Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ascorbic acid; meat preparation; meat products, meat spoilage
Online: 25 March 2019 (15:43:54 CET)
Antioxidants for foodstuffs during processing or before packing protects colour, aroma and nutrient content. As regards food safety regulations, long-term efforts have been made in terms of food standards, food control systems, food legislation and regulatory approaches. These have, however, generated several questions on how to apply the law to the diverse food businesses. To answer these questions, a thorough examination of the EU legislator’s choices for food preservation and definitions are provided and discussed with factors affecting microbial growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0136.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Electrical anisotropy, Freeze-thaw cycles, Meat electrical bioimpedance, Meat ripening process, Slaughtered meat
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:10:17 CEST)
A portable, electrical impedance spectroscopy device to monitor the bioimpedance’s resistive component of beef meat by injecting a sinusoidal current of 1mA at 65.5 kHz was developed. In 4 slaughtered beef both right and left longissimus dorsi muscles where trimmed and left muscle portion was frozen to -18° C up to 7th day while right one was meantime maintained at 5° C. Median value of specific resistivity of not-frozen sample was about twice Ω cm-1 with respect of that of frozen-thawed sample (P = 0.004). It was concluded that the device is reliable to monitoring the ripening of beef meat in situ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0452.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Cape Lob Ear; Cape Speckled; meat goat breeds; meat tenderness; meat colour; collagen; chevon
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:47:43 CET)
Meat tenderness, water holding capacity (WHC) and colour attributes of six muscles (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL), Semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF), Supraspinatus (SS), Infraspinatus (IS), Semitendinosus (ST)) from large frame Indigenous Veld Goats (IVG) and Boer Goats (BG) were studied. Weaner male Boer Goats (BG; n = 18; 10 bucks and 8 wethers) and large frame Indigenous Veld Goats (IVG; n = 19; 9 bucks and 10 wethers) were raised on hay and natural grass, and on a commercial pelleted diet to a live weight of 30 - 35 kg. All goats were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and the dressed carcasses chilled at 4°C within 1-hour post-mortem. The muscles were dissected from both sides 24-hours post-mortem and aged for 1-day and 4-days. Variations in meat characteristics such as ultimate pH, WHC, percentage purge, myofibril fragment length, intramuscular fat, connective tissue characteristics, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Bucks had higher L* and Hue-angle values, whereas wethers had increased a* and Chroma values. The muscle baseline-data will allow informed decisions to support muscle-specific marketing strategies, which may be used to improve consumer acceptability of chevon.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: broiler; feed additives; LC–MS/MS; meat legislation; meat safety; poultry meat; veterinary drugs
Online: 22 September 2021 (12:13:55 CEST)
Brazil chicken production is around 13 million tons and about a third is exported to over 150 countries, placing Brazil as the world largest chicken meat producer, and therefore it is crucial to follow the legislation of all importer markets. This study conducted a survey by chance in 45 meat industries able to export. Therefore, 2580 chicken meat samples were collected and submitted to 11 analyte extraction and chromatographic verification of compliance in an accredited laboratory. Ten chemical residues (amoxicillin, bacitracin, colistin, dinitolmide + zoalene, spectinomycin, roxarsone, tiamulin, tylosin, trenbolone acetate and virginiamycin) were investigated in chicken meat and one (halofuginone hydrobromide) in chicken liver. The results showed that no compound exceeded the maximum residue limits established by seven legislations. All residue concentrations found were below the method quantification limit, thereby confirming the capability of Brazilian chicken meat industries in complying to foreign markets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0085.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: organic acids; swine; broilers; digestibility; meat quality; meat preservation
Online: 5 April 2021 (09:34:20 CEST)
Because the application of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) causes accelerated adverse effects on the animal diet, the scientific community has taken progressive steps to enhance sustainable animal productivity without using AGP in animal nutrition. Organic acids (OAs) are non-antibiotic feed additives and a promising feeding strategy in the swine and broiler industry. Mechanistically, OAs improve productivity through multiple and diverse pathways: (a) reduction of pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by reducing the gut pH; (b) boosting the digestibility of nutrients by facilitating digestive enzyme secretion and increasing feed retention time in the gut system; (c) having a positive impact and preventing meat quality deterioration without leaving any chemical residues. Recent studies have reported the effectiveness of using encapsulated OAs and synergistic mechanisms of OAs combinations in swine and broiler productivity. On the other hand, the synergistic mechanisms of OAs and the optimal combination of OAs in the animal diet are not completely understood, and further intensive scientific explorations are needed. Moreover, the ultimate production parameters are not similar owing to the type of OAs, concentration level, growth phase, health status of animals, hygienic standards, and environmental factors. Thus, those factors need to be considered before implementing OAs in feeding practices. In conclusion, the current review evaluated the basics of OAs, mode of action, novel strategies to enhance utilization, influence on growth performances, nutrient digestibility, quality traits, and meat preservation of swine and broilers and their potential concerns regarding utilization.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Bisphenol A; metabolites; meat and meat products; LC-MS/MS; GC-MS/MS
Online: 11 March 2021 (14:55:50 CET)
BPA is a commonly used compound in many industries and has versatile applications in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins production. BPA is classified as endocrine-disrupting chemical which can hamper fetal development during pregnancy and may have long term negative health outcomes in humans. Dietary sources, main route of BPA exposure, can be contaminated by the migration of BPA into food during processing. The global regulatory framework for using this compound in food contact materials is currently not harmonized. This review aims to outline, survey, and critically evaluate BPA contamination in meat products, including level of BPA and/or metabolites present, exposure route, and recent advancements in the analytical procedures of these compounds from meat and meat products. The contribution of meat and meat products to the total dietary exposure of BPA ranges between 10 and 50% depending on the country and exposure scenario considered. From can lining materials of meat products, BPA migrates towards the solid phase resulting higher BPA concentration in solid phase than the liquid phase of the same can. The analytical procedure is comprised of meat sample pre-treatment, followed by cleaning with SPE, and chromatographic analysis. Considering several potential sources of BPA in industrial and home culinary practices, BPA can also accumulate in non-canned or raw meat products. Very few scientific studies have been conducted to identify the amount in raw meat products. Similarly, analysis of metabolites and identification of the origin of BPA contamination in meat products is still a challenge to overcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0287.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: metabolic profiling; meat quality; beef
Online: 19 October 2022 (13:10:29 CEST)
The increasing need for effective analytical tools to evaluate beef quality has prompted the development of new procedures to improve the animal sector’s performance. In this study, three beef breeds—Thai native (TN), crossbred Brahman x Thai native (BT), and crossbred Charolais x Brahman (CB)—were compared in terms of their physicochemical and metabolic profiles. The findings demonstrated that TN beef was lighter and tougher than other beef. Beef odor was stronger in BT. In addition, CB beef was the most tender and the highest intramuscular fat content. Twenty-one different metabolites were found overall through NMR and chemometric approaches. High levels of lactate and creatine were found in all species. The primary factors contributing to the difference in OPLS-DA loading plots were acetylcholine, valine, adenine, leucine, and phosphocreatine, β-hydroxypyruvate, ethanol, adenosine diphosphate, creatine, acetylcholine, and lactate. The multivariate analysis indicated that these metabolites in beef cattle breeds could be distinguished using NMR spectroscopy. The results of this study provide valuable information on the quality and meat metabolites in different breeds. This could help in the development of a more accurate assessment of the quality of beef in future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0254.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Microbial quality; frozen chicken meat
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:27:31 CET)
Background: There is an upsurge in the consumption of chicken meat leading to a high influx of imported frozen chicken parts into the Ghanaian markets with little information on their microbial qualities. This study examined the microbial quality of imported frozen chicken parts from three major import countries (USA, the Netherlands and Brazil) into the Kumasi Metropolis. Methods: A total of 45 chicken meat parts of 15 thighs, wings and backs from wholesale cold stores market in the Kumasi Metropolis were randomly sampled for laboratory examinations. A ten-fold serial dilution was performed on each homogenized chicken parts to determine microbiological quality using Plate Count Agar , MacConkey Agar (MCA), Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) and Desoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) for the total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC), Staphylococcus and Salmonella spp counts respectively incubated at 37oC for 48 hours. Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) was used for fungal counts. We identified bacterial and fungal isolates using appropriate laboratory and biochemical tests. Descriptive data analysis was carried using SPSS-IBM version 16. Results: Mean TVCs of 5.93, 5.98 and 6.14 log10cfu/g were recorded for frozen chicken meats from the USA, the Netherlands and Brazil respectively. Means TCCs of 6.14, 5.93 and 5.98 log10cfu/g were obtained for chicken meats from Brazil, USA and the Netherlands respectively. Staphylococcus spp. (35.4%), E. coli (26.2%), Salmonella spp. (24.6%), and Klebsiella spp. (13.8%) were isolated with Aspergillus spp (33.3%), Rhizopus spp (27.3%), Penicillin spp (24.2%), and Cladosporium spp (15.2%). Chicken thighs, backs and wings recorded 46.2%, 29.2% and 24.6% bacterial contaminants in this order. Bacterial isolates of 49.2%, 28.8% and 22.0% were recorded in frozen chicken meat products from Brazil, the Netherlands USA respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that imported frozen chicken meats into the Ghanaian market have moderate quality with potential pathogens such as E. coli and Salmonella spp.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0366.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; agricultural wastes; anthocyanins; ruminant nutrition; milk and meat production; fat milk and meat quality
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:52:05 CEST)
The objective was to analyze the effects of adding anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in animal diets. Scientific articles published before 2021 in clinics, pharmacology, nutrition, and animal production were included. The grains/concentrate, metabolic exigency, and caloric stress contribute to increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS); the excess of ROS unbalance the oxidants and antioxidants. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and anthelmintic activities. In the rumen, anthocyanin might show interactions and/or synergisms with substrates, microorganisms, and enzymes which could reduce the fiber degradability, but increase the potential methane (CH4) emissions; since anthocyanin interferes in the biohydrogenation of fats, they increase the fat milk and meat quality. Anthocyanins reduce plasma oxidation and deposit in tissues, increasing the milk and meat antioxidant activities. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside act as inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEi) and rennin expression which may improve milk yield (there is not enough evidence in ruminants, though). Polyphenols affect the reproductive potential. Sub products of HS contain as many amounts of polyphenols as calyces, and their inclusion in diets would positively affect the average daily gain and fat meat quality. Including HS in ruminant diets can improve the meat and milk quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0383.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bos indicus, carcass, marbling, meat quality, nutrigenomics
Online: 21 December 2022 (04:01:00 CET)
The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes, biological processes and metabolic pathways related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis in calves receiving different diets during the cow-calf phase. Forty-eight uncastrated F1 Angus × Nellore males were randomly assigned to two treatments from 30 days of age to weaning: no creep feeding (G1) or creep feeding (G2). After weaning, the animals were feedlot finished for 180 days and fed a single diet containing 12.6% forage and 87.4% corn-based concentrate. Longissimus thoracis muscle samples were collected by biopsy at weaning for transcriptome analysis by RNA-Seq and at slaughter for the measurement of intramuscular fat content (IMF) and marbling score (MS). Animals of G2 had 17.2% and 14.0% higher IMF and MS, respectively (P < 0.05). We identified 947 differentially expressed genes (log2 fold change 0.5; FDR 5%); of these, 504 were up-regulated and 443 were down-regulated in G2. Part of the genes up-regulated in G2 were related to PPAR signaling (PPARA, SLC27A1, FABP3, and DBI), unsaturated fatty acid synthesis (FADS1, FADS2, SCD, and SCD5), and fatty acid metabolism (FASN, FADS1, FADS2, SCD, and SCD5). Regarding biological processes, the genes up-regulated in G2 were related to cholesterol biosynthesis (EBP, CYP51A1, DHCR24, and LSS), unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis (FADS2, SCD, SCD5, and FADS1), and insulin sensitivity (INSIG1 and LPIN2). Cow-calf supplementation positively affected energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis, and thus favored the deposition of marbling fat during the postweaning period. Here it was shown, in an unprecedented way, by analyzing the transcriptome, genes, pathways and enriched processes due to the use of creep feeding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Greenhouse gases; methanogenesis; meat production; algae; microorganisms
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:39:15 CEST)
Ruminant mammals extract nutrients from plant-based food through fermentation in the rumen; fiber and starch are pre-digested by microorganisms and methane is produced as a by-product, which released into the atmosphere acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In an effort to reduce enteric methanogenesis, dietary additives for ruminants have been investigated, and marine macroalgae have proven particularly promising, e.g., the inclusion of 0.2% dry matter of the red alga A. taxiformis into cow feed decreased in vivo methane production by up to 98%. Thus, if globally applied, the addition of algae in ruminant diets could revolutionize the management of greenhouse gas emissions across the livestock sector. However, the ozone-depleting nature of halogen compounds produced in Asparagopsis sp. and the reported adverse health impacts on humans, along with impracticability issues and the difficulty to produce, commercialize and distribute algae widely, has sown some doubt on the feasibility of using macroalgae as methane mitigation instruments. To circumvent such obstacles, and taking into account the paradigm that eukaryotic hosts cannot be understood without considering interactions with their associated microbiome, the exploration of marine algae associated microorganisms is anticipated. Following the notion that in the close and intimate relationships between algae-hosts and their microbiota the origin of chemical response mechanisms is often unclear, and that compounds initially assigned to algae have previously been shown to stem from host-associated microbes, it is not unreasonable to think that these may be involved in the antimethanogenic effects of marine algae in the rumen. Once identified, such microorganisms could lead to antimethanogenic feed additives, and reduce enteric methanogenesis from livestock ruminants substantially. This review is three-fold: it provides a brief, historic overview of macroalgae as feed supplements for ruminants, sums up the difficulties related to using whole-macroalgae as large-scale antimethanogenic feed additives, and describes the macroalga microbiome, including its potential to serve as an antimethanogen for enteric fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0234.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: sodium levels; processed meat; food reformulation; Australia
Online: 11 October 2018 (08:12:31 CEST)
High sodium intake increases blood pressure and consequently increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In Australia, the best estimate of sodium intake is 3840 mg sodium/day, almost double the World Health Organization guideline (2000 mg/day), and processed meats contribute approximately 10% of daily sodium intake to the diet. This study assessed the median sodium levels of 2510 processed meat products, including bacon and sausages, available in major Australian supermarkets in 2010, 2013, 2015 and 2017, and assessed changes over time. The median sodium content of processed meats in 2017 was 775 mg/100 g (IQR 483–1080). There was an 11% reduction in the median sodium level of processed meats for which targets were set under the government’s Food and Health Dialogue (p < 0.001). This includes bacon, ham/cured meat products, sliced luncheon meat and meat with pastry categories. There was no change in processed meats without a target (median difference 6%, p = 0.093). The new targets proposed by the current government’s Healthy Food Partnership, capture a larger proportion of products than the Food and Health Dialogue (66% compared to 36%) and a lower proportion of products are at or below the target (35% compared to 54%). These results demonstrate that voluntary government targets can drive nutrient reformulation. Future efforts will require strong government leadership and robust monitoring and evaluation systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0254.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: cluster; intrinsic; extrinsic; oil; meat confit; lamb
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:21:32 CEST)
The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socio-economic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socio-economic characteristics and their preferences regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called "Gourmet", "Disinterested", "Conservative" and "Basic". The Gourmet group has characteristics that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit; however, this group is unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: performance evaluation; poultry meat; ergonomics; injuries; industry
Online: 2 January 2018 (06:36:04 CET)
Injuries of repetitive efforts constitute one of the prime causes of absenteeism in the workplace, have bear a considerable cost for the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company. The objective of this paper is to build, in the researchers, the needed knowledge to choose a set of relevant scientific articles about repetitive strain injuries in the poultry meat industry, aiming identify characteristics in those scientific publications that have the potential to contribute on the topic of this paper. The research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive, draws on primary and secondary data sources. The study involves the application of a method for selection and analysis of the selected articles. To this end, the method utilized was the Knowledge Development Process – Constructivist (Proknow-C) as theoretical intervention instrument. Within the process development, it was obtained a portfolio of 16 articles aligned to the research and scientifically recognized with the main periodicals, papers, authors and keywords. The ProKnow-C process allowed identify opportunities in the literature about injuries in the poultry meat industry and showed opportunities for research future. This paper, under the constructivist perspective, presents a structured process to build, in the researcher, the necessary knowledge to identification, selection and analysis of relevant scientific articles relating to research context and, for these articles, find prominences and opportunities for a research theme without similar publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0147.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: glycolysis; lipidome; meat; mitochondria; oxidation; proteome; turkey
Online: 23 November 2017 (03:11:04 CET)
A commercially reared domesticated turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was purchased from a local market and sections of tissue representing leg, thigh, and breast were harvested and processed for analysis of the lipids and proteins present. Leg and thigh tissue was enriched in mitochondrial proteins whereas the breast tissue was enriched in glycolytic enzymes as well as the cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. A potential marker for breast tissue muscle formation and/or function was also identified. The tissues could clearly be separated based upon their lipid profiles with little differences in cardiolipin levels suggesting that mitochondrial surface areas may be similar across the tissues. The most significant differences in the lipids were found to be higher levels of oxidized lipids in thigh meat. This work provides the first untargeted proteome and lipidome datasets for the domesticated turkey. The proteome dataset is accessible from ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the identifier PXD008207.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Bardia; carnivore; illegal hunting; prey; wild meat
Online: 2 November 2016 (07:03:29 CET)
We interviewed 48 people including local communities, ex hunters and protected area management professionals. The purpose of the interviews was to understand the motivations for, and the nature of, illegal hunting of prey species of iconic predators - tigers and leopards - in the northern section of Bardia National Park. Participants reported that hunting of prey species occurs mostly in spring and autumn and is less common during the summer. In the past, hunting was primarily for the purposes of obtaining meat for household consumption. Since the introduction of a road network in the region, opportunities to sell wild meat at ad-hoc ‘highway markets’ have developed. The purported medicinal properties of wild meat was also cited as a driver for illegal hunting. Mostly, locally hand-made guns are used for hunting and the use of dogs in hunting was often reported. Protected area managers informed that illegal hunting problems in the study area are associated with a lack of presence of park authorities, remoteness and underdevelopment and poverty of the community. Our study suggested that skills development training for local community members might reduce dependency on wild meat for household consumption and earning thereby reducing illegal hunting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Meat consumption; Flexitarianism; Sustainable Development; Protein transition; Brazil
Online: 1 February 2023 (01:09:51 CET)
The flexitarian diet, which emphasizes a reduction in meat consumption, has been identified as a crucial factor in transitioning to sustainable food systems that can help combat climate change and improve food and nutritional security, particularly in areas where food choices are abundant. Despite Brazil being a major meat producer, meat consumption among Brazilians has been decreasing in recent years, with a growing portion of the population adopting meat-free and meat-reduced dietary models. In this study, we conducted the first non-industry funded scientific investigation of Brazilian flexitarians, with the goal of characterizing their socio-economic and demographic characteristics, motivations for adopting flexitarianism, frequency of animal-based meat consumption, and main substitutes consumed. Data was collected from 1029 self-identified flexitarians in Brazil. Our findings indicate that the flexitarian food model is primarily adopted by women and is motivated by concerns about the environmental impact of meat consumption, personal health, and animal welfare. Flexitarians were found to have a consumption profile that can be divided into three groups: low (consuming meat 36 times a week), medium (consuming meat 7 times a week), and high (consuming meat 4 times a week). The flexitarian meals pattern is characterized by lower consumption of beef (less than 2 times per week) and higher consumption of chicken (3 times per week) and is supplemented by plant-based protein sources and eggs as the main meat substitutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0325.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 14 December 2020 (11:44:14 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat. They consider it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online survey with 501 Belgium consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that a strong effect is exerted by the health perception. The healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes to choice for this new product category.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0241.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 10 December 2020 (09:22:00 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein that, in comparison to meat, offer a number of social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on the role they can play in the policy agenda and how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace partially replace meat in their diets.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: pig; NREP; gene expression; polymorphism; SNP; meat performance
Online: 1 December 2020 (08:48:46 CET)
The expression microarray technique was performed to investigate the differences in gene expression between Czech Large White pigs and wild boars in the longissimus lumborum et thoracis and biceps femoris muscle tissues. The NREP gene (neuronal regeneration related protein homolog) was selected for detailed study as an expressional and functional candidate gene. NREP plays a role in the transformation of neural, muscle and fibroblast cells and in smooth muscle myogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR results confirmed that the porcine NREP gene was expressed in both skeletal muscles and significantly overexpressed in Czech Large White pigs compared to wild boars (P < 0.05). We identified 9 polymorphic sites in genomic DNA of NREP gene. Six of these polymorphisms were in complete linkage disequilibrium and therefore only 4 polymorphisms were informative. Associations of these 4 polymorphisms (HF571253:g.103G>A, HF571253:g.134G>A, HF571253:g.179T>C and HF571253:g.402_409delT) with meat performance traits were assessed in Czech Large White pigs. New polymorphisms in NREP gene were significantly associated with parameters of daily weight gain, lean meat and backfat thickness in Czech Large White pigs. Our primary study suggested that porcine NREP may play an important role in skeletal muscle growth, fat metabolism and meat performance traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0677.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference; plant-based proteins
Online: 26 November 2020 (23:08:59 CET)
High levels ofmeat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, 2 and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in 3 comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may 4 play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific 5 meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. 6 Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat.They consider 7 it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested 8 in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option 9 for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat 10 product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online 11 survey with 500 German consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating 12 to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least 13 occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect 14 to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either 15 meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that the highest effect is exerted by the health perception. The 16 healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive 17 seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes 18 to choice for this new product category.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: low fat; salt reduction; meat product; sensory; beef
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:46:55 CEST)
The consumer’s acceptability of hamburgers elaborated with the flank of culling cows in which the content of salt or fat had been partially replaced was studied. A mixture of potassium chloride, potassium ferrocyanide and sodium ferrocyanide was used as substitutes for the salt. Oat flakes or a mixture of chia and flax seeds were used as substitutes for the fat. The hamburgers were tasted by 34 consumers. Consumers did not detect significant differences between the control and the rest of the formulations. Neither the gender nor the age of the consumers influenced the sensory appraisal. However, many comments regarding texture failures were recorded. Therefore, the substitution of salt and / or fat in the composition of hamburgers made with the flank of cows is a viable alternative for the commercialization of these pieces of low commercial value as long as the texture of the same is adjusted to resemble it to the control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: malondialdehyde; duck meat; myofibrillar proteins; physicochemical changes; gel properties
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:50:02 CEST)
This paper focuses on the effect of malondialdehyde-induced oxidative modification (MiOM) on the gel properties of duck myofibrillar proteins (DMPs). DMPs were first prepared and treated with oxidative modification at different concentrations of malondialdehyde (0, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L). The physicochemical changes (carbonyl and free thiol group content) and gel properties (gel whiteness, gel strength, water holding capacity, rheological properties and mi-cro-structural properties) were then investigated. The results showed that the content of protein carbonyl groups increased with increasing MDA oxidation (P<0.05), while the content of free thiol groups decreased significantly (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was a significant trend of decrease in gel whiteness; the hardness and water-holding capacity of protein gels increased significantly under the oxidation of low concentration of MDA (0-5 mmol/L), while the hardness of gels decreased under the oxidation of high concentration (10 mM). The storage modulus and loss modulus of oxidized DMPs also increased with increasing concentration; moreover, microstructural analysis confirmed that the gels oxidized at low concentrations were more compact and homogeneous in terms of pore size compared to the high concentration or blank group. In conclusion, moderate oxidation of malondialdehyde was beneficial to improve the gel properties of duck; however, excessive oxidation was detrimental to the formation of dense structured gels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0272.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, meat, raw milk, antibiotics; antibiotic resistance genes
Online: 15 August 2018 (13:58:11 CEST)
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) occasionally threatens the life of the host as a persistent pathogen even though it is normal flora of humans and animals. We characterized drug resistance in S. aureus isolated from animal carcasses and milk samples from the abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province. Methods: A 1000 meat swab samples and 200 raw milk samples were collected from selected abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. S. aureus was isolated and positively identified using biochemical tests and confirmed by molecular methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test against 14 different antibiotics was performed against all isolates. Antibiotic resistance genes were also detected. Results: Of the 1200 samples collected, 134 (11.2%) samples were positive for S. aureus. Resistance ranged from 71.6% for penicillin G to 39.2% for tetracycline. Resistance gene (blaZ) was detected in 13 (14.9%), while msrA was found in 31 (52.5%) of S. aureus isolates. Conclusions: The present result shows the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the dairy farms and abattoirs in the Eastern Cape. Therefore, this implies that the organism may rapidly spread through food and pose serious public health risk
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0989.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: genome-wide association study; carcass length; meat color; genetic parameter
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:25:43 CEST)
Ningxiang pig is renowned breed for its exceptional meat quality, but it possesses suboptimal carcass traits. To elucidate the genetic architecture of meat quality and carcass traits in Ningxiang pigs, we assessed heritability and executed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) concerning carcass length, backfat thickness, meat color parameters (L.LD, a.LD, b.LD), and pH at two postmortem intervals (45 minutes and 24 hours) within a Ningxiang pig population. Heritability estimates ranged from moderate to high (0.30 ~ 0.80) for carcass traits and from low to high (0.11 ~ 0.48) for meat quality traits. We identified 21 significant SNPs, the majority of which were situated within previously documented QTL regions. Furthermore, the HMGA1 gene emerged as a pleiotropic gene correlated with carcass length and backfat thickness. The ADGRF1, FKBP5, and PRIM2 genes were associated with carcass length, while the NIPBL gene was linked to backfat thickness. These genes hold potential for use in selective breeding programs targeting carcass traits in Ningxiang pigs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0295.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; rumours; poultry; chicken meat; egg; qualitative research
Online: 5 May 2023 (04:14:23 CEST)
Introduction: The COVID-19 severely marred the Indian poultry industry, worth approximately one trillion INR. Hence, this study was conducted to understand the COVID-19 related factors that harmed the poultry production and distribution network and explore their varied impact on its actors in Gujarat, India. Methods: An exploratory qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews, was conducted with 34 poultry stakeholders in Gujarat. The data were thematically analysed using an interpretative phenomenological approach. Results: The study revealed that COVID-19 and the associated lockdown had hugely impacted the production, distribution and consumption of poultry products. The first COVID-19 lockdown disrupted the supply of production inputs and the distribution of poultry and poultry products because of movement restrictions. Rumours also played a crucial role in decreasing the consumption of poultry products between March and June 2020. The market situation, including the prices and availability of poultry products, was found to be improved post-lockdown as there was an increase in consumption; however, the profits were not sufficient to immediately compensate for the losses incurred during the lockdown. Conclusion: The first COVID-19 lockdown restricted the production and distribution of essential goods and influenced the perception of consumers regarding poultry products. COVID-19 resulted in many short- and medium-term challenges in the poultry sectors in India, which need to be addressed to make this sector more resilient to face any such crisis in future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0205.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: dietary fiber; childhood obesity; gut microbiota; metabolite; high-meat diet
Online: 13 March 2023 (02:18:52 CET)
The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in childhood obesity, and diet is a dominating driver. The effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), as a dietary fiber, on the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota in healthy children was investigated by vitro fermentation system with a reformative YCFA medium (rich in tryptic hydrolysates of meat). The 16S rRNA sequencing technology was utilized to analyze the varieties of gut microbiota. Measurement of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gases were used by the gas chromatograph. Majorbio Cloud Platform and MetOrigin, as the interactive cloud server, perform the microbiota analysis, the metabolic pathway enrichment analysis, the statistical correlations, and biological relationships using network visualization. We found that the FOS group significantly regulated the composition and metabolism of gut microbiota. The co-metabolism network showed that 3 metabolites were related to 6 differential bacteria and 8 metabolism pathways. These findings suggest that dietary fiber could regulate the composition of gut microbiota and its metabolites in a better direction, but when dietary fiber participates in precision nutrition formula, it may be relevant for precision obesity, may help identify windows of opportunity for the dietary intervention of childhood obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0246.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: meat attachment; food neophobia; consumer preference; preference for organic foods
Online: 27 April 2022 (03:45:28 CEST)
Meat-based diets are still the norm and vegans and vegetarians represent only a small minority of the population. A transition respectively behavioural change towards a diet with less meat can only occur with the adoption of a positive attitude towards dietary changes based on reasons and motivations. The main aim of this study is to validate the so-called meat attachment scale (MEAS) for Germany in order to analyse if this construct is a barrier towards a diet with less meat in this country. The findings show that the MEAS can be applied in Germany and a similar structure as reported for Spain and other countries could be found. Furthermore, a correlation analysis demonstrated that food neophobia and MEAS are not correlated with each other. That is, that meat attachment represents an independent and single predictor for trust in food (processing) technologies as e.g. plant-based proteins or cultured meat.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Silage supplement; Pomegranate residues; avocado residues; poultry; antioxidant,; meat quality
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:42:54 CEST)
In the present study pomegranate peels and avocado peels and seeds vacuum microwave extraction solid by-products were supplemented in corn silage in order to investigate the effects on meat quality and growth rate in broiler chicken. 50 broilers were divided in two groups treated with experimental or usual fed for 43 days (group A: 25 broilers fed with avocado and pomegranate by-products and group B: 25 broilers fed with corn-silage used as control). The results showed that broiler chickens fed with diet supplemented with a mixture of pomegranate avocado by-products (group A) shown significant differences in chicken leg meat quality improving in significant level the proteins and fatty acids contents in breast and leg meat respectively. More specific ω3 and ω6 fatty acids contents were three times higher than in group B. Moreover protective effect on the decomposition of polyunsaturated fatty acids induced by free radicals presented in chicken meat based on the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Pomegranate peels, avocado peels and seeds by-products appeared slight reduction on meat production while it was found to improve the qualitative chicken meat characteristics. Regarding the production costs, it was calculated that the corn-silage supplementation used in this study lead to a 75% lower cost than the commercial corn-silage used for the breeding of broilers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0245.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Chicken fillet; Collagen structure; Wooden Breast; Spaghetti Meat; FTIR spectroscopy
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:39:16 CET)
Recently, two chicken breast fillet abnormalities, termed Wooden Breast (WB) and Spaghetti Meat (SM), have become a challenge for the chicken meat industry. The two abnormalities share some overlapping morphological features, including myofiber necrosis, intramuscular fat deposition, and collagen fibrosis, but display very different textural properties. WB has a hard, rigid surface, while the SM has a soft and stringy surface. Connective tissue is affected in both WB and SM, and accordingly, this study's objective was to investigate the major component of connective tissue, collagen. The collagen structure was compared with normal (NO) fillets using histological methods and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and imaging. The histology analysis demonstrated an increase in the amount of connective tissue in the chicken abnormalities, particularly in the perimysium. The WB displayed a mixture of thin and thick collagen fibers, whereas the collagen fibers in SM were thinner, fewer, and shorter. For both, the collagen fibers were oriented in multiple directions. The FTIR data showed that WB contained more β-sheets than the NO and the SM fillets, whereas SM fillets expressed the lowest mature collagen fibers. This insight into the molecular changes can help to explain the underlying causes of the abnormalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0153.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; antimicrobial resistance; ESBL; MDR; frozen chicken meat; Bangladesh
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:31:20 CEST)
Escherichia coli is known as one of the most important foodborne pathogens in humans, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of foodborne infection with this bacterium. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli (ESBL-Ec), in particular, in chicken meat is considered a global health problem. This study aimed to determine the magnitude of E. coli, with special emphasis on ESBL-Ec, along with their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern in frozen chicken meat. The study also focused on the determination of ESBL-encoding genes in E. coli. A total of 113 frozen chicken meat samples were purchased from 40 outlets of nine branded supershops in five megacities in Bangladesh. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done based on cultural and biochemical properties, as well as PCR assay. The resistance pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method. ESBL-encoding genes were determined by multiplex PCR. The results showed that 76.1% of samples were positive for E. coli, of which 86% were ESBL producers. All the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Resistance to 9–11 and 12–13 antimicrobial classes was observed in 38.4% and 17.4% isolates, respectively, while only 11.6% were resistant to 3–5 classes. Possible extensive drug resistance (pXDR) was found in 2.3% of isolates. High single resistance was observed for oxytetracycline (93%) and amoxicillin (91.9%), followed by ampicillin (89.5%), trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and pefloxacin (88.4%), and tetracycline (84.9%). Most importantly, 89.6% of isolates were resistant to carbapenems. All the isolates were positive for the blaTEM gene. However, the blaSHV and blaCTX-M-2 genes were identified in two ESBL-non producer isolates. None of the isolates carried the blaCTX-M-1 gene. This study provided evidence of the existence of MDR and pXDR ESBL-Ec in frozen chicken meat in Bangladesh, which may pose a risk to human health if the meat is not properly cooked or pickled raw only. This emphasizes the importance of the implementation of good slaughtering and processing practices by the processors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: phospholipids; atherosclerosis; inflammation; anti-inflammatory; dairy; marine; meat; egg; nutrition
Online: 6 November 2017 (10:30:12 CET)
In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: Section one addresses the relationship between the anti-inflammatory bioactivities of different phospholipids in relation to their structures and compositions. Sections two and three are dedicated to the structures, functions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. To date, there is very limited work published on meat phospholipids, undoubtedly due to the negative perception that meat consumption is an unhealthy option due to its putative associations with several chronic diseases. These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. Recent research trends indicate that dairy phospholipids possess anti-inflammatory properties, which has led to an increased interest into their molecular structures and reputed health benefits. Finally, the structural composition of phospholipids of marine origin is discussed. Extensive research has been published in relation to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammation, however this research has recently come under scrutiny and has proved to be unreliable and controversial in terms of the therapeutic effects of ω-3 PUFA, which are generally in the form of triglycerides and esters. Therefore, this review focuses on recent publications concerning marine phospholipids and their structural composition and related health benefits. Finally, the strong nutritional value of dietary phospholipids are highlighted with respect to marine and animal origin and avenues for future research are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0209.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence system; resilience; robustness; fault tolerance; graceful degradation; do-main-adaptation; meat-learning; adversarial attack; fault injection; concept drift; resilience as-sessment
Online: 13 February 2023 (09:07:36 CET)
Artificial intelligence systems are increasingly becoming a component of security-critical applications. The protection of such systems from various types of destructive influences is thus a relevant area of research. The vast majority of previously published works are aimed at reducing vulnerability to certain types of disturbances or implementing certain resilience properties. At the same time, the authors either do not consider the concept of resilience as such, or their understanding varies greatly. This work presents a formalized definition of resilience and its characteristics for artificial intelligence systems from a systemic point of view. It systematizes ideas and approaches to building resilience to various types of disturbances. Taxonomy of resilience of artificial intelligence systems to destructive disturbances is proposed. Approaches and technologies for complex protection of intelligent systems, issues of their resource efficiency and other open research issues are considered. Approaches of resilience assessment for artificial intelligence system are also analyzed and recommendations are provided for their implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Edible mushrooms; Fungi; Plant-based protein; Chickpea; Sensory attributes; Alternative meat
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:35:20 CEST)
A growing number of health conscious consumers are looking for animal protein alternatives with similar texture, appearance, and flavor. There has been a lot of interest in meat analogs as potential meat substitutes. However, research and development still needs to find any alternative non-meat materials. The objective of the current research was to develop fungi minced meat alternative (FMMA) from edible mushrooms. Pleurotus Sajor-caju (SC) was used as the starting material. SC mushroom was selected for starting materials based on high protein content (41.99%.) and sensory attributes. Chickpea flour was used to improve the textural properties by mixing with SC mushroom at a ratio of 0:50, 12.5:37.5, 25:25, 37.5:12.5, and 50:0 (w/w). Textural and sensory attributes suggest that SC mushroom to chickpea at a ratio of 37.5:12.5, shows higher acceptability of FMMA with the protein content up to 47%. Beetroot extract 0.2% (w/w), and 5% (w/w) canola oil showed the most acceptable color parameters and consumer acceptability. This research suggested that SC mushroom with 12.5% chickpea flour, 0.2% beetroot extract and 5% canola oil could be suitable ingredients for the mushroom-based FMMA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0562.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: charcoal; dry heat cooking; indoor; meat; N-nitrosodimethylamine; health risk; source
Online: 23 November 2018 (13:59:34 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the airborne release of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a result of the dry heat cooking of some meats using charcoal grilling and pan broiling methods. Three types of meat, beef sirloin, pork belly, and duck, were chosen and cooked in a temporary building using the above methods. Air samples were collected in Thermosorb-N cartridges, which were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for NDMA using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection, respectively. Overall, the charcoal grilling method showed higher average NDMA concentrations than the pan broiling method for all types of meat. The highest average concentration was observed for charcoal-grilled beef sirloin (410 ng/m3) followed by pork belly, suggesting that meat protein content and cooking duration are important determinants of NDMA formation. Cancer risk assessment showed that the charcoal grilling of such meats can pose an additional cancer risk for restaurant customers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: thyroid nodules; ultrasound; lifestyle; dietary; betel quid; red meat; nut; centenarians
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:04:38 CET)
Thyroid nodules (TNs) are common thyroid lesions in older population. Few studies focused on the prevalence of TNs and its relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits in centenarians. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of TNs in Chinese centenarians using high-resolution ultrasound equipment and investigate its relationship to lifestyles and dietary habits. The current study was part of China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study (CHCCS) which conducted in Hainan, an iodine sufficient region in China. A total of 874 permanent residents aged 100 years or older (mean age, 102.8 ± 2.8 years) without any missing data were included in the analysis. Among the participants, 649 of them were detected at least one thyroid nodule under the ultrasound examinations. The overall prevalence rate of TNs was 74.3%. The prevalence of TNs was higher in participants who were females, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight than their counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being female, hypertension, diabetes, betel quid consumption, red meat consumption were independent risk factors, while being underweight, and nut consumption were independent protective factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that the presence of thyroid nodules was highly prevalent in Chinese centenarians, particularly in females. In addition to gender, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight, the presence of TNs was independently associated with betel quid, red meat, and nut consumptions. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify these associations in population from different age strata, races, cultures, and iodine backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: heterocyclic amines (HCAs); meat intake; colorectal cancer; colorectal adenomas; cancer prevention
Online: 9 May 2017 (06:13:18 CEST)
Several evidences suggest that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometime inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: PhIP, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: MeIQx, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene: (B(a)P) and “meat derived mutagenic activity”: MDM) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR=1.20; 95%CI:1.13,1.28; p<0.001), MeIQx (OR=1.14; 95%CI:1.05,1.23; p=0.001), DiMeIQx (OR=1.13; 95%CI:1.05,1.21; p=0.001), B(a)P (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.02,1.19; p=0.017) and MDM (OR=1.17; 95%CI:1.07,1.28; p=0.001). A linear and curvilinear trend was observed in dose-response meta-analisis between CRA risk in association with PhIP and MDM, MeIQx, respectively. CRC risk (21344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR=1.14; 95%CI:1.04,1.25; p=0.004), DiMeIQx (OR=1.12; 95%CI:1.02,1.22; p=0.014) and MDM (OR=1.12; 95%CI:1.06,1.19; p<0.001). No publication bias could be detected whereas heterogeneity was in some cases rather high. Mutagenic compounds formed during cooking of meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: plant-based; meat alternative; hybrid burger; check-all-that-apply; consumer survey.
Online: 3 May 2023 (09:10:03 CEST)
Beef has one of the highest climate footprints of all foods, and therefore the hamburger has been targeted for substitution by numerous plant-based alternatives. However, many consumers find the taste of these alternatives lacking, and thus we proposed a hybrid meat and plant-based burger as a lower threshold alternative for these consumers. The burger was made from 50% meat (beef and pork, 4:1) and 50% plant-based ingredients, including texturised legume protein and had a climate footprint less than half that of a beef burger. Texture and sensory properties were evaluated instrumentally and through a consumer survey (n = 381) using the check-all-that-apply (CATA) method. Moisture properties indicated a significantly juicier eating experience for the hybrid compared to a beef burger, which was supported by the CATA survey. From texture profile analysis the hybrid burger was significantly softer and less cohesive than a beef burger. Despite having different CATA term profiles overall liking of the hybrid and a beef burger were not significantly different. Penalty analysis indicated that “meat flavour”, “juiciness”, “spiciness”, and “saltiness” are the most important attributes for a burger. In conclusion, consumers may be open to reducing their meat consumption by way of hybrid meat and plant-based products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0475.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: cultured meat; cellular agriculture; food safety; research priorities; regulatory; interviews; testing methods
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:54:57 CEST)
As with every new technology, safety demonstration is a critical component of bringing products to market and gaining public acceptance for cultured meat and seafood. This manuscript develops research priorities from the findings from a series of interviews and workshops with governmental scientists and regulators from food safety agencies in fifteen jurisdictions globally. The interviews and workshops aimed to identify the key safety questions and priority areas of research. Participants raised questions about which aspects of cultured meat and seafood production are novel, and the implications of the paucity of public information on the topic. Novel parameters and targets may require the development of new analytical methods or adaptation and validation of existing ones, including for a diversity of product types and processes. Participants emphasized that data sharing of these efforts would be valuable, similar to those already developed and used in the food and pharmaceutical fields. Contributions to such databases from the private and public sectors would speed general understanding as well as efforts to make evaluations more efficient. In turn, these resources, combined with transparent risk assessment, will be critical elements of building consumer trust in cultured meat and seafood products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0024.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Multidrug resistance; mecA gene; Frozen chicken meat; Bangladesh
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:56:33 CET)
Infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are continuously expanding within the community. Chicken meat is usually contaminated by MRSA, and this contaminated chicken meat is an important source of foodborne infections in humans. In this study, a cross-sectional supershop survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of MRSA in 113 domestic frozen chicken meat samples purchased from nine branded supershops available in five divisional megacities of Bangladesh. The study also focused on the determination of methicillin resistance gene in MRSA isolates. S. aureus was identified by standard culture-based and molecular methods, and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA was screened by cefoxitin disk diffusion test. Methicillin resistance gene was identified by PCR. Of samples, 54.9% were positive for S. aureus, and, of these, 37.1% isolates were identified as MRSA. All the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR): 52.2% were resistant to 6−8 antimicrobial classes, and 47.8% isolates to 9−12 classes. Three (3.2%) isolates of S. aureus were possible extensively drug resistant. The highest rates of resistance were observed against cefoxitin (100%), followed by nalidixic acid, ampicillin and oxacillin (97.7%), colistin (91.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amoxicillin (87%), penicillin-G and cloxacillin (82.6%), oxytetracycline (78.3%) and cefixime (73.9%). Screening of methicillin resistance gene revealed that 43.5% isolates of MRSA were positive for mecA gene. The high prevalence of MDR MRSA in frozen chicken meat samples in this study emphasizes the need for better sanitary education of food handlers in hygienic practices focusing on their potential role as reservoirs and spreaders of MRSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0213.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: autochthonous breed; beef; DFD meat; Listeria monocytogenes; Escherichia coli O157:H7; ultimate pH.
Online: 13 March 2023 (04:19:07 CET)
This study was carried out to identify the behaviour of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated in Maronesa breed beef with different ultimate pH (pHu) (Normal and DFD), and stored at two different temperatures (4 and 9 ºC), during 28 days post mortem (pm). The main objective was to illustrate the problematic feature of dealing with beef meat showing high pHu and stored at mild abusive temperatures (9 ºC). Beef steaks (ms. longissimus dorsi) were inoculated with low levels (ca. 2 or 3 log CFU/g) of these both pathogens and packed in air, vacuum and three gaseous mixtures with decreasing O2 and increasing CO2 concentrations (MAP70/20, MAP50/40 and MAP30/60). At 4 ºC, the growth of E. coli O157:H7 presented the same pattern on Normal and DFD meat. On contrary, the growth of L. monocytogenes was higher on DFD meat, revealing the effect of the pHu and its psychotropic character. At abusive temperature, both pathogens grew, achieving high levels on DFD meat. In these cases, the MAP with the highest CO2 concentration (60%) revealed to be more effective against the development of E. coli O157:H7, presenting the lowest number of counts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0365.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Salmonella; Campylobacter; poultry; review; vaccines; processing; farm-to-fork; broilers; meat birds; production
Online: 25 July 2022 (09:24:22 CEST)
Enteropathogens, namely Salmonella and Campylobacter, are a concern in global public health and have been attributed in numerous risk assessments to a poultry source. During the last decade a large body of research addressing this problem has been published. The literature reviewed contains review articles on certain aspects of poultry production chain, however in the past decade there hasn’t been a review on the through production chain, farm to fork, production of poultry. This review, a pool of 514 articles were selected for relevance via a systematic screening process (from >7500 original search articles). These studies identified a diversity of management and intervention strategies for the elimination or reduction of enteropathogens in poultry production. Many studies were laboratory or limited field trials with implementation in true commercial operations being problematic. Entities considering using commercial anti-enteropathogen products and interventions are advised to perform an internal validation and fit for purpose trial as Salmonella and Campylobacter serovars and biovars may have regional diversity. Future research should focus on non-chemical application within the processing plant and how synergistic through chain intervention may contribute to reducing the overall carcass burden of enteropathogen, coupled with increased consumer education on safe handling and cooking of poultry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Cold supply chain; Meat Supply Chain; Food Safety; COVID-19; Blockchain; Hyperledger Fabric
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:18:24 CEST)
The world is facing an unprecedented socio-economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). It is also spreading through the import and export food supply chains. The Chinese authorities have discovered the COVID-19 virus in various imported frozen meat packages. Traceability plays a vital role in food quality and food safety. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides solutions to keep an eye on environmental conditions, product quality, and product traceability. These solutions are traditionally based on the centralized architecture, which does not guarantee tamper-proof data sharing. The blockchain is an emerging technology that provides tamper-proof data sharing in real-time. This article presents Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain use case and a quick reference guide to develop the blockchain network for tracking and tracing the supply chain to minimize the risk of COVID-19 in the frozen meat supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: West Africa ; Atlantic humpback dolphin ; bottlenose dolphin ; bycatch ; marine bushmeat ; aquatic wild meat ; conservation
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:38:32 CEST)
Small-boat and shore-based surveys in 2017 confirm that Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii) and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are resident in shallow neritic waters surrounding the protected MPA Tristao Islands in northern Guinea. Inshore-type T. truncatus were encountered also between Conakry and Kayar. First documented in 2012, dolphin bycatches in local fisheries continue to occur. The frequency of beach-cast remains suggests a significant conservation issue. Both multi- and monofilament gillnets are widely deployed, but it remains unclear which gear is the main cause of mortality. Forensic evidence shows that captured dolphins are often utilized for local consumption. Marine bushmeat of cetaceans is documented in many coastal nations in West and Central Africa. In Tristao Islands their use is synchronous with and thought related to declining fish stocks. Significant anthropogenic mortality relative to their low abundance, besides suspected pressures such as prey competition with fisheries and habitat deterioration from coastal development, raise concern for the future of coastal dolphins, in particular endangered S. teuszii, even in this formally protected MPA. Conservation measures need to be re-evaluated for improved efficiency while surveys to monitor trends should be annual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0370.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: consumer preferences; red meat; food consumption; discrete choice experiment (DCE); willingness to pay (WTP); random utility model
Online: 19 January 2021 (10:52:41 CET)
Food consumption in Europe is changing. Red meat consumption has been steadily decreasing in the past decades. The rising interest of consumers for healthier and more sustainable meat products provide red meat producers with the opportunity to differentiate their offers by ecolabels, origin and health claims. This international study analyses the European consumer preferences for red meat (beef, lamb and goat) in seven countries: Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Through a choice experiment, 2.900 responses were collected. Mixed multinomial logit models were estimated to identify heterogeneous preferences among consumers at the country level. Results indicate substantial differences between the most relevant attributes for the average consumers, as well as their willingness to pay for them in each country. Nevertheless, national origin and organic labels were highly valued in most countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0265.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Local Productive Systems; Meat Industries for the Transformation of the Iberian Pig; business processes; territorial processes; labour processes.
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:46:19 CET)
Local Productive Systems (hereinafter LPS) based on agro-food industries constitute alternative models of development in peripheral rural areas that are subject to internal and external dynamics and processes. The main objective of the research is to investigate the processes and their consequences on four SPLs based on the Iberian Pig Transformation Industry (hereinafter LPS-IPTI) in SW Spain: Fregenal de la Sierra, Higuera la Real, Cumbres Mayores and Jabugo. Using secondary data, a comparison is made between 2002 and 2020 to establish the changes, causes and consequences on the LPS-IPTI studied. The results obtained indicate (1) business and territorial concentration of LPS-IPTI; (2) productive and territorial specialisation in standardised products and quality products; (3) simplification of industrial processes; (4) loss of employment, especially female; (5) external control of companies in the sector which, accordingly, results in the loss of prominence of local actors in favour of foreign companies, reduced social capital and the progressive loss of ownership of the LPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0218.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; machine learning; applied deep learning
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:37:13 CEST)
Deep learning is an emerging area of machine learning (ML) research. It comprises multiple hidden layers of artificial neural networks. The deep learn- ing methodology applies nonlinear transformations and model abstractions of high level in large databases. The recent advancements in deep learning architec- tures within numerous fields have already provided significant contributions in artificial intelligence. This article presents a state of the art survey on the contri- butions and the novel applications of deep learning. The following review chron- ologically presents how and in what major applications deep learning algorithms have been utilized. Furthermore, the superior and beneficial of the deep learning methodology and its hierarchy in layers and nonlinear operations are presented and compared with the more conventional algorithms in the common applica- tions. The state of the art survey further provides a general overview on the novel concept and the ever-increasing advantages and popularity of deep learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0092.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Federated Learning; Learning Analytics
Online: 5 January 2023 (02:39:04 CET)
Federated learning techniques aim to train and build machine learning models based on distributed datasets across multiple devices, avoiding data leakage. The main idea is to perform training on remote devices or isolated data centers without transferring data to centralized repositories, thus mitigating privacy risks. Data analytics in education, in particular learning analytics, is a promising scenario to apply this approach to address the legal and ethical issues related to processing sensitive data. Indeed, given the nature of the data to be studied (personal data, educational outcomes, data concerning minors), it is essential to ensure that the conduct of these studies and the publication of the results provide the necessary guarantees to protect the privacy of the individuals involved and the protection of their data. In addition, the application of quantitative techniques based on the exploitation of data on the use of educational platforms, student performance, use of devices, etc., can account for educational problems such as the determination of user profiles, personalized learning trajectories, or early dropout indicators and alerts, among others. This paper presents the application of federated learning techniques to two learning analytics problems: dropout prediction and unsupervised student classification. The experiments allow us to conclude that the proposed solutions achieve comparable results from the performance point of view with the centralized versions, avoiding centralizing the data for training the models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0015.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Deep learning; Machine learning
Online: 1 February 2022 (13:34:28 CET)
We study the brain segmentation by dividing the brain into multiple tissues. Given possible brain segmentation by deep, machine learning can be efficiently exploited to expedite the segmentation process in the clinical practice. To accomplish segmentation process, a MRI and tissues transfer using generative adversarial networks is proposed. Given the better result, we propose the transfer model using GAN. For the case of the brain tissues, white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are segmented. Empirical results show that this proposed model significantly improved segmentation results compared to the stat-of-the-art results. Furthermore, a dice coefficient (DC) metric is used to evaluate the model performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0590.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: African swine fever virus (ASFV); Pork shortage; Alternative meat consumption; Wildlife; Human-animal contact; Zoonotic spillover; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:01:12 CET)
The spillover of a virus from an animal reservoir to humans requires both molecular and ecological risk factors to align. While extensive research both before and after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 implicates horseshoe bats as the significant animal reservoir for the new human coronavirus, it remains unclear why it emerged at this time. One massive disruption to animal-human contacts in 2019 is linked to the on-going African swine fever virus (ASFV) pandemic. Pork is the major meat source in the Chinese diet. We hypothesize that the dramatic shortage of pork following large-scale culling and restrictions of pig movement (resulting in marked price increases) led to alternative sources of meat and unusual animal and meat movements nationwide, e.g., involving wildlife, and thus greatly increased opportunities for human-sarbecovirus contacts. Pork prices were particularly high in southern provinces (Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, and Hubei), where wildlife is farmed and more frequently consumed. Major wildlife farming provinces are spread from Northern to Southern China, which overlaps with horseshoe bat host ranges, potential hosts of the proximal SARS-CoV-2 ancestor, and wildlife sourcing provinces of Wuhan Huanan market and possibly other markets. Trading of SARS-CoV-2 susceptible wildlife in these markets, such as minks, raccoon dogs, foxes and palm civets in Wuhan markets, could have increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 from an intermediary host. Moreover, large quantities of animals raised for fur could have entered the human food chain undetected and significantly increased risks of animal-human contact. Performing retrospective testing of stored susceptible animals and their meat sold before December 2019 may be helpful in the next stage of tracing the animal origin of SARS-CoV-2 as spillover events are more likely to have taken place in 2019 when China was experiencing the worst effects of the ASFV pandemic.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; hybrid learning; innovation; education
Online: 31 January 2023 (08:07:58 CET)
In recent years, online learning has become one of the most popular methods of educational delivery due to advances in technology, which has been made even more evident in the COVID-19 lockdown period. Online education has evolved into a distinct field of study within the educational system over the last few years. It is also important to note that parallel with the growth in this field, there has also been an increase in the number of scholarly journals that regularly publish research in this field, reflecting the importance of this field in the modern day. In spite of the fact that online learning offers a wide range of educational options, from short courses to full-time degrees, as well as being accessible, flexible, environmentally friendly, and affordable, there are also certain challenges associated with this educational approach. These challenges include the lack of social interaction, technical errors, a lack of hands-on training, and difficulties in assessing students. It is, therefore, imperative to ask the crucial question of whether online learning can replace traditional classroom learning or whether it can supplement it in hybrid models with it, as well as what factors and conditions are likely to determine this in the short- and long-term, as well as how it will be blended together in the future. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a brief summary of the current status of both learning models, as well as their pros and cons, in order to answer the question that was posed above.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0309.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: economics; deep reinforcement learning; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 20 March 2020 (07:13:42 CET)
The popularity of deep reinforcement learning (DRL) methods in economics have been exponentially increased. DRL through a wide range of capabilities from reinforcement learning (RL) and deep learning (DL) for handling sophisticated dynamic business environments offers vast opportunities. DRL is characterized by scalability with the potential to be applied to high-dimensional problems in conjunction with noisy and nonlinear patterns of economic data. In this work, we first consider a brief review of DL, RL, and deep RL methods in diverse applications in economics providing an in-depth insight into the state of the art. Furthermore, the architecture of DRL applied to economic applications is investigated in order to highlight the complexity, robustness, accuracy, performance, computational tasks, risk constraints, and profitability. The survey results indicate that DRL can provide better performance and higher accuracy as compared to the traditional algorithms while facing real economic problems at the presence of risk parameters and the ever-increasing uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0483.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; data efficient; curriculum learning; transfer learning
Online: 30 September 2022 (10:35:06 CEST)
Sparse reward long horizon task is a major challenge for deep reinforcement learning algorithm. One of the key barriers is data-inefficiency. Even in the simulation environment, it usually takes weeks to training the agent. In this study, a data-efficiency training framework is proposed, where a curriculum learning is design for the agent in the simulation scenario. Different distributions of the initial state are set for the agent to get more informative reward during the whole training process. A fine-tuning of the parameters in the output layer of the neural network for value function is conduct to bridge the gap between sim-to-real. An experiment of UAV maneuver control is conducted in the proposed training framework to verify the method more efficient. We demonstrate that data-efficiency is different for the same data in different training stages.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Informal learning; Computers in education; Distance education and online learning; Learning communities; Mobile learning
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
This article discusses the comparison between digital and traditional face-to-face coaching within the scope of shadow education institutions. While analyzing the differences and similarities between the two educational models, both their advantages and disadvantages are thoroughly discussed. In this context, interviews were conducted with students and teachers who receive education in both face-to-face and digital coaching, and the positive and negative aspects of both institutions, suitable and unsuitable courses, the future situation, and the effects on students' academic achievements were revealed. According to the results obtained from the research, it is noteworthy that students who do not receive education in digital coaching have prejudices against digitalization. Additionally, no significant difference was found between the academic achievements of students receiving education in digital coaching and those receiving education in face-to-face coaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0389.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Deep learning; Variational Autoencoders (VAEs); data representation learning; generative models; unsupervised learning; few shot learning; latent space; transfer learning
Online: 22 September 2021 (16:04:22 CEST)
Despite the importance of few-shot learning, the lack of labeled training data in the real world, makes it extremely challenging for existing machine learning methods as this limited data set does not represent the data variance well. In this research, we suggest employing a generative approach using variational autoencoders (VAEs), which can be used specifically to optimize few-shot learning tasks by generating new samples with more intra-class variations. The purpose of our research is to increase the size of the training data set using various methods to improve the accuracy and robustness of the few-shot face recognition. Specifically, we employ the VAE generator to increase the size of the training data set, including the basic and the novel sets while utilizing transfer learning as the backend. Based on extensive experimental research, we analyze various data augmentation methods to observe how each method affects the accuracy of face recognition. We conclude that the face generation method we proposed can effectively improve the recognition accuracy rate to 96.47% using both the base and the novel sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0457.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: graph neural networks; machine learning; transfer learning; multi-task learning
Online: 31 January 2022 (12:49:31 CET)
Graph neural networks (GNNs) build on the success of deep learning models by extending them for use in graph spaces. Transfer learning has proven extremely successful for traditional deep learning problems: resulting in faster training and improved performance. Despite the increasing interest in GNNs and their use cases, there is little research on their transferability. This research demonstrates that transfer learning is effective with GNNs, and describes how source tasks and the choice of GNN impact the ability to learn generalisable knowledge. We perform experiments using real-world and synthetic data within the contexts of node classification and graph classification. To this end, we also provide a general methodology for transfer learning experimentation and present a novel algorithm for generating synthetic graph classification tasks. We compare the performance of GCN, GraphSAGE and GIN across both the synthetic and real-world datasets. Our results demonstrate empirically that GNNs with inductive operations yield statistically significantly improved transfer. Further we show that similarity in community structure between source and target tasks support statistically significant improvements in transfer over and above the use of only the node attributes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0060.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; artificial neural network; artificial intelligence; discriminative learning; generative learning; hybrid learning; intelligent systems;
Online: 2 August 2021 (17:33:48 CEST)
Deep learning (DL), a branch of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) is nowadays considered as a core technology of today's Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR or Industry 4.0). Due to its learning capabilities from data, DL technology originated from artificial neural network (ANN), has become a hot topic in the context of computing, and is widely applied in various application areas like healthcare, visual recognition, cybersecurity, and many more. However, building an appropriate DL model is a challenging task, due to the dynamic nature and variations in real-world problems and data. Moreover, the lack of core understanding turns DL methods into black-box machines that hamper development at the standard level. This article presents a structured and comprehensive view on DL techniques including a taxonomy considering various types of real-world tasks like supervised or unsupervised. In our taxonomy, we take into account deep networks for supervised or discriminative learning, unsupervised or generative learning as well as hybrid learning and relevant others. We also summarize real-world application areas where deep learning techniques can be used. Finally, we point out ten potential aspects for future generation DL modeling with research directions. Overall, this article aims to draw a big picture on DL modeling that can be used as a reference guide for both academia and industry professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0306.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: online learning; face-to-face learning; learning effectiveness; challenges with online learning; lecture-based courses.
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:57:22 CEST)
During the COVID-19 outbreak, most university courses have been offered on online platforms. A sudden shift from face-to-face classroom learning to online formats could influence the learning effectiveness of classes. This study aims to investigate differences in the learning effectiveness of online and face-to-face lecture courses. It also explores factors that impact the effectiveness of online instruction. These factors include interactions among learners, interactions between learners and the instructor, the quality of online platforms, learners’ ability to use devices and follow instructions, and learners’ situational challenges. The study participants were 261 university students at King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi in Bangkok, Thailand. All participants were enrolled in at least one lecture course, such as history, humans and the environment, the environment and development, or general philosophy, during the 2019 academic year. A questionnaire was distributed to participants after they completed these courses in May 2020. Paired simple t-test analyses were used to compare the effectiveness of online and face-to-face classes, and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors that impact the learning effectiveness of online classes. The results show that online classes are less effective than face-to-face courses. The multiple regression analysis also revealed that the effectiveness of online learning was significantly impacted by learners’ ability to interact with classmates during class, their ability to interact with instructors after the class, the quality of online platforms, and disturbances or distractions in learners’ environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1522.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Recommendation system; Contrast learning; Deep Learning
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:55:55 CEST)
Modelling both long and short-term user interests from historical data is crucial for accurate recommendations. However, unifying these metrics across multiple application domains can be challenging, and existing approaches often rely on complex, intertwined models which can be difficult to interpret. To address this issue, we propose a lightweight, plug-and-play interest enhancement module that fuses interest vectors from two independent models. After analyzing the dataset, we identify deviations in the recommendation performance of long and short-term interest models. To compensate for these differences, we use feature enhancement and loss correction during training. In the fusion process, we explicitly split long-term interest features with longer duration into multiple local features. We then use a shared attention mechanism to fuse multiple local features with short-term interest features to obtain interaction features. To correct for bias between models, we introduce a comparison learning task that monitors the similarity between local features, short-term features, and interaction features. This adaptively reduces the distance between similar features. Our proposed module combines and compares multiple independent long-term and short-term interest models on multiple domain datasets. As a result, it not only accelerates the convergence of the models but also achieves outstanding performance in challenging recommendation scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; generative models
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:05:39 CET)
Over the past decade, research in the field of Deep Learning has brought about novel improvements in image generation and feature learning; one such example being a Generative Adversarial Network. However, these improvements have been coupled with an increasing demand on mathematical literacy and previous knowledge in the field. Therefore, in this literature review, I seek to introduce Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to a broader audience by explaining their background and intuition at a more foundational level. I begin by discussing the mathematical background of this architecture, specifically topics in linear algebra and probability theory. I then proceed to introduce GANs in a more theoretical framework, along with some of the literature on GANs, including their architectural improvements and image-generation capabilities. Finally, I cover state-of-the-art image generation through style-based methods, as well as their implications on society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: deep learning; Machine Learning; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 19 October 2022 (11:04:23 CEST)
This study evaluated the using of machine vision in combination with deep learning to identify weeds in real-time for wheat production system. PMAS-Arid Agriculture university research farm were selected for collection of images (6000 total images) of weeds and wheat crops under different weather condition. During growing season, the database was constructed to identify the weeds. For this study two framework were used TensorFlow and PyTorch under CNNs and Deep learning. Deep learning perfromed better with in PyTourch value as compared to another model in Tensorflow. comparing with other networks such as YOLOv4, we concluded that our network reaches a better result between speed and accuracy. Specifically, the maximum precision of weed and wheat plants were 0.89 and 0.91 respectively with 9.43 ms and 12.38 ms inference time per image (640 × 640) NVIDIA RTX2070 GPU.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0583.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: quantum machine learning; quantum deep learning
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:00:45 CET)
Tremendous progress has been witnessed in artificial intelligence within the domain of neural network backed deep learning systems and its applications. As we approach the post Moore’s Law era, the limit of semiconductor fabrication technology along with a rapid increase in data generation rates have lead to an impending growing challenge of tackling newer and more modern machine learning problems. In parallel, quantum computing has exhibited rapid development in recent years. Due to the potential of a quantum speedup, quantum based learning applications have become an area of significant interest, in hopes that we can leverage quantum systems to solve classical problems. In this work, we propose a quantum deep learning architecture; we demonstrate our quantum neural network architecture on tasks ranging from binary and multi-class classification to generative modelling. Powered by a modified quantum differentiation function along with a hybrid quantum-classic design, our architecture encodes the data with a reduced number of qubits and generates a quantum circuit, loading it onto a quantum platform where the model learns the optimal states iteratively. We conduct intensive experiments on both the local computing environment and IBM-Q quantum platform. The evaluation results demonstrate that our architecture is able to outperform Tensorflow-Quantum by up to 12.51% and 11.71% for a comparable classic deep neural network on the task of classification trained with the same network settings. Furthermore, our GAN architecture runs the discriminator and the generator purely on quantum hardware and utilizes the swap test on qubits to calculate the values of loss functions. In comparing our quantum GAN, we note our architecture is able to achieve similar performance with 98.5% reduction on the parameter set when compared to classical GANs. With the same number of parameters, additionally, QuGAN outperforms other quantum based GANs in the literature for up to 125.0% in terms of similarity between generated distributions and original data sets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0203.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; ensemble models
Online: 20 August 2019 (08:41:28 CEST)
The conventional machine learning (ML) algorithms are continuously advancing and evolving at a fast-paced by introducing the novel learning algorithms. ML models are continually improving using hybridization and ensemble techniques to empower computation, functionality, robustness, and accuracy aspects of modeling. Currently, numerous hybrid and ensemble ML models have been introduced. However, they have not been surveyed in a comprehensive manner. This paper presents the state of the art of novel ML models and their performance and application domains through a novel taxonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0023.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; graph kernels; unsupervised learning
Online: 4 February 2018 (10:52:50 CET)
This paper presents a new method : HIVEC to learn latent vector representations of graphs in a manner that captures the semantic dependencies of sub-structures. The representations can then be used in machine learning algorithms for tasks such as graph classification, clustering etcetera. The method proposed is unsupervised and uses the information of co-occurrence of sub-structures. It introduces a notion of hierarchical embeddings that allows us to avoid repetitive learning of sub-structures for every new graph. As an alternative to deep learning methods, the edit distance similarity between sub-structures is also used to learn vector representations. We compare the performance of these methods against previous work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: domain generalization; contrastive learning; classification; deep learning; encoder; Zero-Shot Learning
Online: 4 November 2022 (07:29:50 CET)
A common challenge in real-world classification scenarios with sequentially appending target domain data is insufficient training datasets during the training phase. Therefore, conventional deep learning and transfer learning classifiers are not applicable especially when individual classes are not represented or are severely underrepresented at the outset. Domain Generalization approaches reach their limits when domain shifts become too large, making them occasionally unsuitable as well. In many (technical) domains, however, it is only the defect/ worn/ reject classes that are insufficiently represented, while the non-defect class is often available from the beginning. The proposed classification approach addresses such conditions and is based on a CNN encoder. Following a contrastive learning approach, it is trained with a modified triplet loss function using two datasets: Besides the non-defective target domain class (= 1st dataset), a state-of-the-art labeled source domain dataset that contains highly related classes (e.g., a related manufacturing error or wear defect) but originates from a (highly) different domain (e.g., different product, material, or appearance) (= 2nd dataset) is utilized. The approach learns the classification features from the source domain dataset while at the same time learning the differences between the source and the target domain in a single training step, aiming to transfer the relevant features to the target domain. The classifier becomes sensitive to the classification features and – by architecture – robust against the highly domain-specific context. The approach is benchmarked in a technical and a non-technical domain and shows convincing classification results. In particular, it is shown that the domain generalization capabilities and classification results are improved by the proposed architecture, allowing for larger domain shifts between source and target domains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0035.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: meta-learning; lie group; machine learning; deep learning; convolutional neural network
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:09:53 CET)
Deep learning has achieved lots of successes in many fields, but when trainable sample are extremely limited, deep learning often under or overfitting to few samples. Meta-learning was proposed to solve difficulties in few-shot learning and fast adaptive areas. Meta-learner learns to remember some common knowledge by training on large scale tasks sampled from a certain data distribution to equip generalization when facing unseen new tasks. Due to the limitation of samples, most approaches only use shallow neural network to avoid overfitting and reduce the difficulty of training process, that causes the waste of many extra information when adapting to unseen tasks. Euclidean space-based gradient descent also make meta-learner's update inaccurate. These issues cause many meta-learning model hard to extract feature from samples and update network parameters. In this paper, we propose a novel method by using multi-stage joint training approach to post the bottleneck during adapting process. To accelerate adapt procedure, we also constraint network to Stiefel manifold, thus meta-learner could perform more stable gradient descent in limited steps. Experiment on mini-ImageNet shows that our method reaches better accuracy under 5-way 1-shot and 5-way 5-shot conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0104.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: neural networks; statistical physics of learning; on-line learning; concept drift; continual learning; learning vector quantization;
Online: 5 September 2018 (16:27:10 CEST)
We introduce a modelling framework for the investigation of on-line machine learning processes in non-stationary environments. We exemplify the approach in terms of two specific model situations: In the first, we consider the learning of a classification scheme from clustered data by means of prototype-based Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ). In the second, we study the training of layered neural networks with sigmoidal activations for the purpose of regression. In both cases, the target, i.e. the classification or regression scheme, is considered to change continuously while the system is trained from a stream of labeled data. We extend and apply methods borrowed from statistical physics which have been used frequently for the exact description of training dynamics in stationary environments. Extensions of the approach allow for the computation of typical learning curves in the presence of concept drift in a variety of model situations. First results are presented and discussed for stochastic drift processes in classification and regression problems. They indicate that LVQ is capable of tracking a classification scheme under drift to a non-trivial extent. Furthermore, we show that concept drift can cause the persistence of sub-optimal plateau states in gradient based training of layered neural networks for regression.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Micro-credentials; Higher Education; Online Learning; E-learning; MOOCs; Digital Learning Ecosystems
Online: 2 March 2023 (12:40:42 CET)
This review paper delves into using micro-credentials in higher education ecosystems as a digital enablers. Micro-credentials, which are digital credentials that attest to a learner’s mastery of a specific skill or knowledge area, are becoming more popular in higher education. The paper examines the successful implementation of micro-credential frameworks in higher education, using case studies to demonstrate the advantages of micro-credentials. The review emphasizes the agility and flexibility of microcredentials, which enable learners to acquire new skills quickly and respond to changes in the job market. In addition, the paper discusses the digital nature of micro-credentials and how they allow institutionsto provide targeted, skills-based training that isrelevant to employers. It also explores how micro-credentials are delivered through online platforms, making them convenient and easily accessible for learners. The review underscores the significance of digital infrastructure, connectivity, and public utility for promoting micro-credentials. The paper argues that micro-credentials function as a digital enabler for higher edu- cation ecosystems, allowing learners to acquire targeted training and enabling institutions to expand their offerings and reach more students. The paper concludes by highlighting the potential for micro-credentials to help bridge the skills gap and equip learners with the skills necessary to succeed in today’s digital economy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0208.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Transfer Learning; Computer-aided Diagnosis
Online: 14 September 2022 (12:00:44 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) disease still remain a major global threat due to the growing number of drug-resistant species and global warming. Despite the fact that there are new molecular diagnostic approaches, however, majority of developing countries and remote clinics depends on conventional approaches such as Tuberculin test, microscopic examinations and radiographic imaging (Chest X-ray). These techniques are hindered by several challenges which can lead to miss-diagnosis especially when interpreting large number of sample cases. Thus, in order to reduce workload and prevent miss-diagnosis, scientists incorporated computer-aided technology for detection of medical images known as Computer aided Detection (CADe) or Diagnosis (CADx). The use of AI-powered techniques has shown to improve accuracy, sensitivity, specificity. In this review, we discussed about the epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. The review also provides background information on Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), Deep Learning (DL), Transfer Learning (TL) and their applications in detection of tuberculosis from both microscopic slide images and X-ray images. The review also proposed an IoT/AI powered system which allows transfer of results obtained from DL models with end users through internet networks. The concept of futuristic diagnosis, limitations of current techniques and open research issues are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0093.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: game-based learning; learning practicies; learning with mobility; oncological treatment; well-being
Online: 5 July 2021 (11:45:18 CEST)
The use of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in education brings up new possibilities of promoting the learning and health experiences. In this sense, education contexts of 21st century must consider these two areas of knowledge, especially their integration. This article presents learning practices developed with mobile devices and games, in order to improve learning and well-being in children and adolescents undergoing cancer treatment in non-formal educational setting. The methodology is based on qualitative case studies with content-based data analysis, involving informal interviews and observation methods. The study considers data from 5 patients who participated in the research between 2015 and 2019. The results demonstrate a positive influence of the practices with mobile technologies and games in terms of learning and in the well-being feeling of patients during the treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0062.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning; Natural Language Processing; Deep Learning
Online: 3 September 2021 (12:53:42 CEST)
Documenting cultural heritage by using artificial intelligence (AI) is crucial for preserving the memory of the past and a key point for future knowledge. However, modern AI technologies make use of statistical learners that lead to self-empiricist logic, which, unlike human minds, use learned non-symbolic representations. Nevertheless, it seems that it is not the right way to progress in AI. If we want to rely on AI for these tasks, it is essential to understand what lies behind these models. Among the ways to discover AI there are the senses and the intellect. We could consider AI as an intelligence. Intelligence has an essence, but we do not know whether it can be considered “something” or “someone”. Important issues in the analysis of AI concern the structure of symbols -operations with which the intellectual solution is carried out- and the search for strategic reference points, aspiring to create models with human-like intelligence. For many years, humans, seeing language as innate, have carried out symbolic theories. Everything seems to have skipped with the advent of Machine Learning. In this paper, after a long analysis of history, the rule-based and the learning-based vision, we propose KERMIT as a unit of investigation for a possible meeting point between the different learning theories. Finally, we propose a new vision of knowledge in AI models based on a combination of rules, learning and human knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: predictive maintenance; transfer learning; interpretable machine learning
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:38:28 CEST)
Using data-driven models to solve predictive maintenance problems has been prevalent for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). However, such models fail to solve two tasks that OEMs are interested in: (1) Making the well-built failure prediction models working on existing scenarios (vehicles, working conditions) adaptive to target scenarios. (2) Finding out the failure causes, furthermore, determining whether a model generates failure predictions based on reasonable causes. This paper investigates a comprehensive architecture towards making the predictive maintenance system adaptive and interpretable by proposing (1) an ensemble model dealing with time-series data consisting of a long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network and Gaussian threshold to achieve failure prediction one week in advance and (2) an online transfer learning algorithm and a meta learning algorithm, which render existing models adaptive to new vehicles with limited data volumes. (3) Furthermore, the Local Interpretable Model-agnostic Explanations (LIME) interpretation tool and super-feature methods are applied to interpret individual and general failure causes. Vehicle data from Isuzu Motors, Ltd., are adopted to validate our method, which include time-series data and histogram data. The proposed ensemble model yields predictions with 100% accuracy for our test data on engine stalling problem and is more rapidly adaptive to new vehicles with smaller error following application of either online transfer learning or the meta learning method. The interpretation methods help elucidate the global and individual failure causes, confirming the model credibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0115.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: machine learning; virtual diagnostics; reinforcement learning control
Online: 6 January 2021 (11:58:41 CET)
We discuss the implementation of a suite of virtual diagnostics at the FACET-II facility currently under commissioning at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The diagnostics will be used for prediction of the longitudinal phase space along the linac, spectral reconstruction of the bunch profile and non-destructive inference of transverse beam quality (emittance) using edge radiation at the injector dogleg and bunch compressor locations. These measurements will be folded in to adaptive feedbacks and ML-based reinforcement learning controls to improve the stability and optimize the performance of the machine for different experimental configurations. In this paper we describe each of these diagnostics with expected measurement results based on simulation data and discuss progress towards implementation in regular operations.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Deep learning; Big data; Machine learning; Biofuels
Online: 30 September 2020 (11:19:52 CEST)
The importance of energy systems and its role in economics and politics is not hidden for anyone. This issue is not only important for the advanced industrialized countries, which are major energy consumers, but is also important for oil-rich countries. In addition to the nature of these fuels which contains polluting substances, the issue of their ending up has aggravated the growing concern. Biofuels can be used in different fields for energy production like electricity production, power production or for transportation. Various scenarios have been written about the estimated biofuels from different sources in the future energy system. The availability of biofuels for the electricity market, heating and liquid fuels is very important. Accordingly, the need for handling, modelling, decision making and future forecasting for biofuels can be one of the main challenges for scientists. Recently, machine learning and deep learning techniques have been popular in modeling, optimizing and handling the biodiesel production, consumption and its environmental impacts. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the ML and DL techniques developed for handling biofuels production, consumption and environmental impacts, both for modeling and optimization purposes. This will help for sustainable biofuel production for the future generations.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Crime prediction; Ensemble Learning; Machine Learning; Regression
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:53:30 CEST)
While the use of crime data has been widely advocated in the literature, its availability is often limited to large urban cities and isolated databases tend not to allow for spatial comparisons. This paper presents an efficient machine learning framework capable of predicting spatial crime occurrences, without using past crime as a predictor, and at a relatively high resolution: the U.S. Census Block Group level. The proposed framework is based on an in-depth multidisciplinary literature review allowing the selection of 188 best-fit crime predictors from socio-economic, demographic, spatial, and environmental data. Such data are published periodically for the entire United States. The selection of the appropriate predictive model was made through a comparative study of different machine learning families of algorithms, including generalized linear models, deep learning, and ensemble learning. The gradient boosting model was found to yield the most accurate predictions for violent crimes, property crimes, motor vehicle thefts, vandalism, and the total count of crimes. Extensive experiments on real-world datasets of crimes reported in 11 U.S. cities demonstrated that the proposed framework achieves an accuracy of 73 and 77% when predicting property crimes and violent crimes, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0181.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Cartpole; Q Learning; Mathematical Modeling
Online: 10 May 2020 (18:02:43 CEST)
The prevalence of differential equations as a mathematical technique has refined the fields of control theory and constrained optimization due to the newfound ability to accurately model chaotic, unbalanced systems. However, in recent research, systems are increasingly more nonlinear and difficult to model using Differential Equations only. Thus, a newer technique is to use policy iteration and Reinforcement Learning, techniques that center around an action and reward sequence for a controller. Reinforcement Learning (RL) can be applied to control theory problems since a system can robustly apply RL in a dynamic environment such as the cartpole system (an inverted pendulum). This solution successfully avoids use of PID or other dynamics optimization systems, in favor of a more robust, reward-based control mechanism. This paper applies RL and Q-Learning to the classic cartpole problem, while also discussing the mathematical background and differential equations which are used to model the aforementioned system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0456.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Explainability; Deep Learning; Machine Learning
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:57:06 CEST)
The world has been evolving with new technologies and advances day-by-day. With the advent of various learning technologies in every field, the research community is able to provide solution in every aspect of life with the applications of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Deep Learning, Computer Vision, etc. However, with such high achievements, it is found to lag behind the ability to provide explanation against its prediction. The current situation is such that these modern technologies are able to predict and decide upon various cases more accurately and speedily than a human, but failed to provide an answer when the question of why to trust its prediction is put forward. In order to attain a deeper understanding into this rising trend, we explore a very recent and talked-about novel contribution which provides rich insight on a prediction being made -- ``Explainability.'' The main premise of this survey is to provide an overview for researches explored in the domain and obtain an idea of the current scenario along with the advancements published to-date in this field. This survey is intended to provide a comprehensive background of the broad spectrum of Explainability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0239.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: interpretable machine learning; deep learning; predictive biology
Online: 17 February 2020 (04:12:20 CET)
Machine learning (ML) has emerged as a critical tool for making sense of the growing amount of genetic and genomic data available because of its ability to find complex patterns in high dimensional and heterogeneous data. While the complexity of ML models is what makes them powerful, it also makes them difficult to interpret. Fortunately, recent efforts to develop approaches that make the inner workings of ML models understandable to humans have improved our ability to make novel biological insights using ML. Here we discuss the importance of interpretable ML, different strategies for interpreting ML models, and examples of how these strategies have been applied. Finally, we identify challenges and promising future directions for interpretable ML in genetics and genomics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0510.v2
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: deep reinforcement learning; imitation learning; soft robotics
Online: 23 November 2018 (11:57:55 CET)
The increasing trend of studying the innate softness of robotic structures and amalgamating it with the benefits of the extensive developments in the field of embodied intelligence has led to sprouting of a relatively new yet extremely rewarding sphere of technology. The fusion of current deep reinforcement algorithms with physical advantages of a soft bio-inspired structure certainly directs us to a fruitful prospect of designing completely self-sufficient agents that are capable of learning from observations collected from their environment to achieve a task they have been assigned. For soft robotics structure possessing countless degrees of freedom, it is often not easy (something not even possible) to formulate mathematical constraints necessary for training a deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agent for the task in hand, hence, we resolve to imitation learning techniques due to ease of manually performing such tasks like manipulation that could be comfortably mimicked by our agent. Deploying current imitation learning algorithms on soft robotic systems have been observed to provide satisfactory results but there are still challenges in doing so. This review article thus posits an overview of various such algorithms along with instances of them being applied to real world scenarios and yielding state-of-the-art results followed by brief descriptions on various pristine branches of DRL research that may be centers of future research in this field of interest.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0467.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; organisational learning; paradigm; organisational learning paradigm
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:09:10 CEST)
Crowdsourcing is one of the new themes that has appeared in the last decade. Considering its potential, more and more organisations reach for it. It is perceived as an innovative method that can be used for problem solving, improving business processes, creating open innovations, building a competitive advantage, and increasing transparency and openness of the organisation. Crowdsourcing is also conceptualised as a source of a knowledge-based organisation. The importance of crowdsourcing for organisational learning is seen as one of the key themes in the latest literature in the field of crowdsourcing. Since 2008, there has been an increase in the interest of public organisations in crowdsourcing and including it in their activities. This article is a response to the recommendations in the subject literature, which states that crowdsourcing in public organisations is a new and exciting research area. The aim of the article is to present a new paradigm that combines crowdsourcing levels with the levels of learning. The research methodology is based on an analysis of the subject literature and exemplifications of organisations which introduce crowdsourcing. This article presents a cross-sectional study of four Polish municipal offices that use four types of crowdsourcing, according to the division by J. Howe: collective intelligence, crowd creation, crowd voting, and crowdfunding. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the management personnel of those municipal offices. The research results show that knowledge acquired from the virtual communities allows the public organisation to anticipate changes, expectations, and needs of citizens and to adapt to them. It can therefore be considered that crowdsourcing is a new and rapidly developing organisational learning paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0117.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Continual Learning; Lifelong Learning; Prototypical Networks; Catastrophic Forgetting; Intransigence; Task-free; Incremental Learning; Online Learning; Human Activity Recognition
Online: 5 August 2022 (08:35:15 CEST)
Continual learning (CL), a.k.a lifelong learning, is an emerging research topic that has been attracting increasing interest in the field of machine learning. With human activity recognition (HAR) playing a key role in enabling numerous real-world applications, an essential step towards the long-term deployment of such systems is to extend the activity model to dynamically adapt to changes in people’s everyday behavior. Current research in CL applied to HAR domain is still under-explored with researchers exploring existing methods developed for computer vision in HAR. Moreover, analysis has so far focused on task-incremental or class-incremental learning paradigms where task boundaries are known. This impedes the applicability of such methods for real-world systems. To push this field forward, we build on recent advances in the area of continual learning and design a lifelong adaptive learning framework using Prototypical Networks, LAPNet-HAR, that processes sensor-based data streams in a task-free data-incremental fashion and mitigates catastrophic forgetting using experience replay and continual prototype adaptation. Online learning is further facilitated using contrastive loss to enforce inter-class separation. LAPNet-HAR is evaluated on 5 publicly available activity datasets in terms of its ability to acquire new information while preserving previous knowledge. Our extensive empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of LAPNet-HAR in task-free CL and uncover useful insights for future challenges.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0230.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine Learning
Online: 11 July 2020 (04:46:12 CEST)
In this paper, various machine learning techniques are discussed. These algorithms are used for many applications which include data classification, prediction, or pattern recognition. The primary goal of machine learning is to automate human assistance by training an algorithm on relevant data. This paper should also serve as a collection of various machine learning terminology for easy reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1162.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Reinforcement learning; Decision tree; Explainable AI; Rule learning
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:14:59 CEST)
The demand for explainable and transparent models increases with the continued success of reinforcement learning. In this article, we explore the potential of generating shallow decision trees (DT) as simple and transparent surrogate models for opaque deep reinforcement learning (DRL) agents. We investigate three algorithms for generating training data for axis-parallel and oblique DTs with the help of DRL agents ("oracles") and evaluate these methods on classic control problems from OpenAI Gym. The results show that one of our newly developed algorithms, the iterative training, outperforms traditional sampling algorithms, resulting in well-performing DTs that often even surpass the oracle from which they were trained. Even higher dimensional problems can be solved with surprisingly shallow DTs. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different sampling methods and insights into the decision-making process made possible by the transparent nature of DTs. Our work contributes to the development of not only powerful but also explainable RL agents and highlights the potential of DTs as a simple and effective alternative to complex DRL models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early Learning Assessment; Students Performance; Learning Communities; Motivation
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:52:23 CET)
In this paper, we have investigated the impact of an early learning assessment on students' motivation for improving their performance throughout the semester. An observation analysis was conducted on an entry level mechanical engineering course in which students are enrolled in during their first semester of engineering work. This study analyzes the effect that a first exam, with an average below a passing grade, has on student's outcome in the course. It was hypothesized that students were motivated to achieve their desired grade outcomes following inadequate performance on the first exam. This was investigated by diving into the results of the course and referencing initial performance to the remaining exam and assessment outcomes. Students were placed into grade bands ranging from 0 to 100 in 20% increments. Their results were tracked and it was shown that for the second mechanics exam, averages jumped 43.333%, 35.35%, and 30.055% for grade bands of 0 to 20, 20 to 40, and 40 to 60 respectively. Assessment grades increased as well with the remaining assessments being averaged to a score of 91.095%. Variables contributing to student performance came from both with-in and outside the classroom. Learning communities, material differentiation, and student and professor adaptation all contributed to the rise in performance. It was concluded that the internal and external variables acted in combination with one another to increase student dedication to achieve success.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0423.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: time series; machine learning; anomaly detection; transfer learning
Online: 27 October 2022 (07:58:28 CEST)
Machine learning methods have widely been applied to detect anomalies in machine and cutting tool behavior during lathe or milling. However, detecting anomalies in the workpiece itself did not get the same attention by researchers. That is why in this article, the authors present a pub-licly available multivariate time series dataset which was recorded during milling of 16MnCr5. Due to artificially introduced, though realistic anomalies in the workpiece the dataset can be ap-plied for anomaly detection. By using a convolutional autoencoder as a first model good results in detecting the location of the anomalies in the workpiece were achieved. Furthermore, milling tools with two different diameters where used which led to a dataset eligible for transfer learn-ing. The objective of this article is to provide researchers with a real-world time series dataset of the milling process which is suitable for modern machine learning research topics like anomaly detection and transfer learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0196.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Autonomous Vehicles; Reinforcement Learning; Explainable Reinforcement Learning; XRL
Online: 14 September 2022 (08:13:44 CEST)
While machine learning models are powering more and more everyday devices, there is a growing need for explaining them. This especially applies to the use of Deep Reinforcement Learning in solutions that require security, such as vehicle motion planning. In this paper, we propose a method of understanding what the RL agent’s decision is based on. The method relies on conducting statistical analysis on a massive set of state-decisions samples. It indicates which input features have an impact on the agent’s decision and the relationships between decisions, the significance of the input features, and their values. The method allows us for determining whether the process of making a decision by the agent is coherent with human intuition and what contradicts it. We applied the proposed method to the RL motion planning agent which is supposed to drive a vehicle safely and efficiently on a highway. We find out that making such analysis allows for a better understanding agent’s decisions, inspecting its behavior, debugging the ANN model, and verifying the correctness of input values, which increases its credibility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: zoonotic pathogens; mathematical algorithms; machine learning; deep learning
Online: 17 August 2022 (08:57:27 CEST)
Globally, zoonotic diseases have been on the rise in recent years. Predictive modelling approaches have been successfully used in the literature to identify the underlying causes of these zoonotic diseases. We examine the latest research in the field of predictive modeling that verifies the growth of zoonotic pathogens and assesses the factors associated with their spread. The results of our survey indicate that popular mathematical models can successfully be used in modeling the growth rate of these pathogens under varying storage temperatures. Additionally, some of them are used for the assessment of the inactivation of these pathogens based on various conditions. Based on the results of our study, machine learning models and deep learning are commonly used to detect pathogens within food items and to predict the factors associated with the presence of the pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0151.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: deep learning; CNN; DenseNet; COVID-19; transfer learning
Online: 18 February 2022 (14:44:55 CET)
COVID-19 has a severe risk of spreading rapidly, the quick identification of which is essential. In this regard, chest radiology images have proven to be a practical screening approach for COVID-19 aﬀected patients. This study proposes a deep learning-based approach using Densenet-121 to detect COVID-19 patients eﬀectively. We have trained and tested our model on the COVIDx dataset and performed both 2-class and 3-class classification, achieving 96.49% and 93.71% accuracy, respectively. By successfully utilizing transfer learning, we achieve comparable performance to the state-of-the-art method while using 15x fewer model parameters. Moreover, we performed an interpretability analysis using Grad-CAM to highlight the most significant image regions at test time. Finally, we developed a website that takes chest radiology images as input and detects the presence of COVID-19 or pneumonia and a heatmap highlighting the infected regions. Source code for reproducing results and model weights are available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: metastatic breast cancer; metastasis; causal learning; machine learning
Online: 1 December 2021 (13:40:33 CET)
Background: Risk of metastatic recurrence of breast cancer after initial diagnosis and treatment depends on the presence of a number of risk factors. Although most univariate risk factors have been identified using classical methods, machine-learning methods are also being conducted to tease out non-obvious contributors to a patient’s individual risk of developing late distant metastasis. Bayesian-network algorithms may predict not only risk factors but also interactions among these risks, which consequently lead to metastatic breast cancer. We proposed to apply a previously developed machine-learning method to predict risk factors of 5-, 10- and 15-year metastasis. Methods: We applied a previously validated algorithm named the Markov Blanket and Interactive risk factor Learner (MBIL) on the electronic health record (EHR)-based Lynn Sage database (LSDB) from the Lynn Sage Comprehensive Breast Cancer at Northwestern Memorial Hospital. This algorithm provided an output of both single and interactive risk factors of 5-, 10-, and 15-year metastasis from LSDB. We individually examined and interpreted the clinical relevance of these interactions based on years to metastasis and the reliance on interactivity between risk factors. Results: We found that with lower alpha values (low interactivity score), the prevalence of variables with an independent influence on long term metastasis was higher (i.e., HER2, TNEG). As the value of alpha increased to 480, stronger interactions were needed to define clusters of factors that increased the risk of metastasis (i.e., ER, smoking, race, alcohol usage). Conclusion: MBIL identified single and interacting risk factors of metastatic breast cancer, many of which were supported by clinical evidence. These results strongly recommend the development of further large data studies with different databases to validate the degree to which some of these variables impact metastatic breast cancer in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0753.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Convolutional extreme learning machine; Deep learning; Multimedia analysis
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:31:14 CEST)
Many works have recently identified the need to combine deep learning with extreme learning to strike a performance balance with accuracy especially in the domain of multimedia applications. Considering this new paradigm, namely convolutional extreme learning machine (CELM), we present a systematic review that investigates alternative deep learning architectures that use extreme learning machine (ELM) for a faster training to solve problems based on image analysis. We detail each of the architectures found in the literature, application scenarios, benchmark datasets, main results, advantages, and present the open challenges for CELM. We follow a well structured methodology and establish relevant research questions that guide our findings. We hope that the observation and classification of such works can leverage the CELM research area providing a good starting point to cope with some of the current problems in the image-based computer vision analysis.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Multimodal Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Hate Speech Detection
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:46:27 CET)
Hateful and abusive speech presents a major challenge for all online social media platforms. Recent advances in Natural Language Processing and Natural Language Understanding allow more accurate detection of hate speech in textual streams. This study presents a multimodal approach to hate speech detection by combining Computer Vision and Natural Language processing models for abusive context detection. Our study focuses on Twitter messages and, more specifically, on hateful, xenophobic and racist speech in Greek aimed at refugees and migrants. In our approach we combine transfer learning and fine-tuning of Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) and Residual Neural Networks (Resnet). Our contribution includes the development of a new dataset for hate speech classification, consisting of tweet ids, along with the code to obtain their visual appearance, as they would have been rendered in a web browser. We have also released a pre-trained Language Model trained on Greek tweets, which has been used in our experiments. We report a consistently high level of accuracy (accuracy score=0.970, f1-score=0.947 in our best model) in racist and xenophobic speech detection.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: machine learning; deep learning; bioinformatics; phylogenetics; cancer evolution
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:40:45 CET)
The exponential growth of biomedical data in recent years urged the application of numerous machine learning techniques to address emerging problems in biology and clinical research. By enabling automatic feature extraction, selection and generation of predictive models, these methods can be used to efficiently study complex biological systems. Machine learning techniques are frequently integrated with bioinformatic methods, as well as curated databases and biological networks, to enhance training and validation, identify the best interpretable features, and enable feature and model investigation. Here, we review recently developed methods that incorporate machine learning within the same framework with techniques from molecular evolution, protein structure analysis, systems biology and disease genomics. We outline the challenges posed for machine learning, and in particular, deep learning in biomedicine and suggest unique opportunities for machine learning techniques integrated with established bioinformatics approaches to overcome some of these challenges.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0482.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Distance; Learning; Academic; Education; Students; Teaching-Learning; Modality
Online: 25 January 2021 (10:59:30 CET)
Education setting evolved from historical open learning system to traditional classroom set-up to distance learning modality. Teaching-Learning practice is transformed with an evolution of teaching-learning materials. With technological advancement in progressive manner and it’s increasing use in academic setting, distance learning has been the on-demand and on-debate topic in current educational discourse. Comparatively fresh topic in Nepali academic setting, this paper intended to analyze the perception of Nepali students towards online modality in Nepali academic setting. This paper further analyzed the student’s preference towards distance learning in current Nepali academic setting. Research findings were analyzed based on data collected through literature review, interview with students and professor and quantitative data collection through use of google form. Study identified opportunities as revenue generation; continuation of academic career from any part of country; increase learning outcome among jobholders. Study identified challenges as unequal access and quality of internet facilities; affordability of laptops/computers; limited interaction; and frequent disturbances. Seeing the better prospects, study strongly supported the need of shift in academic shift from traditional setting to non-traditional setting in Nepali context to meet the global needs of competitive and quality education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0177.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CALIOP; VIIRS; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Dust Detection
Online: 8 December 2020 (06:44:51 CET)
Identifying dust aerosols from passive satellite images is of great interest for many applications. In this study, we developed 5 different machine-learning (ML) and deep-learning (DL) based algorithms, including Logistic Regression, K Nearest Neighbor, Random Forest (RF), Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), to identify dust aerosols in the daytime satellite images from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) under cloud-free conditions on a global scale. In order to train the ML and DL algorithms, we collocated the state-of-the-art dust detection product from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) with the VIIRS observations along the CALIOP track. The 16 VIIRS M-band observations with the center wavelength ranging from deep blue to thermal infrared, together with solar-viewing geometries and pixel time and locations, are used as the predictor variables. Four different sets of training input data are constructed based on different combinations of VIIRS pixel and predictor variables. The validation and comparison results based on the collocated CALIOP data indicates that the FFNN method based on all available predictor variables is the best performing one among all methods. It has an averaged dust detection accuracy of about 81 %, 89 % and 85 % over land, ocean and whole globe, respectively, compared with collocated CALIOP. When applied to off-track VIIRS pixels, the FFNN method retrieves geographical distributions of dust that are in good agreement with on-track results as well as CALIOP statistics. For further evaluation, we compared our results based on the ML and DL algorithms to NOAA’s Aerosol Detection Product (ADP) , which is a product that classifies dust, smoke and ash using physical-based methods. The comparison reveals both similarity and differences. Overall, this study demonstrates the great potential of ML and DL methods for dust detection and proves that these methods can be trained on the CALIOP track and then applied to the whole granule of VIIRS granule.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Deep Learning; Thermodynamics; Learning and Generalization; Diophantine equations
Online: 13 October 2020 (14:32:18 CEST)
Deep learning machines are computational models composed of multiple processing layers of adaptive weights to learn representations of data with multiple levels of abstraction. Their structure is mainly reflecting the intuitive plausibility of decomposing a problem into multiple levels of computation and representation since it is believed that higher layers of representation allow a system to learn complex functions. Surprisingly, after decades of research, from learning and design perspectives these models are still deployed in a heuristic manner. In this paper, deep learning feed-forward machines are modeled from a statistical mechanics point of view as disordered physical systems where its macroscopic behavior is determined in terms of the interactions defined between the basic constituent of these models, namely, the artificial neuron. They are viewed as the equilibrium states of a theoretical body that is subject to the law of increase of the entropy. The study of the changes in energy of the body when passing from one equilibrium state to another is used to understand the structure and role of the phase space of the system, the stability of the equilibrium states, and the resulting degree of disorder. It is shown that the topology of these models is strongly linked to their stability and resulting level of disorder. Furthermore, the proposed theoretical characterization permit to assess the thermodynamic efficiency with which information can be processed by these models, and to provide a practical methodology to quantitatively estimate and compare their expected learning and generalization capabilities. These theoretical results provides new insights to the theory of deep learning and their implications are shown to be consistent through a set of benchmarks designed to experimentally assess their validity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0142.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Plant Diseases; Modern Agriculture; Plant Health; AWS DeepLens; SageMaker; Machine Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 14 September 2020 (06:24:16 CEST)
In the Agriculture sector, control of plant leaf diseases is crucial as it influences the quality and production of plant species with an impact on the economy of any country. Therefore, automated identification and classification of plant leaf disease at an early stage is essential to reduce economic loss and to conserve the specific species. Previously, to detect and classify plant leaf disease, various Machine Learning models have been proposed; however, they lack usability due to hardware incompatibility, limited scalability and inefficiency in practical usage. Our proposed DeepLens Classification and Detection Model (DCDM) approach deal with such limitations by introducing automated detection and classification of the leaf diseases in fruits (apple, grapes, peach and strawberry) and vegetables (potato and tomato) via scalable transfer learning on A.W.S. SageMaker and importing it on AWS DeepLens for real-time practical usability. Cloud integration provides scalability and ubiquitous access to our approach. Our experiments on extensive image data set of healthy and unhealthy leaves of fruits and vegetables showed an accuracy of 98.78% with a real-time diagnosis of plant leaves diseases. We used forty thousand images for the training of deep learning model and then evaluated it on ten thousand images. The process of testing an image for disease diagnosis and classification using AWS DeepLens on average took 0.349s, providing disease information to the user in less than a second.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: waste classification; transfer learning; deep learning; recognition classification
Online: 23 February 2020 (14:01:01 CET)
Using machine learning or deep learning to solve the problem of garbage recognition and classification is an important application in computer vision, but due to the incomplete establishment of garbage datasets and the poor performance of complex network models on smart terminal devices, the existing garbage classification models The effect is not good.This paper presents a waste classification and identification method base on transfer learning and lightweight neural network. By migrating the lightweight neural network MobileNetV2 and rebuild it, The reconstructed network is used for feature extraction, and the extracted features are introduced into the SVM to realize the identification of 6 types of garbage. The model was trained and verified by using 2527 pieces of garbage labeled data in the TrashNet dataset, which ultimately resulted in a classification accuracy of 98.4% of the method, which proves that the method can effectively improve the classification accuracy and time and overcome the problem of weak data and less labeling. The over-fitting phenomenon encountered by small data sets in deep learning makes the model robust.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: massive MIMO; pilot contamination; deep learning; machine learning
Online: 14 August 2019 (16:01:48 CEST)
In this brief letter we report our initial results on the application of deep-learning to the massive MIMO channel estimation challenge. We show that it is possible to estimate wireless channels and that the possibility of mitigating pilot-contamination with deep-learning is possible given that the leaning model underwent an extensive training-phase and that it has been presented with a large number of different channel conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Active Learning, Pedagogy, Student Learning, Interactive Effects, Education
Online: 24 April 2019 (12:44:14 CEST)
If students do not fully apply themselves, then they may be considered responsible for the result of being inadequately prepared. +- Nevertheless, student outcomes are more likely to reflect a combination of both effort and systematic problems with overall course architecture. Deficiencies in course design result in inadequate preparation that adversely and directly impacts students’ productivity upon entering the workforce. Such an impact negatively influences students' ability to maintain gainful employment and provide for their families, which inevitably contributes to the development of issues concerning their psychological well-being. It is well-documented that incorporating active learning strategies in course design and delivery can enhance student learning outcomes. Despite the benefit of implementing active learning techniques, rarely in the real world will it be possible for techniques to be used in isolation of one another. Therefore, the purpose of this proposed study is to determine the interactive effects of two active learning strategies because, at a minimum, technique-pairs more accurately represent the application of active learning in the natural educational setting. There is a paucity of evidence in the literature directed toward investigating the interactive effects of multiple active learning techniques that this study is aimed at filling. The significance of this research is that, by determining the interactive effects of paired active learning strategies, other research studies on the beneficial effects of using particular active learning technique-pairs will be documented contributing to the literature so that ultimately classroom instruction may be customized according to the determination of optimal sequencing of strategy-pairs for particular courses, subjects, and desired outcomes that maximize student learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; neuroscience; neuropedagogy; neuroeducation; higher education; design thinking; learning management system
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:32:57 CEST)
Higher education teaching staff members need to build a scientifically accurate and comprehensive understanding of the function of the brain in learning to optimize teaching and achieve excellent student learning. An international consortium developed a professional development six-module course on educational neuroscience and online community of practice applying design thinking. A mixed methods research design was employed to investigate the attitudes of thirty-two (N=32) participating academics using a survey comprising eleven closed and open questions. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, correlation, generalized additive model and grounded theory. The overall evaluation demonstrated a notable satisfaction level with regard to the quality of the course. Given the power of habits, mentoring and peer interactions are recommended to ensure the effective integration of theoretical neuroscientific evidence into teaching practice.