 whiskers precipitated in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu interconnection in concentrator silicon solar cells solder layer were found and investigated after reflow soldering and during aging. Ag3Sn fibers can be observed around Cu6Sn5 whiskers in the matrix microstructure, which can play an active effect on the reliability of interconnection. Different morphologies of Cu6Sn5 whiskers can be observed, and hexagonal rod structure is the main morphology of Cu6Sn5 whiskers. A hollow structure can be observed in hexagonal Cu6Sn5 whiskers, and a screw dislocation mechanism was used to represent the Cu6Sn5 growth. Based on mechanical property testing and finite element simulation, Cu6Sn5 whiskers were regarded as having a negative effect on the durability of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu/Cu interconnection in concentrator silicon solar cells solder layer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0112.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PEEK; blends; thermal stability; tribological properties; mechanical properties
Online: 25 January 2017 (10:03:49 CET)
In this study, 10%PTFE/PEEK blend were modified by potassium titanate whisker (PTW) and chopped glass fiber (GF), respectively. The blends were prepared by three-screw extruder. Through the investigation of thermal stability, tribological properties, mechanical properties and rheological behavior, the effects of reinforcing agents were determined. The results illustrated that the mechanical properties of 10%PTFE/PEEK blend can be dramatically improved by adding reinforcing agent of PTW or GF, and the reinforcing effect of GF was especially obvious. As for tribological properties, 1% addition was the best proportion. The friction coefficient and wear rate of the blend with 1% PTW were 0.283 and 4.97 × 10-6 mm3/N · m, which decreased by 7.2% and 21% compared with those of the blend without reinforcing agent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0147.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: piezoresistive sensor; electron microscope; in situ mechanical test
Online: 30 December 2016 (04:16:25 CET)
In this work, we designed a MEMS device which allows simultaneous direct measurement of mechanical properties during deformation under external stress and characterization of the evolution of microstructure of nanomaterials within a transmission electron microscope. This MEMS device makes it easy to establish the correlation between microstructure and mechanical properties of nanomaterials. The device uses piezoresistive sensors to qualitatively measure the force and displacement of nanomaterials, e.g., in wire and thin plate forms. The device has a theoretical displacement resolution of 0.19 nm and a force resolution of 2.1 μN. The device has a theoretical displacement range limit of 2.74 μm and a load range limit of 27.75 mN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0099.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PET; Petroleum Coke; Mechanical Alloying; Thermal studies; XRD
Online: 9 August 2016 (14:22:43 CEST)
The thermal degradation behaviour of 10:90 and 90:10 blends of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) and petroleum coke has been investigated using mechanical alloying (milling) at 300 rpm and for periods up to 1-10 hours. Milled specimens were characterised using SEM and x-ray diffraction; their thermal degradation behaviour was investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyser (TGA) for temperatures up to 1200°C. Whereas PET specimens showed a tendency towards flattening out and increased surface area during collisions in ball mills, petroleum coke particles tended to break down into smaller particles. 10:90 and 90:10 blends of PET and coke showed significant microstructural evolution with increasing speeds and time including fracture, strain hardening and re-welding. X-ray diffraction results showed clear evidence for increasing amorphous component in petroleum coke without much influence on PET crystallinity. Thermo-gravimetric results showed a significant increase in the overall degradation and much higher weight losses associated with mechanical alloying. This study has shown that mechanical alloying could be used to modify the degradation behaviour of coke/plastic blends and corresponding yield during pyrolysis with implications for plastic waste management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0222.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: machine learning; CNT-reinforced cement-based composites; mechanical attributes
Online: 15 March 2022 (16:50:44 CET)
Time and cost-efficient techniques are essential to avoid extra conventional experimental studies with large date-set to characterize the mechanical properties of composite materials. Correlation between the structural performance and mechanical properties could be captured through the efficient predictive models. Several ensembled Machine Learning (ML) methods were implemented in this study, to materially characterize carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced cement-based composites. Proposed models were compared with each other to represent the accuracy of each method. The Flexural and Compressive Strength (target values) of CNT reinforced composites were predicted based on the data-rich framework provided in previous experimental investigations. These data were utilized for training of the proposed models by employing SciKit-Learn library in Python, followed by hyper-parameter tuning and k-fold cross-validation method for obtaining an efficient model to predict the target values. Random Forest (RF) and Gradient Boosting Machine (GBM) were developed for this purpose. The findings of this study would be useful for prospective composite designers in case of sufficient experimental data availability for ML model training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0063.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; wear analysis; mechanical properties; H13 tool steel
Online: 3 February 2022 (16:18:57 CET)
The paper contains the results of the 100-hour test campaign of the Additive Manufactured (AM) spare part (retainer – slipper) dedicated for an exact axial piston pump. The material of the retainer-slipper has been identified by using energy dispersive spectroscopy and replaced by other – with similar material properties as the original one. The obtained spare part had been subjected to only one postprocessing type (sandblasting) to analyze the influence of the rough part after the AM process. The whole test campaign has been divided into stages, where after each stage microscopic measurements have been made. During microscopical investigation roughness and geometrical measurements were conducted. The results revealed that it is possible to replace parts in hydraulic pumps with the use of AM. 100-hour test campaign caused about 500% increase in the surface roughness of the pump’s original part which was cooperated with the AM spare retainer-slipper, without any damages to the test system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0189.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum mechanical foundations; Deutsch closed timelike curves; Darwinian evolution
Online: 13 January 2022 (13:18:01 CET)
Closed timelike curves (CTCs), non-intuitive theoretical solutions of general relativity field equations can be modelled in quantum mechanics in a way, known as Deutsch-CTCs, to circumvent one of their most paradoxical implications, namely, the so-called grandfather paradox. An outstanding theoretical result of this model is the demonstration that in the presence of a Deutsch-CTC a classical computer would be computationally equivalent to a quantum computer. In the present study, the possible implications of such a striking result for the foundations of quantum mechanics and the connections between classicality and quantumness are explored. To this purpose, a model for fundamental particles that interact in physical space exchanging carriers of momentum and energy is considered. Every particle is then supplemented with an information space in which a probabilistic classical Turing machine is stored. It is analysed whether, through the action of Darwinian evolution, both a classical algorithm coding the rules of quantum mechanics and an anticipation module might plausibly be developed on the information space from initial random behaviour. The simulation of a CTC on the information space of the particle by means of the anticipation module would imply that fundamental particles, which do not possess direct intrinsic quantum features from first principles in this information-theoretic Darwinian approach, could however generate quantum emergent behaviour in real time as a consequence of Darwinian evolution acting on information-theoretic physical systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0425.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: ignimbrite pe; petrography; physico-mechanical properties; color; cultural heritage
Online: 28 October 2021 (07:39:30 CEST)
The petrographic and petrophysical characteristics of three varieties of ignimbrites used in the architectural heritage of Arequipa (southwest Peru) are analyzed. The modal classification QAFP and TAS diagram discriminate their dacitic nature. Mercury injection porometry revealed very high porosity: 46.5% for white and beige ignimbrites and 35.5% for the pink variety. Ignimbrites contain intrusions of vulcanodetrital fragments and vacuoles that influence their predominantly non-linear mechanical behavior. Results of water absorption by capillarity (C) and ultrasound pulse velocity (UPV) demonstrated a slight anisotropy for the beige variety and near isotropy for white and pink ignimbrites, which justify the randomness of the application of the ashlars in the masonry and in the selection of the faces to carve. Surfaces with hollows in the white and beige ignimbrites are the result of the erosion of the acicular pumice that fills the vacuoles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0040.v1
Subject: Keywords: Nanocomposite Films; Mechanical Properties; Water Vapor Permeability; Food Packaging
Online: 2 September 2021 (12:48:03 CEST)
The concern about consuming eco-friendly products has motivated research in the development of new materials. Therefore, films based on natural polymers have been used to replace traditional polymers. This study consists of a production of films based on gelatin reinforced with black pepper essential oil-loaded nanoemulsions and Cloisite Na+. The films were characterized by water vapor permeability, mechanical and thermal properties, surface contact angle, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It was observed that the films containing the nanoemulsion have higher permeability values and an increase in their mechanical resistance. The addition of nanoclay contributed to an increase in the surface hydrophobicity of the film and an increase in the tensile strength at break by about 150%. The addition of essential oil nanoemulsions led to an increase in thermal stability. The presence of clay dispersion contributed to the formation of a surface that was slightly rougher and grainier. The addition of the black pepper essential oil nanoemulsion resulted in an increase in porosity of the gelatin matrix. Through X-ray diffraction analysis, it was possible to conclude that both the polymeric gelatin matrix and the essential oils nanoemulsion are intercalated with the clay dispersion.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0388.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Sclera tissue; biaxial testing; soft tissue mechanics; mechanical properties
Online: 18 August 2021 (14:25:26 CEST)
A better understanding of diseases progress in tissues vest on the accurate understanding of tissues under mechanical loading. Also, development of therapies for injuries may depend on the available mechanical data for soft tissues. In this study, the raw data of biaxial tensile testing of sclera soft tissue is presented in this paper. Biaxial mechanical testing of soft tissues presents details understanding of how soft tissues behave when compared to uniaxial testing. Biomechanical properties of soft tissues are vital in the development of accurate computational models. Reliable computational models of studying mechanisms of diseases depends mainly on the accurate and more details mechanical behavior of soft tissues. These accurate and detailed computational models may be utilized to further develop the understanding and therapies of various diseases. The mechanical tensile testing was conducted on the passive sheep sclera. Engineering stress vs strain of several samples of the sheep sclera are further presented determined from force and displacement experimental data. The goal of this paper is to make available biaxial data of sheep sclera soft tissue that can be further utilized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0035.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: presplitting, smooth blasting, line drilling, mechanical cutting, controlled blasting.
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:56:17 CEST)
The strictness of the result of an excavation, whether mechanical or by means of explosives, is naturally conditioned by the objective, and therefore by the type of technique applied to achieve it. To attain the best results in terms of rock breakage and respect of the final profile, it’s important to evaluate the excavation specific energy and its optimization. This research focuses on evaluating the effects of different techniques on the quality of final walls in open-pit and underground operations. Different geometries and configurations can be applied to both quarrying and tunnelling blasts. The research is aimed to push contour blasts to their limits, and the main aspects are discussed in order to improve the blast parameters in the daily practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Intensive Care Units; Workforce; Mechanical Ventilation; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Online: 8 July 2021 (13:34:14 CEST)
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the number of nurses who independently care for pa-tients with severe respiratory failure receiving mechanical ventilation (MV) or veno-venous ex-tracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). Additionally, the study analyzed the actual role of nurses in the treatment of patients with MV and VV-ECMO. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using postal surveys. The study included 725 Japanese intensive care units (ICUs). Descriptive statistics were conducted. Results: Among the 725 ICUs, we obtained 302 re-sponses (41.7%) and analyzed 282 responses. The median number of nurses per bed was 3.25. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with MV was 60% [IQR: 42.3-77.3]. The median proportion of nurses who independently cared for patients with VV-ECMO was 46.9 (35.7-63.3%) in the ICU experiencing VV-ECMO use. Concerning task-sharing, 33.8% of ICUs and nurses did not facilitate weaning from MV. Nurses always ti-trated sedatives in 44.5% of ICUs. Conclusion: Nurse staffing might be inadequate in all ICUs, es-pecially for severe respiratory failure. The proportion of competent nurses for caring for severe respiratory failure in ICUs should be considered when determining the work force of nurses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0510.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Shape-Memory Hydrogel; Active Polymer; Biopolymer; Mechanical Properties; Degradation
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:40:50 CEST)
Shape-memory hydrogels (SMH) are as multifunctional, actively-moving polymers of interest in biomedicine. In loosely crosslinked polymer networks gelatin chains may form triple helices, which can act as temporary netpoints in SMH, depending on the presence of salts. Here, we show programming and initiation of the shape-memory effect of such networks based on a thermomechanical process compatible with the physiological environment. The SMH were synthesized by reaction of glycidylmethacrylated gelatin with OEG α,ω-dithiols of varying crosslinker length and amount. Triple helicalization of gelatin chains is shown directly by wide-angle X-ray scattering and indirectly via the mechanical behavior at different temperatures. The ability to form triple helices increased with the molar mass of the crosslinker. Hydrogels had storage moduli of 0.27-23 kPa and Young’s moduli of 215-360 kPa at 4 °C. The hydrogels were hydrolytically degradable, with full degradation to water soluble products within one week at 37 °C and pH = 7.4. A thermally-induced shape-memory effect is demonstrated in bending as well as in compression tests, in which shape recovery with excellent shape recovery rates Rr close to 100% were observed. In the future, the material presented here could be applied e.g. as self-anchoring devices mechanically resembling the extracellular matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0257.v1
Online: 13 January 2021 (16:04:43 CET)
Fired bricks have shown tremendous potential as a construction material due to their properties. However, their use required some specifications in terms of quality, resistance, and durability. In developing countries, the lack of tools to make test specimens leads to many defects in these brick specimens responsible for low durability and weak precision during mechanical tests and shrinkage. In this study, a simple and traditional method of making test bricks is presented. This simple method allows the production of bricks with the required properties. This method is especially efficient for a firm or semi-soft pastes consistency. The handmade pastes do not stick into the walls of the mold like the case of steel molds and it gives specimens with standard shape, smooth surface, and sharp edges. The resulting fired bricks exhibit high mechanical strength comparable and even better than those of conventional methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: high-strength steel; weld metal; Pr6O11; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 12 January 2021 (11:01:02 CET)
The effect of rare earth Pr6O11 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength steel weld metal was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing. Three different contents of Pr6O11 were added to the flux-cored wires. The results showed that the addition of 1% Pr6O11 can promote the refinement and spheroidization of inclusions, refine the grains, form acicular ferrites, and significantly improve the toughness of weld metal. The addition of Pr6O11 promoted the formation of rare earth composite inclusions and acicular ferrites in the weld metal, refined the lath microstructure, inhibited the formation of martensite and bainite. The crack formation mode changed from the boundary cracking of the bainite clusters caused by the surface shear stress to the surface shear stress-induced decohesion of inclusion. However, excessive addition of Pr6O11 will reduce the number of inclusion nucleation and deteriorate the mechanical properties. The wire No.2 with 1% Pr6O11 had the good comprehensive mechanical properties, and the corresponding values were 835MPa of tensile strength and 72 J of impact toughness. These findings suggest that the control of Pr6O11 can be an effective way to improve the impact toughness of weld metal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0064.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: high-strength steel; weld metal; Pr6O11; microstructure; mechanical properties
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:36:28 CET)
The effect of Pr6O11 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of high-strength steel weld metal was investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical testing. Three different contents of Pr6O11 were added to the flux-cored wires. The results demonstrate that the addition of 1% Pr6O11 can promote the refinement and spheroidization of inclusions, refine the grains, form acicular ferrites in the weld metal, and significantly improve the toughness. The addition of Pr6O11 promoted the formation of rare earth composite inclusions and acicular ferrites in the weld metal, refined the lath microstructure, inhibited the formation of martensite and bainite. The crack formation mode changed from the boundary cracking of the bainite clusters caused by the surface shear stress to the surface shear stress-induced decohesion of inclusion. Excessive addition of Pr6O11 will reduce the number of inclusion nucleation and deteriorate the mechanical properties. The wire No.2 with 1% Pr6O11 had the good comprehensive mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0589.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Mechanical properties; constitutive modelling; cardiac mechanics; anisotropy; biaxial testing
Online: 24 September 2020 (18:24:41 CEST)
Regional mechanics of the heart is vital in the development of accurate computational models for the pursuit of relevant therapies. Challenges related to heart dysfunctioning are the most important sources of mortality in the world. For example, myocardial infarction (MI) is the foremost killer in sub-Saharan African countries. Mechanical characterisation plays an important role in achieving accurate material behaviour. Material behaviour and constitutive modelling are essential for accurate development of computational models. In most cases previously, the mechanical properties of the heart myocardium were assumed to be homogeneous. The main objective of this paper is to determine the mechanical material properties of healthy porcine myocardium in three regions, namely left ventricle (LV), mid-wall/interventricular septum (MDW) and right ventricle (RV). The biomechanical properties of the pig heart RV, LV and MDW were characterised using biaxial testing. The biaxial tests show the pig heart myocardium behaves non-linearly, heterogeneously and anisotropically. In this study, it was shown that RV, LV and MDW may exhibit slightly different mechanical properties. Data presented here may be helpful in regional tissue mechanics, especially for the understanding of various heart diseases and development of new therapies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0685.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: microresonators; lithium niobate; electro-optical tuning; chemo-mechanical etching
Online: 28 July 2020 (13:58:37 CEST)
We demonstrate high quality (intrinsic Q factor ~2.8×106) racetrack microresonators fabricated on lithium niobate (LN) thin film with a free spectral range (FSR) of ~86.38 pm. By integrating microelectrodes alongside the two straight arms of the racetrack resonator, the resonance wavelength around the 1550 nm can be red shifted by 92 pm when the electric voltage is raised from -100 V to 100 V. The microresonators of the tuning range spanning over a full FSR is fabricated using photolithography assisted chemo-mechanical etching (photolithography assisted chemo-mechanical etching, PLACE).
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: club head; heating procedure; mechanical properties; microstructure; stainless steel
Online: 8 April 2020 (12:06:18 CEST)
Background: The main factors to influence on the stroking performance of club head are alloy and spring-like effect. Design the structure of new club face to create the fairway wood which can show best stroking feeling and let driving distance become longer. Purpose: The club face of fairway wood is processed through the iron alloy heating procedure and CNC to innovate the club head with high spring-like effect (characteristic time). Method: (1) Use 455 stainless steel processed by heating and aging treatment, to do the analysis on microstructure and mechanical properties. (2) Through CNC to design seven different patterns for the back of club face, each pattern for three club head. The total amount is twenty-one. (3) Make finished product be test the characteristic time and the ability of strike by the practical measurement. (4) To analyze after the compare between three-way ANOVA and LSD. Results: After 455 stainless steel was heated in procedure S850℃-A550℃, mechanical properties became superior and had the better malleability, it is suitable for developing the club face of high spring-like effect. Before and after grinding among three-way ANOVA (pattern*thickness*place), did not achieve the significant level on the figure of characteristic time. Through two-way ANOVA (pattern*place and thickness*place), showed the significant deviation before and after grinding. After doing the crash test by 45m/s, all the results can reach the higher limited standard. Summary: 455 stainless steel was designed with the different club face’s thicknesses of fairway wood can make spring-like effect achieve high characteristic time. The much thinner club face let the characteristic time perform highly. But there was no obvious effects from the patterns of the back club face.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0305.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: refractories; mortarless masonry; mechanical homogenization; thermomechanical modeling; steel ladle
Online: 20 March 2020 (04:56:11 CET)
Mortarless refractory masonry structures are widely used in the steel industry for the linings of many high-temperature industrial applications including steel ladle. The design and the optimization of these components require accurate numerical models that consider the presence of joints as well as joints closure and opening due to cyclic heating and cooling. The present work reports on the formulation, numerical implementation, validation, and application of homogenized numerical models for simulation of refractory masonry structures with dry joints. The validated constitutive model has been used to simulate a steel ladle and to analyze its transient thermomechanical behavior during a typical thermal cycle of steel ladle. 3D solution domain, enhanced thermal and mechanical boundary conditions have been used. Parametric studies to investigate the impact of joints thickness on the thermomechanical response of the ladle have been carried out. The results clearly demonstrate that the thermomechanical behavior of mortarless masonry is orthotropic nonlinear due to gradual closure and reopening of joints with the increase and decrease of temperature. Also, resulting thermal stresses increase with the increase of temperature and decrease with the increase of joints thickness.
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: friction stir welding; aluminum alloy; preheating; mechanical properties; microstructure
Online: 14 February 2020 (03:02:51 CET)
In this paper, the effect of preheating on the mechanical properties and micro structure of similar friction stir welded AA6061 aluminum alloys sheets was investigated. Aluminum alloy 6061 sheets with a thickness of 5 mm and threaded cylindrical pins were used. Rotation and traverse speeds were 1200 rpm and 75 mm/min, respectively. The results of tensile tests performed on the welded samples showed that compared to the non-preheated samples, preheating had increased the strength and elongation of the joints by 58% and 46%, respectively. In the present study, during the welding process preheating cause emerged heat with lower slope from stir zone. This phenomenon may result in Increase the deformation resistance of material and consequently decrease of grain size. This grain refinement can improve the mechanical properties of welds. Accordingly, hardness and strength of the material will be increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0177.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: polypropylene; composite; constitutive model; reprocessing; mechanical properties; strain rate
Online: 18 June 2019 (12:56:48 CEST)
The effect of reprocessing on the quasi-static uniaxial tensile behavior of two commercial polypropylene (PP) based composites is experimentally investigated and modeled. In particular, the studied materials consist of an unfilled high-impact PP and a talc-filled high-impact PP. These PP composites are subjected to repeated processing cycles including a grinding step and an extrusion step to simulate recycling at the laboratory level, the selected reprocessing numbers for this study being 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12. Because the repeated reprocessing leads to thermo-mechanical degradation by chain scission mechanisms, the tensile behavior of the two materials exhibits a continuous decrease of elastic modulus and failure strain with increasing number of reprocessing. A physically consistent three-dimensional constitutive model is used to predict the tensile response of non-recycled materials with strain rate dependence. For the recycled materials, the reprocessing effect is accounted by incorporating the reprocessing sensitive coefficient into the constitutive model for Young’s modulus, failure strain, softening and hardening equations. Our predictions of true stress - true strain curves for non-recycled and recycled 108MF97 and 7510 are in a good agreement with experimental data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0291.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: HPAM polymer; rheology; viscosity; injectivity; mechanical degradation; polymer flooding
Online: 22 May 2018 (06:21:35 CEST)
Polymer flooding is an established enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method, still many aspects of polymer flooding are not well understood. This study investigates the influence of mechanical degradation on flow properties of polymers in porous media. Mechanical degradation due to high shear forces may occur in the injection well and at the entrance to the porous media. The polymers that give high viscosity yields at a sustainable economic cost are typically large, MW > 10 MDa, and have wide molecular weight distributions. Both MW and the distributions are altered by mechanical degradation, leading to changes in the flow rheology of the polymer. The polymer solutions were subjected to different degrees of pre-shearing and pre-filtering before injected into Bentheimer outcrop sandstone cores. Rheology studies of injected and produced polymer solutions were performed and interpreted together with in-situ rheology data. The core floods showed a predominant shear thickening behavior at high flow velocities which is due to successive contraction/expansion flow in pores. When pre-sheared, shear thickening was reduced but with no significant reduction in in-situ viscosity at lower flow rates. This may be explained by reduction in the extensional viscosity. Furthermore, the results show that successive degradation occurred which suggests that the assumption of the highest point of shear which determines mechanical degradation in a porous media does not hold for all field relevant conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0161.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: carbon nanotubes; polymer-matrix nanocomposites; mechanical properties; flame retardancy
Online: 17 January 2018 (13:04:58 CET)
High-performance poly(1,4-butylene terephthalate (PBT) nanocomposites have been developed via the consideration of phosphorus-containing agents and amino-carbon nanotube (A-CNT). One-pot functionalization method has been adopted to prepare functionalized CNTs via the reaction between A-CNT and different oxidation state phosphorus-containing agents, including chlorodiphenylphosphine (DPP-Cl), diphenylphosphinic chloride (DPP(O)-Cl), and diphenyl phosphoryl chloride (DPP(O3)-Cl). These functionalized CNTs, DPP(Ox)-A-CNTs (x = 0, 1, 3), were respectively mixed with PBT to obtain the CNTs-based polymer nanocomposites through a melt blending method. SEM observations demonstrated that DPP(Ox)-A-CNT nano-additives were homogeneously distributed within PBT matrix compared to A-CNT. The incorporation of DPP(Ox)-A-CNT improved the thermal stability of PBT. Moreover, PBT/DPP(O3)-A-CNT showed the highest crystallization temperature and tensile strength, due to the superior dispersion and interfacial interactions between DPP(O3)-A-CNT and PBT. PBT/DPP(O)-A-CNT exhibited the best flame retardancy resulting from the excellent carbonization effect. The radicals generated from decomposed polymer were effectively trapped by DPP(O)-A-CNT, leading to the reduction of heat release rate, smoke production rate, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide release during cone calorimeter tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0110.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: polymer networks; scale-free networks; mechanical relaxation; eigenvalue problem
Online: 22 September 2017 (16:21:16 CEST)
We focus on macromolecules which are modelled as sequentially growing dual scale-free networks. The dual networks are built by replacing star-like units of the primal treelike scale-free networks through rings, which are then transformed in a small-world manner up to the complete graphs. In this respect, the parameter γ describing the degree distribution in the primal treelike scale-free networks regulates the size of the dual units. The transition towards the networks of complete graphs is controlled by the probability p of adding link between non-neighbouring nodes of the same initial ring. The relaxation dynamics of the polymer networks is studied in the framework of generalized Gaussian structures by using the full eigenvalue spectrum of the Laplacian matrix. The dynamical quantities on which we focus here are the averaged monomer displacement and the mechanical relaxation moduli. For several intermediate values of the parameter’s set (γ, p) we encounter for these dynamical properties regions of constant in-between slope.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0459.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: magnesium; aluminum; additive manufacturing; complex structure; mechanical characteristics; tribological performance
Online: 29 September 2022 (08:28:16 CEST)
Magnesium and Aluminum alloys continue to be important in the context of modern and lightweight technologies. With the advancement of additive manufacturing (AM), components can be produced directly in a net shape, widen up the usage of magnesium and aluminum alloys as well as holding new ideas for the application of unique physical structures made feasible by 3D printing. Laser-based approach, one of the metal additive manufacturing (AM) methods, enables the formation of arbitrary 3D structures. With promising findings, research in this area is advancing quickly, bringing up a variety of potential applications in both the scientific and industrial sectors. Complex structures can now be manufactured easily utilizing AM technologies to meet the pre-requisite objectives like reduced part numbers, greater functionality, and lightweight, among others. AM has the ability to meet demands by lowering costs and speeding up the manufacturing process. Due to their popularity in numerous high-value applications, aluminum, and magnesium alloys are one of the key material systems being researched in the laser-based additive manufacturing approaches. The review here aims to comprehensively examine the additive manufacturing of magnesium and aluminum alloys, highlighting the influence of the laser-based additive manufacturing approach on the mechanical characteristics, microstructure, and tribological performance of magnesium and aluminum alloys.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0125.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: metal matrix composites; MCrAlY; mechanical properties; tribological properties; wear; erosion
Online: 8 February 2022 (19:07:50 CET)
The application of metal-matrix composite coatings for protecting and improving the service life of sliding components has demonstrated to have the potentials of meeting the requirements of a diverse range of engineering industries. Recently, a significant body of research has been devoted to study the mechanical and tribological performance of dispersion-strengthened MCrAlY coatings. These coatings belong to a class of emerging wear-resistant materials, offering improved properties and being considered as promising candidates for the protection of engineering structural materials exposed to tribological damage, especially at elevated temperature regimes. This paper attempts to comprehensively review the different reinforcements used in the processing of MCrAlY-based alloys and how they influence the mechanical and tribological properties of the corresponding coatings. Further, the major fabrication techniques together with their benefits and challenges are also reviewed. Discussion on the failure mechanisms of these coatings as well as the main determining factors are also included. In addition, a comprehensive survey of studies and investigations in recent times are summarized and elaborated to further substantiate the review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0411.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Biodegradable film; thermoplastic starch; chitosan; mechanical properties; water vapor permeability
Online: 23 November 2021 (08:19:40 CET)
Starch is a biopolymer with wide potential for the generation of new biodegradable packages due to its high availability and low price. However, due to its weak functional properties, it is necessary to limit the interaction of some hydroxyl, and to evaluate blends with other polymers to improve their performance. Glycerol plasticized acetylated corn starch films were developed by the casting method, and the impact of incorporating chitosan (TPS:CH) at various proportions (75:25, 50:50, and 25:75 v/v) was studied. The effect of the chitosan ratios on the films' physical, mechanical, water vapor barrier, and thermal properties was evaluated. Chitosan protonated amino groups promote the formation of intermolecular bonds, improving the tensile strength, the thermal stability, the water adsorption capacity, and the gas barrier of starch films. Where the film composed of TPS25-CH75 was the one that presented the best barrier to water vapor. These composite films are a good option for development of biodegradable packaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0264.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 3D NAND; hole profile; mechanical stress; polysilicon channel; scaling; TCAD
Online: 21 October 2021 (12:12:18 CEST)
The effects of residual stress in a tungsten gate on a polysilicon channel in scaled 3D NAND flash memories were investigated using a technology computer-aided design simulation. The NAND strings with respect to the distance from the tungsten slit were also analyzed. The scaling of the spacer thickness and hole diameter induced compressive stress on the polysilicon channel. Moreover, the residual stress of polysilicon in the string near the tungsten slit had greater compressive stress than the string farther away. The increase in compressive stress in the polysilicon channel degraded the Bit-Line current (Ion) because of stress-induced electron mobility deterioration. Moreover, a threshold voltage shift (△Vth) occurred in the negative direction because of conduction band lowering.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0391.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Digestive tract; Colon; Biomechanics; Mechanical properties; Strain energy function; Hyperelasticity
Online: 22 September 2021 (22:25:46 CEST)
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a continuous channel through the body that consists of the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum. Its primary functions are to move the intake of food for digestion before storing and ultimately expulsion of feces from the rectum through the anal sphincter. The mechanical behavior of GI tissues thus plays a crucial role for GI function in health and disease. The mechanical properties are typically characterized by a constitutive biomechanical model, which is a mathematical representation of the relation between load and deformation in a tissue. Hence, validated biomechanical constitutive models are essential to characterize and simulate the mechanical behavior of the GI tract under physiological and pathological conditions. Numerous constitutive models have consequently been proposed over the past three decades, mainly inspired by work done in cardiovascular tissues. Here, a comprehensive review of these constitutive models is provided. This review is limited to studies where a model of the strain energy function is proposed to characterize the stress-strain relation of a GI tissue. Several needs are identified for more advanced modeling of GI biomechanics including: 1) Microstructural models that provide actual structure-function relations; 2) Validation of coupled electro-mechanical models accounting for active muscle contractions; 3) Human data under physiological and pathological conditions to develop and validate models. The findings from this review provide guidelines for using existing constitutive models as well as perspective and directions for future studies aimed at establishing new constitutive models for GI tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: stem implanted capsule; bioherbicide; parkinsonia; woody weed; dieback; mechanical delivery
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:34:59 CEST)
An infestation of parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata) located on Alexandria Station, Northern Territory, Australia was successfully treated with a bioherbicide using stem implanted capsules. The bioherbicide containing three endemic endophytic fungi (Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina and Neoscytalidium novaehollan-diae) is the first Australian registered woody weed bioherbicide. The product was effectively administered to the plant stems using a mechanical device, resulting in subsequent development of a dieback event, which, after a period of establishment, has moved through the adjacent untreated plant population resulting in significant decline in infestation vigour and reduced recruitment. This is the first report of large-scale management of parkinsonia by this method.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0592.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: anticancer drugs; mechanical microenvironment; tumor stiffness; cytoskeleton dynamics; material approaches
Online: 26 July 2021 (15:42:33 CEST)
Mechanical properties of tumor cytoskeleton are extremely vital for any phases of cancer, especially in tumor invasion and metastasis. However, in current category of anticancer drugs, the cytoskeleton-targeting drugs are limited and its role in tumor progression is unclear. Here, we present the mechanical characteristics of tumor stiffness are tightly regulated by cancer cytoskeleton including actin filaments and microtubule during tumor initiation, growth and metastasis, and review the natural drugs that target cancer cytoskeleton. We define cytoskeleton dynamics as target mechanisms for anticancer drug, and summary the plant, microbial and marine sources of natural products. Furthermore, the material approaches to active cancer mechanics are supplied in this review. We aim to promote the development of anticancer drugs that target tumor mechanics by using those material approaches in future and find its pharmacological application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0786.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Hybrid fibre-reinforced concrete; thermal conductivity; spalling; residual mechanical strength.
Online: 30 April 2021 (11:13:43 CEST)
Over the years, leaked fluids from the aircraft caused severe deterioration of the airfield pavement. The combined effect of hot exhaust from the auxiliary power unit of military aircraft and spilt aviation oils caused rapid pavement spalling. If the disintegrated concreted pieces caused by spalling is sucked into the jet engine, it may cause catastrophic damage to the aircraft engine or physical injury to maintenance crews. This study investigates the effectiveness of incorporating hybrid fibres into ordinary concrete to improve the residual mechanical and thermal properties to prevent spalling damage of pavement. Three fibre reinforced concrete samples made with micro steel fibre and polyvinyl alcohol fibre with a fibre content of zero, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.7% by volume fraction. These samples were exposed to recurring high temperature and aviation oils. Tests were conducted to measure the effects of repeated exposure on the concrete's mechanical, thermal and chemical characteristics. The results showed that polyvinyl alcohol fibre reinforced concrete suffered a significant loss of thermal properties and residual mechanical strength than the micro steel fibre reinforced concrete. However, hybrid fibre reinforced concrete performed better in retaining higher residual properties, and no spalling of concrete was observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0599.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: polyamide 6, polypropylene, blend, EPDM, mechanical characteristic, energy at break
Online: 22 April 2021 (09:26:27 CEST)
This paper presents the values of several mechanical characteristics for two blends: H (60% PP + 12% PA6 + 8% EPDM + 20% Polybond 3200) and G (20% PP + 42% PA6 + 28% EPDM + 10% Polybond 3200) (%wt), comparing them to those of PP (polypropylene) and PA6 (polyamide 6). The adding of EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber) and Polybond 3200 help reducing the disadvantages of simple blends made of PP+PA6, when the PA6 concentration allows for having a PA6 matrix with droplets of PP. SEM analysis helps for understanding the performance of material G as compared to the neat polymers. EDX analysis proved that there was a matrix inversion, material H having a PP matrix and material G a matrix made of PA6 with droplets of PP. Strain at break for PP and material H were proved to be insensitive to test speed, but materials G and PA6 had large value for strain at break and energy at break for v = 10 mm/min. Taking at basis the values for polyamide 6 (PA6), material G has greater values for energy at break: with 97.8% for v = 10 mm/min, with 29.5% for v= 250 mm/min and with 98% for 1000 mm/min, without exhibiting the micro and macro cavitation of PA6. This means that the recipe, the technology and the mechanical characteristics make material G a potential candidate for applications where a low and moderate impact resistant material is required.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0075.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Additive Manufacturing; mechanical properties; fatigue behavior; heat-treatment; aluminum alloys
Online: 2 April 2021 (15:31:11 CEST)
This study aims to identify an optimal heat-treatment parameter set for an additively manufactured AlSi10Mg alloy in terms of increasing the hardness and eliminating the anisotropic microstructural characteristics of the alloy in as-built condition. Furthermore, the influence of these optimized parameters on the fatigue properties of the alloy investigated. In this respect, microstructural characteristics of an AlSi10Mg alloy manufactured by Laser-Based Powder Bed Fusion in non-heat-treated and heat-treated conditions were investigated. Their static and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated, and fatigue behavior was explained by a detailed examination of fracture surfaces. Much of the microstructure in the non-heat-treated condition was composed of columnar grains oriented parallel to the build direction. Further analysis revealed a high fraction of pro-eutectic α-Al. Through heat-treatment, the alloy was successfully brought to its peak-hardened condition, while eliminating the anisotropic microstructural features. Yield strength and ductility increased simultaneously after heat-treatment, which is due to the relief of residual stresses, preservation of refined grains, and introduction of precipitation strengthening. The fatigue strength, calculated at 10^7 cycles, improved as well after heat-treatment and finally detailed fractography reviled that a more ductile fracture mechanism has happened in the heat-treated condition compared to the non-heat-treated condition.
Subject: Keywords: ODS steel; mechanical alloying; spark plasma sintering; zirconium; co-precipitation
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:10:06 CET)
Currently, one of the biggest issues when developing an ODS alloy is the competition established between the different oxide precursors during the precipitation of oxides which nature depends on their chemical composition. In the presence of various precursors, usually the one with the highest affinity to oxygen leads to the absence of the other oxides. In this work, a new process to equilibrate the local concentration of species and to decrease the competition among them is explained. A unique compound, containing the diverse oxide precursors as one complex oxide, is introduced in a prealloyed 14Cr Steel powder via mechanical alloying. Thus, generating environments enriched in Y, Ti and Zr which, after consolidation, refine the oxides precipitation improving the thermal stability of the alloy. SPS were used as consolidation technique to guarantee shorter sintering times and to maintain the nanostructure obtained. Mechanical properties were tested by tensile tests and Vickers microhardness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0175.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: fruit transport; mechanical damage; physiological disorders; fruit maturity; colour; firmness
Online: 7 December 2020 (16:00:33 CET)
The study assessed the changes in the quality and physical and chemical parameters of apples of four cultivars (‘Gala’, ‘Idared’, ‘Topaz’, ‘Red Prince’) subjected to mechanical vibrations during transport under model conditions and after storage (shelf-life). Quality changes in apples were evaluated based on skin and flesh colour, total soluble solids, dry matter, firmness, titratable acidity, pH value, total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. The applied vibrations at a frequency of 28 Hz caused changes in the above parameters, which were visible also after storage and depended on cultivar, but did not show any clear trend or direction. Skin colour varied whereas flesh colour remained stable. Vibrations resulted in a decrease in firmness. The greatest stability of quality parameters, the highest content of bioactive compounds and the highest antioxidant capacity were observed for ‘Red Prince’ and ‘Topaz’ apples – this refers to the control and treated samples before and after storage. However, total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity increased in all studied cultivars as a result of vibrations and storage, which suggests that 28 Hz mechanical vibrations and short-term cold storage did not reduce the health promoting potential of the apples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0345.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: physiological helical flow; mechanical heart valve prostheses; aorta; PIV; trileaflet
Online: 16 October 2020 (11:54:53 CEST)
Background - Physiological helical flow in the ascending aorta has been well documented in the last two decades, accompanied by discussions on possible physiological benefits of such axial swirl. Recent 4D-MRI studies on healthy volunteers have shown indication of early generation of helical flow, early in the systole and already close to the valve plane. Objectives - Firstly, the aim of the study is to investigate the hypothesis of premature swirl existence in the ventricular outflow tract leading to already helical flow in the valve plane, and second to investigate the possible impact of two different mechanical valves design on the preservation of this early helical flow and its subsequent hemodynamic consequences. Methods - We use a pulse duplicator with an aortic arch and High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry to document the flow evolution in the systolic cycle. The pulse-duplicator is modified with a swirl-generating insert to generate early helical flow in the valve plane. Special focus is laid on the interaction of such helical flow with different designs of mechanical prosthetic heart valves, comparing a classical bileaflet mechanical heart valve, the St Jude Medical Regent valve (SJM Regent BMHV) with the Triflo trileaflet mechanical heart valve T2B version (Triflo TMHV). Results – When the swirl-generator is inserted, a vortex is generated in the core flow demonstrating early helical flow in the valve plane, similar as observed in the recent 4-D-MRI study taken for comparison. For the Triflo trileaflet valve, the early helical flow is not obstructed in the central orifice, similar as in the case of the natural valve. Conservation of angular momentum leads to radial expansion of the core flow and flattening of the axial flow profile downstream in the arch. Furthermore, the early helical flow helps to overcome separation at the outer and inner curvature. In contrast, the two parallel leaflets for the bileaflet valve impose a flow straightener effect, annihilating the angular momentum with negative impact on kinetic energy of the flow. Conclusion - The results imply better hemodynamics for the Triflo trileaflet valve based on hydrodynamic arguments under the discussed hypothesis. In addition, it makes the Triflo valve a better candidate for replacements in patients with pathological generation of nonaxial velocity in ventricle outflow tract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0267.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; intensive care; trends; United Kingdom; mortality; mechanical ventilation
Online: 9 September 2020 (09:28:49 CEST)
Rationale: Examining trends in patient characteristics, processes of care and outcomes, across an epidemic, provides important opportunities for learning. Objectives: To report and explore changes in admission rates, patient characteristics, processes of care and outcomes for all patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Methods: Population cohort of 10,287 patients with COVID-19 in the Case Mix Programme national clinical audit from 1 February to 2 July, 2020. Analyses were stratified by time period (pre-peak, peak, post-peak) and geographical region. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate differences in 28-day mortality, adjusting for patient characteristics over time. Main results: Admissions to ICU peaked simultaneously across regions on 1 April, with ongoing admissions peaking ten days later. Compared with pre- and post-peak periods, patients admitted during the peak were slightly younger but had greater respiratory and renal dysfunction. Use of invasive ventilation and renal replacement reduced over time. Twenty-eight-day mortality reduced from 43.5% (95% CI 41.6% to 45.5%) pre-peak to 34.3% (95% CI 32.3% to 36.2%) post-peak; a difference of −8.8% (95% CI: −5.2%, −12.3%) after adjusting for patient characteristics. London experienced the highest admission rate and had higher mortality during the peak period but a greater reduction in post-peak mortality. Conclusion: This study highlights changes in patient characteristics, processes of care and outcomes, during the UK COVID-19 epidemic. After adjusting for the changes in patient characteristics and first 24-hour physiology, there was substantial improvement in 28-day mortality over the course of the epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0019.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: metal additive manufacturing; sintering; tensile; mechanical analysis; metal material extrusion
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:50:12 CEST)
Metal additive manufacturing (AM) has gained much attentions in recent years due to its advantages including geometric freedom and design complexity, appropriate to a wide range of potential industrial applications. However, conventional metal AM methods have high-cost barriers due to the initial cost of the capital equipment, support and maintenance, etc. This study presents a unique low-cost metal material extrusion (MME) technology. The filaments used have polylactic acid (PLA) as the matrix and metal powders (copper, bronze, stainless steel, high carbon iron, and aluminum) as reinforcements. Using the proposed fabrication technology, test specimens were built by extruding polymer/metal composite filaments, which were then sintered in an open-air furnace to produce solid metallic parts. In this research, the mechanical and thermal properties of the built parts are examined using tensile tests, thermogravimetric-, thermomechanical- and microstructural analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: okra bast fibers; agro-residual fibers; thermal properties; mechanical properties
Online: 5 June 2020 (06:06:05 CEST)
In this study, fibers were extracted from different parts of the okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus) via water- and dew-retting methods. The fibers were subjected to physical and thermal analyses. The fibers obtained from the upper part of the okra plant show higher breaking strength and lower linear density. Fibers obtained via water-retting exhibited higher breaking strength, elongation at break rates, and lower linear density values. The paper also presents the results of thermogravimetric analysis of the okra fibers. Tests were carried out in oxygen and inert gas atmospheres. The temperature range of the main thermal decomposition stage was in the 275–400°C for range thermo-oxidation and 300–425°C for pyrolysis investigation. Slight differences were found in the thermal resistances of the tested fibers, which was confirmed by an analysis using the alpha s- alpha r methodology. The calculated activation energy values show a large-spread range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0229.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: heart failure; left ventricular assist device; cardiac recovery; mechanical circulation
Online: 13 March 2020 (10:11:43 CET)
In this paper, we aim to assess the electric current parameters and report the analysis of the associated degree of ventricular recovery during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support. An assumption was made there is a linear relationship between ventricular recovery degree and the pump electric current pulsatility index (PI). The experimental study was carried out using the ViVitro Pulse Duplicator System with Sputnik 1 LVAD connected. Cardiac output (CO) and cardiac power output (CPO) were used as a measure of ventricular recovery degree. Different heart rates (HR) (59, 73, 86 bpm) and pump speeds (7600–8400 rpm in 200 rpm steps) were investigated. Ventricular stroke volumes in the range of 30–80 ml for each heart rate at certain pump speed were used. The obtained relationships of CO and CPO vs. PI was linear as the coefficients of determination for each regression curve were more than 0.8. CO vs. PI: R2=0.9218; 0.9271; 0.9172 and CPO vs. PI: R2=0.8517; 0.841; 0.8244 for HR=59 bpm; 73 bpm; 86 bpm, respectively. Study findings suggest that adequate interpretation of parameters could potentially serve as a valuable clinical tool to assess ventricular recovery based on LVAD infrastructure without requiring any special hemodynamic assessment.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0346.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel mechanical properties; nanocomposites; double-network hydrogels; polymer- nanoparticle interactions
Online: 29 January 2020 (04:23:23 CET)
Extensive experimental and theoretical research over the past several decades has culminated in the understanding of the mechanisms behind nanoparticle-mediated enhancements on the mechanical properties of hydrogels. This information is not only crucial to realizing applications that directly benefit from developing hydrogels with high mechanical strength, but also to guide the development of strategies to further enhance hydrogel properties by combining different approaches. In our study, we investigated the effect of combining two approaches – addition of nanoparticles and crosslinking two different polymers (to create double-network hydrogels) – on the mechanical properties of hydrogels. Our studies revealed that these approaches may be combined to synthesize hydrogel composites with enhanced properties; however, both polymers in the double-network hydrogel must strongly interact with the nanoparticles to fully benefit from the addition of nanoparticles. Moreover, the concentration of hydrogel monomers used for the preparation of the double-network hydrogels had a significant effect on the extent of nanoparticle-mediated enhancements; double-network hydrogel nanocomposites prepared using lower monomer concentrations showed higher enhancements in elastic moduli compared to those prepared using high monomer concentrations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the hypotheses previously developed to understand the role of nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of hydrogel nanocomposites may be extended to double-network hydrogel systems and guide the development of next generation hydrogels with extraordinary mechanical properties through a combination of orthogonal approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: operability envelope; SPT installation; drill pipe; ocean conditions; mechanical behavior
Online: 16 June 2019 (11:09:07 CEST)
The article presents a mathematical model to investigate the operability envelopes for subsea production tress (SPT) installation using drill pipe. The finite differential method was used to solve the established governing equations in which the ocean conditions were considered. Based on the evaluations of the ocean wave, ocean current, water depth, specification of drill pipe and SPT weight that might dominate the mechanical behaviors of the pipe, the operability envelopes with permissible ocean conditions for SPT installation were obtained. The results indicate that changes of depths in deep water and SPT weight have few effects on the operation conditions and it would be better to choose smaller pipe to obtain larger permissible ocean conditions during SPT installation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0288.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: Bi2O3; PbO; sintering temperature; mechanical properties; lead–bismuth eutectic alloy
Online: 25 April 2019 (13:05:17 CEST)
In this paper, the effect of Bi2O3 doping on the mechanical properties of PbO ceramic pellets was studied. For this purpose, different ratios of Bi2O3/PbO (i.e., xBi2O3–(1-x)PbO, where x is 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 wt%) were fabricated and sintered at 570, 620, and 670°C. Mechanical properties including density, hardness, flexural strength, and sintering of PbO were studied for the aforementioned compositions. Phase compositions, microstructures, and worn surfaces of the composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analysis revealed that a solid solution formed in the composite ceramic. The best suited conditions of temperature and doping of Bi2O3 for optimal sintering are 620°C and 3 wt%, respectively. The hardness of the 3 wt% Bi2O3–97 wt% PbO ceramic was 717 MPa, which is about four times higher than the hardness of pure PbO; in addition, the strength of the composites was 43 MPa, which is two times higher than that of pure PbO. The integrity of the composites was verified using the lead–bismuth eutectic alloy flushing experiment. Results of this research paper are important for future studies of oxygen control in the lead–bismuth eutectic alloy of lead-cooled fast reactors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: corrosion; ductility; mechanical properties; reinforced concrete; tensile strength; equivalent steel
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:15:09 CET)
In this work 144 reinforcing bars of high-ductility steel named B500SD were subjected to an accelerated corrosion treatment and then tested under tension at different loading speeds in order to assess the effect of corrosion on the ductility properties of the rebars. Results showed that the bars with a corrosion level as low as the one reducing the steel mass by 1% gave rise to a significant degradation on the ductility properties with strain-stress curves losing the yield plateau and behaving practically as cold deformed steel bars. This effect took place at every tested loading speed. Thus, the research significance relies on the assessment of the influence of the loading speed at which the tensile test is performed given that it affects the ductility properties of the reinforcement bars.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0598.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: nano-structures; polymer-matrix composites (PMCs); mechanical properties; thermal properties
Online: 25 October 2018 (06:20:41 CEST)
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanocomposites processed with different morphologies, such as porous and non-porous films and fibres, have been prepared with silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) of varying diameter (17, 100, 160 and 300 nm) which in turn have encapsulated perylenediimide (PDI), a fluorescent molecule. Structural, morphological, optical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites, with SiNP filler concentration up to 16 wt% were evaluated. Further, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation studies were performed. All SiNPs are negatively charged independently of the pH and more stable from pH 5 upwards. The SiNPs introduction within the polymer matrix increases the contact angle independently of the nanoparticle diameters and the smallest ones (17 nm) improve the PVDF Young modulus from 0.94 ± 0.04 GPa for the pristine polymer film to 1.05 ± 0.06 GPa. Varying filler diameter, physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer matrix were not significantly affected. Finally, the SiNPs inclusion does not induce cytotoxicity in murine myoblasts (C2C12) after 72 h of contact and proliferation studies reveal that the prepared composites represent a suitable platform for tissue engineering applications, as they allow to combine the biocompatibility and piezoelectricity of the polymer with the possible functionalization and drug encapsulation and release of the SiNP.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: BMD; aBMD; vBMD; QCT; HRpQCT; structure; mechanical loading; bone adaptation
Online: 16 March 2018 (07:12:31 CET)
In 2011 over 1.7 million people were hospitalized because of a fragility fracture, and direct costs associated with osteoporosis treatment exceeded 70 billion dollars in the United States. Failure to reach and maintain optimal peak bone mass during adulthood is a critical factor in determining fragility fracture risk later in life. Physical activity is a widely accessible, low cost, and highly modifiable contributor to bone health. Here, we will review the evidence linking exercise and physical activity to bone health in women. Bone structure and quality will be discussed, especially in the context of clinical diagnosis of osteoporosis. We will review the mechanisms governing bone metabolism in the context of physical activity and exercise. Questions such as, when during life is exercise most effective, and what specific types of exercises improve bone health, will be addressed. Finally, we will discuss some emerging areas of research on this topic, and will summarize areas of need and opportunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0134.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: chemical treatment; cantala fiber; mechanical properties; recycled high-density polyethylene
Online: 20 October 2017 (03:19:47 CEST)
The improvement of mechanical properties of cantala fiber and its composites. Treatments including alkali, silane, and the combination of both were carried out to modify the fiber surface. The influence of chemical treatments on fiber properties such as the degree of crystallinity and tensile strength was investigated. A variety of short cantala fiber reinforced rHDPE composites were produced by hot press, and the effect of fiber treatment on the flexural strength of composites was observed. SEM observations also carried out to highlight these changes. The result shows that alkali treatment improves tensile strength and tensile modulus of alkali treated fiber (NF12) which was predicted as a result of the enhancement of the cellulose crystallinity. In contrast, the tensile strength and tensile modulus of silane (SF05) and alkali-silane treated fiber (NSF05) decreased compared to untreated fiber (UF) which is caused by the addition of amorphous material. The tensile strength of alkali-silane treated fiber (NSF05) was lower than alkali treated fiber (NF12), but the composites prepared with NSF05 showed the highest increment of flexural strength of 25.9%. This may be due the combination of alkali and silane treatment helped in the better formation of fiber-matrix interface adhesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0024.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: nanocomposites; halloysite nanotubes; multi-layer graphene; water absorption; mechanical properties
Online: 5 January 2017 (09:34:10 CET)
The influence of short term water absorption on the mechanical properties of halloysite nanotubes-multi layer graphene reinforced polyester hybrid nanocomposites has been investigated. The addition of nano-fillers significantly increased the flexural strength; tensile strength and impact strength in dry and wet conditions. After short term water exposure; the maximum microhardness; tensile; flexural and impact toughness values were observed at 0.1 wt% MLG. The microhardness increased up to 50.3%; tensile strength increased up to 40% and flexural strength increased up to 44%. Compared to dry samples; the fracture toughness and surface roughness of all types of produced nanocomposites were increased that may be attributed to plasticization effect. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the main failure mechanism is caused by the weakening of nano-filler-matrix interface induced by water absorption. It was further observed that synergistic effects were not effective at concentration of 0.1 wt% to produce considerable improvement in mechanical properties of produced hybrid nanocomposites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0108.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Pin geometry; friction stir spot welding; mechanical properties; aluminum alloy
Online: 20 December 2016 (11:15:04 CET)
Aluminum alloy Al 2024-T3 were successfully joined using friction stir spot jwelding joining (FSSW). Satisfactory joint strengths were obtained at different welding parameters (tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth, dwell time) and tool pin profile (straight cylindrical, triangular and tapered cylindrical). Resulting joints were welded with welded zone. The different tools significantly influenced the evolution on the stir zone in the welds. Lap-shear tests were carried out to find the weld strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. The macrostructure shows that the welding parameters have a determinant effect on the weld strength (x: the nugget thickness, y: the thickness of the upper sheet and SZ: stir zone). The main fracture mode was pull out fracture modes in the tensile shear test of joints. The results of tensile shear tests showed that the tensile-shear load increased with increasing rotational speed in the shoulder penetration depth of 0.2 mm. Failure joints were obrerved in the weld high shoulder penetration depth and insufficient tool rotation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0295.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: high entropy alloys; selective laser melting; microstructure; mechanical properties; strengthening mechanism
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:52:27 CEST)
The high entropy alloy (HEA) of equiatomic composition CrNiFeCoMn and with FCC crystal structure was additively manufactured with a selective laser melting (SLM) process starting from mechanically alloyed powders. The as produced alloy shows finenitride and phase pre-cipitates, which are Cr-rich and stable up to about 900 K. The precipitates increase in number and dimensions after long-period annealing at 900-1300 K, with a change in the HEA mechanical properties. Higher aging temperatures in furnace, above 1300 K, turn the alloy in a single FCC structure, with disappearance of the nitrate and phase precipitates inside the grains and at the grain boundaries, but with still a presence of a finer Cr-rich nitride precipitation phase. These re-sults suggest that the as-produced HEA is a supersatured solid solution at low and intermediate temperature with nitrides and nanostructures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0171.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: Selective laser shock peening; Hydrophobic properties; Mechanical properties; 3D gradient structure
Online: 18 April 2022 (11:58:44 CEST)
The mechanical properties and stability of hydrophobic surface structures prepared by traditional methods are still the main technical bottlenecks restricting the broad application of hydrophobic systems on workpiece surfaces. In this contribution, we propose a technique called selective laser shock peening (SLSP) to enable large-scale high efficient, low-cost manufacturing of hydrophobic metal surfaces with enhanced mechanical properties for durable applications. Using the method of experimental investigation combined with numerical calculation, the hydrophobic properties, mechanical properties, and tribological properties of the samples prepared under SLSP, all-laser shock peening (ALSP), and non-laser shock peening (NLSP) are studied. The SLSP process could prepare a 3D gradient structure material with surface structures, a two-phase (strong phase, soft phase) distribution on the surface, and a multi-level gradient distribution in the thickness direction. Compared with the 2D gradient structure prepared by the traditional process, 3D gradient structures by SLSP have more significant advantages in improving the wetting behavior and the mechanical properties of the material, which proves SLSP to be a novel method to fabricate functional metal surface structures, with highly high engineering application value.