Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Environmental Contaminants Acting as Endocrine Disruptors Modulate Atherogenic Processes: New Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Women?

Version 1 : Received: 13 November 2021 / Approved: 17 November 2021 / Online: 17 November 2021 (10:53:12 CET)

How to cite: Migliaccio, S.; Bimonte, V.M.; Besharat, Z.M.; Sabato, C.; Crescioli, C.; Lenzi, A.; Ferretti, E. Environmental Contaminants Acting as Endocrine Disruptors Modulate Atherogenic Processes: New Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Women?. Preprints 2021, 2021110300 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0300.v1). Migliaccio, S.; Bimonte, V.M.; Besharat, Z.M.; Sabato, C.; Crescioli, C.; Lenzi, A.; Ferretti, E. Environmental Contaminants Acting as Endocrine Disruptors Modulate Atherogenic Processes: New Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases in Women?. Preprints 2021, 2021110300 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202111.0300.v1).

Abstract

The number of aged individuals is increasing worldwide, rendering essential the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of age-related alterations, that could facilitate the development of interventions contributing to “successful aging” and improvement of quality of life. Cardio-vascular diseases (CVD) include pathologies affecting heart or blood vessels, such as hyperten-sion, peripheral artery disease and coronary heart disease. Indeed, age-associated modifications in body composition, hormonal, nutritional and metabolic factors, as well as a decline in physical activity are all involved in the increased risk of developing atherogenic alterations raising the risk of CVD development. Several factors have been claimed to play a role in the alterations observed in muscle and endothelial cells and leading to increased CVD, such as genetic pattern, smoking, unhealthy lifestyle. Moreover, a difference in the risk of these diseases in women and men has been reported. Interestingly, in the last decades attention has been focused on a potential role of several pollutants which disrupt human health by interfering with hormonal pathways, and more specifically in non-communicable diseases such as obesity, diabetes and CVD. This review will focus on the potential alteration induced by Endocrine Disruptors (Eds) in the attempt to characterize a potential role in the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the atheromatic process and CVD progression.

Keywords

Endocrine disruptors; gender; female; atherosclerosis; Cadmium; Bisphenol A; inflammatory cytokines; cardiovascular diseases

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Other

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