Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: ascorbic acid; meat preparation; meat products, meat spoilage
Online: 25 March 2019 (15:43:54 CET)
Antioxidants for foodstuffs during processing or before packing protects colour, aroma and nutrient content. As regards food safety regulations, long-term efforts have been made in terms of food standards, food control systems, food legislation and regulatory approaches. These have, however, generated several questions on how to apply the law to the diverse food businesses. To answer these questions, a thorough examination of the EU legislator’s choices for food preservation and definitions are provided and discussed with factors affecting microbial growth.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Bisphenol A; metabolites; meat and meat products; LC-MS/MS; GC-MS/MS
Online: 11 March 2021 (14:55:50 CET)
BPA is a commonly used compound in many industries and has versatile applications in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins production. BPA is classified as endocrine-disrupting chemical which can hamper fetal development during pregnancy and may have long term negative health outcomes in humans. Dietary sources, main route of BPA exposure, can be contaminated by the migration of BPA into food during processing. The global regulatory framework for using this compound in food contact materials is currently not harmonized. This review aims to outline, survey, and critically evaluate BPA contamination in meat products, including level of BPA and/or metabolites present, exposure route, and recent advancements in the analytical procedures of these compounds from meat and meat products. The contribution of meat and meat products to the total dietary exposure of BPA ranges between 10 and 50% depending on the country and exposure scenario considered. From can lining materials of meat products, BPA migrates towards the solid phase resulting higher BPA concentration in solid phase than the liquid phase of the same can. The analytical procedure is comprised of meat sample pre-treatment, followed by cleaning with SPE, and chromatographic analysis. Considering several potential sources of BPA in industrial and home culinary practices, BPA can also accumulate in non-canned or raw meat products. Very few scientific studies have been conducted to identify the amount in raw meat products. Similarly, analysis of metabolites and identification of the origin of BPA contamination in meat products is still a challenge to overcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0677.v1
Online: 26 November 2020 (23:08:59 CET)
High levels ofmeat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, 2 and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in 3 comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may 4 play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific 5 meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. 6 Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat.They consider 7 it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested 8 in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option 9 for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat 10 product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online 11 survey with 500 German consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating 12 to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least 13 occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect 14 to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either 15 meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that the highest effect is exerted by the health perception. The 16 healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive 17 seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes 18 to choice for this new product category.
Subject: Keywords: broiler; feed additives; LC–MS/MS; meat legislation; meat safety; poultry meat; veterinary drugs
Online: 22 September 2021 (12:13:55 CEST)
Brazil chicken production is around 13 million tons and about a third is exported to over 150 countries, placing Brazil as the world largest chicken meat producer, and therefore it is crucial to follow the legislation of all importer markets. This study conducted a survey by chance in 45 meat industries able to export. Therefore, 2580 chicken meat samples were collected and submitted to 11 analyte extraction and chromatographic verification of compliance in an accredited laboratory. Ten chemical residues (amoxicillin, bacitracin, colistin, dinitolmide + zoalene, spectinomycin, roxarsone, tiamulin, tylosin, trenbolone acetate and virginiamycin) were investigated in chicken meat and one (halofuginone hydrobromide) in chicken liver. The results showed that no compound exceeded the maximum residue limits established by seven legislations. All residue concentrations found were below the method quantification limit, thereby confirming the capability of Brazilian chicken meat industries in complying to foreign markets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0136.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Electrical anisotropy, Freeze-thaw cycles, Meat electrical bioimpedance, Meat ripening process, Slaughtered meat
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:10:17 CEST)
A portable, electrical impedance spectroscopy device to monitor the bioimpedance’s resistive component of beef meat by injecting a sinusoidal current of 1mA at 65.5 kHz was developed. In 4 slaughtered beef both right and left longissimus dorsi muscles where trimmed and left muscle portion was frozen to -18° C up to 7th day while right one was meantime maintained at 5° C. Median value of specific resistivity of not-frozen sample was about twice Ω cm-1 with respect of that of frozen-thawed sample (P = 0.004). It was concluded that the device is reliable to monitoring the ripening of beef meat in situ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0287.v1
Online: 19 October 2022 (13:10:29 CEST)
The increasing need for effective analytical tools to evaluate beef quality has prompted the development of new procedures to improve the animal sector’s performance. In this study, three beef breeds—Thai native (TN), crossbred Brahman x Thai native (BT), and crossbred Charolais x Brahman (CB)—were compared in terms of their physicochemical and metabolic profiles. The findings demonstrated that TN beef was lighter and tougher than other beef. Beef odor was stronger in BT. In addition, CB beef was the most tender and the highest intramuscular fat content. Twenty-one different metabolites were found overall through NMR and chemometric approaches. High levels of lactate and creatine were found in all species. The primary factors contributing to the difference in OPLS-DA loading plots were acetylcholine, valine, adenine, leucine, and phosphocreatine, β-hydroxypyruvate, ethanol, adenosine diphosphate, creatine, acetylcholine, and lactate. The multivariate analysis indicated that these metabolites in beef cattle breeds could be distinguished using NMR spectroscopy. The results of this study provide valuable information on the quality and meat metabolites in different breeds. This could help in the development of a more accurate assessment of the quality of beef in future research.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: organic acids; swine; broilers; digestibility; meat quality; meat preservation
Online: 5 April 2021 (09:34:20 CEST)
Because the application of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) causes accelerated adverse effects on the animal diet, the scientific community has taken progressive steps to enhance sustainable animal productivity without using AGP in animal nutrition. Organic acids (OAs) are non-antibiotic feed additives and a promising feeding strategy in the swine and broiler industry. Mechanistically, OAs improve productivity through multiple and diverse pathways: (a) reduction of pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by reducing the gut pH; (b) boosting the digestibility of nutrients by facilitating digestive enzyme secretion and increasing feed retention time in the gut system; (c) having a positive impact and preventing meat quality deterioration without leaving any chemical residues. Recent studies have reported the effectiveness of using encapsulated OAs and synergistic mechanisms of OAs combinations in swine and broiler productivity. On the other hand, the synergistic mechanisms of OAs and the optimal combination of OAs in the animal diet are not completely understood, and further intensive scientific explorations are needed. Moreover, the ultimate production parameters are not similar owing to the type of OAs, concentration level, growth phase, health status of animals, hygienic standards, and environmental factors. Thus, those factors need to be considered before implementing OAs in feeding practices. In conclusion, the current review evaluated the basics of OAs, mode of action, novel strategies to enhance utilization, influence on growth performances, nutrient digestibility, quality traits, and meat preservation of swine and broilers and their potential concerns regarding utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: sodium levels; processed meat; food reformulation; Australia
Online: 11 October 2018 (08:12:31 CEST)
High sodium intake increases blood pressure and consequently increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In Australia, the best estimate of sodium intake is 3840 mg sodium/day, almost double the World Health Organization guideline (2000 mg/day), and processed meats contribute approximately 10% of daily sodium intake to the diet. This study assessed the median sodium levels of 2510 processed meat products, including bacon and sausages, available in major Australian supermarkets in 2010, 2013, 2015 and 2017, and assessed changes over time. The median sodium content of processed meats in 2017 was 775 mg/100 g (IQR 483–1080). There was an 11% reduction in the median sodium level of processed meats for which targets were set under the government’s Food and Health Dialogue (p < 0.001). This includes bacon, ham/cured meat products, sliced luncheon meat and meat with pastry categories. There was no change in processed meats without a target (median difference 6%, p = 0.093). The new targets proposed by the current government’s Healthy Food Partnership, capture a larger proportion of products than the Food and Health Dialogue (66% compared to 36%) and a lower proportion of products are at or below the target (35% compared to 54%). These results demonstrate that voluntary government targets can drive nutrient reformulation. Future efforts will require strong government leadership and robust monitoring and evaluation systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0002.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: performance evaluation; poultry meat; ergonomics; injuries; industry
Online: 2 January 2018 (06:36:04 CET)
Injuries of repetitive efforts constitute one of the prime causes of absenteeism in the workplace, have bear a considerable cost for the public health system and can cast doubt on the sustainability of a company. The objective of this paper is to build, in the researchers, the needed knowledge to choose a set of relevant scientific articles about repetitive strain injuries in the poultry meat industry, aiming identify characteristics in those scientific publications that have the potential to contribute on the topic of this paper. The research is characterized as exploratory-descriptive, draws on primary and secondary data sources. The study involves the application of a method for selection and analysis of the selected articles. To this end, the method utilized was the Knowledge Development Process – Constructivist (Proknow-C) as theoretical intervention instrument. Within the process development, it was obtained a portfolio of 16 articles aligned to the research and scientifically recognized with the main periodicals, papers, authors and keywords. The ProKnow-C process allowed identify opportunities in the literature about injuries in the poultry meat industry and showed opportunities for research future. This paper, under the constructivist perspective, presents a structured process to build, in the researcher, the necessary knowledge to identification, selection and analysis of relevant scientific articles relating to research context and, for these articles, find prominences and opportunities for a research theme without similar publications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0245.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Chicken fillet; Collagen structure; Wooden Breast; Spaghetti Meat; FTIR spectroscopy
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:39:16 CET)
Recently, two chicken breast fillet abnormalities, termed Wooden Breast (WB) and Spaghetti Meat (SM), have become a challenge for the chicken meat industry. The two abnormalities share some overlapping morphological features, including myofiber necrosis, intramuscular fat deposition, and collagen fibrosis, but display very different textural properties. WB has a hard, rigid surface, while the SM has a soft and stringy surface. Connective tissue is affected in both WB and SM, and accordingly, this study's objective was to investigate the major component of connective tissue, collagen. The collagen structure was compared with normal (NO) fillets using histological methods and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy and imaging. The histology analysis demonstrated an increase in the amount of connective tissue in the chicken abnormalities, particularly in the perimysium. The WB displayed a mixture of thin and thick collagen fibers, whereas the collagen fibers in SM were thinner, fewer, and shorter. For both, the collagen fibers were oriented in multiple directions. The FTIR data showed that WB contained more β-sheets than the NO and the SM fillets, whereas SM fillets expressed the lowest mature collagen fibers. This insight into the molecular changes can help to explain the underlying causes of the abnormalities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0365.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Salmonella; Campylobacter; poultry; review; vaccines; processing; farm-to-fork; broilers; meat birds; production
Online: 25 July 2022 (09:24:22 CEST)
Enteropathogens, namely Salmonella and Campylobacter, are a concern in global public health and have been attributed in numerous risk assessments to a poultry source. During the last decade a large body of research addressing this problem has been published. The literature reviewed contains review articles on certain aspects of poultry production chain, however in the past decade there hasn’t been a review on the through production chain, farm to fork, production of poultry. This review, a pool of 514 articles were selected for relevance via a systematic screening process (from >7500 original search articles). These studies identified a diversity of management and intervention strategies for the elimination or reduction of enteropathogens in poultry production. Many studies were laboratory or limited field trials with implementation in true commercial operations being problematic. Entities considering using commercial anti-enteropathogen products and interventions are advised to perform an internal validation and fit for purpose trial as Salmonella and Campylobacter serovars and biovars may have regional diversity. Future research should focus on non-chemical application within the processing plant and how synergistic through chain intervention may contribute to reducing the overall carcass burden of enteropathogen, coupled with increased consumer education on safe handling and cooking of poultry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0366.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Hibiscus sabdariffa L.; agricultural wastes; anthocyanins; ruminant nutrition; milk and meat production; fat milk and meat quality
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:52:05 CEST)
The objective was to analyze the effects of adding anthocyanin delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in animal diets. Scientific articles published before 2021 in clinics, pharmacology, nutrition, and animal production were included. The grains/concentrate, metabolic exigency, and caloric stress contribute to increasing the reactive oxygen species (ROS); the excess of ROS unbalance the oxidants and antioxidants. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and anthelmintic activities. In the rumen, anthocyanin might show interactions and/or synergisms with substrates, microorganisms, and enzymes which could reduce the fiber degradability, but increase the potential methane (CH4) emissions; since anthocyanin interferes in the biohydrogenation of fats, they increase the fat milk and meat quality. Anthocyanins reduce plasma oxidation and deposit in tissues, increasing the milk and meat antioxidant activities. Cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside and delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside act as inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACEi) and rennin expression which may improve milk yield (there is not enough evidence in ruminants, though). Polyphenols affect the reproductive potential. Sub products of HS contain as many amounts of polyphenols as calyces, and their inclusion in diets would positively affect the average daily gain and fat meat quality. Including HS in ruminant diets can improve the meat and milk quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0153.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Escherichia coli; antimicrobial resistance; ESBL; MDR; frozen chicken meat; Bangladesh
Online: 27 May 2020 (08:31:20 CEST)
Escherichia coli is known as one of the most important foodborne pathogens in humans, and contaminated chicken meat is an important source of foodborne infection with this bacterium. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli (ESBL-Ec), in particular, in chicken meat is considered a global health problem. This study aimed to determine the magnitude of E. coli, with special emphasis on ESBL-Ec, along with their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance pattern in frozen chicken meat. The study also focused on the determination of ESBL-encoding genes in E. coli. A total of 113 frozen chicken meat samples were purchased from 40 outlets of nine branded supershops in five megacities in Bangladesh. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done based on cultural and biochemical properties, as well as PCR assay. The resistance pattern was determined by the disc diffusion method. ESBL-encoding genes were determined by multiplex PCR. The results showed that 76.1% of samples were positive for E. coli, of which 86% were ESBL producers. All the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Resistance to 9–11 and 12–13 antimicrobial classes was observed in 38.4% and 17.4% isolates, respectively, while only 11.6% were resistant to 3–5 classes. Possible extensive drug resistance (pXDR) was found in 2.3% of isolates. High single resistance was observed for oxytetracycline (93%) and amoxicillin (91.9%), followed by ampicillin (89.5%), trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, and pefloxacin (88.4%), and tetracycline (84.9%). Most importantly, 89.6% of isolates were resistant to carbapenems. All the isolates were positive for the blaTEM gene. However, the blaSHV and blaCTX-M-2 genes were identified in two ESBL-non producer isolates. None of the isolates carried the blaCTX-M-1 gene. This study provided evidence of the existence of MDR and pXDR ESBL-Ec in frozen chicken meat in Bangladesh, which may pose a risk to human health if the meat is not properly cooked or pickled raw only. This emphasizes the importance of the implementation of good slaughtering and processing practices by the processors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: heterocyclic amines (HCAs); meat intake; colorectal cancer; colorectal adenomas; cancer prevention
Online: 9 May 2017 (06:13:18 CEST)
Several evidences suggest that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometime inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine: PhIP, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: MeIQx, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene: (B(a)P) and “meat derived mutagenic activity”: MDM) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR=1.20; 95%CI:1.13,1.28; p<0.001), MeIQx (OR=1.14; 95%CI:1.05,1.23; p=0.001), DiMeIQx (OR=1.13; 95%CI:1.05,1.21; p=0.001), B(a)P (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.02,1.19; p=0.017) and MDM (OR=1.17; 95%CI:1.07,1.28; p=0.001). A linear and curvilinear trend was observed in dose-response meta-analisis between CRA risk in association with PhIP and MDM, MeIQx, respectively. CRC risk (21344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR=1.14; 95%CI:1.04,1.25; p=0.004), DiMeIQx (OR=1.12; 95%CI:1.02,1.22; p=0.014) and MDM (OR=1.12; 95%CI:1.06,1.19; p<0.001). No publication bias could be detected whereas heterogeneity was in some cases rather high. Mutagenic compounds formed during cooking of meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: consumer preferences; red meat; food consumption; discrete choice experiment (DCE); willingness to pay (WTP); random utility model
Online: 19 January 2021 (10:52:41 CET)
Food consumption in Europe is changing. Red meat consumption has been steadily decreasing in the past decades. The rising interest of consumers for healthier and more sustainable meat products provide red meat producers with the opportunity to differentiate their offers by ecolabels, origin and health claims. This international study analyses the European consumer preferences for red meat (beef, lamb and goat) in seven countries: Finland, France, Greece, Italy, Spain, Turkey and the United Kingdom. Through a choice experiment, 2.900 responses were collected. Mixed multinomial logit models were estimated to identify heterogeneous preferences among consumers at the country level. Results indicate substantial differences between the most relevant attributes for the average consumers, as well as their willingness to pay for them in each country. Nevertheless, national origin and organic labels were highly valued in most countries.
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Silage supplement; Pomegranate residues; avocado residues; poultry; antioxidant,; meat quality
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:42:54 CEST)
In the present study pomegranate peels and avocado peels and seeds vacuum microwave extraction solid by-products were supplemented in corn silage in order to investigate the effects on meat quality and growth rate in broiler chicken. 50 broilers were divided in two groups treated with experimental or usual fed for 43 days (group A: 25 broilers fed with avocado and pomegranate by-products and group B: 25 broilers fed with corn-silage used as control). The results showed that broiler chickens fed with diet supplemented with a mixture of pomegranate avocado by-products (group A) shown significant differences in chicken leg meat quality improving in significant level the proteins and fatty acids contents in breast and leg meat respectively. More specific ω3 and ω6 fatty acids contents were three times higher than in group B. Moreover protective effect on the decomposition of polyunsaturated fatty acids induced by free radicals presented in chicken meat based on the evaluation of lipid peroxidation by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Pomegranate peels, avocado peels and seeds by-products appeared slight reduction on meat production while it was found to improve the qualitative chicken meat characteristics. Regarding the production costs, it was calculated that the corn-silage supplementation used in this study lead to a 75% lower cost than the commercial corn-silage used for the breeding of broilers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0272.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, meat, raw milk, antibiotics; antibiotic resistance genes
Online: 15 August 2018 (13:58:11 CEST)
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) occasionally threatens the life of the host as a persistent pathogen even though it is normal flora of humans and animals. We characterized drug resistance in S. aureus isolated from animal carcasses and milk samples from the abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province. Methods: A 1000 meat swab samples and 200 raw milk samples were collected from selected abattoirs and dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. S. aureus was isolated and positively identified using biochemical tests and confirmed by molecular methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test against 14 different antibiotics was performed against all isolates. Antibiotic resistance genes were also detected. Results: Of the 1200 samples collected, 134 (11.2%) samples were positive for S. aureus. Resistance ranged from 71.6% for penicillin G to 39.2% for tetracycline. Resistance gene (blaZ) was detected in 13 (14.9%), while msrA was found in 31 (52.5%) of S. aureus isolates. Conclusions: The present result shows the potential dissemination of multidrug-resistant S. aureus strains in the dairy farms and abattoirs in the Eastern Cape. Therefore, this implies that the organism may rapidly spread through food and pose serious public health risk
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0024.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; Multidrug resistance; mecA gene; Frozen chicken meat; Bangladesh
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:56:33 CET)
Infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are continuously expanding within the community. Chicken meat is usually contaminated by MRSA, and this contaminated chicken meat is an important source of foodborne infections in humans. In this study, a cross-sectional supershop survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of MRSA in 113 domestic frozen chicken meat samples purchased from nine branded supershops available in five divisional megacities of Bangladesh. The study also focused on the determination of methicillin resistance gene in MRSA isolates. S. aureus was identified by standard culture-based and molecular methods, and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA was screened by cefoxitin disk diffusion test. Methicillin resistance gene was identified by PCR. Of samples, 54.9% were positive for S. aureus, and, of these, 37.1% isolates were identified as MRSA. All the isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR): 52.2% were resistant to 6−8 antimicrobial classes, and 47.8% isolates to 9−12 classes. Three (3.2%) isolates of S. aureus were possible extensively drug resistant. The highest rates of resistance were observed against cefoxitin (100%), followed by nalidixic acid, ampicillin and oxacillin (97.7%), colistin (91.3%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and amoxicillin (87%), penicillin-G and cloxacillin (82.6%), oxytetracycline (78.3%) and cefixime (73.9%). Screening of methicillin resistance gene revealed that 43.5% isolates of MRSA were positive for mecA gene. The high prevalence of MDR MRSA in frozen chicken meat samples in this study emphasizes the need for better sanitary education of food handlers in hygienic practices focusing on their potential role as reservoirs and spreaders of MRSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0246.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: meat attachment; food neophobia; consumer preference; preference for organic foods
Online: 27 April 2022 (03:45:28 CEST)
Meat-based diets are still the norm and vegans and vegetarians represent only a small minority of the population. A transition respectively behavioural change towards a diet with less meat can only occur with the adoption of a positive attitude towards dietary changes based on reasons and motivations. The main aim of this study is to validate the so-called meat attachment scale (MEAS) for Germany in order to analyse if this construct is a barrier towards a diet with less meat in this country. The findings show that the MEAS can be applied in Germany and a similar structure as reported for Spain and other countries could be found. Furthermore, a correlation analysis demonstrated that food neophobia and MEAS are not correlated with each other. That is, that meat attachment represents an independent and single predictor for trust in food (processing) technologies as e.g. plant-based proteins or cultured meat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0452.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Cape Lob Ear; Cape Speckled; meat goat breeds; meat tenderness; meat colour; collagen; chevon
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:47:43 CET)
Meat tenderness, water holding capacity (WHC) and colour attributes of six muscles (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL), Semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF), Supraspinatus (SS), Infraspinatus (IS), Semitendinosus (ST)) from large frame Indigenous Veld Goats (IVG) and Boer Goats (BG) were studied. Weaner male Boer Goats (BG; n = 18; 10 bucks and 8 wethers) and large frame Indigenous Veld Goats (IVG; n = 19; 9 bucks and 10 wethers) were raised on hay and natural grass, and on a commercial pelleted diet to a live weight of 30 - 35 kg. All goats were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and the dressed carcasses chilled at 4°C within 1-hour post-mortem. The muscles were dissected from both sides 24-hours post-mortem and aged for 1-day and 4-days. Variations in meat characteristics such as ultimate pH, WHC, percentage purge, myofibril fragment length, intramuscular fat, connective tissue characteristics, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Bucks had higher L* and Hue-angle values, whereas wethers had increased a* and Chroma values. The muscle baseline-data will allow informed decisions to support muscle-specific marketing strategies, which may be used to improve consumer acceptability of chevon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0016.v1
Online: 2 November 2016 (07:03:29 CET)
We interviewed 48 people including local communities, ex hunters and protected area management professionals. The purpose of the interviews was to understand the motivations for, and the nature of, illegal hunting of prey species of iconic predators - tigers and leopards - in the northern section of Bardia National Park. Participants reported that hunting of prey species occurs mostly in spring and autumn and is less common during the summer. In the past, hunting was primarily for the purposes of obtaining meat for household consumption. Since the introduction of a road network in the region, opportunities to sell wild meat at ad-hoc ‘highway markets’ have developed. The purported medicinal properties of wild meat was also cited as a driver for illegal hunting. Mostly, locally hand-made guns are used for hunting and the use of dogs in hunting was often reported. Protected area managers informed that illegal hunting problems in the study area are associated with a lack of presence of park authorities, remoteness and underdevelopment and poverty of the community. Our study suggested that skills development training for local community members might reduce dependency on wild meat for household consumption and earning thereby reducing illegal hunting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0147.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: glycolysis; lipidome; meat; mitochondria; oxidation; proteome; turkey
Online: 23 November 2017 (03:11:04 CET)
A commercially reared domesticated turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was purchased from a local market and sections of tissue representing leg, thigh, and breast were harvested and processed for analysis of the lipids and proteins present. Leg and thigh tissue was enriched in mitochondrial proteins whereas the breast tissue was enriched in glycolytic enzymes as well as the cytosolic and mitochondrial forms of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. A potential marker for breast tissue muscle formation and/or function was also identified. The tissues could clearly be separated based upon their lipid profiles with little differences in cardiolipin levels suggesting that mitochondrial surface areas may be similar across the tissues. The most significant differences in the lipids were found to be higher levels of oxidized lipids in thigh meat. This work provides the first untargeted proteome and lipidome datasets for the domesticated turkey. The proteome dataset is accessible from ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the identifier PXD008207.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0254.v1
Online: 18 May 2018 (05:21:32 CEST)
The patterns of food consumption in general and those of meat, in particular, are constantly changing. These changes are due not only to socio-economic and cultural trends that affect the whole society but also to the specific lifestyles of consumer groups. Due to the importance of consumer lifestyle, the objectives of this study were i) to identify the profiles of lamb meat consumers according to their orientation toward convenience, as defined by their eating and cooking habits; ii) to characterize these profiles according to their socio-economic characteristics and their preferences regarding the intrinsic and extrinsic quality signals of lamb meat; and iii) to analyze the willingness to pay for lamb confit. In this study, four types of consumers have been differentiated according to their lifestyles related to lamb consumption. These groups, due to their characteristics, could be called "Gourmet", "Disinterested", "Conservative" and "Basic". The Gourmet group has characteristics that make it especially interesting to market a product such as lamb confit; however, this group is unaware of this product. Therefore, a possible strategy to expand the commercialization of light lamb and the confit product would be guided marketing to this niche market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0383.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Bos indicus, carcass, marbling, meat quality, nutrigenomics
Online: 21 December 2022 (04:01:00 CET)
The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed genes, biological processes and metabolic pathways related to adipogenesis and lipogenesis in calves receiving different diets during the cow-calf phase. Forty-eight uncastrated F1 Angus × Nellore males were randomly assigned to two treatments from 30 days of age to weaning: no creep feeding (G1) or creep feeding (G2). After weaning, the animals were feedlot finished for 180 days and fed a single diet containing 12.6% forage and 87.4% corn-based concentrate. Longissimus thoracis muscle samples were collected by biopsy at weaning for transcriptome analysis by RNA-Seq and at slaughter for the measurement of intramuscular fat content (IMF) and marbling score (MS). Animals of G2 had 17.2% and 14.0% higher IMF and MS, respectively (P < 0.05). We identified 947 differentially expressed genes (log2 fold change 0.5; FDR 5%); of these, 504 were up-regulated and 443 were down-regulated in G2. Part of the genes up-regulated in G2 were related to PPAR signaling (PPARA, SLC27A1, FABP3, and DBI), unsaturated fatty acid synthesis (FADS1, FADS2, SCD, and SCD5), and fatty acid metabolism (FASN, FADS1, FADS2, SCD, and SCD5). Regarding biological processes, the genes up-regulated in G2 were related to cholesterol biosynthesis (EBP, CYP51A1, DHCR24, and LSS), unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis (FADS2, SCD, SCD5, and FADS1), and insulin sensitivity (INSIG1 and LPIN2). Cow-calf supplementation positively affected energy metabolism and lipid biosynthesis, and thus favored the deposition of marbling fat during the postweaning period. Here it was shown, in an unprecedented way, by analyzing the transcriptome, genes, pathways and enriched processes due to the use of creep feeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0254.v1
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:27:31 CET)
Background: There is an upsurge in the consumption of chicken meat leading to a high influx of imported frozen chicken parts into the Ghanaian markets with little information on their microbial qualities. This study examined the microbial quality of imported frozen chicken parts from three major import countries (USA, the Netherlands and Brazil) into the Kumasi Metropolis. Methods: A total of 45 chicken meat parts of 15 thighs, wings and backs from wholesale cold stores market in the Kumasi Metropolis were randomly sampled for laboratory examinations. A ten-fold serial dilution was performed on each homogenized chicken parts to determine microbiological quality using Plate Count Agar , MacConkey Agar (MCA), Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) and Desoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) for the total viable count (TVC), total coliform count (TCC), Staphylococcus and Salmonella spp counts respectively incubated at 37oC for 48 hours. Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) was used for fungal counts. We identified bacterial and fungal isolates using appropriate laboratory and biochemical tests. Descriptive data analysis was carried using SPSS-IBM version 16. Results: Mean TVCs of 5.93, 5.98 and 6.14 log10cfu/g were recorded for frozen chicken meats from the USA, the Netherlands and Brazil respectively. Means TCCs of 6.14, 5.93 and 5.98 log10cfu/g were obtained for chicken meats from Brazil, USA and the Netherlands respectively. Staphylococcus spp. (35.4%), E. coli (26.2%), Salmonella spp. (24.6%), and Klebsiella spp. (13.8%) were isolated with Aspergillus spp (33.3%), Rhizopus spp (27.3%), Penicillin spp (24.2%), and Cladosporium spp (15.2%). Chicken thighs, backs and wings recorded 46.2%, 29.2% and 24.6% bacterial contaminants in this order. Bacterial isolates of 49.2%, 28.8% and 22.0% were recorded in frozen chicken meat products from Brazil, the Netherlands USA respectively. Conclusion: The results suggest that imported frozen chicken meats into the Ghanaian market have moderate quality with potential pathogens such as E. coli and Salmonella spp.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: pig; NREP; gene expression; polymorphism; SNP; meat performance
Online: 1 December 2020 (08:48:46 CET)
The expression microarray technique was performed to investigate the differences in gene expression between Czech Large White pigs and wild boars in the longissimus lumborum et thoracis and biceps femoris muscle tissues. The NREP gene (neuronal regeneration related protein homolog) was selected for detailed study as an expressional and functional candidate gene. NREP plays a role in the transformation of neural, muscle and fibroblast cells and in smooth muscle myogenesis. Quantitative real-time PCR results confirmed that the porcine NREP gene was expressed in both skeletal muscles and significantly overexpressed in Czech Large White pigs compared to wild boars (P < 0.05). We identified 9 polymorphic sites in genomic DNA of NREP gene. Six of these polymorphisms were in complete linkage disequilibrium and therefore only 4 polymorphisms were informative. Associations of these 4 polymorphisms (HF571253:g.103G>A, HF571253:g.134G>A, HF571253:g.179T>C and HF571253:g.402_409delT) with meat performance traits were assessed in Czech Large White pigs. New polymorphisms in NREP gene were significantly associated with parameters of daily weight gain, lean meat and backfat thickness in Czech Large White pigs. Our primary study suggested that porcine NREP may play an important role in skeletal muscle growth, fat metabolism and meat performance traits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Meat consumption; Flexitarianism; Sustainable Development; Protein transition; Brazil
Online: 1 February 2023 (01:09:51 CET)
The flexitarian diet, which emphasizes a reduction in meat consumption, has been identified as a crucial factor in transitioning to sustainable food systems that can help combat climate change and improve food and nutritional security, particularly in areas where food choices are abundant. Despite Brazil being a major meat producer, meat consumption among Brazilians has been decreasing in recent years, with a growing portion of the population adopting meat-free and meat-reduced dietary models. In this study, we conducted the first non-industry funded scientific investigation of Brazilian flexitarians, with the goal of characterizing their socio-economic and demographic characteristics, motivations for adopting flexitarianism, frequency of animal-based meat consumption, and main substitutes consumed. Data was collected from 1029 self-identified flexitarians in Brazil. Our findings indicate that the flexitarian food model is primarily adopted by women and is motivated by concerns about the environmental impact of meat consumption, personal health, and animal welfare. Flexitarians were found to have a consumption profile that can be divided into three groups: low (consuming meat 36 times a week), medium (consuming meat 7 times a week), and high (consuming meat 4 times a week). The flexitarian meals pattern is characterized by lower consumption of beef (less than 2 times per week) and higher consumption of chicken (3 times per week) and is supplemented by plant-based protein sources and eggs as the main meat substitutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0241.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 10 December 2020 (09:22:00 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein that, in comparison to meat, offer a number of social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on the role they can play in the policy agenda and how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace partially replace meat in their diets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0065.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: low fat; salt reduction; meat product; sensory; beef
Online: 3 May 2018 (09:46:55 CEST)
The consumer’s acceptability of hamburgers elaborated with the flank of culling cows in which the content of salt or fat had been partially replaced was studied. A mixture of potassium chloride, potassium ferrocyanide and sodium ferrocyanide was used as substitutes for the salt. Oat flakes or a mixture of chia and flax seeds were used as substitutes for the fat. The hamburgers were tasted by 34 consumers. Consumers did not detect significant differences between the control and the rest of the formulations. Neither the gender nor the age of the consumers influenced the sensory appraisal. However, many comments regarding texture failures were recorded. Therefore, the substitution of salt and / or fat in the composition of hamburgers made with the flank of cows is a viable alternative for the commercialization of these pieces of low commercial value as long as the texture of the same is adjusted to resemble it to the control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0038.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: phospholipids; atherosclerosis; inflammation; anti-inflammatory; dairy; marine; meat; egg; nutrition
Online: 6 November 2017 (10:30:12 CET)
In this review paper, the latest literature on the functional properties of phospholipids in relation to inflammation and inflammation-related disorders has been critically appraised and evaluated. The paper is divided into three sections: Section one addresses the relationship between the anti-inflammatory bioactivities of different phospholipids in relation to their structures and compositions. Sections two and three are dedicated to the structures, functions and anti-inflammatory properties of dietary phospholipids from animal and marine sources. Most of the dietary phospholipids of animal origin come from meat, egg and dairy products. To date, there is very limited work published on meat phospholipids, undoubtedly due to the negative perception that meat consumption is an unhealthy option due to its putative associations with several chronic diseases. These assumptions are addressed with respect to the phospholipid composition of meat products. Recent research trends indicate that dairy phospholipids possess anti-inflammatory properties, which has led to an increased interest into their molecular structures and reputed health benefits. Finally, the structural composition of phospholipids of marine origin is discussed. Extensive research has been published in relation to ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and inflammation, however this research has recently come under scrutiny and has proved to be unreliable and controversial in terms of the therapeutic effects of ω-3 PUFA, which are generally in the form of triglycerides and esters. Therefore, this review focuses on recent publications concerning marine phospholipids and their structural composition and related health benefits. Finally, the strong nutritional value of dietary phospholipids are highlighted with respect to marine and animal origin and avenues for future research are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0237.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: malondialdehyde; duck meat; myofibrillar proteins; physicochemical changes; gel properties
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:50:02 CEST)
This paper focuses on the effect of malondialdehyde-induced oxidative modification (MiOM) on the gel properties of duck myofibrillar proteins (DMPs). DMPs were first prepared and treated with oxidative modification at different concentrations of malondialdehyde (0, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L). The physicochemical changes (carbonyl and free thiol group content) and gel properties (gel whiteness, gel strength, water holding capacity, rheological properties and mi-cro-structural properties) were then investigated. The results showed that the content of protein carbonyl groups increased with increasing MDA oxidation (P<0.05), while the content of free thiol groups decreased significantly (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was a significant trend of decrease in gel whiteness; the hardness and water-holding capacity of protein gels increased significantly under the oxidation of low concentration of MDA (0-5 mmol/L), while the hardness of gels decreased under the oxidation of high concentration (10 mM). The storage modulus and loss modulus of oxidized DMPs also increased with increasing concentration; moreover, microstructural analysis confirmed that the gels oxidized at low concentrations were more compact and homogeneous in terms of pore size compared to the high concentration or blank group. In conclusion, moderate oxidation of malondialdehyde was beneficial to improve the gel properties of duck; however, excessive oxidation was detrimental to the formation of dense structured gels.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0010.v1
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:39:15 CEST)
Ruminant mammals extract nutrients from plant-based food through fermentation in the rumen; fiber and starch are pre-digested by microorganisms and methane is produced as a by-product, which released into the atmosphere acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In an effort to reduce enteric methanogenesis, dietary additives for ruminants have been investigated, and marine macroalgae have proven particularly promising, e.g., the inclusion of 0.2% dry matter of the red alga A. taxiformis into cow feed decreased in vivo methane production by up to 98%. Thus, if globally applied, the addition of algae in ruminant diets could revolutionize the management of greenhouse gas emissions across the livestock sector. However, the ozone-depleting nature of halogen compounds produced in Asparagopsis sp. and the reported adverse health impacts on humans, along with impracticability issues and the difficulty to produce, commercialize and distribute algae widely, has sown some doubt on the feasibility of using macroalgae as methane mitigation instruments. To circumvent such obstacles, and taking into account the paradigm that eukaryotic hosts cannot be understood without considering interactions with their associated microbiome, the exploration of marine algae associated microorganisms is anticipated. Following the notion that in the close and intimate relationships between algae-hosts and their microbiota the origin of chemical response mechanisms is often unclear, and that compounds initially assigned to algae have previously been shown to stem from host-associated microbes, it is not unreasonable to think that these may be involved in the antimethanogenic effects of marine algae in the rumen. Once identified, such microorganisms could lead to antimethanogenic feed additives, and reduce enteric methanogenesis from livestock ruminants substantially. This review is three-fold: it provides a brief, historic overview of macroalgae as feed supplements for ruminants, sums up the difficulties related to using whole-macroalgae as large-scale antimethanogenic feed additives, and describes the macroalga microbiome, including its potential to serve as an antimethanogen for enteric fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0138.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: thyroid nodules; ultrasound; lifestyle; dietary; betel quid; red meat; nut; centenarians
Online: 16 January 2018 (10:04:38 CET)
Thyroid nodules (TNs) are common thyroid lesions in older population. Few studies focused on the prevalence of TNs and its relationship to lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits in centenarians. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of TNs in Chinese centenarians using high-resolution ultrasound equipment and investigate its relationship to lifestyles and dietary habits. The current study was part of China Hainan Centenarian Cohort Study (CHCCS) which conducted in Hainan, an iodine sufficient region in China. A total of 874 permanent residents aged 100 years or older (mean age, 102.8 ± 2.8 years) without any missing data were included in the analysis. Among the participants, 649 of them were detected at least one thyroid nodule under the ultrasound examinations. The overall prevalence rate of TNs was 74.3%. The prevalence of TNs was higher in participants who were females, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight than their counterparts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being female, hypertension, diabetes, betel quid consumption, red meat consumption were independent risk factors, while being underweight, and nut consumption were independent protective factors for TNs. Our findings indicate that the presence of thyroid nodules was highly prevalent in Chinese centenarians, particularly in females. In addition to gender, hypertension, diabetes, and underweight, the presence of TNs was independently associated with betel quid, red meat, and nut consumptions. Further prospective studies are warranted to verify these associations in population from different age strata, races, cultures, and iodine backgrounds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0325.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: meat substitute; meathybrid; consumer preference, plant-based proteins
Online: 14 December 2020 (11:44:14 CET)
High levels of meat consumption are increasingly being criticised for ethical, environmental, and social reasons. Plant-based meat substitutes have been identified as healthy sources of protein in comparison to meat. This alternative offers several social, environmental and health benefits and may play a role in reducing meat consumption. However, there has been a lack of research on how specific meat substitute attributes can influence consumers to replace or partially replace meat in their diets. Research demonstrates that in many countries consumers are highly attached to meat. They consider it as an essential and integral element of their daily diet. For these consumers which are not interested in vegan or vegetarian alternatives to meat, so-called meathybrids could be a low-threshold option for a more sustainable food consumption behaviour. In meathybrids only a fraction of the meat product (e.g. 20% to 50%) is replaced with plant-based proteins. In this paper, the results of an online survey with 501 Belgium consumers are presented with focus on preferences and attitudes relating to meathyrids. The results show that more than fifty percent of consumers substitute meat at least occasionally. Thus, about half of the respondents reveal an eligible consumption behaviour in respect to sustainability and healthiness to a certain degree. Concerning the determinants of choosing either meathybrid or meat it becomes evident that a strong effect is exerted by the health perception. The healthier meathybrids are perceived, the higher is the choice probability. Thus, this egoistic motive seems to outperform altruistic motives like animal welfare or environmental concerns when it comes to choice for this new product category.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0094.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: West Africa ; Atlantic humpback dolphin ; bottlenose dolphin ; bycatch ; marine bushmeat ; aquatic wild meat ; conservation
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:38:32 CEST)
Small-boat and shore-based surveys in 2017 confirm that Atlantic humpback (Sousa teuszii) and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are resident in shallow neritic waters surrounding the protected MPA Tristao Islands in northern Guinea. Inshore-type T. truncatus were encountered also between Conakry and Kayar. First documented in 2012, dolphin bycatches in local fisheries continue to occur. The frequency of beach-cast remains suggests a significant conservation issue. Both multi- and monofilament gillnets are widely deployed, but it remains unclear which gear is the main cause of mortality. Forensic evidence shows that captured dolphins are often utilized for local consumption. Marine bushmeat of cetaceans is documented in many coastal nations in West and Central Africa. In Tristao Islands their use is synchronous with and thought related to declining fish stocks. Significant anthropogenic mortality relative to their low abundance, besides suspected pressures such as prey competition with fisheries and habitat deterioration from coastal development, raise concern for the future of coastal dolphins, in particular endangered S. teuszii, even in this formally protected MPA. Conservation measures need to be re-evaluated for improved efficiency while surveys to monitor trends should be annual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0562.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: charcoal; dry heat cooking; indoor; meat; N-nitrosodimethylamine; health risk; source
Online: 23 November 2018 (13:59:34 CET)
This study aimed to investigate the airborne release of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a result of the dry heat cooking of some meats using charcoal grilling and pan broiling methods. Three types of meat, beef sirloin, pork belly, and duck, were chosen and cooked in a temporary building using the above methods. Air samples were collected in Thermosorb-N cartridges, which were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for NDMA using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography–fluorescence detection, respectively. Overall, the charcoal grilling method showed higher average NDMA concentrations than the pan broiling method for all types of meat. The highest average concentration was observed for charcoal-grilled beef sirloin (410 ng/m3) followed by pork belly, suggesting that meat protein content and cooking duration are important determinants of NDMA formation. Cancer risk assessment showed that the charcoal grilling of such meats can pose an additional cancer risk for restaurant customers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Cold supply chain; Meat Supply Chain; Food Safety; COVID-19; Blockchain; Hyperledger Fabric
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:18:24 CEST)
The world is facing an unprecedented socio-economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). It is also spreading through the import and export food supply chains. The Chinese authorities have discovered the COVID-19 virus in various imported frozen meat packages. Traceability plays a vital role in food quality and food safety. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides solutions to keep an eye on environmental conditions, product quality, and product traceability. These solutions are traditionally based on the centralized architecture, which does not guarantee tamper-proof data sharing. The blockchain is an emerging technology that provides tamper-proof data sharing in real-time. This article presents Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain use case and a quick reference guide to develop the blockchain network for tracking and tracing the supply chain to minimize the risk of COVID-19 in the frozen meat supply chain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: lifestyle factors; chronic inflammatory diseases; treatment result; treatment response; diet; meat intake; dietary pattern; food; mucosa associated bacteria; epithelium-associated bacteria; microbiome; fibre intake; personalized medicine; mucus; sulphate-reducing bacteria; mucin-degrading bacteria; Western style diet; anti-TNF
Online: 15 March 2017 (07:29:13 CET)
We wanted to investigate the current knowledge on the impact of diet on anti-TNF response in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), to identify dietary factors that warrant further investigations in relation to anti-TNF treatment response, and, finally, to discuss potential strategies for such investigations. PubMed was searched using specified search terms. One small prospective study on diet and anti-TNF treatment in 56 patients with CD found similar remission rates after 56 weeks among 32 patients with good compliance that received concomitant enteral nutrition and 24 with poor compliance that had no dietary restrictions (78% versus 67%, p = 0.51). A meta-analysis of 295 patients found higher odds of achieving clinical remission and remaining in clinical remission among patients on combination therapy with specialised enteral nutrition and Infliximab (IFX) compared with IFX monotherapy (OR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.73–4.31, p < 0.01, OR 2.93; 95% CI: 1.66–5.17, p < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, evidence-based knowledge on impact of diet on anti-TNF treatment response for clinical use is scarce. Here we propose a mechanism by which Western style diet high in meat and low in fibre may promote colonic inflammation and potentially impact treatment response to anti-TNF drugs. Further studies using hypothesis-driven and data-driven strategies in observational, animal and interventional studies are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0265.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Local Productive Systems; Meat Industries for the Transformation of the Iberian Pig; business processes; territorial processes; labour processes.
Online: 15 November 2021 (13:46:19 CET)
Local Productive Systems (hereinafter LPS) based on agro-food industries constitute alternative models of development in peripheral rural areas that are subject to internal and external dynamics and processes. The main objective of the research is to investigate the processes and their consequences on four SPLs based on the Iberian Pig Transformation Industry (hereinafter LPS-IPTI) in SW Spain: Fregenal de la Sierra, Higuera la Real, Cumbres Mayores and Jabugo. Using secondary data, a comparison is made between 2002 and 2020 to establish the changes, causes and consequences on the LPS-IPTI studied. The results obtained indicate (1) business and territorial concentration of LPS-IPTI; (2) productive and territorial specialisation in standardised products and quality products; (3) simplification of industrial processes; (4) loss of employment, especially female; (5) external control of companies in the sector which, accordingly, results in the loss of prominence of local actors in favour of foreign companies, reduced social capital and the progressive loss of ownership of the LPS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0590.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: African swine fever virus (ASFV); Pork shortage; Alternative meat consumption; Wildlife; Human-animal contact; Zoonotic spillover; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:01:12 CET)
The spillover of a virus from an animal reservoir to humans requires both molecular and ecological risk factors to align. While extensive research both before and after the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 implicates horseshoe bats as the significant animal reservoir for the new human coronavirus, it remains unclear why it emerged at this time. One massive disruption to animal-human contacts in 2019 is linked to the on-going African swine fever virus (ASFV) pandemic. Pork is the major meat source in the Chinese diet. We hypothesize that the dramatic shortage of pork following large-scale culling and restrictions of pig movement (resulting in marked price increases) led to alternative sources of meat and unusual animal and meat movements nationwide, e.g., involving wildlife, and thus greatly increased opportunities for human-sarbecovirus contacts. Pork prices were particularly high in southern provinces (Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, and Hubei), where wildlife is farmed and more frequently consumed. Major wildlife farming provinces are spread from Northern to Southern China, which overlaps with horseshoe bat host ranges, potential hosts of the proximal SARS-CoV-2 ancestor, and wildlife sourcing provinces of Wuhan Huanan market and possibly other markets. Trading of SARS-CoV-2 susceptible wildlife in these markets, such as minks, raccoon dogs, foxes and palm civets in Wuhan markets, could have increased the risk of SARS-CoV-2 from an intermediary host. Moreover, large quantities of animals raised for fur could have entered the human food chain undetected and significantly increased risks of animal-human contact. Performing retrospective testing of stored susceptible animals and their meat sold before December 2019 may be helpful in the next stage of tracing the animal origin of SARS-CoV-2 as spillover events are more likely to have taken place in 2019 when China was experiencing the worst effects of the ASFV pandemic.