Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; endocrine therapy; neoadjuvant; resistance
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:55:10 CEST)
Endocrine therapy (ET) has established itself as an efficacious treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers, with a reduction in recurrence rates and increased survival rates. The pre-surgical approach with chemotherapy (NCT) has become a common form of management for large, locally advanced or high-risk tumors. However, a good response to NCT is not usually expected in ER+ tumors. Good results with primary ET, mainly in elderly women, have encouraged studies in other stages of life, and nowadays neoadjuvant endocrine treatment (NET) has become a useful approach to many ER+ breast cancers. The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current state of art regarding the present and the future role of NET.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0314.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: hypothalamus; endocrine; gangliocytoma; neurocytoma; pituicytoma; hormones
Online: 28 September 2019 (00:24:48 CEST)
The hypothalamus is the site of synthesis and secretion of a number of endocrine peptides that are involved in the regulation of hormonal activity of the pituitary and other endocrine targets. Tumors of the hypothalamus have been recognized to have both structural and functional effects including hormone hypersecretion. The classification of these tumors had advanced over the last few years and biomarkers are now available to classify these tumors and provide accurate structure-function correlations. This review provides an overview of tumors in this region that is critical to metabolic homeostasis with a focus on advances in the diagnosis of gangliocytomas, neurocytomas and pituicytomas that are unique to this region.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0109.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: cancer; incidence; endocrine disruptors; environmental exposure
Online: 16 March 2017 (06:42:22 CET)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of breast (females), prostate, testicular and thyroid cancer in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs), served by cancer registries, where the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs), reported to be linked to these tumors, was documented. Evidence of carcinogenicity of EDs present in NPCs was assessed based on evaluation by international scientific institutions/committees. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were computed for each NPCS and cancer site with reference to the time window 1996-2005. Excess incidence of one or more cancer site at study was found in twelve out of fourteen NPCSs. Significantly increased SIRs were found for breast cancer in eight NPCSs, for prostate cancer in six, for thyroid cancer (both gender) in four and for testicular cancer in two. Non significantly increased SIRs were found in five NPCSs for testicular cancer and in two for thyroid cancer (males). Even if increased incidence of one or more cancer sites at study were found in several NPCSs, the ecological study design and the multifactorial etiology of the considered tumors do not allow reaching conclusions in terms of causal links with environmental contamination. In light of the observation of some excesses in SIRs, continuing epidemiological surveillance is warranted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Microbiome; Endocrine disruptors; Estrobolome; Personalized medicine; Oncobiotic
Online: 17 May 2022 (03:25:56 CEST)
The microbiota is now recognized as one of the major players in human health and disease, in-cluding cancer. As regards breast cancer (BC), a clear link between microbiota and oncogenesis is still to be confirmed. Yet, part of the bacterial gene mass inside the gut, constituting the so called “estrobolome”, influences the sexual hormonal balance and, since the increased exposure to estrogens is associated with an increased risk, it may impact on the onset, progression, and treatment of hormonal dependent cancers, which account for more than 70% of all BCs. The hormonal dependent BCs are also affected by environmental and dietary endocrine disruptors and phytoestrogens which interact with microbiota in a bidirectional way: on one side disruptors can alter the composition and functions of the estrobolome, on the other the gut microbiota influences the metabolism of endocrine active food components. This review highlights the current evidence about the complex interplay between endocrine disruptors, phytoestrogens, microbiome, and BC, within the frames of a new “oncobiotic” perspective.
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Breast cancer; metastasis; cytokines; microenvironment; bisphenol A; endocrine disruptors.
Online: 13 September 2021 (14:48:05 CEST)
Background: Metastasis is a complex process that involves the spread of the tumor to distant parts of the body from its original site. Metastatic dissemination represents the main physiopathology of cancer. Soluble factors such as cytokines have been closely related to breast cancer (BC) metastasis. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical compound with estrogenic properties, which exposure in the early stages of neonatal life leads to an increase in the size and weight of breast tumors and cellular changes in the tumoral immune microenvironment. Methods: Thus, we used female BALB/c mice that were exposed neonatally to a single dose of BPA. Once sexual maturity was reached, a mammary tumor was induced injecting 4T1 cells in situ. After 25 days of injection, we evaluated endocrine alterations, cytokine expression, tissue alterations denoted by macro and micro metastases in the lung, and metastasis-induced cell infiltration. Results: BPA neonatal treatment did not show significant endocrine alterations. Nevertheless, BPA induced a great rate of metastasis to the lung associated with higher intratumoral expression of IL-1b, IL-6, IFN-g, TNF-a and VEGF. Conclusions Our data suggest that cytokines are key players in BC metastasis induction, and that BPA is a risk factor to be considered. This knowledge must be considered with the aim of recognizing environmental pollution in the clinical history of patients to possibly counter BC metastases.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci1010015.v1
Subject: Keywords: wastewater treatment; temperatures; systematic review; biofilms; endocrine disrupting compounds
Online: 21 March 2019 (00:00:00 CET)
Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are contaminants with estrogenic or androgenic activity that negatively impact human and animal communities. These compounds have become one of the significant concerns for wastewater treatment in recent decades. Several studies have evaluated EDC removal methods from wastewater across the globe including the United Kingdom (UK). Accordingly, the current study reviews EDC removal methods from municipal/domestic wastewater in the United Kingdom (UK) for the period of 2010–2017. The research highlights that despite the relative efficacy of existing chemical and physical methods for removing certain EDCs from wastewater there is emerging evidence supporting the need for more widespread application of nature-based and biological approaches, particularly the use of biofilms. The analysis reveals that there have been relatively few research studies on EDC removal methods have been carried out in the UK in the 2010–2017 period and none of the research focused on EDC removal using biofilms. Finally, this review suggests that more research is needed to remove EDCs, particularly through the application of biofilms, from municipal wastewater in current scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiopulmonary lesions, endocrine disruptors, ID3, vascular dysfunction, vascular remodeling
Online: 19 July 2018 (12:57:32 CEST)
Cardiopulmonary lesions, which manifest from various types of diseases such as pulmonary arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and peripheral arterial disease, pose a public health problem. Vascular remodeling, which refers to alternations to the structure of the vessel is an important pathophysiological feature of these diseases. The Inhibitor of DNA-binding/Differentiation-3 (ID3), which is part of the ID family of transcriptional regulators, has been demonstrated to contribute to an essential role in the vasculature and therefore may influence the alterations of these lesions. This review will cover the existing understanding of how ID3 may contribute to cardiopulmonary lesion perturbations via involvement in vascular remodeling. Furthermore, based on the accumulative quantity of reports that indicate oxidative stress plays a essential function in the pathophysiology of vascular remodeling, we will also consider the impact of exposure to estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bisphenol A (BPA) on ID3 & cardiopulmonary disease. Improved understanding of how ID3 pathways contributes to these molecular mechanisms in the lesion will prospectively deliver beneficial information in the mediation of vascular remodeling associated with ID3 & EED exposure, which may play an essential role in cardiopulmonary disease prevalence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: chronic diseases; cardiovascular; renal; endocrine; diabetes; therapeutic advances; tobacco
Online: 3 May 2018 (05:08:44 CEST)
Despite needs for new therapies and improvements in existing approaches in cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, and renal disease, investment in these areas is lagging relative to other specialties. This article summarizes a meeting of key stakeholders of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officials, representatives from academia, national organizations, and patients and caregivers. The purpose was to identify and discuss high-priority issues, establish areas of common interest, and explore opportunities for collaboration. During the meeting (September 2016), the construct of a “multimorbidity continuum” emerged, in which chronic diseases are understood as their effects on the whole rather than individual organ systems. Cross-disciplinary priorities included: 1) the need to generate greater high-quality evidence at lower cost; 2) the imperative to develop and implement patient-centered approaches to clinical investigations; 3) the importance of trial participation in under-represented populations, particularly with comorbid conditions, and 4) the need for progress in tobacco regulation. Representatives from each therapeutic area reported on their consensus priorities, and FDA representatives discussed the agency’s role in facilitating broader approaches to therapeutic development and evaluation of disease as linked across organ systems rather than in isolation, and emphasized the importance of patient engagement, collaboration and communication across stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0290.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: hormesis; developmental toxicity; endocrine disruptor; herbicide; ecological risk assessment (ERA)
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:33:58 CEST)
Some herbicides exert hormetic or biphasic non-monotonic dose-response (NMDR), which is one of the major challenges for ecological risk assessment (ERA) of pesticides pollution. In this study, fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with Javanese medaka (Oryzias javanicus) to sublethal concentration of diuron was determined. Inverted U-shape heart rate was observed at 3 days post-exposure (dpe) and 7 dpe. However, at 13 dpe the heart rate (104 ± 2.90 heartbeat/min.) decreased in 10.00 mg.L-1 exposed-embryos. At 20 dpe, hatchability and survival rate were reduced in 5.00 mg.L-1 and 10.00 mg.L-1 exposed groups. Hormetic developmental deformities were observed in embryo-larvae of Javanese medaka. The results revealed a biphasic effect of low concentrations of diuron on some morphological and physiological features of Javanese medaka embryo-larvae, which might be attributed to endocrine disruption of this herbicide. Further studies to support these effects were recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; endocrine; estrogen; immune activation; melanin concentrating hormone
Online: 25 May 2018 (10:37:23 CEST)
The voluminous daily output of autism research has become increasingly disconnected, existing largely within highly specific subspecialty areas, and lacking cross-disciplinary linkages of context, theory, and findings to inform a unified body of knowledge. Robust syntheses of published research across the fields of psychiatry, cellular and molecular biology, neurology, endocrinology, immunology, behavioral and social sciences, and pedagogy may help clarify and extend current knowledge by guiding more efficient future research efforts investigating underlying causes, developmental divergences, novel treatments, and specific, sensitive biological markers in autism. This synthesis of interdisciplinary research indicates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis may be at the center of an interaction among sex steroids, immune function, signaling protein transcriptions, neurogenesis, and dysregulation of brain structures sending or receiving projections from the HPA stress axis. These interaction manifest observably as a range of sexually dimorphic behaviors and functional limitations often falling within the current diagnostic features of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The pathogenicity of endocrine dysregulation may serve as a valuable model for developing a cohesive theory of ASD by explaining how the HPA and connected brain areas respond to extreme conditions of dysregulated endocrine signaling to cause symptoms associated with autism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: β-glucans; entero-endocrine system; intestinal hormones; microbiota; nutritional intervention
Online: 23 December 2016 (13:37:44 CET)
Recent interest in intestinal hormones has risen with the idea that they modulate glucose tolerance and food intake through a variety of mechanisms, and such hormones like peptide YY (PYY), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and 2, and cholecystokinin (CKK) are therefore excellent therapeutic candidates for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. Furthermore, in the recent years, multiple studies suggest that the microbiota is critically important for normal host functions, while impaired host microbiota interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of numerous common metabolic disorders. In this study, we considered the nutraceutical effects of β-glucans added to pasta at the concentration of 6g\100g. Ten participants have been recruited and hematochemical analyses and intestinal hormones tests have been performed before and after 30 days of pasta intake. Stool specimens have been studied for Lactobacillus Fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus salivarius, Bifidobacterium longum, and Enterococcus faecium presence before and after 30 days of nutritional intervention. After 30 days of regular intake of pasta enriched by β-glucans results have been evaluated. In conclusion, pasta prepared from barley flour enriched with β-glucans at 6% exhibit promising responses on glucose metabolism, on intestinal hormones responses and on microbiota modification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0772.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitors; immune-related endocrine dysfunction; hypothyroidism; targeted therapy; malignancy
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:49:40 CEST)
Abstract Background The number of immune-related endocrine dysfunctions (irEDs) has concurrently increased with the widespread use of immunotherapy in clinical practice and further expansion of the approved indications for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations using different modalities of anti-cancer treatment. Method A retrospective analysis was conducted on consecutive patients >18 years of age with advanced solid malignancies who had received at least one dose of anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) and/or anti-CTLA4 antibodies between January 2014 and December 2019 at a Hong Kong university hospital. Patients were reviewed for up to two months after the last administration of an ICI. The types, onset times and grades of irEDs, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and immune-related diabetes mellitus, were recorded. Factors associated with irEDs were identified using multivariate analysis. Result A total of 953 patients (male: 603, 64.0%; median age: 62.0 years) received ICIs during the study period. Of these, 580 patients (60.9%) used ICI-alone, 132 (13.9%) used dual-ICI, 187 (19.6%) used an ICI combined with chemotherapy (chemo+ICI), and 54 (5.70%) used immunotherapy with a targeted agent (targeted+ICI). A significantly higher proportion of patients using targeted+ICI had irEDs and hypothyroidism; in contrast, a higher proportion of patients using dual-ICI had adrenal insufficiency. There was no significant difference in the incidence of irED between the younger (<65 years) and older (>65 years) patients. Using logistic regression, only treatment type was significantly associated with irEDs. Notably, older patients had a higher risk of having immune-related diabetes mellitus. Conclusions This large, real-world cohort demonstrates that combining ICI with targeted therapy has a higher risk of overall irED and hypothyroidism. Immunotherapy is safe and well-tolerated regardless of age, but close monitoring of fasting glucose is needed in older populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0551.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: steroids; steroid panel; clinical mass spectrometry; plasma; sample automation; endocrine; Synacthen
Online: 21 November 2020 (08:36:10 CET)
Steroid analysis is important in the clinical assessment of endocrine function in health and disease. Although tandem mass spectrometry methods coupled with chromatographic separation are considered the gold standard analytical technique in this setting, enabling profiling of multiple steroids in a single sample, sample processing can be labour-intensive. Here we present a simple, efficient automated 96-well Supported Liquid Extraction method with dichloromethane/isopropanol as organic solvent, carried out on a Extrahera automated sample handler (Biotage), which completes sample preparation of 80 plasma samples (200µL) in 90 minutes. Compounds were separated on a Kinetex C18 column (150x3mm;2.6um) using a mobile phase of methanol and water (0.1% formic acid). The run time was 16 minutes on a Nexera uHPLC system (Shimadzu) with a QTrap 6500+ linear ion trap mass spectrometer (AB Sciex). Precisions ranged 8.1 to 18.1% RSD, bias -10.1-5.8%, and extraction recoveries 73.5-111.9%. LOQs ranged between 0.025–0.500 ng/mL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: bisphenols; endocrine disruptors; obesity and diabetes mellitus; hepatic toxicity; neurotoxicity; immunotoxicity
Online: 19 December 2019 (06:40:34 CET)
Bisphenols are widely used in the synthesis of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and thermal paper, which are used in manufacturing items of daily use. Packaged foods and drinks are the main sources of exposure to bisphenols. These chemicals affect humans and animals by disrupting the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, thyroid, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor functions. Bisphenols exert numerous harmful effects because of their interaction with receptors, ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell signal alterations. Both cohort and case-control studies have determined an association between bisphenol exposure and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, reproductive abnormalities, obesity, and diabetes. Prenatal exposure to bisphenol results in developmental disorders in animals. These chemicals also affect the immune cells and play a significant role in initiating the inflammatory response. Exposure to bisphenols exhibit age, gender, and dose-dependent effects. Even at low concentrations, bisphenols exert toxicity, and hence deserve a critical assessment for their uses. Since bisphenols have a global influence on human health, the need to discover the underlying pathways involved in all disease conditions is essential. Furthermore, it is important to promote the use of alternatives for bisphenols, thereby restricting their uses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0732.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: depression; estrogenic endocrine disruptor; environmental factor; inhibitor of differentiation; mental disorder
Online: 31 October 2018 (04:51:16 CET)
The ongoing growth of international occurrence of depression and its ability to co-occur with other serious medical disorders such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease is a current public health problem. Inhibitor of DNA-Binding/Differentiation (ID) proteins are part of a group of transcriptional factors that have been seen to be involved in neurocognitive disorders and therefore, may have influence on depressive disorders. Previously, it has been established that environmental estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) & bisphenol A (BPA) have played an important role in the impact of depressive disorders. Hence, based on many studies, we consider the impact of these environmental pollutants on the group of ID proteins. Improved understanding of how the interaction of ID proteins by EED exposure can influence depressive disorders will contribute essential evidence that can further benefit our public health community with innovative knowledge to prevent these types of mental illnesses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Endocrine disruptors; gender; female; atherosclerosis; Cadmium; Bisphenol A; inflammatory cytokines; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 17 November 2021 (10:53:12 CET)
The number of aged individuals is increasing worldwide, rendering essential the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of age-related alterations, that could facilitate the development of interventions contributing to “successful aging” and improvement of quality of life. Cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) include pathologies affecting heart or blood vessels, such as hyperten-sion, peripheral artery disease and coronary heart disease. Indeed, age-associated modifications in body composition, hormonal, nutritional and metabolic factors, as well as a decline in physical activity are all involved in the increased risk of developing atherogenic alterations raising the risk of CVD development. Several factors have been claimed to play a role in the alterations observed in muscle and endothelial cells and leading to increased CVD, such as genetic pattern, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle. Moreover, a difference in the risk of these diseases in women and men has been reported. Interestingly, in the last decades attention has been focused on a potential role of several pollutants which disrupt human health by interfering with hormonal pathways, and more specifically in non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and CVD. This review will focus on the potential alteration induced by Endocrine Disruptors (Eds) in the attempt to characterize a potential role in the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the atheromatic process and CVD progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19; Lockdown; endocrine diseases; daily habits; food consumption; sleep disorders; anxiety
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:32:38 CEST)
In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the “pandemic state” due to COVID-19 imposing strict confinement of the world population. People were forced to spend more time at home, changing some daily routines, including social interactions, the possibility to perform sports, and diet habits. These changes could exert a greater impact on patients suffering from chronic diseases, such as endocrine patients. This study aimed to assess the effects of Covid-19 induced quarantine on daily habits in a group of patients with endocrine disorders, focusing on food consumption, eating, and sleep habits during the confinement. Eighty-five endocrine patients were enrolled. A structured interview was administered investigating: socio-demographic information, general medical conditions and habits adopted during the quarantine. All patients underwent the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y1) to assess state anxiety. Subjects had mainly a sedentary lifestyle. We found a significant increase in the number of cigarettes in smokers, an increase of meals consumed during the confinement and a high rate of sleep disorder occurrence, especially insomnia. The changes of daily habits were, probably, due to the alterations of routine, that determined more bore and inactivity during the day.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0254.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: endocrine disruptor, environmental health sciences, gene-environment, inhibitor of differentiation, neurocognitive disorders
Online: 14 July 2018 (23:30:36 CEST)
The devastating growth in the worldwide frequency of neurocognitive disorders and its allied difficulties such as decline in memory, spatial competency, and ability to focus poses a significant psychological public health problem. Inhibitor of Differentiation (ID) proteins are members of a family of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors. ID proteins have been demonstrated to be involved in neurodevelopmental & depressive diseases and thus may influence neurocognitive deficiencies due to environmental exposure. Previously, it has been demonstrated that environmental factors such as estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) have played an essential role in the influence of various neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Dementia, and Parkinson’s disease. Based on this increasing number of reports, we consider the impact of these environmental pollutants on ID proteins. Better understanding of how these ID proteins by which EED exposure can affect neurocognitive disorders in populations will prospectively deliver valuable information in the impediment and regulation of these diseases linked with environmental factor exposure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0198.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Bisphenol A; endocrine disruptors; neurodevelopmental disorder; neural stem cell development; synaptogenesis; synaptic plasticity; behavior
Online: 17 February 2022 (02:22:38 CET)
Substantial evidence indicates that bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous environmental chemical used in the synthesis of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, can impair brain development. Clinical and epidemiological studies exploring potential connections between BPA and neurodevelopmental disorders in humans have repeatedly identified correlations between early BPA exposure and developmental disorders, like attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Investigations using invertebrate and vertebrate animal models have revealed that developmental exposure to BPA can impair multiple aspects of neuronal development, including neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation, synapse formation, and synaptic plasticity—neuronal phenotypes that are thought to underpin the fundamental changes in behavior associated neurodevelopmental disorders. Consistent with BPA-associated neuronal phenotypes, behavioral analyses of BPA-treated animals have shown significant impacts on behavioral endophenotypes related to neurodevelopmental disorders, including altered locomotor activity, learning and memory deficits, and anxiety-like behavior. To contextualize the correlations between BPA and neurodevelopmental disorders in humans, this review summarizes current literature reporting on the developmental neurotoxicity of BPA in laboratory animals, with an emphasis on neuronal phenotypes, molecular mechanisms, and behavioral outcomes. The collective works described here predominantly support the notion that gestational exposure to BPA should be regarded as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0206.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: new approach methodologies (NAMs); adverse outcome pathways (AOPs); endocrine disruptors; animal replacement; OECD TG 414
Online: 11 November 2022 (02:00:48 CET)
Developmental toxicity testing urgently requires the implementation of human relevant new approach methodologies (NAMs) that better recapitulate the peculiar nature of human physiology during pregnancy, especially the placenta and the maternal/fetal interface, which represent a key stage for the human lifelong health. Fit-for-purpose NAMs for the placental-fetal interface are desirable to improve the biological knowledge of environmental exposure at molecular level and to reduce the high cost, time and ethical impact of animal studies. This article reviews the state of the art on the available in vitro (placental, fetal and amniotic cell-based systems) and in silico NAMs of human relevance for developmental toxicity testing purposes, as well as of the available Adverse Outcome Pathways related to developmental toxicity. The OECD TG 414 for the identification and assessment of deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to chemicals on developing organisms will be discussed to delineate the regulatory context and to better debate what is missing and needed in the context of the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis to significantly improve this sector. Starting from this analysis, the development of a novel human feto-placental organ-on-chip platform will be introduced as an innovative alternative tool for developmental toxicity testing, considering possible implementation and validation strategies to overcome the limitation of the current animal studies and NAMs available in regulatory toxicology and in the biomedical field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0088.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome; evolution; insulin resistance; infertility; environment; toxins; endocrine disrupting chemicals; dysbiosis; lifestyle; diet
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:34:25 CET)
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is increasingly recognized as a complex metabolic disorder that manifests in genetically susceptible women following a range of negative exposures to nutritional and environmental factors related to contemporary lifestyle. The hypothesis that PCOS phenotypes are derived from a mismatch between ancient genetic survival mechanisms and modern lifestyle practices is supported by a diversity of research findings. The proposed evolutionary model of the pathogenesis of PCOS incorporates evidence related to evolutionary theory, genetic studies, in-utero developmental epigenetic programming, transgenerational inheritance, metabolic features including insulin resistance, obesity and the apparent paradox of lean phenotypes, reproductive effects and subfertility, the impact of the microbiome and dysbiosis, endocrine disrupting chemical exposure, and the influence of lifestyle factors such as poor quality diet and physical inactivity. Based on these premises, the diverse lines of research are synthesized into a composite evolutionary model of the pathogenesis of PCOS. It is hoped that this model will assist clinicians and patients to understand the importance of lifestyle interventions in the prevention and management of PCOS and provide a conceptual framework for future research. It is appreciated that this theory represents a synthesis of the current evidence and that it is expected to evolve and change over time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: SMA; spinal muscular atrophy type 1; SMN1; nutritional management; enteral nutrition; pediatric gastroenterology; dysphagia; neurological disability; endocrine disorders; precocious pubarche
Online: 7 June 2021 (13:14:37 CEST)
The management of patients with spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA1) is constantly evolving. In just a few decades the medical approach has switched from an exclusively palliative therapy to a targeted therapy, transforming the natural history of the disease, improving survival time and quality of life, and creating new challenges and goals. Many nutritional problems, gastrointesti-nal disorders and metabolic and endocrine alterations are commonly identified in patients af-fected by SMA1 during childhood and adolescence. For this reason, a proper pediatric multidis-ciplinary approach is then required in the clinical care of these patients, with a specific focus on the prevention of most common complications. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide the clinician with a practical and usable tool about SMA1 patients care, through a comprehensive insight into the nutritional, gastroenterological, metabolic and endocrine management of SMA1. Considering the possible horizons opened thanks to new therapeutic frontiers, a nutritional and endo-metabolic surveillance is a crucial element to be considered for a proper clinical care of these patients.