REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0057.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: PM, pollution, environment, industrialization, health effects, standards
Online: 18 July 2016 (11:56:06 CEST)
Particulate matter (PM) is one of the problems faced in environmental science. It has health effects on man and animals in both developed and developing countries. Research and efforts have been on it several years back. Policy statements and efforts have been published. This review paper is an added information on air pollution. In it, efforts were made in discussing these: classification, effects, methodology, case studies and source apportionment. It is hoped that this paper would contribute to existing knowledge on PM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0591.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: education; underemployment; health
Online: 22 April 2021 (08:52:40 CEST)
Under the dual background of underemployment and health inequality, this paper empirically analyzes the impact of education level on underemployed workers’ health based on CLDS2016 data. The results show that underemployment is significantly related to the decline of self-rated health, increased depression tendency, and morbidity in a certain period. The results indicate that underemployment can significantly reduce the health level of workers in the low education level group and the high education level group. However, it has no significant impact on workers’ health in the middle education level group; even if we change the measurement method of indicators and consider endogeneity, the research conclusion is still robust. Moreover, this kind of health inequality mainly comes from the difference in economic effect and leisure effect of underemployment to workers with different educational levels. This paper provides empirical support for increasing the labor protection mechanism of underemployed people and reducing the health inequality caused by educational level differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: breast cancer; multimedia; health education
Online: 6 May 2019 (11:09:04 CEST)
Breast cancer is an important disease that threatens the lives of women. The majority of breast screening health education is printed promotional material, which is ineffective in enhancing women’s knowledge on breast screening in Taiwan, and showed low breast cancer screening rate in women. This provided the impetus for us to carry out this study to understand the major barrier of women on breast cancer and screening procedures. This study used quasi-experimental design and purposive sampling. The study participants were 45–69 year-old women. Data collection was carried out before and after intervention. The health belief model was used as a research framework to examine changes in the study participants after multimedia health education intervention for detecting which factors most affect women's breast cancer screening behavior. Then we could make the policy for enhancing women's breast cancer screening in the future. Our study showed that after multimedia health education intervention, the scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy in the experimental group were all significantly higher than the control group. We believe that the effectiveness of multimedia health education is better than traditional health education methods, and can enhance women to receive breast cancer screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0056.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: green manure; soil microbial communities; crop health; Illumina sequencing
Online: 18 September 2016 (08:56:53 CEST)
Green manure could improve soil nutrients and crop production, playing a significant role in sustainable agriculture. However, the impacts of green manure on crop health and the roles soil microbial communities play in the process haven’t been clarified clearly yet. In this study, we investigated soil microbial community composition and structure in four tobacco farmlands, which were treated with different green manure (control, ryegrass, pea and rape), using 16S rRNA gene amplicons sequencing. Results showed that green manure had significant impacts on soil properties, microbial communities and tobacco health. First, soil total C, N and Ca content increased significantly in groups treated with green manure than control. Second, soil community diversity was significantly higher in groups treated with green manure. Third, green manure especially ryegrass, decreased tobacco disease (bacterial wilt) rate dramatically, and the process might be mediated by soil microbial communities. On the one hand, several microbial populations were found to be potentially disease inducible or suppressive. For example, the abundances of Dokdonella and Rhodanobacter were positively correlated to tobacco disease rate, while Acidobacteira_Gp4 and Gp6 had negative correlations with tobacco disease. On the other hand, soil microbial communities were shaped by soil properties (e.g., pH, C and N content). In conclusion, our research showed that green manure could increase soil nutrients directly, and further improve tobacco health mediated by soil microorganisms, which may shed light on revealing interactions among soil properties, microorganisms and plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0054.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: college students; oral health education experience; oral health knowledge; oral health practice behaviors; oral health care self-efficacy
Online: 2 May 2023 (04:32:07 CEST)
Since the college years represent an important period for forming oral health behaviors during adulthood, it is important that college students establish proper oral health-promoting behaviors. Therefore, this study aims to identify the effects of oral health education experience, knowledge, and practice behaviors on oral health care self-efficacy among college students, as studies related to this topic are scarce. A total of 236 college students participated in a questionnaire survey comprising 21 questions. The collected data were analyzed through a chi-square test, independent-samples t-test, and logistic regression analysis using SPSS version 22.0. Participants with oral health education experience showed higher levels of oral health knowledge and practice behaviors than those who did not, and the odds of them having oral health care self-efficacy was 3.743 higher. Moreover, a one-unit increase in oral health knowledge and practice behaviors was associated with a 1.199 and 1.351 increase in oral health care self-efficacy, respectively. For oral health promotion among college students, oral health care self-efficacy reinforcement programs tailored to college students should be developed. These should focus on expanding oral health education opportunities to promote improvement in oral health care self-efficacy by strengthening oral health knowledge and the motivation to practice oral health behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Patient education; health literacy; scientometric analysis
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:06:12 CET)
Therapeutic patient education (TPE) aims to empower the patients and their caregivers to effectively care for and manage their conditions. Such educational programs have been shown to improve health behaviors, disease outcomes and quality of life among different patient populations. The field of TPE has evolved extensively over decades, owing to interdisciplinary research. No study so far has been done to map this field, to identify the stakeholders and gaps requiring future research. By leveraging the theory of co-citation, Citespace was used to visualize the bibliographic data pertaining to TPE research. A total of 54,533 articles published in English language were analyzed to identify influential funders, regions and institutes contributing to this field. Besides these, important theoretical and empirical work that has shaped this field has also been mapped. Our analysis revealed several important insights. Most of the important theories which helped shape TPE were inspired from the social sciences. Five important themes of research were identified including disorders, study designs utilized in TPE research, scope of the TPE literature, and outcomes, and populations. The research focused on improving perceptions, behaviors, and attitudes for health promotion, reducing stigma as well as self-management and medication adherence. Most of the research was developed in the context of high income countries. The future research should more involve patients and use digital technology. Meta-analytical studies need to be done to identify the specificities of TPE interventions across different disorders. More research should involve low and middle income countries (LMIC) to ensure knowledge and technology transfer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0791.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Health Education, Nurse, Hypertension
Online: 31 March 2021 (21:53:24 CEST)
Hypertension is a chronic non-communicable disease which is one of the main causes of serious cardiovascular disease death in the community. The level of treatment and health control for hypertensive patients is still not optimal due to lack of information. Aim was to identify various current methods of health education by nurses and their impact on hypertensive patients. Method Literature review research. The literature was obtained from the Scopus, Sage and PubMed databases with the keywords "Intervention" OR "Methods" AND "Nursing" AND "Hypertension". There are seven literatures that are determined to meet the requirements of the inclusion criteria. Results found three types of health education methods performed by nurses: 1) direct health education methods; nurses meet and meet face to face with patients in the form of individual teaching or training, 2) indirect health education methods; nurses are not face-to-face but use telephone or mobile communication aids to convey information and send SMS about health, and use internet-based websites to convey health information, 3) combined health education methods; nurses face to face with patients and follow-up care is carried out by indirect health education methods. The impact of health education methods carried out by nurses on hypertensive patients is that the level of patient adherence increases in treatment, increased knowledge levels, better blood pressure control, healthy lifestyle practices, adherence to diet, improved quality of life, and positive nurse-patient feedback occurs. in fulfilling mutually agreed upon treatment appointments. Conclusion health education methods carried out by nurses have a very positive impact on disease management and prevention of risk factors for complications in hypertensive patients.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID 19; Health Education; RCSI; teaching and learning; Pandemic
Online: 30 October 2020 (10:13:08 CET)
Background: The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland - Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain) was closed due to COVID 19. The aim of this paper is to present our experience, in managing teaching and learning, during this pandemic. Methods: Following, ethical approval, several meetings were held with the senior faculty and student representatives to select alternative virtual approaches for teaching, learning and assessment with evidence-based instructional design. Informed consent was obtained from all study participants. All procedures were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations. In alignment with global scenario, we decided upon early graduation for our students, and expedited the clinical examinations, with special permission from health and education ministries. Two major clinical examinations were redesigned to form a single hybrid clinical examination with two parts. Following all COVID 19 preventive measures, students were taken in groups of seven and simulated patients were substituted for real patients. No more than 40 students were present at any point of time, with no more than 10 examined in one block. 149 out of 152 RCSI students attended the clinical examinations and 524 students from the three RCSI campuses attended the written online examination. A structured survey was conducted to elicit students’ perceptions and participation was entirely voluntary. Results: 82% of students were happier to be joining the workforce early and, 22% expressed concerns. A comparison of student performance in these examinations against the equivalent components from semester one yielded no significant deviation in student performance, illustrating that the quality was consistent. Conclusion: We recommend that the government accredit online or distance learning programmes and explore appropriate methodologies for evaluation of online learning and assessment. Incorporating practical/clinical training, will continue to be a great challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0276.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: occupational health and safety education; quality of health and safety education; health and safety education best practices
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:14:27 CET)
Research into professionalization in health and safety has recently gained in interest. Graduate training is one of the factors that determines or conditions the role of the safety professional, thus intervene in the professionalization process. This article is the result of a workshop and the discussions of nine academic directors of safety education programs about quality evaluation. This article introduces the issue with a historic overview of safety education, presents a synthesis of nine selected education programs, discusses quality evaluation of health and safety education programs, propose a quality evaluation frame and finally, proposes a process for designing a quality safety education program with an associated model of the learning objectives. The outcomes are interesting for everyone who is interested in health and safety education and quality evaluation and will give insights into how safety professionals are educated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: sexual education; affective education; health education; school; qualitative research.
Online: 4 February 2021 (15:30:56 CET)
Sexual education is a part of the teaching-learning process that addresses cognitive, psychological, physical and social aspects of sexuality. The purpose of sexual education is to provide people with knowledge, abilities, attitudes and values that will help them to have good sexual health, well-being and dignity. The objective of this study was to explore the experiences and opinions of primary school teachers regarding Sexual Education in school. A descriptive qualitative study was designed based on content analysis. Twelve open-ended interviews with primary school teachers were carried out, followed by inductive data analysis using ATLAS.ti software. Two key themes emerged from the analysis: ‘In search of a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education’ and ‘Barriers to Sexual Education in schools: From the lack of training to fear of the families’. We conclude that despite the efforts to implement a comprehensive approach to Sexual Education that recognises sexuality as a right, primary school teachers face difficulties in delivering Sexual Education in schools due to a lack of training and the fear that parents will reject their children being spoken to about sexuality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0176.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: bioethics; health promotion; higher education
Online: 15 May 2019 (15:33:00 CEST)
This research is part of the Doctoral thesis "Perceptions of university professors on Health Promotion and Sustainability: a research proposal based on Health Promoting Universities (HPU) / World Health Organization (WHO) ", University Fernando Pessoa (UFP) / Porto - Portugal, authored by Ivaní Nadir Carlotto: (1) Background: Universities are essential institutions for health promotion (HP). Bioethics, as a transversal discipline, seeks to analyse and systematise these values in an ethical way, strengthening the synergy between health and HP. Ecological models are a possibility to develop health actions in a holistic, sustainable and salutogenic way, stimulating positive aspects related to ethics, well-being and quality of life; (2) Methods: Exploratory-descriptive methodology and quantitative-qualitative approach. Sample: Teachers from 9 higher education institutions (HEI), random sample, probabilistic for convenience, CI = 95%, n = 1400 persons; (3) Results: Production of 6 main components through Factorial Analysis categorized and interpreted by Qualitative Content Analysis and MAXQDA® software; (4) Conclusions: Universities function as research and learning venues to strengthen HP's activities. Bioethics and HP aim to build qualified actions in health, to defend and promoting well-being, quality of life, equity, inclusion, sustainability and social justice, with the proper conceptual clarity that distinguishes it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0437.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: nursing health promotion; literacy; positive mental health; psychological vulnerability; students
Online: 27 March 2023 (03:34:45 CEST)
ABSTRACT: Psychological vulnerability (PV) and low mental health literacy correlate negatively with higher education students' positive mental health and health behaviours. Levels of mental health literacy limit self-help, adaptative coping strategies and academic success. However, few studies examine the significant differences between students' PV, mental health literacy, positive mental health (PMH) and modifiable behaviours variables. Identifying modifiable vulnerability factors is essential when seeking and providing professional help. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to investigate the differences between modifiable behaviours and PV, mental health literacy, and PMH in higher education students. A sample of 3,600 undergraduate students was recruited, mostly female (78.8%), with an average age of 23 years (SD = 6.68). Results: The majority were women, did not exercise, were dissatisfied with sleep quality time per night (62.1% sleep less than 7 hours per night) and did not engage in leisure activities. Also, most respondents had PV and low literacy levels, particularly at F1, and 67.9% scored in the flourishing group. Results showed significant differences (p<0.001) between gender, age, sleep, exercise, diet, leisure activities and PV, and PMH and literacy. Conclusions: The results identified modifiable vulnerability factors that underpin the design of intervention-targeted programmes to promote literacy and PMH in higher education campuses in Portugal to foster students’ well-being and self-help strategies.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: ME/CFS; education; medical school; teaching; long Covid; patient safety, NICE Guidelines, Health Act 1983, General Medical Council, GMC, Medical Schools Council, MSC, Long Covid.
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:16:27 CET)
Background and objectives: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ME/CFS is a common complex multi-system disease with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients and their families, yet the majority of ME/CFS patients go unrecognised or undiagnosed. For two decades the medical education establishment in the UK has been challenged to remedy these failings, but little has changed. This study was designed to ascertain the current UK medical school education on ME/CFS and to identify challenges and opportunities to inform the future of medical education. Materials and methods: A questionnaire, developed under the guidance of the Medical Schools Council, was sent to all 34 UK Medical Schools to collect data for the academic year 2018-2019. Results: Responses were provided by 22 out of a total of 34 medical schools (65%). 59% of respondents taught ME/CFS, led by specialists drawn from 6 medical disciplines. Teaching delivery was usually by lecture; however, discussion case studies and e-learning were used. 7 schools included questions on ME/CFS in their examinations and 3 schools reported likely clinical exposure to ME/CFS patients. 64% of respondents were interested in receiving further teaching aids in ME/CFS. None of the schools shared details of their teaching syllabus so it was not possible to ascertain what students were being taught. Conclusions: UK medical school teaching in ME/CFS is shown to be inadequate. Several medical disciplines, with known differences about the disease, need to set these aside to give greater clarity in teaching undergraduates so they can more easily recognise and diagnose ME/CFS. Improvements are proposed in ME/CFS medical education consistent with the international paradigm shift in biomedical understanding of this disease. Many medical schools (64% of respondents) acknowledge this need by expressing a strong appetite for the development of further teaching aids and materials. The GMC and MSC are called upon to use their considerable influence to bring about the appropriate changes to medical school curricula so future doctors can recognise, diagnose and treat ME/CFS. The GMC should also consider creating a registered speciality encompassing ME/CFS, post viral fatigue and Long Covid.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0279.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: global health; planetary health education; climate change; healthcare professionals; curriculum development; sustainable healthcare education; mini review
Online: 16 August 2022 (05:36:28 CEST)
The emerging concept of planetary health needs to be discussed in a more organized and sustainable way within the global public health and healthcare disciplines. Therefore, planetary health should be considered a cardinal component of the global academic framework for healthcare professionals. The availability of related curricula and courses is crucial to equip health professionals in this relatively new discipline of planetary health. In this review article, we aimed to explore published articles and online databases of courses to summarize the available planetary health education opportunities and discussions for health professionals, to identify the gaps in resource allocation and to suggest future recommendations. We observed a visible re-source inequity in global south with the lack of a universal planetary health module for healthcare professionals. Additionally, there is minimal inclusion of allied health disciplines in this learning process. We, therefore, recommend a dedicated network of motivated healthcare professionals and regional hubs with an agenda to ensure a comprehensive, uniform, and inclusive planetary health education curriculum and practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0154.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: School health policy; educational attainment; early child development; stunting; causal models; critical realism
Online: 10 April 2023 (05:48:21 CEST)
Children’s health, development and education cannot be handled separated; they form one process and are profoundly interrelated. This article considers how to ensure children’s physical and mental fitness for school and maintain it once they are there. Rwanda Is a case study of health and development issues which render children unreceptive to education. This is not news to Rwanda’s government, but until recently the donor community was not interested in supporting implementation. The story of Rwanda illustrates the need to think about changes of policy and practice in their context of structures and culture – how they interact and how they are facilitated or constrained by structures and by cultural understandings. To grasp what is going on and for successful implementation of policy, it is necessary to look at situations as a whole and consider human and governmental agency as real influences rather than just consequences of causal mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Asthma; Erbil; Health education; Knowledge; Attitudes; Practice
Online: 3 May 2023 (04:10:18 CEST)
Asthma causes chronic coughing, wheezing, dyspnea, and chest pressure. This study assessed asthmatic patients' knowledge, attitudes and awareness of bronchial asthma and proper education on its meaning, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, management, and prevention practice. We performed a cross-sectional interventional asthma KAP survey in Erbil, Iraq. We adapted a validated study questionnaire from KAP studies in other nations to the Erbil situation and culture. In Erbil, Kurdistan, Iraq, two major hospitals' asthma clinics were studied. We chose 250 asthmatic ICU patients from October 2018 to July 2019. Health education was comprehensive. The health education program used a Kurdish PowerPoint with a printout. 25 groups got two-weeks of one-hour health education pre-intervention. Each group was questioned before, 2 and 12 weeks after health education. All data were analyzed by SPSS v26. The mean age of the respondent was 37.52±15.16 with 48.7 % respondent having a positive family history of asthma. After 2weeks of health education intervention, respondent have a higher knowledge score, positive attitudes compared to pre-education and after 12 weeks of education with a significant difference (P < 0.001) with improvised prevention practice. Health education programs led to considerable improvements in asthmatic patients' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their condition. After receiving health education for a period of two weeks, the majority of the participants answered correctly regarding asthma, its causes, and the elements that trigger asthma attacks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:20:09 CEST)
The paper presents the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date on how students perceive the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on various aspects of their lives on a global level. With a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries, the study reveals that amid the worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support provided by teaching staff and their universities’ public relations. Still, deficient computer skills and the perception of a higher workload prevented them from perceiving their own improved performance in the new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about issues to do with their future professional career and studies, and experienced boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic has led to the adoption of particular hygienic behaviours (e.g. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily practices (e.g. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role played by hospitals and universities during the epidemic compared to the government and banks. The findings also show that students with selected socio-demographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were generally more strongly affected by the pandemic since they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of their university are also identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0420.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: European thought; psychology; education; health; Foucault; The Order of Things; framework; narrative research
Online: 27 January 2022 (12:32:18 CET)
In European thought, the relationship among the fields of psychology, education, and health is both complex and obscured. Foucault’s acclaimed work, The Order of Things, offers a framework to evaluate their interconnection by identifying three distinct periods of European thought since the 16th century with respect to the ordering of phenomena—Renaissance, Classical and Modern. Theoretically dense and often difficult to decipher, the book’s categorization of language, value and being has been understandably underused, yet it provides deep insights into what have come to be known as psychology, education and health and remains invaluable in understanding the origin, limits and consequences of these fields. How Foucault’s analysis can be interpreted concerning the development of these areas as to each of the three periods of European thought is investigated. An approach based on narrative research appraises the analysis offered in the book. The results, presented for the first time in table form, compare these three periods, demonstrating a continuing practical value to Foucault’s insights. With the aid of the framework revealed by these tables, the boundaries and relationship of psychology, education and health become clear and their limitations—plus potential solutions to them—can be identified to mitigate anticipated negative consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0351.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: family-school; home-school; parent engagement; family engagement; parent involvement; recruitment; prevention; intervention; mental health; partnership
Online: 12 March 2021 (20:10:14 CET)
Parent education programs, offered via family-school partnerships, offer an effective means for promoting the mental health and educational functioning of children and adolescents at a whole-of-school level. However, these programs often have low uptake. This study aimed to identify strategies for increasing the uptake of parent education programs within preschool and school settings. A three-round Delphi procedure was employed to obtain expert consensus on strategies that are important and feasible in educational settings. First, thirty experts rated statements identified from the literature and a stakeholder forum. Next, experts re-appraised statements, including new statements generated from the first round. Ninety statements were endorsed by ≥ 80% of the experts. Primary themes include strategies for program selection, strategies for increasing the accessibility of programs and the understanding of educational staff on parent engagement and child mental health, strategies for program development, promotion, and delivery, as well as strategies for increasing parent and community engagement. This study offers a set of consensus strategies for improving the uptake of parent education programs within family-school partnership.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0535.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: model-based learning; mental health; physical activity; cognitive functions; active learning.
Online: 20 April 2021 (11:39:03 CEST)
This study examined the effect of an educational hybrid physical education (PE) intervention on cognitive performance and academic achievement in adolescents. A 9-month group-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 150 participants (age: 14.63 ± 1.38) allocated into control group (CG, n = 37) and experimental group (EG, n = 113). Inhibition, verbal fluency, planning and academic achievement were assessed. Significant differences were observed in the post-test for cognitive inhibition, verbal fluency in animals, and the average from verbal fluency in favour of the EG. With regard to the intervention, verbal fluency in animals, verbal fluency in vegetables, the average of verbal fluency, cognitive inhibition, language, the average of all subjects, the average of all subjects except PE, and the average from the core subjects) increased significantly in the EG. The last five variables (the academic ones and cognitive inhibition) also increased in the CG, in addition to mathematics. This study contributes to the knowledge by suggesting that both methodologies produced improvements in the measured variables, but the use of a hybrid program based on TPSR and gamification strategies produce improvements in cognitive performance, specifically through the cognitive inhibition and verbal fluency.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0356.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: machine learning; digital health; artificial intelligence; healthcare; ethics
Online: 21 February 2023 (08:58:06 CET)
An artificial intelligence (AI)-based conversational large language model (LLM) was launched in November 2022 namely, “ChatGPT”. Despite the wide array of potential applications of LLMs in healthcare education, research and practice, several valid concerns were raised. The current systematic review aimed to investigate the possible utility of ChatGPT and to highlight its limitations in healthcare education, research and practice. Using the PRIMSA guidelines, a systematic search was conducted to retrieve English records in PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar under the term “ChatGPT”. Eligibility criteria included the published research or preprints of any type that discussed ChatGPT in the context of healthcare education, research and practice. A total of 280 records were identified, and following full screening, a total of 60 records were eligible for inclusion. Benefits/applications of ChatGPT were cited in 51/60 (85.0%) records with the most common being the utility in scientific writing followed by benefits in healthcare research (efficient analysis of massive datasets, code generation and rapid concise literature reviews besides utility in drug discovery and development). Benefits in healthcare practice included cost saving, documentation, personalized medicine and improved health literacy. Concerns/possible risks of ChatGPT use were expressed in 58/60 (96.7%) records with the most common being the ethical issues including the risk of bias, plagiarism, copyright issues, transparency issues, legal issues, lack of originality, incorrect responses, limited knowledge, and inaccurate citations. Despite the promising applications of ChatGPT which can result in paradigm shifts in healthcare education, research and practice, the embrace of this application should be done with extreme caution. Specific applications of ChatGPT in health education include the promising utility in personalized learning tools and shift towards more focus on critical thinking and problem-based learning. In healthcare practice, ChatGPT can be valuable for streamlining the workflow and refining personalized medicine. Saving time for the focus on experimental design and enhancing research equity and versatility are the benefits in scientific research. Regarding authorship in scientific articles, as it currently stands, ChatGPT does not qualify to be listed as an author unless the ICJME/COPE guidelines are revised and amended. An initiative involving all stakeholders involved in healthcare education, research and practice is urgently needed to set a code of ethics and conduct on the responsible practices involving ChatGPT among other LLMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0123.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Skin cancer; Photoprotection habits; Photoexposure; University students; Teachers health sciences
Online: 7 December 2020 (07:04:11 CET)
Background: Excessive sun exposure, together with insufficient protection, is the main risk factor for the onset of Melanoma and Non Melanoma skin cancer, namely the most common cancer in fair-skinned populations across the world, and of several other skin and eye adverse health effects. Epidemiological data show the existence of scant awareness of this risk, and of high rates of sunburn among young people. The main aim of the present study is to examine sun exposure habits and protection behaviour in university students. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study to investigate sun exposure and protection practices in a group of education sciences students at a university in southern Spain. This survey provided data for a descriptive and comparative analysis, by groups and gender, of photoprotection and skin self-examination practices. The reliability and validity of the questionnaire have been analysed. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 315 students. Most of them (74.6%) have suffered at least one sunburn in the last year. The use of sunscreen or protective clothing is not frequent, and 89.5% of students do not self-examine their skin. The metric properties of the questionnaire showed high values of reliability and validity. Conclusions: The awareness of solar exposure risk in Spanish university students of Education Sciences is low, self-protection is scant, the potential exposure to dangerous levels of UV radiation is high and most students have suffered one or more sunburns in the last year. Intervention strategies should be introduced in these students to highlight the risks involved and the need of more adequate sun protection practices. Information campaigns should be conducted to address the problem so that, when these students become teachers, they have an adequate knowledge of the risk and of the benefits of a higher attention to this problem, and can translate these competences in health education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0141.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: low back pain; women; exercise; physical activity; health education; Oswestry Disability Index; Back Pain Functional Scale; ergonomics
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:07:50 CEST)
Back pain is a common symptom that affects all age groups across the globe, when left untreated may eventually lead to disability. A convenient sample selection method was used in this study due to the global Covid-19 pandemic lockdown which was effective in Turkey during the investigation period. Thus, virtual data collection and health education including some health risks were employed. A total population of two hundred adult women was involved in the study but one hundred and twenty-one responses were collected. Findings show that, for socio-demographic characteristics, the pain was found highest in women between the ages of 41-50 and obese/overweight individuals. Although, there was no significant difference recorded in the marital status category. Moreover, statistical mean differences were detected between the scales for ODI (4.18) and BPFS (6.09). Also, p<0.05, paired sample t-test was 0.001 ODI and 0.001 BPFS after the training exercise. This suggests that exercise training is inversely correlated with pain severity which implies that training has a significant influence on pain intensity. Thus, it could be concluded that there is a relationship between the training exercise and ODI/BPFS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0507.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sleep education; insomnia; training; circadian rhythms; behavioral sleep medicine, psychotherapy; dissemination; implementation science; mental health
Online: 30 August 2022 (05:07:56 CEST)
Despite the strong links between sleep, circadian rhythms, and mental health, sleep education has been neglected in mental healthcare provider training programs. The current pilot study examined the potential efficacy and acceptability of a sleep education workshop for trainee psychologists, called the Sleep Psychology Workshop. Eleven students completing their Master of Psychology degrees (90% female, 24.4 ± 1.6 years old) attended the Sleep Psychology Workshop as part of their Health Psychology course, delivered as three, two-hour lectures (total six hours). Trainees’ sleep psychology knowledge quiz scores (% correct) demonstrated significant improvement from pre- (M = 60%, SD = .09) to post-workshop (M = 79%, SD = .08), t (6) = -5.18, p = .002. Trainees also reported increased self-efficacy to use common sleep-related assessment instruments and empirically supported interventions to manage sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances, along with increased confidence to manage insomnia disorder in clinical practice (all p<.02). Trainees also endorsed the workshop as an acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists via a post-workshop feedback survey, focus group, and six-month follow-up survey. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence for the Sleep Psychology Workshop as an effective and acceptable sleep education program for trainee psychologists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0736.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: middle school students, health perception, importance-performance analysis (IPA), online physical education class types, COVID-19
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:41:19 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the differences in the importance and performance of health awareness in Korean middle school students according to the types of online physical education classes they attended during the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. Overall, 583 participants were selected using a convenience sampling method; the data were obtained through an online survey using Google forms. Frequency analysis, reliability analysis, independent sample t-test, and importance-performance analysis were performed. First, the differences between importance and performance were found to be the most for sleep and physical activity management, and the least for disease and hygiene management. In addition, both the groups demonstrated higher importance and performance for hygiene and disease management. There were significant differences in the importance and performance of all the sub-factors. Second, hygiene, disease management, and mental health management were found in quadrant I in both the groups, while physical activity, sleep, and dietary habit management were in quadrant III. No factors were in quadrant II and IV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0553.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Nutrition; family day care; intervention; implementation science; ECEC; child day care centres; RE-AIM; Public Health
Online: 27 January 2021 (10:49:48 CET)
Objective: To highlight opportunities for future nutrition intervention research within early childhood and education care (ECEC) settings, with a focus on generating evidence that has applicability to real-world policy and practice. Methods: An overview of opportunities to progress the field was developed by authors using a collaborative writing approach and informed by recent research in the field. The group developed a list of recommendations aligned with the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Pairs of authors drafted individual sections of the manuscript, which was then reviewed by a separate pair. The first and senior author consolidated all sections of the manuscript and sought critical input on draft iterations of the manuscript. Results: Interventions that employ digital platforms (Reach) in ECEC settings, as well as research in the family day care setting (Effectiveness) were identified as areas of opportunities. Research understanding the determinants of and effective strategies for dissemination (Adoption), implementation of nutrition programs, in addition to de-implementation (Implementation) of inappropriate nutrition practices, is warranted. For maintenance, there is a need to better understand sustainability and sustainment of interventions, in addition to undertaking policy-relevant research. Conclusions: The ECEC setting is prime for innovative and practical nutrition intervention research.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: school health; child/adolescent health; health education; health promotion; school nutrition; school health; policy
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:57:43 CEST)
Supporting the implementation of school food and nutrition policies (SFNPs) is an international priority to encourage healthier eating among children and youth. Schools are an important intervention setting to promote childhood nutrition, and many jurisdictions have adopted policies, guidelines, and programs to modify the school nutrition environment and promote healthier eating. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived adequacy and capacity for SFNP implementation on food availability and policy adherence in the province of Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, one of the first regions in Canada to launch a comprehensive SFNP. A cross sectional online survey was conducted in 2014-15 to provide a current-state of policy implementation and adherence. Adequacy and capacity for food policy implementation was used to assess policy adherence through the availability of prohibited ‘minimum’ nutrition foods. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a selected of available foods and ‘slow’ and ‘quick’ service food composition measures were dichotomized for food availability. Schools with above perceived average adequacy and capacity for policy implementation had more than three times (3.62) greater odds of adhering to a lunch policy, while schools that adhered to a snack and lunch policy had 52% and 82% lower odds of serving quick service foods, respectively. This study identified the need for appropriate adequacy and capacity for policy implementation to ensure policy adherence and improve the school food environment. These findings highlight the potential of SFNPs to have a positive impact on childhood nutrition, but adequately supporting their implementation is critical to ensure their impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Oral Health; Systemic Health; Colonial Dental Health
Online: 9 February 2023 (11:31:49 CET)
The aims of this study are to determine the oral health status of a rare sample of 19th-century migrant settlers to South Australia, how oral conditions may have influenced their general health, and how the oral health of this group compares with contemporaneous samples in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain. Dentitions of 18 adults and 22 subadults were investigated using non-destructive methods (micro-CT, macroscopic, radiographic). Extensive carious lesions were identified in 17 adults and 4 subadults, from this group 1 subadult and 16 adults had antemortem tooth loss. Sixteen adults showed evidence of periodontal disease. Enamel hypoplastic (EH) defects were identified in 14 adults and 9 subadults. Many individuals with dental defects also had skeletal signs of co-morbidities. South Australian individuals had the same percentage of carious lesions as the British sample (53%), more than other historic Australian samples, but less than a contemporary New Zealand sample. Over 50% of individuals from all the historic cemeteries had EH defects suggesting systemic health insults during dental development were common during the 19th century. The overall oral health of the South Australian settlers was poor but, in some categories, (tooth wear, periapical abscess, periodontal disease), better than the other historic samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0514.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; health care; learning health systems; health serives; public health
Online: 30 August 2022 (08:23:26 CEST)
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed health systems globally, and affected delivery of other health services. We conducted a study in Uganda to describe interventions for continuity of access to other health services. Methods: We reviewed documents and interviewed 21 key informants. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes using the World Health Organization health system building blocks as a guiding framework. Results: Governance strategies included establishment of coordination committees and development and dissemination of guidelines. Infrastructure and commodities strategies included review of drug supply plans and allowing emergency orders. Workforce strategies included provision of infection prevention and control equipment, recruitment and provision of incentives. Service delivery modifications included designation of facilities for COVID-19 management, patient self-management, dispensing drugs for longer periods and leveraging community patient networks to distribute medicines. However, multi-month drug dispensing led to drug stock-outs while community drug distribution was associated with stigma concerns. Conclusions: Health service maintenance during emergencies requires coordination to harness existing health system investments. The service continuity committee coordinated efforts to maintain services and should remain a critical element of emergency response. Self-management and leveraging patient networks should address stigma to support service continuity in similar settings and strengthen service delivery beyond the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0038.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: migrant; public health; health education; health records; China
Online: 15 July 2017 (00:36:36 CEST)
Background: Internal migrants had obstacles in accessing local public health services in China. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Methods: Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Results: Internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The broader and shorter they migrated, the less they used public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces is negatively associated with health records (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on NCDs (OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through Internet channel (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). Conclusion: Public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsides. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0226.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: health care; rural health; healthcare inequalities; public health systems research; health care costs; health services research
Online: 14 February 2023 (03:06:55 CET)
A small proportion of health care users are recognised to use a significantly higher proportion of health system resources, largely due to systemic, inequitable access and disproportionate health burdens. These high-resource health system users are routinely characterised as older, with multiple comorbidities, and reduced access to adequate health care. Geographic trends also emerge, with more rural and isolated regions demonstrating higher rates of high-resource use than others. Despite known geographical discrepancies in health care access and outcomes, health policy and research initiatives remain focused on urban population centers. To alleviate mounting health system pressure from high-resource users, their characteristics must be better understood within the context in which it arises. To examine this, a scoping review was conducted to provide an overview of characteristics of high-resource users in rural and remote communities in Canada and Australia. In total, 21 papers were included in the review. Using qualitative thematic coding, primary findings characterised rural high-resource users as those of an older age; with increased comorbid conditions and condition severity; lower socioeconomic status; and elevated risk behaviours.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0300.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: health service managers; competency frameworks; capacity building; digital health; health informatics; health workforce; health management degrees
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:47:29 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has sped up digital health transformation across the health sectors to enable innovative health service delivery. Such transformation relies on competent managers with the capacity to lead and manage. However, the health system has not adopted a holistic approach in addressing the health management workforce development needs, with many hurdles to overcome. The objectives of this paper are to present the findings of a three-step approach in understanding the current hurdles in developing a health management workforce that can enable and maximise the benefits of digital health transformation, and to explore ways of overcoming such hurdles. Methods: A three-step, systematic approach was undertaken, including an Australian digital health policy documentary analysis, an Australian health service management postgraduate program analysis, and a scoping review of international literatures. Results: The main findings will guide the formulation of strategies in developing a digitally enabled health management workforce in the digital health era. Conclusions: With the ever-changing landscape of digital health, being able to lead and manage in times of system transformation requires a holistic approach to develop the necessary health management workforce capabilities and system-wide capacity. The evidence would support that this can be achieved with the required system, policy, educational and professional organizational enablers, which drive a digital health focused approach across all the healthcare sectors, in a coordinated and contextual manner.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0806.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: health system; health workforce; human resources; health policy; bursary
Online: 23 April 2023 (14:22:53 CEST)
Botswana, Eswatini and Lesotho are three Southern African countries which make use of re-turn-of-service (RoS) schemes to increase human resources for health in their countries. These initiatives bind beneficiaries to a pre-defined period of service upon completion of their studies based on the length of funding support received. We aim to review the history of these policies to understand the conceptualisation, intent and implementation of these schemes. We used a mul-ti-methods research design which consisted of a literature review, policy review and semi-structured interviews with policymakers and implementors. All three governments have a combination of grant-loan schemes and full bursaries or scholarships. The policies have all been operating for over 20-years, with Eswatini’s pre-service being the oldest since it was introduced in 1977 followed by Lesotho’s 1978 policy and Botswana’s 1995 pre-service policy. These policies have never been reviewed or updated. RoS schemes in these countries were introduced to ad-dress critical skills shortages, improve employability prospects for citizens, to have competent public sector employees by global standards, and to aid career progress of government employ-ees. Ministries of Health are passive role players. However, these schemes can only be efficient if there is clear cooperation and coordination between all stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mental Health; Primary Health Care; Collaborative Care; Health Assessment
Online: 29 June 2022 (05:05:41 CEST)
The supply of mental health processes in primary care has gaps. This study aims to analyze the association of agreement criteria and flows between primary care teams and the Family Health Support Center (NASF) for mental health collaborative care, considering the difference between capital and non-capital cities in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement Program. Agreement criteria and flows were obtained from 3883 NASF teams of the matrix support or collaborative care. The Chi-square test and multiple Poisson regression were used; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence ratios of negative associations demonstrated protective factors for support actions: follow-up at Psychosocial Care Center, management of psychopharmacotherapy, offer of other therapeutic actions, care process for users of psychoactive substances, and offer of activities to prevent the use of psychoactive substances. Collaborative care in primary care was effective, and capital cities were a protective factor compared with non-capital cities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: health; climate change; communication; health promotion; health education; perception
Online: 5 October 2020 (14:31:37 CEST)
The negative implications of climate change for human health are now well-established. Yet these have not been fully considered into climate change communication strategies. Research suggests that reorienting climate change communication with a health frame could be a useful communication strategy. We conducted a long-term and broad overview of existing scientific literature in order to summarize the state of research activity in this area, by extent and by nature. The methodology is based on a scoping review of scientific articles published on climate change communication and health between 1990 and mid-2016 indexed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases. The screened citations were reviewed for inclusion and data were extracted and coded in order to conduct quantitative (e.g. frequencies) and qualitative (i.e. content analysis) analyses.Out of 2,866 identified published papers, only 24 articles were eligible for analyses. The main themes identified were effective communication of climate change (n=10, 41.7%), the role of health professionals (n=10, 41.7%) and the perception of climate change (n=4, 16.7%). We identified a large proportion of secondary research articles (n= 15, 62.5%) including reviews (n=5, 20.8%) and opinion articles (n=10, 41.7%). A significant share - 37.57% (n=9) - of the identified articles were classified as original research articles, suggesting that the number of publications in this area - particularly original research - has not grown rapidly.This scoping review identified several themes including effective communication of climate change, the role of health professionals, and the perception of climate change in the selected articles on the subject. The research literature on the communication of climate change and health is relatively recent and emerging: the first articles on the subject were published from 2008 onward only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0450.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: workplace; health promotion; public health; health checks; education; construction
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:42:29 CEST)
Interprofessional learning (IPL) is essential to prepare healthcare trainees as the future public health workforce. WHIRL was an innovative IPL intervention that engaged multi-professional teams of volunteer healthcare trainees (n=20) to deliver health checks (n=464), including tailored advice and signposting, to employees in the UK construction industry (across 21 events, 16 sites, 10 organisations) as part of an ongoing research programme called Test@Work. Volunteers undertook a four-part training and support package of trainer-led education, observations of practice, self-directed learning and clinical supervision, together with peer mentoring. In a one-group post-test only design, IPL outcomes were measured using the Inventory of Reflective Vignette - Interprofessional Learning (IRV-IPL), and the psychometric properties of the IRV-IPL tool were tested. WHIRL demonstrably improved healthcare trainees’ interprofessional skills in all five areas of collaboration, coordination, cooperation, communication, and commendation. The IRV-IPL tool was found to be a valid and reliable measure of interprofessional competencies across three scenarios; before and after health promotion activities, and as a predictor of future health promotion competence. This industry-based workplace IPL programme resulted in attainment of health check competencies, and bridged the gap between research, education and clinical practice.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental health; health service research; burnout; public health; physicians
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:43:43 CEST)
This observational study was ordered by the Medical Practitioners’ Chamber in Warsaw. The objective of the study was to evaluate the health status of physicians in relation to their occupational duties. Professional burnout was considered relative to different features of personality. This study was initially carried out from 2005–2008, but further analysis of burnout and personality was carried out from 2017–2018. The research tools were anonymous, validated questionnaires. The sample size was based on the size of the population— the registry of the Regional Chamber of Medical Practitioners— and literature on burnout prevalence. The respondents’ work places were randomly selected from the Mazovian District register. The test on burnout was completed by 378 respondents, while 62 subjects completed a personality test. Results showed that burnout syndrome was an occupational problem for healthcare workers. Professional burnout affected as many as 42% of respondents(n = 158). It affected two age groups in particular: physicians up to 31 years old and individuals aged 41-50. Moreover, neuroticism was found to be significantly related to burnout syndrome. In conclusion, burnout syndrome is common among medical practitioners, and neuroticism may be correlated with burnout syndrome.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0057.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: One Health; zoonosis; animal health
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:36:30 CEST)
Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from (vertebrate) animals to humans. Control and prevention of these diseases require an appropriate way to measure health for prudent and well-balanced decisions in public health. We propose a framework that aims to explore, understand and open up a conversation about the non-monetary value of animals through environmental and normative ethics. As an example of its application, participants can choose what they are willing to give in exchange for curing an animal in hypothetical scenarios selecting a human health condition to suffer, the amount of money, and lifetime as a tradeoff. We believe that considering animals beyond their monetary value in public health decisions will contribute to a more rigorous assessment of the burden of zoonotic diseases, among other health decisions. This method might help us complement the existing metrics in health, adding more comprehensive values for animal and human health for the “One Health” approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Migration; Health; Electronic health records
Online: 5 October 2021 (11:40:07 CEST)
International migrants comprised 14% of the UK population in 2020, but migrant health in the UK has rarely been studied at a population level using primary care electronic health records (EHRs). Given the difficulty of determining migration status using EHRs, this study developed a migration phenotype and assessed its validity. We developed a phenotyping algorithm using codes for country of birth, visa status, non-English main/first language and non-UK origin. It was applied to a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD database of 16,071,111 primary care patients between 1997 and 2018. We compared the completeness and representativeness of the identified migrant population to Office for National Statistics (ONS) country of birth and 2011 census data by year, age, sex, geographic region of birth and ethnicity. Between 1997-2018, 403,768 migrants (2.51% of the CPRD GOLD population) were identified using the phenotype. 178,749 (1.11%) of these migrants were identified by codes indicating foreign country of birth or visa status, 216,731 (1.35%) a non-English main/first language, and 8,288 (0.05%) non-UK origin. The cohort was similarly distributed compared to ONS migration statistics in terms of sex and region of birth. Recording of migration improved from identifying approximately one-tenth of the expected proportion of migrants according to the ONS in 2004 to a quarter in 2018. Younger migrants were better represented than those aged 50 and over. The migration phenotype identified a large number of migrants and can be used to undertake large-scale migration health research in CPRD GOLD to inform healthcare policy, practice and action. While the cohort was representative of the UK migrant population in terms of sex and region of birth, migration status was under-recorded in earlier years and older ages, and future studies for these groups should therefore be interpreted with caution.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Nutritional Surveillance; Public Health; Community Health Nursing; Public Health Nursing; Children’s health; Community Participation
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:36 CEST)
Effectively responding to children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique requires a community-based care approach grounded in sound nursing research that is evidence-based. The Community Assessment, Intervention, and Empowerment Model (MAIEC) is a nursing theoretical model that bases clinical decision-making for community health nurses using communities as a unit of care. We used the MAIEC to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis to address children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique. Objectives: (1) To conduct a descriptive study of children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in a school community in Mavalane, Mozambique, and (2) to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis using the MAIEC clinical decision-making matrix in the same school community. Method: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children using anthropometric data, including brachial perimeter and the tricipital skinfold, and standard deviation for the relation of weight-height, in a sample of 227 children. To assess community management of the problem and identify a community-based nursing diagnosis, we surveyed 176 parents/guardians and 49 education professionals, using a questionnaire based on the MAIEC clinical decision matrix as a reference. Results: Malnutrition was identified in more than half of the children (51.3%). We also identified a community-based nursing diagnosis of impaired community management related to the promotion of child health and healthy eating as evident by lack of community leadership, participation, and processing among more than 70% of the community members (parents/guardians and education professionals). Conclusion: A nursing diagnosis and diagnostic criteria for nutritional status and community management were identified. The need to intervene using a multidisciplinary public health approach is imperative, with the school community as the unit of care. In addition, reliable anthropometric data were used to complement the nursing diagnosis and guide future public health interventions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0323.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: rural health: urban health; health status; cancer survivors; United Kingdom
Online: 24 May 2022 (05:13:59 CEST)
Objective: To explore the effect of rural-urban residence on self-reported health status with UK cancer survivors. Design: A cross-sectional postal questionnaire that collected data on demographics, post-code and self-reported health status. Methods: Independent Samples t test was used to detect differences in health status between rural and urban respondents. Pearson’s χ2 was used to control for confounding variables and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stepwise linear regression. Setting: East Midlands of England. Participants: Adult cancer survivors who had undergone primary treatment in the last five years. Participants were excluded if they had recurrence or metastatic spread, started active oncology treatment in the last twelve months and were in receipt of palliative or end of life care. Main Outcome: Residence was measured using the UK ONS RUC2011 Rural-Urban Classifications and Health Status via the UK ONS self-reported health status measure. Results: 227 respondents returned a questionnaire. Forty-five per cent (N=103) were resident in a rural area and fifty-three per cent (N=120) in an urban area. Rural (4.11±0.85) respondents had significantly (p<0.001) higher self-reported health status compared to urban (3.65±0.93) respondents (MD 0.47; 95% CI 0.23, 0.70). Conclusion: Rural respondents had significantly higher self-reported health status compared to their urban counterparts. It is hoped that the results will stimulate further work in this area and that researchers will be encouraged to collect data on rural-urban residency where appropriate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: mental health; mental health literacy; psychological vulnerability; health promotion; adult
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:40:28 CET)
Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a Saúde Mental Positiva (SPM) e a sua relação com características sociodemográficas, literacia em saúde mental e escala de vulnerabilidade psicológica (PVS) em estudantes universitários portugueses com idades compreendidas entre os 17 e os 62 anos. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo-correlacional. Uma pesquisa online foi realizada para avaliar variáveis demográficas, e vários questionários foram aplicados para avaliar saúde mental positiva, vulnerabilidade psicológica e alfabetização em saúde mental. Os dados foram coletados de 1º de novembro de 2019 a 1º de setembro de 2020. No geral, 3.405 alunos participaram do estudo. Os resultados mostram que 67,8% dos alunos revelaram um alto nível de PMH, 31,6% apresentaram um nível médio de PMH e 0,6% apresentaram um nível baixo de PMH. Os estudantes do sexo masculino relataram maior satisfação pessoal (t (3170) = -2,39, p=0,017) e autonomia (t (3170) = -3,33, p=0,001), no PMH em relação ao sexo feminino. Alunos sem bolsa pontuaram mais alto (t (3.127) = -2,04, p=0,42) no PMH do que alunos com bolsa. Estudantes que não foram deslocados de casa relataram maior (t (3170) = -1,99, p=0,047) Autocontrole em PMH do que aqueles deslocados de sua casa. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: primary health care; family health strategy; health personnel; adaptation; psychological
Online: 8 February 2022 (16:23:26 CET)
The aim was to analyze the coping strategies used by primary health care (PHC) professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted with professionals working in primary health care units in São José do Rio Preto, a large city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. For data collection we used an instrument developed by the researchers, containing sociodemographic and professional variables, as well as the Problem Coping Modes Scale (EMEP). We evaluated 333 PHC professionals. A difference was observed between the scores of the four coping strategies (p<0.001), with the highest score for the problem-focused strategy (3.8) and the lowest score for the emotion-focused strategy (2.4). Physicians had the lowest scores in coping strategies focused on religious practices/fantastical thinking (p<0.001) and pursuit of social support (p=0.045), while community health agents had the highest scores in these coping strategies). Professionals working in PHC have different coping strategies for the problems and stressful situations experienced in the work environment. These strategies can involve more positive attitudes focused on confrontation and problem solving, to emotional responses that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial of the problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1020.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Diabetes; Paediatric Psychology; Health And Well-Being; Health Care Service; Psychology Of Health; Health Professionals
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:51:24 CEST)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) has shown an increase in the incidence rate of about 3% per year over the last two decades. Continuous Insulin Subcutaneous Therapy (CSII) is widely used in the paediatric population with diabetes; however, it requires more preparation by the treating team and careful selection of potential users. Prescriptive provisions vary from Region to Region and the perspective of health workers still remains an unexplored area. The aim of the research project is to explore the representations of a group of diabetologists and psychologists working in pediatric diabetology on the national territory, regarding roles, functions and activities as part of a multidisciplinary team; their views on the potential benefits of CSII and the types of individuals applying for the use of technology. A socio-anagraphic data sheet was administered and two homogeneous focus groups were conducted by profession; they were audio recorded. The transcripts produced were analysed using the Emotional Text Mining (ETM) methodology. Each of the two corpus generated three clusters and two factors: for diabetologists, a focus on the patient in different levels of care emerged, collaborating both with other health professionals and with the territory, through the proposal of an intervention where the medical aspect is often represented by technology; also for psychologists there was a representation of interdisciplinary networking, with a greater focus on the processes inherent the management of pathology, from acceptance to the elaboration and integration of diabetes in the family narrative. The understanding of the representations of health professionals working in pediatric diabetes about new technologies can contribute to the consolidation of a network of professionals through a targeted work on possible critical issues emerged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0075.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Consumers' consciousness for health; companies’ health-friendly activities; health-friendly products and services; health status
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:14:55 CEST)
Although health policy resides mainly with the government, industry can play an important role in building a health ecosystem. From March to May, we administered questionnaires to 1,200 individuals from the general Korean population asking about their perception of health-friendly labels, and if they would purchase such labeled products (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.) and services (purifying water, preventing air pollution, etc.) at extra cost. The participants placed a high value on the importance of mental, social, spiritual, and physical health factors in terms of company’s products and services with a score of about 8 out of 10 (range, 7.74-8.33). Most respondents (72.4%) said they were interested in adopting health-friendly labels. When a health-friendly label is introduced (such as one by the Business for Social Responsiveness), 65.1% of the respondents said they intended to purchase the product or service, while 6.8% said they did not, and 75.0% said they were willing to pay extra for the health-friendly product or service. Multivariate logistic regression models showed urban residence, high education level, and good social health to be significantly associated with positive attitudes toward health-friendly labels. People with high income, no religion, or normal weight were more likely to say they intend to purchase products and services with health-friendly labels. They also had a more positive attitude toward paying more for such products and services, as did people with good spiritual health. This study provides data that illustrate the importance of health-friendly products and services to the general population and companies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: rural health; COVID-19; health disparities
Online: 20 March 2023 (07:10:34 CET)
COVID-19 has proven to be detrimental across the globe, most notably affecting the United States at an alarming rate compared to comparable countries. The pandemic has had multifactorial implications on the way communities in the United States prevent, prepare for, and address the virus; however, the impact of the pandemic on rural health is less well understood. Historically, rural communities have faced a unique set of challenges regarding accessing and receiving adequate healthcare, addressing chronic illness, and eliminating health disparities closely associated with the population’s socioeconomic status; the pandemic has exacerbated these challenges. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on rural populations both at the individual and community level. Results indicated that rural health disparities increased both at the individual and system-wide levels as a direct result of the pandemic. Budget cuts significantly affected the infrastructure of rural hospitals resulting in them being unequipped to handle such high volumes of COVID-19 cases. The lack of infectious disease specialists, access to larger medical centers with substantial numbers of ICU beds and ventilators, and an overall lack of preparedness overwhelmed rural communities. Although comorbidities such as diabetes and heart disease were associated with poorer health outcomes for a multitude of reasons, the lack of clinic and physician availability for routine care during the pandemic further exacerbated the clinical link from COVID-19 positivity to comorbidities. Furthermore, mental health deteriorated as substance use increased to a greater extent in rural communities compared to urban, during the pandemic. This study shows that health comorbidities, mental health, substance use, health literacy, access to healthcare, among others can serve as key indicators for improving healthcare in rural communities. Future studies should seek to identify key issues that disproportionately affected rural communities in comparison to their urban counterparts considering the pandemic, as well as identify gaps in the availability of rural health resources that can improve the lives of millions of Americans now and during the next pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0168.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: forest health; plant health; tree disease;
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:48:23 CEST)
Trees provide key ecosystem services, but the health and sustainability of these plants is under increasing biotic and abiotic threat, including from the growing incidences of non-native invasive plant pests (including pathogens). The island of Ireland (Ireland and Northern Ireland) is generally accepted to have a high plant health status, in part due to its island status and because of the national and international regulations aimed at protecting plant health. To establish a baseline of the current pest threats to tree health for the island of Ireland, the literature and unpublished sources were reviewed to produce a dataset of pests of trees on the island of Ireland. The dataset contains 396 records of pests of trees on the island of Ireland, the majority of pests being arthropods and fungi, and indicating potentially more than 44 non-native pest introductions. The reliability of many (378) of the records was judged to be high, therefore the dataset provides a robust assessment of the state of pests of trees recorded on the island of Ireland. We analyse this dataset and review the history of plant pest invasions, including (i) discussion on notable native and non-native pests of trees, (ii) pest interceptions at borders and (iii) pests and climate change. The dataset establishes an important baseline for the knowledge of plant pests on the island of Ireland, and will be a valuable resource for future plant health research and policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Decentralization; National Health Service; Regional Health Administration; Primary Health Care; Portugal
Online: 11 July 2022 (03:46:45 CEST)
The Portuguese health system has a universal, public, general National Health Service (NHS), tending towards free healthcare access. Created in 1979, this delivery model developed from the integration and complementarity between the different response levels (primary, hospital, continuing, and palliative care). However, over these 40 years, the initially centralized system underwent a decentralization process with the creation of Regional Health Administrations in the five mainland administrative regions. Since then, the entire NHS has settled around this new organization. The most recent step started in 2018 with decentralizing primary health care skills to 190 municipalities. This paper presents the various critical issues involved in the latest gradual decentralization process in health, intending to bring services closer to the citizens, and more focused on their needs. The article identifies and discusses the implications of this experience based on the steps foreseen in the already published legal texts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0421.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: urban morphology; physical activities; health; public health; public space; urban health
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:02:59 CEST)
Along with environmental pollutions, urban planning has been connected to public health. The research indicates that the quality of built environments plays an important role in reducing mental disorders and overall health. The structure and shape of the city are considered as one of the factors influencing happiness and health in urban communities and the type of the daily activities of citizens. The aim of this study was to promote physical activity in the main structure of the city via urban design in a way that the main form and morphology of the city can encourage citizens to move around and have physical activity within the city. Functional, physical, cultural-social, and perceptual-visual features are regarded as the most important and effective criteria in increasing physical activities in urban spaces based on literature review. The environmental quality of urban spaces and their role in the physical activities of citizens in urban spaces were assessed by using the questionnaire tool and analytical network process (ANP) of structural equation modeling. Further, the space syntax method was utilized to evaluate the role of the spatial integration of urban spaces on improving physical activities. Based on the results, the consideration of functional diversity, spatial flexibility and integration, security, and the aesthetic and visual quality of urban spaces plays an important role in improving the physical health of citizens in urban spaces. Further, more physical activities, including motivation for walking and consequently, the sense of public health and happiness, were observed in the streets having higher linkage and space syntax indexes with their surrounding texture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Indigenous; First Nations; Health Services Accessibility; Health Services Administration; Trust; Communication; Primary Health Care; Health Policy
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:22:45 CET)
Background: Australia’s healthcare system is complex and fragmented which can create challenges in healthcare, particularly in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal people experience inequalities in healthcare treatment and outcomes. This study aimed to investigate barriers and enablers to accessing healthcare services for Aboriginal people living in rural and remote Australia. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare delivery staff and stakeholders recruited through snowball sampling. The communities were selected for their high proportion of Aboriginal people and geographical representation (coastal, rural, and border). Thematic analysis identified barriers and enablers. Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted (n =5 coastal, n=13 remote, and n=13 border) and six themes identified: 1) Improved coordination of healthcare services; 2) Better communication between services and patients; 3) Trust in services and cultural safety; 4) Importance of prioritizing health services by Aboriginal people; 5) Importance of reliable, affordable and sustainable services; 6) Distance and transport availability. These themes were often present as both barriers and enablers to healthcare access for Aboriginal people. They were also present across the healthcare system and within all three communities. Conclusions: This study describes a pathway to better healthcare outcomes for Aboriginal Australians by providing insights into ways to improve access.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: health literacy; media health literacy; ehealth literacy; social environment; health apps; social support; digital health; empowerment
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:45:44 CEST)
Health literacy describes skills and competencies that enable people to gain access to, understand and apply health information to positively influence their own health and the health of those in the social environment. In an increasingly media saturated and digitized world, these skill sets are necessary for accessing and navigating sources of health information and tools, such as television, the Internet, and mobile apps. The concepts of Media Health Literacy (MHL) and eHealth Literacy (eHL) describe the specific competencies such tasks require. This article introduces the two concepts, and then reviews findings on the associations of MHL and eHL with several contextual variables in the social environment such as socio-demographics, social support, and system complexity, as a structural variable. As eHL and MHL are crucial for empowering people to actively engage in their own health, a growing body of literature reports of the potential and the effectiveness of intervention initiatives to positively influence these competencies. From an ethical standpoint, equity is emphasized, stressing the importance of accessible media environments for all - including those at risk of exclusion from (digital) media sources. Alignment of micro and macro contextual spheres will ultimately facilitate both non-digital and digital media to effectively support and promote public health.
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: catastrophes; COVID-19; civil unrests; inflation; public health; Health safety; Health crisis
Online: 28 January 2023 (04:52:49 CET)
Aim: Shockwaves have been felt all over the world as a result of war, inflation, food shortages, and the COVID-19 pandemic's long tail. The aim of the study is to correlate present global conflicts, pandemic and socio-economic crises with present healthcare sustainability, identifying possible threats and visualize future global health crises if all these catastrophes persist for long. Materials and Methods: PubMed, ALTAVISTA, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Registers were prioritized to collect public health issues. Results: The global economic slowdown, sharp decline in financial asset values, decline in imports and exports, contraction of industrial production, rise in inflation, decrease in wages, rise in unemployment, damage to the social security caused by numerous natural calamities, human displacement due to pandemic and ongoing conflicts tear down not only the economic sector but also the health sector. It is already late for taking corrective measure by the participation every country, community or intelligence. Only healthcare issues, highlighted in this study, if focused in the highest platforms, could compel global leaders to forego conflicts and work together. Conclusion: The global health sector will be collapsed soon, if proper initiatives are not taken right now, which has already been grossly mistreated by the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0026.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online health information; digital literacy; e-Health; e-Health solutions; Dr. Google
Online: 5 October 2022 (03:55:03 CEST)
The investment in digital e-Health services is a priority direction in the development of global health care systems. While people are increasingly using the Web for health information, it is not entirely clear what is the physicians’ attitude towards digital transformation, and the acceptance of new technologies in healthcare. The aim of this cross-sectional survey study was to investigate physicians’ self-digital skills, and their opinions on obtaining online health knowledge by patients, as well as the recognition of physicians’ attitudes towards e-Health solutions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to emerge the variables from self-designed questionnaire, and cross-sectional analysis comparing descriptive statistics and correlations for dependent variables using the one-way ANOVA (F-test). 307 physicians participated in the study, reported using the internet mainly several times a day (66.8%). Most participants (70.4%) were familiar with new technologies and rate their e-Health literacy high, although 84.0% reported the need for additional training in this field, and reported a need to introduce a larger number of subjects shaping digital skills (75.9%) in medical studies 53.4% of physicians perceived Internet-sourced information as sometimes reliable, and in general assessed the effects of using it by their patients negatively (41.7%). Digital skills increased significantly with frequency of internet use (F = 13.167; p = 0.0001), and decreased with physicians’ age, and the need for training. Those who claimed that patients often experienced health benefits from online health showed higher digital skills (-1.06). Physicians most often recommended their patients to obtain laboratory test results online (32.2%), and to arrange medical appointments via the Internet (27.0%). Along with the deterioration of physicians’ digital skills, the recommendation of e-Health solutions decreased (r = 0.413), and lower the assessment of e-Health solutions for the patient (r = 0.449). Physicians perceive digitization as a sign of the times, and frequently use its tools in daily practice. The evaluation of Dr. Google’s phenomenon and online health is directly related to their own e-Health literacy skills, but there is still a need for practical training to deal with digital revolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0045.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Reproductive Health; Sexual Health; Women’s Health; Nursing Curriculum; Nursing Education; Undergraduate Education
Online: 2 September 2021 (14:45:22 CEST)
Background: It is very important that nurses receive adequate training in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). In this study, the contents of the SRH subject in the undergraduate nursing curricula of 77 Spanish universities were examined in order to determine what SRH training nursing students are receiving. Methods: The contents of the SRH subject of all the curricula that were available online were reviewed. The distribution of the contents (topics) in the two areas (reproductive health and sexual health) was analyzed, and the prevalence of each topic was established. It was also determined whether there were differences in topics between public (n=52) and private universities (n=25). Results: The training of nursing students focuses mainly on the area of Reproductive Health (15 topics). Most of the topics of this area had a prevalence greater than 50%. Although the area of Sexual Health had 14 topics, most of these topics had a low prevalence (<20%), especially in private universities. Conclusions: It was found that there is considerable variation in the distribution and prevalence of SRH topics between universities. The contents of the area of Reproductive Health are usually prevalent in most of the curricula, however the contents of the area of Sexual Health are very limited in most of the universities. An organizational effort is required to determine and standardize the contents of SRH that nursing students should receive in Spain to avoid inequalities in their training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0190.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: built environment; health equity; insect vectors; public health; social determinants of health
Online: 29 February 2020 (11:01:03 CET)
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are primary vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Ae. aegypti is highly anthropophilic and relies nearly exclusively on human blood meals and habitats for reproduction. Socioeconomic factors may influence the spread of Ae. aegypti due to its close relationship with humans. This paper describes and summarizes the published literature on how socioeconomic variables influence the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the mainland United States. A comprehensive search of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO Academic Search Complete through June 12, 2019 was used to retrieve all articles published in English on the association of socioeconomic factors and the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Additionally, a hand search of mosquito control association websites was conducted in an attempt to identify relevant grey literature. Articles were screened for eligibility using the process described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Initially, 3,493 articles were identified through the database searches and previously known literature. After checking for duplicates, 2,145 articles remained. 570 additional records were identified through the grey literature search for a total of 2,715 articles. These articles were screened for eligibility using their titles and abstracts, and 2,677 articles were excluded for not meeting the eligibility criteria. Finally, the full text for each of the remaining articles (n = 38) was read to determine eligibility. Through this screening process, 11 articles were identified for inclusion in this review. The findings for these 11 studies revealed inconsistent relationships between the studied socioeconomic factors and the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti. The findings of this review suggest a gap in the literature and understanding of the influence of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of Ae. aegypti that could hinder efforts to implement effective public health prevention and control strategies should a disease outbreak occur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0902.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: hand milking; inflammation; public health; udder health
Online: 25 April 2023 (08:35:22 CEST)
The assessment of the prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis (SCM) in dairy farms is essential to validate the health status of the mammary gland. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of SCM in dual purpose livestock systems in Arauca, Colombian Orinoquia, through the analysis of the values found by the field diagnostic tests California Mastitis Test (CMT) and Electric Conductivity (EC). Milk samples were taken from the individual mammary quarters of 481 cows. The general prevalence, per affected room and the total number of rooms was determined according to the values obtained for each test using two methods of analysis. An ANOVA was performed to determine the difference between prevalence’s, a correlation analysis, and an analysis of sensitivity and specificity. The general prevalence was similar between the tests (CMT = 31.4%; EC = 29.7%) (p > 0.05). The prevalence of the total quarters was lower with EC (11.3% vs 14.2%) (p < 0.05). The correlations between tests were significant, but with low values (rs = 0.20-0.25). CMT and EC test concordance showed a sensitivity between 0.35-0.45 and a specificity of 0.75-0.90. The two tests showed positive results in detecting the same animals with or without the presence of the infection, although some animals that were positive for one test were not positive for the other test. The test EC classified animals and their quarters as SCM positive or negative in a more similar way to that obtained with CMT. The two diagnostic tests showed a general low prevalence of SCM in the livestock systems evaluated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: health literacy; healthcare; disease prevention; health promotion.
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:24:34 CET)
Health literacy is an indicator of a society’s ability to make better health judgement for themselves and the people around them. This study investigates the prevalence of health literacy among Malaysian adults and provides an overall picture of the current health literacy state of the society. The study also highlights socio-demographics markers of communities with limited health literacy which may warrant future intervention. A population based self-administered survey using the Health Literacy Survey Malaysian Questionnaire18 (HLS-M-Q18) instrument was conducted as part of the National Health Morbidity Survey 2019 in Malaysia. The nationwide survey utilized two-staged stratified random sampling method. A sample of 9478 individuals aged 18 and above participated in the study. The health literacy score was divided into three levels; limited, sufficient and excellent. Findings showed that majority Malaysian population has sufficient health literacy level, albeit leaning towards the lower end of the category with an average score of 35.5. The limited health literacy groups are associated with respondents with older age, lower education level and lower household income. Overall health literacy state for Malaysia is categorized at a lower sufficient level. Health literacy improvements should focus on communities with limited health literacy level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0317.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: health equity; emergency care; determinants of health
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:24:42 CET)
Identifying health care equity indicators is an important first step in integrating the concept of equity into assessments of health care system performance, particularly in emergency care. We conducted a systematic review of administrative data-derived health care equity indicators and their association with socio-economic determinants of health (SEDH) in emergency care settings. Following PRISMA-Equity reporting guidelines, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. The outcomes of interest were indicators of health care equity and the associated SEDH they examine. Among 29 studies identified, 14 equity indicators were identified and grouped into four categories that reflect the patient emergency care pathway. Total emergency department (ED) visits and ambulatory care sensitive condition-related ED visits were the two most frequently used equity indicators. Despite some conflicting results, all identified SEDH (social deprivation, income, education level, social class, insurance coverage and health literacy) are associated with inequalities in access to and use of emergency care. In conclusion, the use of administrative data-derived indicators combined with identified SEDH could improve healthcare equity measurement in emergency care settings across health care systems worldwide.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0489.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: overweight; obesity; health behaviour; health status; adulthood
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:35:44 CET)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in Iraq. Data from a 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 3,916 persons 18 years and older were analysed that responded to a questionnaire, physical and biochemical measures. Multinomial logistic regression was utilized to predict determinants of overweight and obesity relative to under or normal weight. Results indicate that 3.6% of the participants were underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m²), 30.8% had normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m²), 31.8% were overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m²), and 33.9% had obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m²). In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, aged 40-49 years (Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio-ARRR: 4.47, Confidence Interval-CI: 3.39-5.91), urban residence (ARRR: 1.28, CI: 1.14-2.18), hypertension (ARRR: 3.13, CI: 2.36-4.17) were positively, and male sex (ARRR: 0.47, CI: 0.33-0.68), having more than primary education (ARRR: 0.69, CI: 0.50-0.94), and larger household size (≥5 members) (ARRR: 0.45, CI: 0.33-0.60) were negativey associated with obesity. About two in three adult participants were overweight/obese, and sociodemographic and health risk factors were found that can be utilized in targeting interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: anxiety; psychological health; public health; COVID-19
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:21:47 CEST)
The epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) has brought many changes to people's life. This study aims to analysis Chinese people's psychological change and life after quarantining Wuhan and explore the influencing factors. Based on data from a web-survey after quarantining Wuhan (N=3268), the principal-component-analysis (PCA), multiple-linear-regression (MLR), propensity-score-matching (PSM) were used to explore the psychological change of people in China and the influencing factors. 83.3% of the respondents said that the impact of the epidemic on their life had increased after quarantining Wuhan. A considerable proportion of people's anxiety increased, being reflected in negative emotion, behavioral response and physiological response. The proportion of people who said their anxiety had increased in Wuhan was higher than that in other regions (p <0.05). The anxiety of people who were in medical isolation increased less than those who were not (p <0.05). All three aspects of people’s anxiety were positively related with time of medical isolation and degree of the attention on the epidemic (p＜0.05) except the effect of attention degree on the physiological response (p＝0.06). The measure of medical isolation at home should be advocated. Yet people should reduce the concern for the epidemic while paying attention to self-protection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Global health; Health inequalities
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:13:51 CEST)
The COVID-19 crisis has brought unprecedented strain on healthcare systems around the world. It has perhaps taught us some key lessons that are worth considering and addressing to help build more sustainable health systems as well as improve our ability to combat future epidemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0212.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: 5G; health risks; EMP exposure; health hazards
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:56:06 CEST)
Recently there is a growing concern regarding potential health hazards linked with 5G deployment and radio frequency emitted by these stations. It becomes fundamentally important to scientifically address these concerns. In this paper, the health risks incorporated with 5G are discussed critically in the light of scientific work and debunk these tittle-tattles where required. We confute scientifically the “5G appeal”, discuss effects of 5G on health, its implications on privacy, pandemics, ecosystem and role of world health organization in fighting these narratives. Finally, we provide future direction to negate these false claims linked with 5G.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1181.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: influenza vaccination; health personnel; health care worker; surveillance system; epidemiology; prevention; public health
Online: 17 May 2023 (04:27:18 CEST)
(1) Influenza causes a significant health and socio-economic burden every year, and health personnel (HP) are at higher risk of exposure to respiratory pathogens than general population. (2) The study purpose was to describe and compare influenza vaccine uptake and its prognostic factors among Medical Doctors (MDs) and Non-Medical Health Personnel (NMHP) vs Non-HP (NHP). We analysed 2014-2018 data (N=105,608) from the Italian Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System PASSI that, since 2008, has been collecting health-related information continuously in sampled adults. (3) MDs and NMHP represented, respectively, 1.1% and 4.6% of the sample. Among HP, 22.8% (CI 19.8% - 26.1%) of MDs and 8.5% (CI 7.5% - 9.5%) of NMHP reported to have been vaccinated vs 6.3% (CI 6.1% - 6.5%) in NHP. This difference is confirmed in the three categories (MDs, NMHP, NHP), even more across age groups: in 18-34yy, respectively, 9.9%, 4.4%, 3.4% vs 28.4%, 13.9%, 10.6% in 50-64yy. PASSI surveillance shows an increasing influenza vaccination uptake over time, especially among MDs (22.2% in 2014 vs 30.5% in 2018). (4) Despite such increase, especially among younger HP, influenza vaccination uptake is low. Even more under pandemic scenarios, these figures represent key information to address effective strategies for disease prevention and health promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0128.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: men's sheds; men's health; health promotion; evaluation; community based health promotion; physical activity
Online: 9 March 2022 (09:36:03 CET)
Abstract Issue Addressed: Men’s Sheds (‘Sheds’) have been identified as inherently health promoting and as potential settings to engage ‘hard-to-reach’ men in more structured health promotion initiatives. However, little is known about the sociodemographic or health and wellbeing characteristics of Shed members (‘Shedders’) on which such initiatives might be based. This study captures a baseline cross sectional analysis of Shedders (n=384) who participated in ‘Sheds for Life’, a health promotion initiative tailored to Sheds. Methods: Objective health measure, (body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids) captured via health screening as well as sociodemographic and health and wellbeing measures (physical activity, subjective wellbeing, mental health, social capital, cooking and diet) via questionnaires were assessed. Results: Participants were mostly over 65 years, retired with limited educational attainment. The majority were in the ‘at-risk’ categories for objective health measures, with most being referred to their GP following health screening. Older Shedders were also more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. Mental wellbeing was positively correlated with life satisfaction and increased social capital and these were also positively correlated with physical activity. Conclusions: Findings highlight the potential of Sheds in reaching a ‘hard-to-reach’ and ‘at-risk’ cohort of men. Despite a high prevalence of ‘at-risk’ objective health measures, participants report their health in positive terms. Future health promotion initiatives should capitalise on the inherent health promoting properties of Sheds. So what? Findings raise important implications for prioritising and designing health promotion initiatives in Shed settings.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: health innovation; technological innovation; social innovation; public health; global health; Ebola; Covid-19
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:29:41 CEST)
Health innovations are generally oriented on a techno-economic vision. In this perspective, technologies are seen as an end in themselves, and there is no arrangement between the technical and the social values of innovation. This vision prevails in sanitary crises, in which management is carried out based on the search for punctual, reactive, and technical solutions to remedy a specific problem without a systemic/holistic, sustainable, or proactive approach. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on the epistemological orientation of innovations in the field of public health. Taking the Covid-19 and Ebola crises as examples, the primary objective is to show how innovation in health is oriented towards a techno-economic paradigm. Second, we propose a repositioning of public health innovation towards a social paradigm that will put more emphasis on the interaction between social and health dimensions in the perspective of social change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Adolescents; eHealth; health promotion; healthy lifestyle; preventive health
Online: 16 March 2023 (11:34:57 CET)
Objective: This study aimed to determine impact of eHealth literacy on health promotion activities and preventive health practice among adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between March and May 2022 with 706 adolescents in Çorum, Turkey. A face to face questionnaire form including socio demographic characteristics, preventive health practices, eHealth Literacy scale and Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were used. The data of the research were analyzed with the SPSS 22.0 program. Percentage, mean, Pearson Correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used in the analyzes. The p<0.05 value was considered statistically significant in the evaluations. Results: In the study, 55.8% were female and the mean age of the whole group was 16.09±2.63 years. The mean score of eHealth Literacy scale was 29.40±6.29. The mean of the total scores obtained from the Adolescent Health Promotion Scale was 137.97±21.87. Among the adolescents 96.0% didn’t use alcohol and 81% didn’t smoke. The rate of annual weight measure was 68.8%. Measurements of annual blood pressure, annual blood iron, annual cholesterol, annual dental examination and regular exercise rate were below 50%. There was a significant positive correlation between eHealth literacy and the Adolescent Health Promotion Scale (p<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to predict eHealth literacy using the variables of Adolescent Health Promotion and preventive health practices. eHealth literacy was positively and significantly predicts health promotion behaviors (β= 0.27, t (695)= 7.54, p<0.001). eHealth literacy increased annual weight measurement by more than 0.13 (β=0.13), the annual blood iron measurement by more than 0.16 (β=0.16), annual dental examination by more than 0.11 (β=0.11). Conclusions: Adolescents ehealth literacy was high and effected via health promotion activities and preventive health practices. Developing eHealth litracy interventions will be important for environments with a high concentration of adolescents (schools, courses). Also, primary health care services should be entegrated with school environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0457.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ethical; legal; artificial intelligence; health; equity; public health
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:59:55 CET)
Background: The potential of Artificial intelligent (AI) models to process and interpret large health datasets at scale could revolutionize public health and epidemiology, providing a foundation for public health. Ethics has been recognized as a priority concern in the development and deployment of AI. Because AI technology can jeopardize patient safety, privacy, and posing a new set of ethical problems that must be addressed. Objectives: We aim to provide a holistic view on what are the different ethical and legal principles that was addressed in the included studies regarding the use of AI in public health and what are the ethical challenges that can arise.Methods: Following PRISMA guideline, five bibliographic databases were used in our search: PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar from 2015 to February 2022. Four reviewers carried out study selection and data extraction, and the data extracted was synthesized by a narrative approach. Results: This review included 23 unique publications out of a total of 1123 items that were initially identified. Different ethical principles regarding the uses of AI in public health and community health were identified and discussed distinctly in the current review. The common ethical and legal themes that this review focused on are equity, bias, privacy and security, safety, transparency, confidentiality, accountability, social justice, and autonomy. In addition, five ethical challenges were mentioned. Conclusion: Research regarding ethical and legal principles and challenges about using AI in public health specifically consider a new filed, because all previous themes are concerning the physical and patients’ area where it focuses only on the clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: AMR; agriculture; One Health; health economics; policy; modelling
Online: 12 August 2022 (11:28:08 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasingly pressing threat to human, animal, and environmental health. Reducing the use of antibiotics in agriculture has been identified as a key way to curb the spread of AMR. However, the effect of such policies on AMR prevalence, and their broader impacts on agricultural, health, and economic outcomes at the population level have proven very difficult to estimate and compare. This paper draws on and formalises ideas presented at the JPIAMR New Perspectives on Bacterial Drug Resistance workshop in June of 2022. With reference to emerging literature on the topic, it proposes a quantitative framework for estimating the relevant causal relationships needed to quantify the cross-sectoral impacts of AMR policies in agriculture, and for comparing these outcomes in like terms in a way which can feed directly into policy decision-making, notably without prohibitive data requirements. The ability of researchers to apply frameworks such as this will be increasingly necessary in order to holistically capture the impacts of AMR policies and to situate them in the broader policy context; especially where the mechanisms of transmission are opaque or complex, where data availability is limited; and where policymakers must allocate scarce resources among many competing objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0391.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: occupational health; leadership; mental health; workplace climate; worksite
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:27:08 CEST)
Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O’Donovan et al.’s (2020) composite measure of psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees with teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was tested using Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha of the total score was 0.92 - 0.96 and ICC was 0.88 - 0.92. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, suggesting one factor combined with peers and team. The scale showed good convergent validity. The total score of the scale showed significant associations with all outcomes in adjusted model in all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees’ mental health and performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Health Status; National Survey; KSA; School Health; Students
Online: 7 September 2021 (09:59:44 CEST)
The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) established a National School-based Screening Program (NSBSP) for health screening of school-going children. Students from specific grades were systematically screened for several health problems including obesity, visual and auditory problems, dental cavities, scoliosis, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of these health problems among primary school students based on secondary data obtained from the NSBSP. We included 444,259 screened school children from the 1st and 4th grades of 50% of the selected schools (both private and public) across the KSA during the academic year 2018-2019. Among them, the most prevalent health problems identified were dental cavities (38.7%), eye refractory errors (10.9%), and overweight and obesity (10.5%); the less prevalent problems included ADHD (2.81%), auditory problems (0.6%), and scoliosis (0.48%). A greater prevalence of most health problems was observed in girls than boys. The NSBSP successfully aided the detection of health conditions with high and low prevalence among primary school students in the KSA, and thus, identification of health problems of specific concern. Implementation of effective school health services for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of these health problems is imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0329.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Geospatial Regression; Health Disparities; Public Health
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:48:57 CEST)
COVID-19 is a potentially fatal viral infection. This study investigates geography, demography, socioeconomics, health conditions, hospital characteristics, and politics as potential explanatory variables for death rates at the state and county levels. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Census Bureau, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, Definitive Healthcare, and USAfacts.org were used to evaluate regression models. Yearly pneumonia and flu death rates (state level, 2014-2018) were evaluated as a function of the governors’ political party using repeated measures analysis. At the state and county level, spatial regression models were evaluated. At the county level, we discovered a statistically significant model that included geography, population density, racial and ethnic status, three health status variables along with a political factor. State level analysis identified health status, minority status, and the interaction between governors’ parties and health status as important variables. The political factor, however, did not appear in a subsequent analysis of 2014-2018 pneumonia and flu death rates. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 has greater and disproportionate effect within racial and ethnic minority groups, and the political influence on the reporting of COVID-19 mortality was statistically relevant at the county level and as an interaction term only at the state level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: occupational health services; mining; primary health clinics; labour
Online: 24 July 2020 (05:02:16 CEST)
Only 15% of the global population has access to occupational safety and health services. In Africa only 5% of employees working from major establishments, have access to occupational health services (OHS). Access to primary health care (PHC) services is addressed in many settings and inclusion of OHS in these facilities might increase efficiency in preventing occupational diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four SADC countries aiming at assessing the availability of OHS at PHC facilities and the organization of OHS. We conducted a literature review to assess the provision and organization of OHS services. In addition to the review, a total of 23 doctors from PHC facilities were interviewed using questionnaires in order to determine the availability of OHS and training. Consultations with heads of ministries were done in four SADC countries. Results showed that in the SADC region, OHS are fragmented and lack a comprehensive approach. In addition, out of 23 PHC facilities only two (13%) provided occupational health and PHC. However, OHS provided at PHC facilities were limited to TB screening and audiometric testing. Our study showed a huge inadequacy of trained occupational health practitioners. This study supports the World Health Organization’s advocacy of integrating OHS at PHC level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0602.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Dust; Mining; Environment; Sustainability; community health; occupational health
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:10:56 CET)
Dust inhalation is a huge concern in the mining environment and within all its operations. In fact, dust to be one of the most serious occupational hazards in the mining industry. Coal and crystalline silica dust are the causes of serious, sometimes fatal lung diseases such as pneumoconiosis, which affects coal miners, as well as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease, which affect coal and other types of miners. The resulting effects both affect workers and nearby communities. The mining industry has in the past, employed several approaches to reduce effects of dust. But these strategies have often been ineffective because the grass withers during the dry season and sprayed water is rapidly absorbed or evaporates. This paper endeavors to review information on dust in the mining environment and how it is a nuisance to workers and communities and establish what strategies exist for this.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0399.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Family and Community Nursing; Covid-19; Community health assessment; Primary Health Care; Health Promotion
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:57:35 CET)
The WHO European Region defined the role of a new central professional for primary care, the Family and Community Nurse (FCN). The introduction of FCN in the framework of health policies highlight a key role of nurses in addressing the families’ and communities’ needs. A scoping review was conducted in order to identify and describe the available tools which has been adopted for the assessment of the community health needs by FNC. A comprehensive literature review on Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycInfo databases was conducted including all studies up to May 2021. A total of 1563 studies were identified and 36 of them were included. The literature review had made possible to identify studies employing twelve different community assessment's tools or modalities. Referring the WHO framework proposed in 2001 some common themes have been identified with an uneven distribution, as profiling the population, deciding on priorities for action and public healthcare programmes, implementing the planned activities, evaluation of health outcomes, multidisciplinary activity, flexibility and involving the community. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide an overview of community assessment tools, keeping the guidance provided by the WHO as a reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0453.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: one health; Africa; public health; animal health; environment health; zoonosis; emerging and re-emerging diseases; food safety; antimicrobial resistance; toxicosis
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:05:32 CEST)
An evaluation of emerging issues in One Health (OH) in Sub-Saharan Africa was undertaken to map the existing OH initiatives in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Desk review, expert opinions survey, limited interviews and wider consultations with selected OH stakeholders were conducted. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to OH initiatives were identified. OH influence, interest and impacts were evaluated. One Health is transiting from multidisciplinary to transdisciplinary concepts and OH viewpoint should move from ‘proxy for zoonoses’, to include issues of climate change, nutrition and food safety, social sciences, geography, policy and planning, economics, welfare and well-being, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), vector-borne diseases, toxicosis and pesticides issues. While the identified major strengths should be boosted, the weaknesses should be addressed.OH Networks in SSA were spatially and temporally spread across SSA and stakeholders were classified as key, latent, marginal and OH defenders. Imbalance in stakeholders’ representation led to hesitation in buying-in from stakeholders who are outside the main networks. Theory of change, monitoring and evaluation frameworks, and tools to standardized evaluation of OH policies is needed for sustained future of OH and the future OH engagement should be outputs and outcomes-driven and not activity-driven.National roadmap for OH implementation and institutionalization is necessary and proofs of concepts in OH should be verified and scaled-up. Dependence on external funding is unsustainable and must be addressed. Necessary policy and legal instrument to support OH nationally and sub-nationally should be implemented taking cognizance of contemporary issues like urbanization, endemic poverty and other emerging issues. Utilizing current technologies and OH approach to address ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 and other emerging diseases is desirable. Finally, OH implementation should be anticipatory and not reactive to significantly benefit budgeting and contain disease outbreaks in animal sources before the risk of spillover to human can be envisaged.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0957.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: electronic health record; European Union; health care data; health data space; review; semantic interoperability; standardization
Online: 26 April 2023 (04:41:03 CEST)
Semantic interoperability facilitates exchange and access of health data that is being documented in EHRs with various semantic features. In the EU, the regulation proposal of European health data space requires development of semantic interoperability. To achieve a fully integrated EHDS ecosystem leveraging the value of health data, stakeholders need to overcome challenges of implementing common standards and other semantic interoperability features. We aimed to research what scientific evidence is available on developing semantic interoperability. Our research questions focused specifically on key features and approaches for semantic interoperability and on possible benefits of these choices. For that purpose, we performed a systematic literature review by defining our study framework based on previous research. Our results consisted of 10 studies where data models, ontologies, terminologies, classifications, and standards were applied for building interoperability. Through increased access to interoperable patient information, a better quality and outcomes in care can be achieved. Better communication based on easily accessible data is facilitated between health professionals and between clinicians and the patients. When heading towards semantic harmonization as outlined in the EHDS proposal, more experiences and analyses are needed to assess how applicable the chosen solutions are for semantic interoperability of European health care data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0230.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: nurse health coaching; social determinants of health; change talk; health behavior change; natural language analysis
Online: 14 November 2022 (02:18:20 CET)
The practice of nurse health coaching (NHC) draws from the art and science of nursing, behavioral sciences, and evidence-based health coaching methods. This secondary analysis of the audio-recorded natural language of participants during NHC sessions of our recent 8-week RCT evaluates improvement over time in cognitive-behavioral outcomes: Change Talk, Resiliency, Self-Efficacy/Independent Agency, Insight & Pattern Recognition, and Building Towards Sustainability. We developed a measurement tool for coding, Indicators of Health Behavior Change (IHBC), that was designed to allow trained health coach experts to assess the presence and frequency of the indicators in the natural language content of participants. We used a two-step method for randomly selecting the 20-minute audio-recorded session that was analyzed at each time point. Fifty-six participants had high-quality audio recordings of the NHC sessions. Twelve participants were placed in the social determinants of health (SDH) group based on the following: low income (<$20,000/year), early-onset hypertension, and social disadvantages. Our analyses significantly improved Change Talk and the other four factors over time. Our factor analyses indicated two distinct factors at each measurement point of the study, demonstrating the stability of the outcome measures over time. Our newly developed measurement tool, IHBC, proved stable in structure over time and sensitive to change. This NHC program shows promise in improving cognitive-behavioral indicators associated with health behavior change in both non-SDH and SDH individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Community health workers; Primary healthcare; Mental health; Psychosocial support; Vulnerable populations; COVID-19; Health crisis
Online: 2 March 2021 (14:31:40 CET)
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic some family physicians were overburdened and experienced difficulties reaching vulnerable patients and meeting the increased need for psycho-social support. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested whether a primary healthcare (PHC) based community health worker (CHW) intervention could tackle psychosocial suffering due to physical distancing measures in patients with limited social networks. Methods: CHWs provided 8 weeks of tailored psychosocial support to the intervention group. Control group patients received ‘care as usual’. The impact on feelings of emotional support, social isolation, social participation, anxiety and fear of COVID-19 were measured longitudinally using a face-to-face survey to determine their mean change from baseline. Self-rated change in psychosocial health at 8 weeks was determined. Results: We failed to find a significant effect of the intervention on the prespecified psychosocial health measures. However, the intervention did lead to significant improvement in self-rated change in psychosocial health. Conclusions: This study confirms partially the existing evidence on the effectiveness of CHW in-terventions as a strategy to address mental health in PHC in a COVID context. Further research is needed to elaborate the implementation of CHWs in PHC to reach vulnerable populations during and after health crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0094.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Keywords: vegetable cultivation; health; physical health; mental health; social well-being; qualitative study; adult; Japan
Online: 8 April 2019 (12:49:04 CEST)
The present short communication aimed to determine the effects of vegetable cultivation on health. We conducted a qualitative study using responses to an open-ended question that was part of a survey on regional differences on vegetable intake. Participants in this study were residents of Gunma Prefecture, Japan, and were aged between 20–74 years. In the questionnaire, we asked: “Aside from increasing vegetable intake, how does vegetable cultivation affect your health?” We were able to categorize the answers into six subcategories related to physical health, mental health, and social well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0475.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: adolescents; menstruation; sexual and reproductive health; informatics; mobile health
Online: 30 March 2023 (03:33:26 CEST)
Mobile software applications (apps) have transformed how individuals oversee and maintain their own health. One way that girls can monitor their menstrual cycles is through the increasingly widespread use of mobile menstrual tracking apps. This study aims to examine menstrual symptom tracking for adolescents in English and Chinese apps, exploring menstrual literacy, cross-cultural differences, and framing, or presentation, of symptoms. The mixed methods content analysis involved 15 popular free menstrual tracking apps in English (n = 8) and Chinese (n = 7). Quantitative analysis of qualitative data was conducted through manual coding of content and automatically analyzing sentiment, or emotional tone, using a computational approach. We found that: (1) Menstrual literacy on symptom management or treatment was generally insufficient, (2) There were more available emotional than physical symptoms in English than Chinese apps, (3) Symptoms were framed more negatively than positively, somewhat more in Chinese than English apps. Findings emphasize the importance of improving information in digital menstrual trackers. Our findings further reflect cultural differences in emotional expression and negative attitudes toward menstruation. Since adolescence is a critical developmental stage that requires ample support, digital menstrual trackers can uniquely shape attitudes and experiences, ultimately, empowering teenagers to better manage their menstrual health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0038.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: paramedicine; addiction; health and wellbeing; prehospital; emergency health services
Online: 2 February 2023 (09:17:25 CET)
Introduction: As the paramedic profession continues to grow and evolve, a shift from reactive to holistic patient care models is required. As the first and often the only point of medical contact for many patients from marginalized and under-served populations, the paramedic role, and its potential future implications in caring for these patients needs to be explored. Aim: The objective of this scoping review was to explore the paramedic's role in caring for people who use illicit drugs. Methods: A scoping review of English language literature published since 2002 was conducted using CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. We used a previously published paramedic search term filter for sensitivity combined with search terms related to drug-related substance use and addiction. Studies were selected based on relevance to the research question. Results: A total of 104 peer-reviewed and 14 grey literature articles were selected for inclusion. The main finding of this scoping review is the notable lack of evidence base surrounding the contemporary paramedic role in the care provision of people who use drugs (PWUD). The results highlight high rates of mortality following a paramedic-attended drug poisoning event, presenting a unique opportunity for paramedics to intervene in meaningful ways that extend past traditional drug poisoning response. Conclusions: The interface between the community of PWUD and the paramedic may be a highly influential encounter during a patient's journey through the healthcare system. The evolving role of the paramedic in this encounter requires focused study and should be viewed as a research priority in response to the ongoing drug poisoning crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Search engine; Baidu Index; Children's Mental Health; Mental Health
Online: 31 March 2022 (07:08:56 CEST)
This study aims to understand the temporal and spatial characteristics of public concern for "children's mental health" in China in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic. Baidu Index is a research tool to collect and analyze massive data of Chinese netizens' behaviors. Using Baidu Index as the research tool, this paper analyzes the trend and distribution of Chinese netizens' attention to "children's mental health" from December 1st, 2019 to March 20th, 2022 from three aspects of trend research, need map, and crowd portrait. The study found that since the outbreak of COVID-19, the search trend of "children's mental health" has shown a cyclical change, peak in May and valley around the Spring Festival and National Day, and stable in other periods. "Mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "youth mental health" are the most popular buzzwords among the public. The groups concerned of "children's mental health" is mainly distributed in Guangdong, Jiangsu, Beijing, and the majority are women between 30 and 39 years old. Meanwhile, search trend for "mental health" are like that for "children's mental health." The factors influencing the search volume change of "children's mental health" include Chinese traditional holidays, Spring Festival, National Day, Chinese Mental Health Day, and policies and instructions on children's mental health issued by the PRC Ministry of Education. The public would like to know about "mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "adolescent mental health".
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: integration of sports and health care; sports; health; community
Online: 23 February 2022 (07:06:51 CET)
(1) Background: With continuous globalization and modernization of people's lives, lifestyle has changed dramatically, with decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating patterns in many nations throughout the world. With the COVID-19 pandemic and changes taking place in people’s health and lifestyles around the world, the need for rehabilitation is expected to rise in the coming years.(2)Methods: This paper analyzes the integration model of sports and health care using theoretical analysis, literature reviews, logical reasoning, and other methods.(3)Results: The integration of sports and health care in China has entered the stage of practical implementation after many years of development, forming a few representative integration patterns. Governments, communities, community hospitals, hospitals, and third-party institutions are the main participants, with the community playing an important role in the integration. Pharmacies, sports venues, and schools with sufficient staff have a relatively low participation rate.(4)Conclusion: The grading treatment has been applied in health management and sports rehabilitation, based on the development of digital medicine, a government-led grading treatment model of "health management center" can promote the participation of multiple subjects in the integration of sports and health care, solving the problems existing in the current integration process to a certain extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Breastfeeding; Evidence-based Nursing; Health Promotion; Women's Health; Newborn.
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:00:23 CEST)
Background: It is clear that breastfeeding is the gold standard of infant feeding because of the many advantages it offers to both the child and the mother. Objective: to identity the main reasons for cessation breastfeeding declares by the mother themselves during the first year. Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting 969 newborns in a third level hospital in Spain. The main maternal variables studied were: maternal age, parity, educational level, work occupation, smoking habit, gestational age, birth, weigh, feeding type, and duration of breastfeeding. All the participants were followed for a year to determinate the duration of breastfeeding and to know the reason of the abandonment. Results: At 6 months, the percentage of maternal lactation was cut in half and only 24.6% of these mothers maintain. Mainly 15.80% of the mothers decide to give up the exclusive maternal lactation of their own free desire, and 15.41% because they suspect hypogalactia. The work cause is the third reason of abandonment in both cases. Conclusions: Our results show the need to improve the health policies of promotion, protection and support the initiation of breastfeeding. In particular, our results show the importance of the work factor with particular emphasis on improving conciliation measures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; mental health; psychological health; anxiety; suicide
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:32:36 CET)
Since its initial outbreak in late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the global community. In addition to the negative health consequences of contracting COVID-19, the implementation of strict quarantine and lockdown measures has also disrupted social networks and devastated the global economy. As a result, there is rising concern that the pandemic has taken a toll on the mental health of the general population. To better understand its impact, an increasing number of studies examined the effects of the pandemic on mental health and psychosocial implications of enforced quarantine and lockdown. In this article, we aim to review and summarize the findings from a variety of studies that have explored the psychosociological effects of the pandemic and its impact on the mental well-being of the general population. We will also examine how various demographic groups, such as the elderly and youth, can be more susceptible or resilient to the pandemic’s mental health effects. We hope to provide a broader understanding of the underlying causes of mental health issues triggered by the pandemic and provide recommendations that may be employed to address mental health issues in the population over the long-term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0287.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Covid-19; quality of life; mental health; physical health
Online: 8 March 2021 (09:51:55 CET)
Introduction: The majority of epidemiological reports focus on confirmed cases of COVID-19. In this study, we aim to assess the health and well-being of adults not infected with Covid-19 after two months of quarantine in Morocco. Materials and methods: Two months after the declaration of quarantine in Morocco following the Covid-19 epidemic, we carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 279 Moroccan citizens. We used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a determinant of quality of life, which is based on eight dimensions of health. The data were collected using an electronic questionnaire distributed online. The participants also indicated their socio-demographic data, their knowledge and practices regarding the Covid-19 pandemic and whether they had chronic health problems. Results: The quality of life of all participants was moderately disrupted during the Covid-19 pandemic with a mental health score (MCS) of 34.49 (± 6.44) and a physical health score (PCS) of 36.10 (± 5.82). Participants with chronic diseases scored lower with 29.28 (± 1.23) in mental health (MCS) and 32.51 (± 7.14) in physical health (PCS). The seriousness of COVID-19 has an impact on the quality of life and health well-being of people and this impact is more marked in people with chronic health problems. Conclusion: Our results confirm the need to pay attention to the health of people who have not been infected with the virus. Our results also point out that uninfected people with chronic illnesses may be more likely to have well-being problems due to quarantine restrictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0518.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mobile phones; health promotions; short message service; health students
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:53:53 CET)
Students are regarded as frequent users of mobile phones which has proven to be a convenient and acceptable method to promote healthy lifestyle. Students usually engage in relatively high levels of risky behavior and make unhealthy lifestyle choices, a study that investigates how health students access health information is necessary. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study which was undertaken among third-year nursing students from three nurses training institutions in Ghana. A total of 270 students participated in the study. Most of the respondents who were currently subscribers of the health messages reported that they usually received health information on reproductive health issues, nutrition, and practicing safe sex. Most of the health students revealed that they needed more information on safe sex, diet, managing weight, and stress management. The results also show that health students are likely to remember and share short messages with friends. The findings serve as an ‘eye-opener’ for health educators and mobile service providers concerning factors that should be taken into consideration when framing health text messages that will attract health students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0382.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: alcohol, tobacco, mortality, mortality as health indicator, health inequality
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:35:27 CET)
Background: Drinking and smoking have economic consequences and are the main risk factors of mortality and morbidity. Disease-specific deaths attributable to using substances present the primary health indicator in this study. This analysis focuses on mortality in productive age, 15 to 64 years since those deaths are considered the highest economic burden. Method: In the analytical part, data from the Registry of deaths of the Czech Republic for 1994 to 2017 were used. The number of deaths attributable to smoking and drinking was calculated using attributable fractions, based on literature review. This research aimed to reveal the gender differences in deaths attributable to drinking and smoking, according to age, and the differences in deaths regarding smoking or drinking. Results: The mortality attributable to smoking and drinking differs across age groups and genders. The highest median share of tobacco-related deaths is in the age group, 60—64 years. The highest median share of alcoholic deaths is in the age group of 50—54 years. Conclusions: There are significant differences between genders in both, smoking and drinking. A prevention program should be targeted to different age groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0446.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: electronic waste recycling; occupational health; public health; injuries; stress
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:23:06 CET)
Little research has been done on occupational health ramifications of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling work, which is increasingly common in low- and middle-income countries, and very little is known about this in high-income countries. Our study evaluated informal and formal e-waste recycling workers in Chile, which was recently recognized as a high-income country. In 2017 we recruited 78 informal recycling workers from two cities, and 15 formal e-waste recycling workers from one recycling facility. Participants completed a questionnaire and health assessment regarding their involvement in, and potential impacts of, e-waste recycling, among other measures. Participants were primarily male, middle-aged, married with children, and had worked in e-waste recycling for an average of 12 years. Participants generally reported good health status, and chronic disease prevalence was similar to the national prevalence. Workers commonly reported exposures to several occupational stressors, including mental health stressors and noise, as well as insufficient income. Occupational injuries were common and use of safety equipment was low. No significant differences were found between informal and formal workers. Informal e-waste workers in Chile face occupational health challenges. The extent to which these issues impact the health of informal Chilean e-waste workers is unclear and warrants further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0721.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: perinatal; mental health; perinatal mental health program; South Africa
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:28:12 CET)
Background. Perinatal depression is one of the leading causes of disability in perinatal women and is highly prevalent in disadvantaged communities in LMICs. However, care capacity remains low in most LMICs. As such, we decided to find and assess a screening program that addresses perinatal mental health problems in a resource-efficient manner. This leads us to a critically appraisal of the Perinatal Mental Health Project (PMHP), a screening program based in peri-urban Western Cape Town that stresses task sharing and stepped care intervention. Method. PubMed, Ovid Medline (1946 to 2018), and Google Scholar were searched for publications until March 2018, with data or evaluation of the PMHP. PMHP website publications were used for data and interpretation. The program’s viability was evaluated based on criteria published by UK National Screening Council. The program’s impact was analyzed using published patient outcome data. Access to care was evaluated at three barriers to accessing care proposed by Gjerdingen et al. (2007). The financial model was evaluated using the “four-pillars” of sustainable organization financial management proposed by León (2001). Findings. The PMHP’s screening program viability satisfies most criteria of the UK National Screening Council, and the program’s benefits outweigh its harms. Patient self-reports indicate successful impact with several highlights in accessibility. The program also demonstrates financial sustainability and potential for scaling-up. Interpretations. The operation model of the PMHP shows satisfactory viability and sustainability. With modifications fitting local context and government cooperation, this model offers promising potential in bringing public health and economic benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Economic recession; Mental health; Health status disparities; Spain, GHQ.
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:48:36 CEST)
Previous research suggests that the economic crisis can affect mental health. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association of risk of poor mental health with various socioeconomic, demographic, health, quality of life and social support variables; and to evaluate the contribution of socioeconomic variables most affected by the beginning of the economic crisis (employment situation and income) on the changes in the prevalence of the risk of poor mental health between 2005 and 2010. A study of prevalence evolution in adult population residents of the Valencian Community in the Spanish Mediterranean was conducted. We studied 5781 subjects in 2005 and 3479 in 2010. Logistic regression models have been adjusted to analyse the association between variables. A standardization procedure was carried out to evaluate which part of the changes in overall prevalence could be attributed to variations in the population structure by age, sex, employment status and income between the years under study. The prevalence of GHQ + increased from 2005 to 2010, in both men and women. Several variables were closely associated with the risk of poor mental health (sex, age, country of birth, number of non-mental chronic diseases, social support, disability, cohabitation in couple, employment status, and income). The changes produced as a result of the onset of the economic crisis in income and unemployment (increase in low income and in unemployment rates) contributed to the increase of poor mental health risk. This could confirm the sensitivity of mental health to the economic deterioration caused by the crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Health situation, Health care facilities, Elderly people, Slum areas.
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:12:44 CEST)
The research is carried out to assess factor affecting the health condition of the elderly people in the slum areas in Sylhet City. This research was quantitative type. In Quantitative approach, primary data were collected and used from the randomly selected elderly people in the Sylhet City slum areas. The secondary data were collected from many articles, documents, newspaper, magazine etc. By analyzing the survey data, it is illustrated that the slum dwellers are deprived from the basic needs. Meanwhile, elderly people can‟t fulfill their medical treatment due to their financial condition because of their work incompatibility. This study identifies the factor affecting health condition such as financial condition, lack of knowledge about proper medical facilities, communication gap between the authority and patient, unemployment, and so on. These factors also affect their health situation. Many diseases like asthma, heart disease are occurred. This study also mentions about the livelihood of slum people are so poor in condition. Due to financial condition, aged people can‟t take their proper treatment and their family member can‟t afford it. This study also understands that the people from slum areas are getting concerned about their medical care. They are easily going to the hospital and take their service because of low pricing. On the other hand, people are meanwhile stopped their treatment of financial situation. This study finds the health situation of elderly people at slum areas in metropolitan city and their consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0123.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: lead exposure; adult literacy; global health; environmental health; Myanmar
Online: 10 April 2018 (09:51:02 CEST)
Environmental lead exposure is a population health concern in many low- and middle-income countries. Lead is found throughout Myanmar and prior to the 1940s, the country was the largest producer of lead worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine any potential association between lead mining and adult literacy rates at the level of the 330 townships in Myanmar. Townships were identified as lead or non-lead mining areas and 2015 census data were examined with association being identified using descriptive, analytical and spatial statistical methods. Overall, there does appear to be a significant relationship between lead mining activity and adult literacy levels (P<0.05) among townships with both low access [OR= 2.701 (1.136-6.421)] as well as townships with high access to safe sanitation [OR=18.40 (1.794-188.745)]. LISA cluster maps confirm these findings. This exploratory analysis is a first step in the examination of potential environmental lead exposure and its implications in Myanmar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: migration; female genital mutilation; sexual health; reproductive health; communication
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:30:20 CEST)
Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of African origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation). Results: Seven of the women were from Somalia and one from Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated), and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Conclusions: Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual matter.
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: obesity; nutrition; health
Online: 16 December 2022 (10:10:37 CET)
In the United States, obesity is prevalent, and it could be described as a pandemic. Obesity is excessive fat accumulation, leading to a BMI ≥ 30 (Fruh, 2017). Surveys conducted by the CDC show that the obesity prevalence in the US is on the rise, as several obese people rose from 30.5% to 41.9% between 1999 and 2020 (Bryan et al., 2021). During the same time, several people suffering from severe obesity rose from 4.7% to 9.2% (Bryan et al., 2021). Additionally, childhood obesity is on the rise. Statistics indicate that between 2017-2020 over 19.7% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years had obesity. During the same period, obesity prevalence in children aged 2-5 years, 6-11 years, and 12-19 years olds was 12.7%, 20.7%, and 22.2%, respectively (Bryan et al., 2021). With so many people suffering from obesity, the WHO declared it a public health crisis (WHO, 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the prevalence of obesity in the US. According to the surveys, there was a 4.4% increase in obesity between 2019 to March 2020 due to lifestyle changes that were put on people during the COVID-19 pandemic (Akter et al., 2022). Many comorbidities are associated with obesity. Without adequate health interventions, millions of people could suffer severe health disorders like respiratory problems, type II diabetes, psychological issues, gastrointestinal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. It is also essential to develop health interventions to mitigate obesity due to its strain on the healthcare system. Research shows that people suffering from obesity spend $2,505 more than people with average weight on healthcare (Cawley et al., 2021). Obesity has financial ramifications in every healthcare category: inpatient, outpatient, and prescription drugs (Cawley et al., 2021). One essential action toward the efforts to mitigate the soaring obesity rates is understanding the demographic inequities across populations and how they can be resolved.
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: health economics, manels
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:40:24 CET)
Objective: ISPOR is the leading professional society for health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) globally. Recently, it launched its Women in HEOR Initiative, that aims to serve as a catalyst for women’s leadership in the field. Therefore, we were interested to find out how well ISPOR itself is doing in terms of gender diversity at their biggest conference. Methods: We used the conference programmes of ISPOR Europe conferences in 2016, 2017 and 2018 to assess the gender distribution of speakers that participated in issue panels and plenary sessions in these years. Results: 70% of all speakers (N=346) at 85 issue panels and plenary sessions during 2016, 2017, and 2018 were male. Almost one in three panels was all-male (a ‘manel’) and 64% of all panels had mostly male speakers (>50%). In contrast, only 11% of panels had <50% female speakers. Conclusion: Despite laudable effort to support the growth, development and contribution of women in HEOR through its Women in HEOR Initiative, females appear to be severely underrepresented at ISPOR’s biggest conference. ISPOR should make gender diversity a formal requirement for issue panel abstract submissions if it wants to advance women’s leadership in HEOR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0159.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Climate change; Human health; World Health Organization (WHO); Anthropogenic activity
Online: 3 May 2023 (14:41:37 CEST)
Anthropogenic activities are the main cause of climate change globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognized that heating and precipitation are the reason for climate change due to anthropogenic actions over the past 30 years and claim 150,000 lives annually. Climate change is also affecting the atmospheres of polar regions. Numerous diseases are linked with climate change like cardiovascular mortality and respiratory illnesses. Due to climate change, lack of long-term and high-quality data sets, variations in drug resistance and immunity, the amplification or the resurgence of diseases, as well as many socio-economic factors, are uncertain.Potentially susceptible regions consist of the temperate latitudes, the regions near the Indian and Pacific oceans are affected due to the heavy rainfall where the heat of the cities could increase life-threatening climatic proceedings. The association between climate and health poses a risk to health under future guesses. Over the current decades, warming has contributed to increased mortality and morbidity in various provinces of the globe. The current study reviews the potential effects of climate change on temperature, human health, air quality, food & nutrition, livelihoods, and livestock & fisheries in detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Insomnia; Mental health; Physical health; perceived social support; Postpartum Depression
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:30:00 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD) can predispose to physical and mental health problems in women. However, PPD is associated with health and perceived social support but their causal relationship is unclear. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the association of PPD with insomnia, mental health, and physical health. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect data from 320 (52.8 %) young and middle aged postpartum women, in the outpatient departments of obstetrics and gynecology in Government Maula Bakhsh Hospital, District Head Quarter in Sargodha, Pakistan. The Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale, Pittsburg sleep quality index, Warwick-Edinburgh mental wellbeing scale, Patient health questionnaire, and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to measure study variables. Results revealed a significant positive relationship of PPD with physical health (r= .45, p=.001), while a negative relationship with insomnia (r= -.24, p<.001), and perceived social support (r= -.38, p=.001). Results further confirmed that perceived social support played a moderating role (β = .97, p=.01) in the relationship between PPD and mental health among females. This study concluded that perceived social support has an important role in PPD and women’s health. The study also concluded that poor health is a risk indicator for identifying aid in the early stages of postpartum among women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR); Bats; Zoonotic spillover; Planetary health; One health
Online: 10 November 2022 (02:35:46 CET)
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as other outbreaks such as SARS and Ebola, bats are recognized as a critical species for mediating zoonotic infectious disease spillover events. While there is a growing concern of increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) globally during this pandemic, knowledge of AMR circulating between bats and humans is limited. In this paper, we have reviewed the evidence of AMR in bats and discussed the planetary health aspect of AMR to elucidate how this is associated with the emergence, spread and persistence of antibiotic resistance at the human-animal interface. The presence of clinically significant resistant bacteria in bats and wild life has reflective and broad impact on zoonotic pandemic surveillance, disease transmission and treatment modalities. We searched MEDLINE through PubMed and Google Scholar to retrieve relevant studies (n=38) that provided data on resistant bacteria in bats till September 30, 2022. There is a substantial variability in the results from studies measuring the prevalence of AMR based on geographic location, bat types and time. We found all major groups of gram positive and gram negative bacteria in bats which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The most alarming issue is- recent studies have increasingly identified Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ESBL producing and Colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae in samples from bats. This evidence of superbugs abundance in both humans and wild mammals like bats, could facilitate a greater understanding of which specific pathways of exposure should be targeted. We believe that these data will also facilitate future pandemic prepareness as well as global AMR containment during the pandemic events and beyond.