ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0241.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: leadership; community leadership; job performance
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:37:32 CET)
Leadership performance by village leaders is essential to promote sustainable life among rural communities, especially fisheries community who living along coastal villages. Otherwise, previous studies found that performance issues among village’s leaders remain as serious problems, and need to find the best solution. This study was conducted to profile the job performance among village leaders based on demographic factors such as educational level, age and experiences as village leader. The data of this cross-sectional survey were collected by questionnaires on 300 respondents consist of members of village organization through stratified sampling’s technique, while the data was analysed by SPSS using items of mean, standard deviation, independent-sample t-test and anova. The finding shown that there were differences in job performance among village leaders on educational level, age and experiences. Interestingly, the finding told the best on job performance among village leaders are (i) the age between 41 to 50 years old; (iii) the experience between 11 to 20 years; and (iii) the higher educational level the higher job performance among them. This result can be using by government or any responsible parties to improve job performance among village leaders, especially for recruitment selection and for in-service training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental health science; community engagement; community based participatory research; community-university partnerships
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:07:29 CET)
Community-engaged research is understood as existing on a continuum from less to more community engagement, defined by participation and decision-making authority. It has been widely assumed that more is better than less engagement. However, we argue that what makes for good community engagement is not simply the extent but the fit or alignment between the intended approach and the various contexts shaping the research projects. This article draws on case studies from three Community Engagement Cores (CECs) of NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Science Core Centers (Harvard University, UC Davis and University of Arizona,) to illustrate the ways in which community engagement approaches have been fit to different contexts and the successes and challenges experienced in each case. We analyze the processes through which the CECs work with researchers and community leaders to develop place-based community engagement approaches and find that different strategies are called for to fit distinct contexts. We find that alignment of the scale and scope of the environmental health issue and related research project, the capacities and resources of the researchers and community leaders, and the influences of the socio-political environment are critical for understanding and designing effective and equitable engagement approaches. These cases demonstrate that the types and degrees of alignment in community-engaged research projects are dynamic and evolve over time. Based on this analysis, we recommend that CBPR scholars and practitioners select a range of project planning and management techniques for designing and implementing their collaborative research approaches and both expect and allow for the dynamic and changing nature of alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1513.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: awgbu; assessment; community; community development; government; sustainability
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:53:39 CEST)
This study assesses the impact and sustainability of community development initiatives in Awgbu, Anambra State, spanning from 2015 to 2023. Using qualitative research methods, including interviews with key informants from the Awgbu community and government personnel. The observatory method is also applied which helped the researcher to see activities executed in the community. The research investigates the specific contributions of the Awgbu community to the overall development of Anambra State, how the community has benefitted from state government initiatives, and the extent to which the community responds to government requests and initiatives. The study also explores challenges in the relationship between the state government and Awgbu in terms of community development initiatives and offers recommendations for enhancing this relationship. The findings reveal that the Awgbu community has made significant contributions to the development of Anambra State, particularly in areas such as security, education, and infrastructure. The community has actively responded to government calls, participating in initiatives like the Choose Your Project Initiative (CYPI) and vigilante groups, thus fostering a positive and mutually beneficial relationship with the state government. However, challenges such as leadership crises and communication gaps exist, hindering the community's progress. Recommendations include improving community leadership, enhancing communication, and promoting peace to ensure sustainable community development. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the dynamics between communities and government in achieving sustainable development and highlights the importance of collaborative efforts for positive outcomes. The findings have managerial and policy implications for both local communities and governments seeking to enhance community development initiatives and foster mutually beneficial relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ethics; community; refusal; consent; peer review; community peer review
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:35:48 CEST)
Community peer review is a method that extends the ethics of consent into scientific practices. It gives communities affected by scientific research the ability to determine whether research may cause them harm and be part of determining how knowledge should best circulate to reduce or eliminate that harm. This paper introduces the method of community peer review by first looking at the concepts of consent and refusal, then outlining the steps to community peer review, using a case study of community meetings on a study of plastic ingestion by fish to elucidate the details of each step. Steps include: hiring a community member to the team; researching the social, cultural, and economic contexts of the community; identify the community; ensure skills for community conversation are in place; call the community meeting; conduct the community meeting; and analyze feedback for consent and refusal. Community peer review is premised on the idea that research is not inherently good and can cause harm, and that the best people to know whether and what kinds of harms are likely to occur are community members rather than researchers. The second premise is that the researcher’s “right” to research never supersedes a community’s right to not be harmed.
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: community health; complex interventions; hierarchy of evidence; health inequalities; community engagement; community organizing; PACT; Citizens UK; evaluation; methodology
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:36:11 CET)
It is widely recognized that public health interventions benefit from community engagement and leadership, yet there are challenges to evaluating complex, community-led interventions assuming hierarchies of evidence derived from laboratory experimentation and clinical trials. Particular challenges include, first, inconsistency of the intervention across sites; and second, absence of researcher control over the sampling frame and methodology. This report highlights these challenges as they played out in the evaluation of a community-organized health project in South London. The project aimed to benefit maternal mental health, health literacy and social capital, and especially to engage local populations known to have reduced contact with statutory services. We evaluated the project using two studies with different designs, sampling frames and methodologies. In one the sampling frame and methodology were under community control, permitting comparison of change in outcomes from before to after participation in the project. In the other, the sampling frame and methodology were under researcher control, permitting a case-control design. The two evaluations led to different results however: participants in the community-controlled study showed benefits, while participants in the researcher-controlled study did not. The principal conclusions are that while there are severe challenges to evaluating a community-led health intervention using a controlled design, measurement of pre-/post-participation changes in well-defined health outcomes should typically be a minimum evaluation requirement, and confidence in attributing causation of any positive changes to participation can be increased by use of interventions in the project and in the engagement process itself that have a credible theoretical and empirical basis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Community Radio; Holistic Development; Integrated Development; Sustainable Development; Community Radio Practices
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:59:05 CET)
Community radios play a paramount role in the development of the community. Community radio stations have been highly engaged in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, environmental, sanitation, and disaster issues effectively and strategically using local languages in context. Community radios are also used to express, and share indigenous views, thoughts, ideas, problems, and perspectives of local people. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the role of community radio for integrated and sustainable development in Ethiopia. It used a systematic narrative review. Nine research works and five assessments report were selected purposively and analyzed in a quantitative approach. Currently, in Ethiopia, there are 50 community radio stations that received broadcast licenses from Ethiopian Broadcast Authority with four types of licensing and broadcasting in 29 local languages. Community radio helps the community to identify their common goals, create holistic plans, monitor the progress of their developmental activities, and guide on sustainable development. It contributes to integrated and sustainable development in a collaborative and creative process that cultivates the social, economic, and political conditions needed for the community to succeed which aimed to improve and sustain the livelihoods of the community. However, the media can’t achieve its target goal to support the development activities and bring holistic development of the community. As a result; this review paper focuses on reviewing how Ethiopians use community radios for holistic development. And it suggested the way how we can use community radios for the prospective holistic development in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: ichthyological community; endorheic; Chapala
Online: 8 June 2022 (03:36:20 CEST)
Small, enclosed lake is in a tourist area called "Los Negritos", by the prominences a few steps from the lake on a perimeter of tens of meters with hot pools and mud bubbles. The lake originally belonged to Lake Chapala, so the group of fish present here derives from that. This is an endorheic vessel with at least one deep water inlet to the center, with a slight salinity (2.14 to 2.38 0/00), which is precisely greater at the point of upwelling and at a depth of approximately 36 m. This study to date has continued to collect and take data, also presents the characteristic of being an area of saline soils and halophilic vegetation. This body of water we consider is as relevant as that of Alchichica in Puebla. Its study is by monthly sampling with “chinchorro” and "chango" type trawl, recording morphological parameters, also environmental variables in the water, with a Data Sonde 4 brand Hydrolab. Knowing the structure and temporal dynamics of this fish community, along with the physical and chemical characterization of the water and implementa-tion of Importance Value Index (IVI).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0377.v2
Online: 25 February 2021 (07:46:06 CET)
The scientific community of the XX and XXI centuries is a very large companionship, very fragmented and spread all over the world. Moreover, the status of the scientist, which in most cases is a member of the States’ apparati, is significantly different with respect to the one of the scientists up to the First World War.The concepts of scientific revolution of Thomas Kuhn and scientific anarchy of Paul Feyerabend should be reconsidered in this contest. In particular, the anarchist modus operandi should be shifted from the scientific method, that has become significantly standardized with protocols, to the sociology of the scientific community. A pluralism of the scientific method is possible, but an anarchy in the relationships among scientists emerges as more important. The scientist is in many cases a parrhesiastes, a person that says the truth even when he is going to pay because of that, that defends the developed theory or model, by respecting the protocols established in the scientific community. On the other side, each scientist should be a patient beholder that accepts the more solid, and intersubjectively recognized, theories of other scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1568.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: water governance; rice farming; irrigation; community fisheries; community fish refuge; water conflict
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:42:26 CEST)
Cambodia faces the challenge of managing excess water during the wet season and insufficient water during the dry season. This harms human life and endangers aquatic and natural resources, agricultural practices, and food security. In order to ensure the well-being of both people and food security, water governance is crucial. However, Cambodia's water governance is hindered by various obstacles, including sectoral and centralized influences, top-down and large-scale strategies, a lack of coordination among relevant agencies, and limited involvement of local communities. This study delves into water governance across different sectors, from centralized to community-based natural resources management to tackle these challenges. Through analyzing literature and case studies of farmer water user communities (FWUC), community fisheries (CFis), and community fish refuges (CFRs) in three Mekong Delta provinces in Cambodia, the study concludes that although water governance has improved, it has resulted in a decline in fishery resources from rivers and water bodies and an increase in water conflicts among farmers and sectors in the face of climate change. To enhance water governance in Cambodia, it is critical to integrate it at the district level. This will promote sustainable water use and management across the country and pave the way for a brighter future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0465.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: abuse; community pharmacists; Jordan; Loperamide
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:16:16 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the ability of community pharmacists to recognize cases of Loperamide abuse at the point of sale, their perspective of and experience towards potential abuse cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jordan, using a self-administered online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts: demographics, the experience of pharmacists with abusers' behavior, as well as their perspectives towards Loperamide abuse. Results: A total of 250 community pharmacists completed the survey, 54% (135) of which were female. Almost one-third (33.2%; 83) of the participants reported exposure to suspected cases of Loperamide abuse during the last six months. Pharmacists declared that most of the suspected Loperamide abusers were male (60.2%), of middle-low socioeconomic status (69.9%), and between 20-30 years of age (57.8%). The largest quantity (packs) of Loperamide requested by a single patient was around 33.2±14.9 at once. As reported by pharmacists, the suspected reasons behind Loperamide abuse included 50% seeking euphoria, 17% relieving anxiety, and 33% controlling addiction (weaning off other opioids). The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between male gender (OR=1.2, 95% CI 0.12-1.59), pharmacy location in the center of Jordan (OR=21.2, 95%CI 2.45-183.59), late-night working shift (Shift C, OR=1.29, 95% CI 0.12-2.08) and abuse to Loperamide during the last six months. Conclusion: This study shed light on Loperamide abuse which is highly influenced by different sociodemographic characteristics. Accordingly, close monitoring and thorough tackling of the abuse practices are mandated through an increase in educational and awareness campaigns about proper medication use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0397.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: phage; dairy; Lactococcus; diversity; community
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:30:53 CEST)
Background: The dairy industry heavily relies on fermentation processes driven in high proportion by Lactococcus lactis. The fermentation process can be perturbed or even stopped by bacteriophage activity leading to complete loss of fermentation batch or decreased quality product. Monitoring of the phage diversity and dynamics in the process allows to implement protective measures (e.g. starter rotation) in order to maintain unperturbed production.; Methods: Universal primers were used to amplify sequences of the 936, c2, and P335 Lactococcus phage types. The amplicons were sequences with Sanger method and obtained degenerate sequences were analyzed using simple bioinformatic pipeline in R environment.; Results: The most prevalent phage type is 936, followed by P335, whereas c2 type is less frequent.; Conclusions: Curd cheeses prepared on non-pasteurized milk based on native milk microbiota had higher diversity of phages distinct of these found in dairy plants. Sanger sequencing of heterogenous amplicons generated on metagenome DNA can be used to asses low-complexity microbiota diversity.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Fungi; Mycology; Canada; Research; Community
Online: 3 June 2020 (13:45:17 CEST)
Fungi critically impact the health and function of global ecosystems and economies. In Canada, fungal researchers often work within silos defined by sub-discipline and institutional type, complicating the collaborations necessary to understand the impacts fungi have on the environment, economy, and plant and animal health. Here, we announce the establishment of the Canadian Fungal Research Network (CanFunNet, https://fungalresearch.ca) whose mission is to strengthen and promote fungal research in Canada by facilitating dialogue among scientists. We summarize the challenges and opportunities for Canadian fungal research that were discussed at CanFunNet’s inaugural meeting in 2019, and identify four priorities for our community: 1) increasing collaboration among scientists; 2) studying diversity in the context of ecological disturbance; 3) preserving culture collections in the absence of sustained funding; and 4) leveraging diverse expertise to attract trainees. We have gathered additional information to support our recommendations, including a survey identifying underrepresentation of fungal-related courses at Canadian universities, a list of Canadian fungaria and culture collections, and a case study of a human fungal pathogen outbreak. We anticipate that these discussions will help prioritize fungal research in Canada, and we welcome all researchers to join this nationwide effort to enhance knowledge dissemination and funding advocacy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID; lockdown; progression; community; spread
Online: 6 April 2020 (07:25:12 CEST)
COVID-19 (SARS-Cov-2) is spreading around the globe in a highly contagious manner. China has shown the way to halt the progression of the disease by totally sealing Wuhan from rest of china but they could not prevent community spread resulting in more than 4000 deaths in a short period of time. India, following example of china, ordered national Lockdown early on 23 March, 2020. But it is difficult to determine the transition Here we have changed the way we look at available data to detect an early onset of the effect of Lockdown. Here a simple method is described for the first time to determine at the earliest when a change is beginning to take effect after Lockdown on the progression/regression of the spread of novel COVID-19 virus which could help to frame strategy for intervention to prevent community spread and save lives.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0399.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Family and Community Nursing; Covid-19; Community health assessment; Primary Health Care; Health Promotion
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:57:35 CET)
The WHO European Region defined the role of a new central professional for primary care, the Family and Community Nurse (FCN). The introduction of FCN in the framework of health policies highlight a key role of nurses in addressing the families’ and communities’ needs. A scoping review was conducted in order to identify and describe the available tools which has been adopted for the assessment of the community health needs by FNC. A comprehensive literature review on Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycInfo databases was conducted including all studies up to May 2021. A total of 1563 studies were identified and 36 of them were included. The literature review had made possible to identify studies employing twelve different community assessment's tools or modalities. Referring the WHO framework proposed in 2001 some common themes have been identified with an uneven distribution, as profiling the population, deciding on priorities for action and public healthcare programmes, implementing the planned activities, evaluation of health outcomes, multidisciplinary activity, flexibility and involving the community. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide an overview of community assessment tools, keeping the guidance provided by the WHO as a reference.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Nutritional Surveillance; Public Health; Community Health Nursing; Public Health Nursing; Children’s health; Community Participation
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:36 CEST)
Effectively responding to children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique requires a community-based care approach grounded in sound nursing research that is evidence-based. The Community Assessment, Intervention, and Empowerment Model (MAIEC) is a nursing theoretical model that bases clinical decision-making for community health nurses using communities as a unit of care. We used the MAIEC to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis to address children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique. Objectives: (1) To conduct a descriptive study of children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in a school community in Mavalane, Mozambique, and (2) to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis using the MAIEC clinical decision-making matrix in the same school community. Method: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children using anthropometric data, including brachial perimeter and the tricipital skinfold, and standard deviation for the relation of weight-height, in a sample of 227 children. To assess community management of the problem and identify a community-based nursing diagnosis, we surveyed 176 parents/guardians and 49 education professionals, using a questionnaire based on the MAIEC clinical decision matrix as a reference. Results: Malnutrition was identified in more than half of the children (51.3%). We also identified a community-based nursing diagnosis of impaired community management related to the promotion of child health and healthy eating as evident by lack of community leadership, participation, and processing among more than 70% of the community members (parents/guardians and education professionals). Conclusion: A nursing diagnosis and diagnostic criteria for nutritional status and community management were identified. The need to intervene using a multidisciplinary public health approach is imperative, with the school community as the unit of care. In addition, reliable anthropometric data were used to complement the nursing diagnosis and guide future public health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1525.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fan community platform; Mental well-being; Sense of virtual community; Fan interaction; Parasocial relationship; Weverse
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:15:51 CEST)
Activities in the digital economy driven by information technology have rapidly increased in scope and speed in the aftermath of COVID-19. Meanwhile, social isolation accelerated by quarantine measures has increased concerns about individuals’ mental health. However, little is known about the specific consequences of online interactions, especially when applied in online fan community-based relationships where loyal community members are prevalent. Therefore, we examined whether a sense of virtual community (SOVC) can link fans’ online activities with their mental well-being and behavioral loyalty to the platform. For this purpose, we focus on BTS fandom “Adorable Representative MC for Youth” (ARMY) behaviors and attitudes on the fan community platform Weverse. With 202 valid data samples acquired from global ARMY, this study conducted a partial least squares–structural equation modeling analysis. The empirical findings reveal that SOVC in Weverse is significantly influenced by the intensity of online interactions with other fans and parasocial relationships with celebrities. SOVC is found to be the direct predictor of fans’ behavioral loyalty and mental well-being. When considering fans’ perceptions of other social media platforms, dissatisfaction with previous online fan communities enhances the intensity of online interactions with other fans in Weverse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0367.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Community health workers; Competence in prevention of non-communicable diseases; Associated factors literacy; Community commitment
Online: 21 March 2023 (02:39:23 CET)
Background Community health workers (CHWs) drawn from the general population are an important human resource in health care systems, preventing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and contributing to an increase in healthy life expectancy in Japan. Thus, we have developed the COmmunity health workers perceptual and behavioral Competency Scale for preventing Non-communicable diseases (COCS-N) to measure CHWs’ competence in preventing NCDs. The purpose of this study is to examine individual and community factors affecting CHWs’ COCS-N scores. Methods Municipal public health nurses and other public health professionals are responsible for training and supporting CHWs in Japan. Therefore, the existence of CHWs and their willingness to participate in the study were confirmed with the municipalities, who were asked to distribute the self-administered questionnaire to CHWs where consent was obtained (N = 6,480). Variables used included demographic characteristics, COCS-N scores, and individual- and community-related factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between variables. Results A total of 3,120 people completed the questionnaire, a valid response rate of 48.1%. The respondents’ mean age was 67.0 years (standard deviation = 9.0), and 88.0% were female. Comparison of the high- and low- competence groups in terms of NCD prevention based on COCS-N scores identified 13 factors associated with significant differences, including years spent working as a CHW (p < 0.001), subjective sense of health (p = 0.005), European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) scores (p < 0.001), and community commitment scale (CCS) scores (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HLS-EU-Q47 scores (odds ratio [OR]: 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.03) were a significant individual factor, while CCS scores (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11–1.16) were a significant community factor. Conclusions We found that the COCS-N score was associated with the individual factors overall health literacy (HL), perceptions of HL, and subjective sense of health, and with the community factor CCS scores. These results suggest that strengthening individual factors such as HL and subjective sense of health, and community factors such as sense of community is an effective strategy for increasing CHWs’ competence in preventing NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0140.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: common lands; baldios; wild mushrooms; non-timber forest products; Portugal; community; community forestry; forest governance
Online: 24 May 2017 (17:01:57 CEST)
Forest community connections are crucial to ensure forest stewardship and sustainability. We explored the potential of mushrooming to enable such connections in contexts where these connections have been historically broken, alienating local people from forests. Taking the case of the recent devolution of a community forest (baldios) in central Portugal to the local population, we present a five-year pilot project to rework mycology from a mushroom-centered approach to a mushroom-in-baldios approach. Mushrooms were used as an entry-point to connect the forest ecology with the challenges of governance and community building. The devised activities provided an opportunity for people inside and outside the local community to adventure into the woods and find out more about their socio-ecological history, develop communal and convivial relationships and engage in the responsible gathering of wild mushrooms. However, the hosting of mushroomers to know, value and engage with the community forest recovery has constantly working against the enclosure of mushrooms to provide marketable forms of leisure. The outcome of these activities depends on the relationships established between mushrooms, mycologists, local administrators, commoners and poachers, all operating within a framework that favors the eradication of resources instead of long-term relationships that sustain places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0634.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: SIAKAD; Implementation; SERVQUAL; Satisfaction; Academic community
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:18:15 CET)
SIAKAD is a system developed to meet the needs of the academic community as a whole. Implementation of SIAKAD is based on three satisfaction indicators: access speed, ease of access and timeliness. Qualitative and quantitative methods on SERVQUAL analysis. Then analysed with statistical data as a comparison of satisfaction implementation in each academic community in IAKN and UIN universities. This study shows that the purpose of satisfaction affects the value of the academic community in providing an excellent and destructive impact on the value of work in higher education as well as the involvement of various elements in higher education to determine how the academic information system (SIAKAD) should be built to meet the expectations of its users and following SIAKAD standards in general in higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1237.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: lotic ecosystems; community ecology; biodiversity indices
Online: 20 September 2023 (07:58:38 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to compare the taxonomic composition and species diversity of the macrozoobenthos in Maritsa River (Bulgaria) and Han River (South Korea). Samples were collected at 15 selected sites in each river, including some of their main tributaries in 2020 and 2021. The number of the taxa recorded in Maritsa River was more than twice as great as in Han River: 192 taxa belonging to 19 systematic groups compared to 88 taxa belonging to 18 groups respectively. The order Ephemeroptera had the highest species richness: 31 taxa in the Bulgarian rivers and 26 taxa in the South Korean ones. The macrozoobenthic communities responded and adapted to the various conditions and impacts in the water environment with changes in the species composition and structure. The analysis of the similarity in the taxonomic composition showed low resemblance between all study sites but displayed distinct separations between the rivers and the two years. In general, the species structure of the macrozoobenthic communities in Maritsa River and its studied tributaries was better than in Han River. In both years, high species diversity was recorded at the reference sites in the rivers, characterized by conditions closely resembling natural environments. The species richness and the evenness of macrozoobenthos were very low at sites downstream subjected to considerable anthropogenic pressure. Some of the communities in Han River were almost destroyed completely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0472.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Biopolitics; Philosophical Immunology; Political Theology; Community
Online: 7 August 2023 (03:46:20 CEST)
The relationship between religion and politics is a constant in the history of humanity. In the specific case of Western culture, it is possible to trace an archeology of the political as an effect of theological-political devices (essentially Christian-inspired). If we add to this the evolution of politics, in modern times, towards biopolitics, then the relationship focuses on very concrete topics. This is the case of the immunological process – from a personal, social, and philosophical perspective – thoroughly analyzed by Italian philosopher Roberto Esposito. In the context of his philosophical immunology, the place of religion is mainly archaeological and is interpreted critically. This article also aims to critically analyze his position, proposing a reading close to his thought but which is, at the same time, somewhat different.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0007.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Quantum Computing; Community Detection; QUBO; NISQ
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:03:06 CEST)
The analysis of network structure is essential to many scientific areas, ranging from biology to sociology. As the computational task of clustering these networks into partitions, i.e., solving the community detection problem, is generally NP-hard, heuristic solutions are indispensable. The exploration of expedient heuristics has led to the development of particularly promising approaches in the emerging technology of quantum computing. Motivated by the substantial hardware demands for all established quantum community detection approaches, we introduce a novel QUBO based approach that only needs number-of-nodes many qubits and is represented by a QUBO-matrix as sparse as the input graph's adjacency matrix. The substantial improvement on the sparsity of the QUBO-matrix, which is typically very dense in related work, is achieved through the novel concept of separation-nodes. Instead of assigning every node to a community directly, this approach relies on the identification of a separation-node set, which - upon its removal from the graph - yields a set of connected components, representing the core components of the communities. Employing a greedy heuristic to assign the nodes from the separation-node sets to the identified community cores, subsequent experimental results yield a proof of concept. This work hence displays a promising approach to NISQ-ready quantum community detection, catalyzing the application of quantum computers for the network structure analysis of large scale, real world problem instances.}
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0019.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: sufficiency economy philosophy; community enterprises; sustainability
Online: 2 February 2023 (01:52:25 CET)
Sustainability is essential for every business and organization, but how can it be achieved? This work is a study of sustainability based on the sufficiency economy philosophy, a valuable concept introduced by the Thai people. We apply it to the notion of sustainability in 400 agricultural community enterprise owners in Thailand, who participated in the study. An oblique rotation component analysis was performed, finding that the variables on the same side are related, and a confirmative component analysis with structural equation models was conducted. The results showed that the approach to applying the sufficiency economy philosophy among community enterprises consists of 11 components, as follows: 1) financial control, 2) planning, 3) member management, 4) morals, 5) prevention plan, 6) moderation, 7) knowledge and expertise, 8) market development, 9) care, 10) quality control and 11) value of investment. The confirmative component analysis with structural equation modeling was consistent with the empirical data. Agricultural community enterprises and entrepreneurs focus on the moral component, conduct business with honesty and avoid causing problems for others, value justice without taking advantage with diligence and adhere to moral principles in life, because all of the above will lead to sustainability in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0402.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cultural space; indigenous community; Indonesia; methodology
Online: 21 December 2022 (11:53:49 CET)
Indigenous knowledge is proven to be one of the foundations of sustainable land and marine management. While indigenous knowledge is acknowledged as of important factors on maintenance of biodiversity of the planet, it also ensures the sustenance of social and economic system of indigenous community. To facilitate the application of indigenous knowledge on management of customary forest in Indonesia, since 2012, the Government of Indonesia has been providing formal access for indigenous communities to their forests to maintain forest sustainability and to enhance the welfare of indigenous community. Nonetheless, the achievement of sustainable development goals in the scope of forest and conservation area management is threatened by various competing interests and power imbalance, which mostly leads to conversion of naturally vegetated area, as well as the inability of the community to integrate new economic opportunities to its institution. Moreover, the Government of Indonesia has not been regulating the involvement of indigenous community on the management of conservation area. Most importantly, such a program provides no reference on indigenous community, especially on the assessment of authenticity of indigenous community’s forest. Cultural space methodology may fill the aforementioned gaps. The methodology was developed based on the notion of cultural space and land administration, particularly the people-and-land/marine space relationship. Moreover, such a methodology was also constructed based on the experiences of agricultural and maritime communities in Indonesia on the administration of their territories. The methodology provides a procedure to convert information on the interrelation of indigenous community, its cultural space in forest and conservation area, and indigenous knowledge into geospatial information and data that represent the cultural space unit as a geographic feature. Therefore, such methodology may be utilised to assess the authenticity of a long-existing relationship between a community, especially an indigenous one, and its land, particularly that serves conservational function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0353.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: chlorothalonil; dissipation; enzyme activity; microbial community
Online: 28 March 2022 (03:46:35 CEST)
To get a better knowledge of the effects of residual chlorothalonil on soil characteristics and soil microbial communities, we evaluated the dissipation of chlorothalonil and the effects of different chlorothalonil concentrations on soil respiration, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure in yellow-brown loam soils. Bacterial and fungal soil communities were examined using traditional plate counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE) methods. Soil properties and the results of DGGE band analysis were both used to estimate the status of the soil microbial ecosystem. The results show that residual chlorothalonil has considerable effects on soil respiration, enzymatic activities, and microbial community structure. In particular, soil respiration and phosphatase activities were increased, while saccharase activity, microbial biomass, and microbial community diversity were decreased by increasing levels of chlorothalonil treatment. Correlation analyses revealed that the application of chlorothalonil was significantly correlated with the change of the soil respiration, urease activity, sucrase activity, soil culturable bacteria and culturable fungi biomass. We conclude that residual chlorothalonil is directly related to soil respiration, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0715.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: closure; interior; network generation; community; eigenvector
Online: 30 March 2021 (09:31:31 CEST)
Three computer algorithms are presented. One reduces a network $\CALN$ to its interior, $\CALI$. Another counts all the triangles in the network, and the last randomly generates networks similar to $\CALN$ given just its interior $\CALI$. But these algorithms are not the usual numeric programs that manipulate a matrix representation of the network; they are set-based. Union and meet are essential binary operators; contained_in is the basic relational comparator. The interior $\CALI$ is shown to have desirable formal properties and to provide an effective way of revealing ``communities'' in social networks.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0176.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: community cyberinfrastructure; accessibility; reproducibility; interoperability; models
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:28:34 CET)
In an era of rapid global change, our ability to understand and predict Earth's natural systems is lagging behind our ability to monitor and measure changes in the biosphere. Bottlenecks in our ability to process information have reduced our capacity to fully exploit the growing volume and variety of data. Here, we take a critical look at the information infrastructure that connects modeling and measurement efforts, and propose a roadmap that accelerates production of new knowledge. We propose that community cyberinfrastructure tools can help mend the divisions between empirical research and modeling, and accelerate the pace of discovery. A new era of data-model integration requires investment in accessible, scalable, transparent tools that integrate the expertise of the whole community, not just a clique of ‘modelers’. This roadmap focuses on five key opportunities for community tools: the underlying backbone to community cyberinfrastructure; data ingest; calibration of models to data; model-data benchmarking; and data assimilation and ecological forecasting. This community-driven approach is key to meeting the pressing needs of science and society in the 21st century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart community; smart dashboard; smart governance
Online: 4 November 2019 (02:54:13 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of knowledge and management of places at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic tools to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories, especially if the digital data are organised within a circular smart dashboard. This research focuses on the case study of the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente region (Sardinia, Italy), where the authors have recognized a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities. In fact, if the SBW represents a network - material infrastructure - which connects the main points of interest along the Walk, its digital network - intangible infrastructure - is fragmented in terms of policies and contents. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive set of data and to propose the architecture and design for a circular dashboard of the SBW, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: community pharmacy; pharmacists; kap; travel health
Online: 2 October 2019 (05:50:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Travel medicine practice has not been a part of practice in the community pharmacies in Japan. However, it’s getting more common for pharmacists to run travel clinic in North America. With ongoing globalization, Japanese pharmacists might be practicing travel medicine in future. This descriptive study is to examine the current knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Japanese community pharmacists. (2) Methods: Invitation to the study was sent to all pharmacies or corporates listed on Nippon Pharmacist Association member list plus one another large size pharmacy chain that was not member of NPhA. Community pharmacists working under those companies received a weblink to the survey. The survey was conducted from June to July 2017 by online questionnaire. (3) Results: The self-declared knowledge level of infectious diseases as well as travel vaccinations was generally low. The frequency of correct answer of the antibiotic resistance in South East Asia was 48.5%. Knowledge level of qunine resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ghana and Nicaragua was very low. (4) Conclusions: Japanese community pharmacists are not familiar with travel related infectious diseases and vaccines used in travel medicine. The knowledge on the antibiotic resistance in traveler’s diarrhea and malaria prophylaxis was all low that is consistent with low degree of exposure to travel health questions from patients in daily practice and low percentage of intention to earn travel health certificates.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0351.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: lecture based instruction; actual community-based instruction; maternal and child care; social competency skills; community awareness
Online: 13 April 2021 (12:47:52 CEST)
Maternal-child care is one of the foundations of primary health care. Nurses’ competency skills they have been taught. Community awareness is an important part of preventive healthcare, and nurses must be aware of the factors that impact the health of the community. This study examines the effectiveness of lecture-based instructions in maternal and child care and its implications to students' social competency skills and community awareness in Nursing Colleges in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The researcher uses survey questionnaire and employed the descriptive design where fifteen (15) nursing students and five (5) teachers were purposively selected. The findings revealed that the weighted mean for the effectiveness of lecture based instruction in maternal and child care is 3.91 with verbal description of “Effective”, the effects of lecture based instruction in maternal and childcare to students’ social competency skills and community awareness got the weighted mean of 3.87 and interpreted as “very satisfactory” and the effectiveness of actual community-based instruction is very effective with weighted mean of 4.25 and is higher compare to lecture based instruction. The results also revealed that students and teachers were challenged in lecture-based instruction in maternal and chi8ldcare during distance learning. Recommendations for the enhancement of lecture-based instruction in maternal and childcare in social competency skills and community awareness were also made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1170.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Susceptibility; Pluvial flood; Risk perception; Local community
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:30:05 CET)
Pluvial flooding (PF), triggered by intense short-duration rainfall events, poses a growing challenge in urban areas due to climate change and rapid urbanization. To mitigate the risk, it is imperative to identify flood-prone areas and implement mitigation strategies collaboratively with the public. This study aims to create a GIS-MCDA model of PF susceptibility zones based on topographical, environmental, and hydrological criteria and investigate the public perception of risk in Gospić. The survey included 5% of the city population (N=64), and data were obtained via face-to-face interviews. Five factors were examined: (F1) risk awareness, (F2) anthropogenic and (F3) natural causes of PF, (F4) potential consequences, and (F5) preparedness. All factors have moderate mean values, i.e., awareness, causes of PF, expectations of consequences, and preparedness is moderate. The reliability of questionnaire is very high (> 0.71). The PF susceptibility zones were derived with an accuracy of 76%. The most susceptible zone covers 10% of the city, including agricultural land, forests, meadows, and residential properties. Of all respondents, 36% live in the most flood-prone area. In conclusion, mitigation measures for decision-makers were proposed. Results from this research can be a starting point for further research in Croatia and guidelines for decision-makers in implementing a risk mitigation strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Aged vinegar; Microbial community; Physicochemical characteristics; Correlation
Online: 7 August 2023 (04:59:59 CEST)
In this paper, the main physicochemical characteristics and evolutionary laws of microbial community structure during the fermentation of aged vinegar were discussed, and the correlation between Cuqu and microorganisms and physicochemical characteristics during fermentation was explored. The results showed that there are significant differences in genera at different stages of fermentation, the main dominant bacteria in R1 are Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus and Issatchenkia. At R2 fermentation stage, Lactobacillus, Acetobacter and Saccharomyces showed an upward trend and finally became absolute advantage bacteria. The main genus of bacteria at the end of overall fermentation is Aspergillus. Correlation analysis shows that in Cuqu, the bacterial genera that are significantly positively and negatively correlated with reducing sugars and amino acid nitrogen are the same, while the bacterial genera that are significantly positively and negatively correlated with pH and saccharification power are the same. During the fermentation process, pH, reducing sugar and saccharification ability are mainly positively correlated with bacterial genera. And research has found that during the fermentation process, the overall correlation between fungal communities and physicochemical characteristics is weaker compared to bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1592.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Acinetobacter; pneumonia; community-acquired; tropical; infection; bacteramic
Online: 24 July 2023 (11:02:23 CEST)
Background: Community acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia (CAAP) typically presents with rapid progression to fulminant disease, and is complicated by high mortality. Australian epidemiological studies are few. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on bacteraemic cases of CAAP over twenty years, (2000-2019) in North Queensland. Cases were selected on microbiologic, clinical, and radiographic parameters. Data on patient demographics were obtained, along with microbial, antibiotic, mortality, and climatic data. Results: 28 cases of CAAP were included. Nineteen (67.9%) were male, twenty-three (82.1%) were Indigenous Australians, and mean age was 45.9 years. Most presentations were of moderate to severe pneumonia, 25/28 (89.3%). 90% of cases had two or more risk factors. The strongest risk factors for CAAP were alcohol excess and tobacco use. No statistically significant difference in presenting severity, ICU admission or mortality was seen between dry and wet season disease. Dry season disease accounted for 35.7% of cases. Overall mortality was 28.6%. Early use of meropenem or gentamicin reduced mortality irrespective of presenting severity (mortality 17.6%) Non-targeted antibiotic therapy was associated with a non-significant difference in mortality of 44.4%. Conclusions: Early administration of targeted antibiotics can mitigate a high mortality rate. Choice of antibiotic therapy for community acquired pneumonia should be based upon severity, risk factors and clinical suspicion of CAAP rather than seasonality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0304.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: agro-ecotourism; sustainability; community; West Java; Indonesia
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:19:16 CEST)
Agro-ecotourism is a tourism development activity in a location with ecological and agricultural advantages, leading to business utilization to generate economic value. Agro-ecotourism in West Java has a selling point in the form of natural potential, agriculture, arts, handicrafts, to the traditional culinary processing typical of the village. This research aims to analyze the sustainability level and the sensitive factors or attributes that affect the level of sustainability of community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java. The study used a survey method on 237 agritourist actors. Data were analyzed using Multi-Dimensional Scaling in the Rapid Appraisal-Tourism technique. The study results show that community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java is quite sustainable (57.07). This study analyzed sustainability through economic, social, cultural, institutional, ecological, and technological dimensions. The social dimension has the highest value because agriculture-based village tourism is carried out in the community. Meanwhile, the lowest value is the technology dimension. The availability of infrastructure influenced the value obtained and means of transportation as well as environmentally friendly farming techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Community; Health Risk; Awareness; Knowledge; Air Pollution
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:15:46 CEST)
Exposure to air pollution have detrimental effects on the elderly, women, people with pre-existing medical conditions, people living in poverty and children. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of community awareness and knowledge on the health risks associated with exposure to air pollution. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, using self-administered questionnaires. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 376 respondents. Systematic sampling method was applied to select the households. SPSS version 26 was used to analyze data. Of 376 respondents, 221 were males and 154 females. 113 were aged between 23-47years and 353 were aware that if they don’t protect themselves against polluted air, they may get sick, with age and educational status associated with their awareness (p < 0.05). About 361 knew what air pollution is and 188 think the air they breathe in Annadale is moderate. A total number of 278 said they feel sick/uncomfortable when the quality of air is bad. About 293 knew that people are exposed to air pollution by breathing contaminated air and 237 identified sewage smell as the main cause of air pollution. Respondents who identified internet and television as the main source of information were 199 and 177 respectively. Those who were not aware of actions implemented to reduce air pollution were 180. Based on the results of the study, respondents are aware of the dangers of exposure to polluted air, and it is necessary that air pollution risk communication strategies be implemented to empower residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Keywords: Sustainable Tourism; community preparedness; Lombok; Indonesia
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:26:26 CEST)
This research aims to examine the level of readiness of the community to carry out sustainable tourism development, especially community-based tourism on small islands, such as Lombok Island, Indonesia. More specifically, the objectives of this study are as follows: (1) Knowing the level of community readiness in carrying out sustainable tourism development. (2) Knowing the various dimensions that influence sustainable tourism development. (3) Knowing the role of stakeholders in sustainable tourism development. The method applied in this research is mixed methods, a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods are used to determine community readiness for sustainable tourism development. A qualitative approach is used to determine the various factors that influence the development of community-based tourism and to determine the role of stakeholders in the development of community-based tourism. The level of community readiness for sustainable tourism development is high in terms of economic, social, cultural, environmental, and symbolic capital aspects. Aspects that influence the development of sustainable tourism are economic, social, and cultural. Stakeholders who play a role in developing sustainable tourism in the research area are the government, the private sector, universities, non-governmental organizations, and the media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0325.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Community disaster resilience; Lembang Fault; Indonesia; Japan
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:43:52 CET)
Having experienced large-scale disasters between 2004 and 2006, the fatalities due to large-scale disasters in 2018 were still high. In contrast, disaster risk management (DRM) and CDR in Japan have been continuously improved. Thus, there is a need to develop CDR for supporting DRM in Indonesia by learning from the Japanese experience, particularly in a disaster-prone area without large-scale disaster experience. This research was a pilot project on the development of CDR in Indonesia. The case study was a geological hazard-prone Lembang Fault area. People’s perception was collected using structured interviews, while demographic and local economic data was acquired from official statistical publications. Satellite imageries were utilized to acquire natural and built environment and land use/land cover and their changes between 2019 and 2021. Although the degrees of social capital, risk knowledge including indigenous knowledge and past disaster experience were high, government interventions on DRM and land administration are required to develop CDR in Lembang Fault area. Organized community development is expected rather than to solely involve NGOs. Moreover, strategies to develop economic resilience are needed to allow the community to bounce back from future disaster. Finally, a detail baseline data should be collected to develop DRM strategy and CDR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0563.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Community-acquired pneumonia; incidence; prophylaxis; pneumococcal; vaccination
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:52:36 CEST)
Current epidemiological data reports that adults aged 65 years and older comprise the most vulnerable age group with the highest proportion of CAP-attributable hospitalizations. Pneumococcal vaccine efficacy (VE) has been shown to decrease over time, contributing to increasing incidence rates of CAP. A holistic evaluation of age, sex, seasonality, and VE are is conducted in this systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 prospective and retrospective cohort studies. The findings suggest that incidence and age are positively associated and that incidence in females is more often reported to be higher in females than in males. In studies that observed seasonality of CAP, high seasons and low seasons were reported to be in winter and summer months, respectively. Lastly, studies that reviewed the effect of vaccination on incidence consistently found decreased observance of CAP in elderly adults following reception of PCV13 or PPSV23. However, one study suggested that such vaccinations may have decreased effectiveness in elderly populations and that research examining potential explanations for this require further investigation. Furthermore, distinct diagnostic and case ascertainment standards, descriptive measures, and methods of prevention and treatment of CAP used across the US are outlined in this review. Public health guidance such as encouraging the reception of pneumococcal vaccinations and mask-wearing during high seasons of CAP, and communicating the risks of not adhering to the aforementioned preventative measures can facilitate an effort to reduce the incidence of CAP and its associated adverse outcomes in the US elderly population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Traditional settlement; Vernacular architecture; Manipuri Community; Sylhet
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
This study intends to study a distinct typology of vernacular architecture built by the Manipuri communities of Bangladesh. The Manipuris are one of the ethnic diasporic communities in Bangladesh commonly known for their diverse cultural practice, including their dance form. This research aims to reveal the cultural entity of Manipuri that has been transformed into their living environment and household architecture. Architectural elements adapted by the Manipuris are assessed here as a part of cultural symbols to have a rigorous view of the philosophy of living. This study is a documentation of Manipuri habitat culture through the intervention of their living environment, which will attract any future working on this issue. This research shows that despite a rapid socio-economic change of context, the Manipuri housing practice is deeply connected to their socio-cultural and religious values. As the authors used an observational and ethnographical approach to studying vernacular architecture for this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0630.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Attitude; Community; Knowledge; Mental health; Mental illness
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:59:46 CET)
Knowledge and attitude towards mental illness play major role in the recognition, management, sociocultural factors and health seeking behavior among those with mental disorders. The study aim was to determine the knowledge and attitude among Nyamagana community members towards mental illness, Tanzania; A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study involving 384 participants from sample population aged 18 years and above who were mentally health and semi-structured questionnaires was used to collect data. The results 110 (28.8%) respondents have good knowledge toward mental illness, about 292(76%) have negative attitude towards mentally ill people, 92(24%) respondents have positive attitude toward people who are mentally ill. More over about 318 (82.9%) respondents agreed that care and support of family and friends, could help people with mental illness to get rehabilitation while 66(17.1%) respondents disagreed on the care and support of the family and friends could help mentally ill people to get rehabilitation; The findings show most have poor knowledge and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness and may impair their social reintegration in the community. There’s need to develop strategies to enlighten the public regarding nature of mental illness so as to foster acceptance of people with mental illness by the community members.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: citrus; root rhizosphere; mancozeb; bacteria community; diversity
Online: 7 March 2020 (03:12:53 CET)
Mancozeb is extensively used fungicide to prevent citrus melanose in most Asian countries, especially in China. So far, however, there have been no reports of thet effect of Mancozeb on the citrus rhizosphere bacterial community. Therefore, this comparative experiment defined the genomic and functional related to community and soil health of 2-years old Citrus unshiu Marc. rhizosphere through amplicon sequencing and chemical analysis. This study evaluated the effect of mancozeb on the chemical properties of citrus-cultivated soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community. We also investigated the abundance response of rhizosphere bacterial groups to 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 times application of 2 g mancozeb (active ingredient content, ai.) 600 times diluted with water. Our data revealed that the abundance of rhizosphere-associated bacterial species increased significantly after planting citrus. The relative abundance of Candidatus, Saccharibacteria, Parcubacteria, and Proteobacteria increased with the increase in mancozeb watering times. Meanwhile, the abundance of Nitrospirae decreased with the increase in mancozeb application times. The findings indicated that the chemical properties of the soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community did not significantly differ across the mancozeb gradients in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: sepsis; community-acquired pneumonia; very old, pneumonia
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:00:15 CEST)
Background: Little is known about risk and prognostic factors in very old patients developing sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of data prospectively collected at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona over a 13-year period. Consecutive patients hospitalized with CAP were included if they were very old (≥80 years) and divided into those with and without sepsis for comparison. Sepsis was diagnosed based on the Sepsis-3 criteria. The main clinical outcome was 30-day mortality. Results: Among the 4,219 patients hospitalized with CAP during the study period, 1,238 (29%) were very old. The prevalence of sepsis in this aged group was 71%. Male sex, chronic renal disease, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for sepsis, while antibiotic therapy before admission was independently associated with a lower risk of sepsis. Thirty-day and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality did not differ between patients with and without sepsis. In CAP-sepsis group, chronic renal disease and neurological disease were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. Conclusion: In very old patients hospitalized with CAP, in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were increased if they developed sepsis. Antibiotic therapy before hospital admission was associated with a lower risk of sepsis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Disasters, Preparedness, Lembang Fault, Community Base, School
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:55:21 CET)
This research was conducted on the Maribaya Timur school community in Lembang Subdistrict, West Bandung Regency, Indonesia, which is an active community in the area that is threatened by the potential for earthquake disasters due to the active Lembang fault. Disaster risk reduction efforts are pursued through increasing school-based preparedness that involves members of the school community, surrounding communities and various institutions that are associated with reducing the risk of school-based earthquake. Increasing preparedness against earthquakes focuses more on aspects of capacity building of school communities in reducing disaster risk, while aspects of vulnerability and threats have not been the focus of disaster risk reduction. The steps taken refer to the element of preparedness by aligning with the conditions, needs and potential that exist in the school community. Theoretically, if the school community has preparedness to face an earthquake disaster, the risk of earthquake disaster in the school community will be reduced so that it can minimize losses, victims and suffering that will be caused by the earthquake disaster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Crop rotation; Fertilization; Maize; Microbial community structure
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:37:31 CET)
Examining the soil microbiome structure has a great significance in exploring the mechanism behind plant growth changes due to maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crop rotation. This study explored the effects of soil microbial community structure after soybean and maize crop rotation by designing nine treatments combining three crop rotations (continuous cropping maize or soybean; and maize after soybean) with three fertility treatments (organic compound fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, or without fertilizer). Soil was sampled to 30 cm depth the second year at approximately the middle of the growing season, and was analyzed for physical, chemical, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Bacteria was found to be the predominant component of soil microorganisms, which mainly contain the PLFAs i15:0, 16:1 ω 7c, 16:0, 10Me16:0, and 18:1 ω 7c. The concentration of soil gram-negative bacteria from the soybean and maize rotation was less than in soybean continuous cropping when organic fertilizer was applied to both. Crop rotation reduced the percentage of fungi in the soil, among which the effect of organic compound fertilizer application was significantly reduced 24%. The combined crop rotation with organic fertilizer can reduce maximum the percentage of fungi/bacteria. In addition, the content of soil aggregate and organic matter had great influence on gram-positive bacteria and actinomyces, and soil pH had a greater impact on other fungi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0168.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: stakeholders; community college; value; perspectives and recommendations
Online: 26 November 2017 (13:20:28 CET)
In 2002, the Higher Learning Commission, a regional accrediting agency in the US, placed the community college in this study on academic probation for several criteria and many residents of the community believed that closing doors was the best option for addressing these concerns. This study is designed to ascertain data from external stakeholders of the community college regarding their current perceived value of the community college and suggestions about moving from the present to the future. The main question of the study is: What are external stakeholders’ perceptions of the value of the college to the service area? This qualitative approach is used consisting of interviews, focus groups, surveys, and document review to triangulate stakeholder perspectives. Participants included 176 high school seniors from different counties, four counselors, and four focus groups. The findings from the data are presented in this study are planned to be used by community college officials to incorporate into their strategic plans. They showed that the college needs to consider the value that it brings to the service area including economic benefits, specifically community support; accessibility; and cost of tuition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1781.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: US-Mexico border health; community-wide campaign; physical exercise; mental health; public health; Latino community health; health behavior promotion
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:19:20 CEST)
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by low rates of physical activity and high rates of chronic diseases. Hispanics generally and Mexican Americans specifically are underrepresented in research on physical activity and its impact on mental well-being. Some community-based interventions have been effective in increasing physical activity among Hispanics. This study examined data from a sample of low-income Hispanic participants in free community exercise classes to characterize the association between self-reported frequency of exercise class attendance, intensity of physical activity, and participant well-being. As part of two cross-sectional samples recruited from a stratified random sample of community exercise classes, 302 participants completed a questionnaire consisting of a modified version of the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF). Adjusted binary logistic regression analyses indicated that those who achieve moderate and strenuous self-reported physical activity have 130% higher odds (p = 0.0422) of positive mental well-being after adjustment for age, attendance, and self-reported health. This study provides evidence that physical activity intensity and time are associated with flourishing mental health among Hispanics. The study provides insight into the planning and development of community-based physical activity programming tailored to low-income populations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1777.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: community; sustainability; transition; policy; governance; place-based; Scotland.
Online: 29 November 2023 (07:14:04 CET)
Rural areas of advanced industrial countries have frequently experienced a dualistic set of policies: one designed for the land-use sector, especially agriculture; and another dealing with rural development . As problems of industrialised agriculture and forestry emerged, a more joined up approach to policy was advocated. Since the 1980s, at national and international level, new elements of rural policy have emerged to connect these two policy fields, including environmental payments, farm diversification grants, woodland creation within the farm sector and support for community-led local development. Rural land is also closely connected to the biodiversity and climate crises which have become important policy drivers. Policy towards community-led local development has moved further in Scotland than almost anywhere else as a result of policies for community-based land reform, community empowerment and community asset transfer. These communitarian approaches connect closely to collaborative landscape management as it addresses environmental challenges. As collaborative place-based and area-based approaches emerge as the guiding stars of the new rural development, this paper explores the challenges in the governance of sustainability transitions in moving from a sectoral rural policy hinging around support for land use to one based much more on communitarian values and place-based development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1827.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: ozone; complex network; maximum matching algorithm; community classification
Online: 28 November 2023 (16:15:34 CET)
In recent years, ozone (O3) pollution has been rapidly spreading, restricting further improvement of air quality in China. Investigating the interaction of O3 concentration and identifying their driven cities are important for the prevention and control of O3 pollution in China. However, the complex interaction between O3 pollution between the cities and their driven cities has not yet been revealed. In this study, we address this gap based on complex network methods. Specifically, an ozone relational network is constructed using an association calculation method. The driven nodes and spatial clusters were analyzed based on the maximum matching algorithm and the Louvain algorithm. The findings of the study reveal an aggregation phenomenon in the ozone network concerning distance. Furthermore, as the threshold Tc varies, the proportion of driven nodes exhibits a positive correlation. Moreover, a closer threshold value corresponds to a higher coincidence ratio of the driven nodes. The results provide scientific guidance for national O3 pollution prevention and regional synergy formatting. Furthermore, the introduced network-based approaches offer a mythological framework for the study of air pollution in key cities and clusters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0959.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community; inner areas; (social) vulnerability; depopulation; sustainability; youth.
Online: 15 November 2023 (10:03:47 CET)
The essay focuses, from a sociological perspective, on the phenomenon of depopulation of Inner Areas in Italy. In this areas, younger generations, live a great inequality that exposed them to risk of social vulnerability. So, on the one hand, the desire to leave their community is growing among younger, on the other hand, the desire to deal with extreme adverse conditions is falling down. The research aims to explore the depopulation phenomenon in the context of Southern Italy, considering it as an emerging social vulnerability that impacts very deeply onto the sustainability of a social, economic and community systems such as the Molise region one. The following paper therefore presents an empirical web-survey conducted in the Molise region. The methodology used is Quantitative, and the research design is Exploratory. The essay underlines how proximity welfare can act as a flywheel to counter the depopulation Inner Areas of Italy enacted by the younger generations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0999.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: paramedic; community paramedicine; social needs; social isolation; equity
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:17:52 CEST)
Introduction: Health and social needs exist along a dynamic continuum. Recognizing that health status is inextricably impacted by social determinants of health, there exists opportunities and a professional responsibility to better understand how community paramedicine can address social needs in effort to reduce healthcare inequities.Aim: The primary objective of this scoping review is to systematically investigate published peer reviewed and grey literature to explore how community paramedicine supports social needs along a health and social continuum.Methods: A scoping review of English language literature was conducted using the JBI Scoping Review methodology. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE and grey literature searches in Google Scholar and organisational websites. We used search terms related to community paramedicine and social needs. Results: A total of 30 peer-reviewed and 13 grey literature articles met inclusion criteria. The main findings of this scoping review describe the evolving ways community paramedicine models are addressing health and social needs. A key recommendation across the literature was the need to meaningfully engage communities early in program development to understand how best to implement and co-design an integrated service model that addresses the needs specific to each community, though there was a lack of evidence to guide this approach. There is a notable lack of evidence pertaining to how best to optimize technologies in program design and implementation. The results highlight opportunities to determine best practices for conducting holistic community needs assessments that include equitable stakeholder engagement and enhance education to prepare paramedics for expanded roles.Conclusion: Community paramedicine provides opportunities to better meet the needs of structurally marginalised communities. However, there is a social responsibility and opportunity to engage in community needs assessments to co-design service delivery, advance paramedic education, and enhance interprofessional collaboration to better support social needs and generate upstream solutions for individuals and communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1916.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: urban design; sustainability; sustainable development; Gated Community; walkability
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:36:23 CEST)
The rapid urbanization growth of Dubai has resulted in connectivity issues, considered tre-mendous development pressure. That leads the local authorities to set a vision for Dubai as a 15-20 minute city by 2040. The 15-minute city, where all services can be reached with minimum travel time using sustainable mobility means (walking, cycling, or electric bik-ing). This paper aims to assess the current walkability situation within 15 minutes in the most significant parts of Dubai. This study considered 13 communities; Bur-Dubai and Business Bay were selected to represent the ungated communities, and eleven major gated communities were considered to indicate the gated ones. Those neighborhoods are selected based on the developments' socio-economic status and population density. The assessment considered 14 essential services, categorized into five categories: educational, health, social, entertainment, and religious. The research methodology conducted desktop research, site visits, interviewing random residents to collect data, and then using ArcGIS to assess walk-ability. The results show (64.5%) of the ungated neighborhoods population which access essential services within 15 minutes, while most of the gated communities residents must use cars to access many services. Furthermore, services distribution patterns and walkability infrastructures outside these developments should be developed to obtain higher walkability indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0518.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Matrix factorization; Recommendation; Community detection; Parallel computation; RMSE
Online: 7 August 2023 (09:54:52 CEST)
Matrix Factorization is a long established method employed for analyzing and extracting valuable insight recommendations from complex networks containing user ratings. The execution time and computational resources demanded by these algorithms pose limitations when confronted with large datasets. Community detection algorithms play a crucial role in identifying groups and communities within intricate networks. To overcome the challenge of extensive computing resources, we present a novel parallel computation framework utilizing community information available in the rating network. Our proposed approach named as Community-based Matrix Factorization(CBMF), parallelizes matrix factorization technique by dividing the network into communities using existing community detection algorithms. We prove that this parallel approach not only increases the quality of recommendations in connection with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), but also yields substantial performance improvement. We empirically evaluate our idea on diverse datasets and present comprehensive experimental results. These results serve as empirical evidence of the effectiveness and performance gains offered by our parallel computation framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: land use changes; zoning; community forest; resilience; Togo
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:57:57 CEST)
Affem Boussou community forest (AFC) abounds in important biological resources. This study, which contributes to its better management, examines the spatiotemporal dynamics of the vegetation and its ecological and structural characteristics to propose a zoning plan for the said forest. The analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use in the AFC from Google Earth images of 2015, 2018, and 2021 revealed a regressive trend of formations: crops and fallows (-33.98%), dense dry forests (-7.92%), gallery forests (-3.46%), plantations (-100%), grassy savannahs and meadows (-18.84%) except for tree/shrub savannahs (484.23%). The floristic inventory identified 163 species divided into 129 genera and 55 families. Fabaceae (14.02%), and Combretaceae (10.55%) are the most represented families. Anogeissus leiocarpa (5.19%) and Vitellaria paradoxa (4.72%) are the most frequent species. We note the dominance of individuals of small diameters. The regeneration potential of the AFC is 64 feet/ha due to 21 feet/ha of suckers, 29 feet/ha of seedlings, and 14 feet/ha of shoots. As a zoning plan, the AFC was subdivided into four series: the agroforestry zone (18.80%), the sustainable production forest zone (42.22%), the buffer zone (11%), and the biological conservation zone (28%). These results constitute a scientific basis for testing ecological indicators of sustainable management of community forests in Togo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1360.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Collective Impact; Social Impact Assessment; Community Capital Framework
Online: 19 May 2023 (02:45:16 CEST)
Community co-creation is increasingly crucial to the building of sustainable societies. Communities must proactively and independently create value chains in the face of many wicked problems. However, practical frameworks and tools for facilitating community co-creation require further development. As such, for this paper, we propose a theoretical framework for analyzing community co-creation value chain mechanisms based on a narrative review of literature on Collective Impact, social impact assessment, and Community Capital from the perspective of collective impact, a framework with a fair amount of previous research. We argue for the importance of applying knowledge of social impact assessment, particularly for the collective impact conditions of common agenda and shared measurement system. We discuss its relationship with the Theory of Change and the use of systems thinking to mitigate the subjectivity and arbitrariness of design thinking. Furthermore, we emphasize the value of employing the community capital concept as a framework for analyzing interrelationships among elements. By integrating multiple concepts, we enhance the collective impact framework and outline potential avenues for future research on analyzing and effectively implementing co-creation value chain mechanism in a community-based approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0851.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Herbicides; mixed toxicity; microbial diversity; microbial community structure
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:49:58 CEST)
As two commonly-used non-selective herbicides, glyphosate (GP) and diquat (DQ) are easily co-resided in lateritic paddy soil due to the rich iron/aluminum oxides, nevertheless there is limited information on their co-impact on microbial diversity and community structure in this type soil. In this study, the short-term effects of combined GP and DQ on soil microbial diversity and community structure shifts were investigated in lateritic paddy soil from a tropical agricultural region (Hainan, China) based on 16S rRNA and ITS high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that mixed herbicides promoted the abundance of Streptomyces in bacteria (0.45-1.84%) and Curvularia in fungi (0.01-5.85%), while GP and DQ had inhibitory effects on the abundance of Streptomyces (0.13-2.21%) and Curvularia (0.03-1.13%), which were significantly different with their single exposure (p < 0.05); the combined application of the two herbicides aggravate the adverse effect on the diversity of soil fungal community (p < 0.05), although their mixture did not have a greater impact on the soil bacteria abundance/diversity and fungi abundance (p > 0.05). Results suggested that the combined application of GP and DQ affected the fungal diversity although they did not cause other significant negative effects on soil microorganisms, hinting that more attention should be paid to the mixed effect caused by GP and DQ on specific fungal populations in lateritic paddy soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: disaster; community resilience; social identity; predictive model; factors
Online: 16 February 2023 (02:34:49 CET)
The territory of Serbia is vulnerable to various types of natural and man-made disasters. The risk is not equal across the entire territory, depending on the type of hazard and the expected potential for damage. So far, the level of community disaster resilience has not been determined in Serbia. There are no scientific preconditions for its improvement to reduce the future material and intangible consequences of disasters. Regarding that, the project’s main objective is to develop and validate a predictive model of community disaster resilience based on social identity influences through an investigation impact of social identity indicators on the level of community disaster resilience in Serbia. The project is based on the upcoming research on whether the level of community disaster resilience can be predicted based on social identity indicators, how social identity indicators affect different dimensions of community disaster resilience, and how disasters shape social identity. The project is based on multimethod research in which quantitative (face-to-face interviews in 40 of the 191 municipalities), and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) research methodology will be applied. A developed predictive model with an index of community disaster resilience in Serbia will empower the creation of preconditions for designing public policies, strategies and procedures for improving resilience and reducing the consequences of disasters on people and their property and enhancing citizens’ security. The project will encourage the prediction of community disaster resilience based on social identity indicators, improving disaster foresight and preparing to limit disaster losses. Based on the development of analytical frameworks for understanding community disaster resilience and social identity in disasters, essential preconditions for designing innovative information systems will be created to enable local communities to increase their level of resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0246.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Cigar; stacking fermentation; microbial community; volatiles; interaction; aroma
Online: 15 February 2023 (01:49:13 CET)
Cigar stacking fermentation is a key step in tobacco aroma enhancement and miscellaneous gas reduction, which both have a great influence on increasing cigar flavor and improving industrial availability. To analyze the effect of cigar tobacco leaf (CTLs) microbial community structure on volatiles during cigar stacking fermentation, this study used multi-omics technology to reveal the changes in microbial community structure and volatiles of different cigar varieties during stacking fermentation, in addition to exploring the interaction mechanism of microbiome and volatiles. The results showed that the dominant microbial compositions of different CTL varieties during stacking fermentation were similar, which included Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium 1, Aerococcus, and Aspergillus. These dominant microbes mainly affected the microbial community structure and characteristic microorganisms of CTLs through microbial interactions, thereby influencing the transformation of volatiles. Characteristic microorganisms of different CTLs varieties such as Trichothecium, Trichosporon, Thioalkalicoccus and Jeotgalicoccus, were found to posively correlate with characteristic volatiles like megastigmatrienone 4, pyrazine, tetramethyl-, geranyl acetone, and 2-undecanone, 6,10-dimethyl-, respectively. This in turn affected the aroma and sensory quality of the CTLs. This study provides theoretical support for the analysis of the mechanism of microorganisms on volatiles and aroma, and development of microbial agents during cigar stacking fermentation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0214.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: community transformations; species loss; geospatial classification; Spartina patens
Online: 12 January 2023 (07:20:07 CET)
Salt marshes are globally important ecosystems, but many have been lost or transformed due to the impacts of global change. There have been attempts to broadly quantify salt marsh communities, especially the ubiquitous grasses which serve as foundation species such as Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens, the latter of which is being lost due to sea level rise. However, few researchers have used high-resolution geospatial imagery to quantify fine-scale changes in the distribution of grasses or to track losses of S. patens. To address this issue, we utilized a simple and rapid method of classifying geospatial marsh imagery with cloud-based machine learning in Google Earth Engine (>92% accuracy for S. patens regardless of imagery age). Our methods allowed us to characterize full landscapes (two geospatially proximal areas, >7,000 ha each) of critical salt marshes on the New Jersey coast and to evaluate fine-scale (1-m) community transformations in response to global change with imagery from 2006 to 2019. Notably, one marsh experienced very little change while the other experienced an 81.17% (1,087 ha) loss of S. patens, illuminating disparate patterns of change for two geographically proximal ecosystems. Further exploration revealed an association in the loss of S. patens with increases in streamflow and total nitrogen content in the rivers that run through each marsh. These results signify the importance of broad-scale ecological studies that evaluate fine-scale community transformations and for management strategies that do not generalize across landscapes of an ecosystem-type.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0303.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy Community, Scheduling, Renewable energy, Flex-Offers, Algorithms
Online: 20 October 2022 (11:01:14 CEST)
Renewable Energy Communities (RECs) are emerging as an effective concept and model to empower the active participation of citizens on the energy transition, not only as energy consumers, but also as promoters of environmentally friendly energy generation solutions. This paper aims to contribute to the management and optimization of individual and community Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The solution follows a price and source-based REC management program, in which consumers day-ahead flexible loads (Flex Offers) are shifted according to electricity generation availability, prices and personal preferences, to balance the grid and incentivize user participation. The heuristic approach used in the proposed algorithms allows the optimization of energy resources in a distributed edge and fog approach with a low computational overhead. The simulations performed using real world energy consumption and flexibility data of a REC with 50 dwellings show an average cost reduction of 10.6% and an average increase of 11.4% in individual self-consumption. Additionally, the case-study demonstrates promising results regarding grid load balancing and the introduction of intra-community energy trading.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: community governance; conflict management; governance; peace; development; SSA
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
This study provides an insightful overview of community-participatory governance and conflict management as instruments for utilizing resources for development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA is a region rich in natural resources but prone to conflict. The study is conceptual and critically engages the application of community governance and conflict management strategies that SSA countries need to adopt. The study praises the notion that community governance is characterized by recognizing and accepting intercultural diversity and creating a democratic institution for promoting good governance and conflict management in SSA. The study recommends that good community governance is required to drive local communities' development, growth, and transformation into a sturdy, innovative, and productive society capitalizing on opportunities. The study voice for the amalgamation of appropriate models and theories of governance cogently in the context of SSA due to the heterogeneity of communities. Therefore, to resolve conflict, conflict management, resolution, and transformation strategies are necessarily needed to accomplish a viable peace to maintain and sustain development.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: epistemic community; social media; active inference; opinion dynamics
Online: 10 January 2022 (15:14:16 CET)
The spread of ideas is a fundamental concern of today’s news ecology. Understanding the dynamics of the spread of information and its co-option by interested parties is of critical importance. Research on this topic has shown that individuals tend to cluster in echo-chambers and are driven by confirmation bias. In this paper, we leverage the active inference framework to provide an in silico model of confirmation bias and its effect on echo-chamber formation. We build a model based on active inference, where agents tend to sample information in order to justify their own view of reality, which eventually leads to them to have a high degree of certainty about their own beliefs. We show that, once agents have reached a certain level of certainty about their beliefs, it becomes very difficult to get them to change their views. This system of self-confirming beliefs is upheld and reinforced by the evolving relationship between agent's beliefs and its observations, which over time will continue to provide evidence for their ingrained ideas about the world. The epistemic communities that are consolidated by these shared beliefs, in turn, tend to produce perceptions of reality that reinforce those shared beliefs. We provide an active inference account of this community formation mechanism. We postulate that agents are driven by the epistemic value that they obtain from sampling or observing the behaviors of other agents. Inspired by digital social networks like Twitter, we build a generative model in which agents generate observable social claims or posts (e.g. `tweets') while reading the socially-observable claims of other agents, that lend support towards one of two mutually-exclusive abstract topics. Agents can choose which other agent they pay attention to at each timestep, and crucially who they attend to and what they choose to read influences their beliefs about the world. Agents also assess their local network’s perspective, influencing which kinds of posts they expect to see other agents making. The model was built and simulated simulated using the freely-available Python package pymdp. The proposed active inference model can reproduce the formation of echo-chambers over social networks, and gives us insight into the cognitive processes that lead to this phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0015.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Social media; Community; Facebook; Twitter; Google; Information; Interaction
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:03:09 CEST)
Background: Caregivers often use the internet to access information related to stroke care to improve preparedness, thereby reducing uncertainty and enhancing the quality of care. Method: Social media communities used by caregivers of people affected by stroke were identified using popular keywords searched for using Google. Communities were filtered based on their ability to provide support to caregivers. Data from the included communities were extracted and analysed to determine the content and level of interaction. Results: There was a significant rise in the use of social media by caregivers of people affected by stroke. The most popular social media communities were charitable and governmental organizations with the highest user interaction – this was for topics related to stroke prevention, signs and symptoms, and caregiver self-care delivered through video-based resources. Conclusion: Findings show the ability of social media to support stroke caregiver needs and practices that should be considered to increase their interaction and support.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: monarch butterfly; Danaus plexippus; arthropods; community structure; survivorship
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:48:42 CEST)
Based on surveys of winter roost sites, the eastern migratory population of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) in North America appears to have declined in the last 20 years and this has prompted the implementation of numerous conservation strategies. However, there is little information on the survivorship of first-generation monarchs in the core area of occupancy in Texas, Oklahoma, and Louisiana where overwinter population recovery begins. The purpose of this study was to determine the survivorship of first-generation eggs to third instars at a site in north Texas and to evaluate host plant arthropods for their effect on survivorship. Survivorship to third instar averaged 13.4% and varied from 11.7% to 15.6% over three years. The host plants harbored 77 arthropod taxa, including 27 predatory taxa. Despite their abundance, neither predator abundance nor predator richness predicted monarch survival. However, host plants upon which monarchs survived often harbored higher numbers of non-predatory arthropod taxa and more individuals of non-predatory taxa. These results suggest that ecological processes may have buffered the effects of predators and improved monarch survival in our study. The creation of diverse functional arthropod communities should be considered for effective monarch conservation, particularly in southern latitudes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: stroke awareness; hypertensive patients; community health center; Indonesia
Online: 16 June 2021 (09:35:30 CEST)
The global burden of stroke is still high, particularly in developing countries, with hypertension serves as the main risk factor. Knowledge related to stroke is essential to establish better prevention strategies. This study aimed to identify factors associated with stroke awareness among hypertensive patients in Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five Community Health Centers in Indonesia. We used a standardized questionnaire to asses stroke awareness and the influencing factors. The knowledge on hypertension was assessed using Hypertension Knowledge Level Scale (HK-LS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to measure factors associated with stroke awareness. A total of 457 hypertensive patients were included. Majority of patients (77.46%) had low stroke awareness. Having higher knowledge on hypertension, higher income, and a history of previous stroke were associated with higher level of stroke awareness (odds ratio [OR] 1.878, 95%CI 1.176-2.999, p 0.008; OR 1.887, 95%CI 1.170-3.045, p 0.009; OR 5.276, 95%CI 2.210-12.594, p<0.001, respectively). This study suggests that knowledge on hypertension, income, and history of previous stroke are factors which may influence the level of stroke awareness. This emphasizes the need to provide better campaign and education program to raise stroke awareness in a community setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0632.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: suicide; men; help-seeking; engagement; community-based intervention
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:12:38 CEST)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to compare help-seeking among younger and older men who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this case series study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE-OM there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001) for both younger and older men. At initial assessment, younger men were less affected by entrapment (46% v 62%; p=.02), defeat (33% v 52%; p=.01), not engaging in new goals (38% v 47%; p=.02), and positive attitudes towards suicide (14% v 18%; p=.001) than older men. At discharge assessment, older men were significantly more likely to have an absence of positive future thinking (15% v 8%; p=0.03), have less social support (45% v 33%; p=.02) and feelings of entrapment (17% v 14%; p=.02) than younger men. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: suicide, men, help-seeking, engagement, community-based intervention
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:04:18 CET)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to explore help-seeking behaviour and engagement for young men aged 18 to 30 years who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this prospective cohort study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). One third (n=54; 34%) of the men were seen within 48 hours of their referral. Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE 34 there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001), with all outcomes demonstrating a large effect size. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0548.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Community; Human Capital; Socio-Cultural; Mobilization; Partnership; Development
Online: 26 January 2021 (16:24:22 CET)
Community is a veritable ingredient for social change and development in a society. The potentials of individuals and groups in the community are a great source or resource for promoting unity, development and patriotism. The general objective of this study is to examine the influence of diversity in community composition, on the operation of community policing style in Nigeria. The study adopted qualitative research approach to collect and analyze data. In-depth interview is the instrument of data collection while content analysis is the method of data analysis. The study took place in Kwara State, North central Nigeria. Twenty community leaders and youth groups heads were purposefully selected through snowball sampling method. Where this great resource or human capital is adequately galvanized by the leaders and community heads, the community becomes formidable and capable of solving her social problems together. However, these benefits of community are hampered by other socio-cultural and economic variables in its members. Community on its own cannot achieve much until members are mobilized to support and partner with government in any developmental projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0040.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antibiotics; antibiotic resistance; rational drug use; community pharmacist
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:58:43 CET)
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is an emerging global threat to public health. Substantial evidence has indicated that community pharmacists (CPs) can play a critical role in managing the ever-increasing threat of antibiotic resistance. The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices of CPs (n=180) towards antibiotics and antibiotic resistance as well as to improve the rational use of antibiotics. Two phases of mixed methods (quantitative and qualitative) online study were conducted in Pakistan from August 2019 to March 2020 by using validated questionnaires and semi-structured interview data. Different statistical methods were used to tabulate the quantitative data whereas inductive thematic analysis was conducted to categorize themes from the qualitative data and draw conclusions. Approximately 64.4% were male (mean: 29-33 years old). Overall, CPs had good knowledge of and were familiar with superbugs and their roles in ABR (65.6%, Median=1, IQR=1) although they were poor in differentiating some antibiotic groups with their respective ABR patterns (31.1%, Median=1, IQR=1). Most CPs have a positive attitude towards antibiotics with most (90.0%) having identified ABR as a critical issue in public health (Median=1, IQR=0). Overall, CPs' practices towards antibiotics were reasonable where they tend to educate patients about the rational use of antibiotics (52.8%, Median=1, IQR=1). Two main themes (antibiotics and counseling of patients) were related to self-medication with while educational interventions are the sub-theme. ABR is multifactorial where the subthemes related to budget, time constraints incompetent staff, the absence of CPs, the lack of training, enforcement of laws and regulations are the need of the hour in Pakistan. Effective antibiotic stewardship programs, patient education, and awareness campaigns about antibiotics and ABR along with training of the CPs are important factors that have to be addressed in a timely manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Environmental Communication; Environmental preservation; Folk media; Guna community
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:20:58 CET)
This study focused on the assessment of folk media aimed at Environmental Communication (EC) in the Guna Community and suggested the dominant Guna Community folk media for environmental communication and preservation to conserve Mount Guna. Guna Mount is the home of different biodiversity and the tower of water, but it is becoming degraded. Folk media are operative in environmental communication and preservation. They have the power to transmitted environmental messages that incorporate cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes with societal needs. Folk media are locally oriented, easily accessible, flexible, portable, inclusive, and relatively inexpensive. A qualitative research approach was employed for this research. Ethnographic research design, snowball, and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The researchers were gathered the data through in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, and observation. For this survey, 16 FGDs, 45 individual in-depth interviews, and participant observation were employed. Guna community has unique and indigenous folk media that use as a source of entertainment, information, and education. Their folk music, songs, dances, campfire storytelling, traditional motifs, fairs, and festivals, and folk poems are the dominants. Using folk media for operative ecology preservation is vital in the form of EC that inspires and develops positive behavior in the community by educating about environmentalism in the method of facilitating environmental issues incorporating the latest message. Finally, we recommended some folk media for developmental activities that use inform of advocacy regarding recommended reasons
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0062.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Participation; community; systems dynamics; sustainable development; decision making.
Online: 5 October 2020 (10:48:12 CEST)
This research article presents the integration of participatory modeling and system dynamics as a novel methodology for the consolidation of social dynamic models for the subsequent evaluation and prioritization of green projects in Colombian post-conflict communities. In the first instance, through participatory work carried out along with the community, it was possible to identify, evaluate and systematize citizen factors in relation to the problems and needs of the region. Second, based on the results obtained, to calibrate a simulation model based on system dynamics that facilitates decision making with regard to the evaluation of green projects. The proposed methodology leads to the conclusion that, with the participation of the community and with a model based on the dynamics of variables such as supply and demand for natural resources of water and land, it is possible to warn decision makers about the variables that can lead to the maximization of investments and thus prioritize and select the most appropriate environmental, social or economic initiatives, that certainly meet the needs or expectations of the involved community. In the future, the model could be used to facilitate the management, administration and control of water and land resources by creating alerts called reserve margins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: hypogenous ectomycorrhizal fungi; truffles; soil nutrient; fungal community
Online: 12 September 2020 (08:04:07 CEST)
Truffles contribute to crucial dynamics in the soil systems, being involved in plentiful ecological functions important for ecosystems. Despite this, the interactions between truffles and surrounding mycobiota remain unknown. Here, we aimed to shed light on how much truffle species could affect its surrounding soil mycobiota. Using traditional chemical analysis and Illumina ITS amplicon sequencing, we compared soil nutrients and mycobiota surrounding two truffle species: Tuber indicum (Ti) and T. pseudohimalayense (Tp) inhabit in the same Pinus armandii forest in southwestern China. Tp soil was more acidic and had higher nutrients (total C, N, P contents) than Ti soil. Fungal richness and diversity of truffle ascomata and surrounding soils were significantly higher in Tp than in Ti. Redundancy analysis showed relationships between soil fungal taxa and soil properties had changed from negative (Tp) to positive (Ti) and shifted from a moisture-driving (Tp) to a total N-driving (Ti). Overall, our results showed that the interactions between truffle and soil system had been altered with species variation, although the causative peculiarity of these associations needs to be further studied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0069.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: DEHP; biochemical pathways; immobilization; MBR; bacterial community dynamics
Online: 9 January 2020 (05:00:48 CET)
A bacterial strain that could effectively degrade DEHP was isolated from the activated sludge and identified as Bacillus sp. by DNA sequencing. The biochemical degradation pathway of DEHP was further analyzed by GC-MS, and the results showed that DEHP was first decomposed into phthalates (DBP). Diuretic sylycol (DEP) was then generated, and phthalates (PA) were generated by a continuous de-ehelateization reaction. Phthalic acid (PA) was oxidized, dehydrogenated, and decarboxylated into protocatechins. Protocatechins enter the TCA cycle through orthotopic ring opening. To enhance DEHP degradation, sodium alginate and calcium chloride were used as embedding and cross-linking materials, and the strain was immobilized. The immobilization conditions were optimized via an orthogonal experiment, and the results showed that the optimal immobilization conditions were SA mass fraction of 4%, CaCl2 mass fraction of 5%, ratio of bacteria to SA of 1:1, and the crosslinking time of 6 hours. The immobilized bacteria agent was further applied to MBR systems. The results showed that the removal rate of DEHP (5mg/L) in the system by immobilized bacteria was 91.9%, which is significantly higher than that of free bacteria. The 3, 4-dioxygenase gene and microbial community dynamics were analyzed by q-PCR and Illumina Miseq sequencing. The q-PCR results showed that the number of copies of 3, 4-dioxygenase gene in the immobilized system was significantly higher than that of free bacteria. Illumina Miseq sequencing results showed that Micromonospora, Rhodococcus, Bacteroides and Pseudomonas were the dominant generas in the MBR system. The analysis of bacterial community structure indicated that immobilization technology had a positive impact on the system stability. The results implied that this immobilized technique had potential applications in DEHP wastewater treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0376.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: steppe; habitat fragmentation; carabid beetles; community; richness; abundance
Online: 29 November 2019 (10:40:21 CET)
It is well known that human activities and climate change have increased steppe habitat loss and fragmentation in Northwest China. Carabid beetles are often used as bioindicators of environmental change because they are extremely sensitive to disturbance. We chose 42 landscapes (18 fragmented and 24 continuous) in both desert and typical steppes of Northwest China to examine the influence of habitat loss and fragmentation on carabid beetle communities. The results showed the largest correlation coefficient between carabid communities and landscape compositions within a 7-km spatial scale in both desert and typical steppes. Further, the response of carabid communities to habitat fragmentation was species-specific in both desert and typical steppes. Habitat fragmentation in the desert steppe had positive effects on the richness and abundance of carabid communities, while in the typical steppe, the effects were negative. Additionally, habitat fragmentation significantly decreased the abundance of two common carabid species in the desert steppe. Therefore, the effects of habitat fragmentation on carabid biodiversity differ with species characteristics and habitat traits, where plant communities, soil structure, and microclimate vary in the different steppe types. The results of this study provide experimental evidence and technical support for biodiversity conservation management in the steppes of Northwest China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: discourse; digital footprints; group reflexivity; network community; subjectness
Online: 31 October 2019 (09:48:19 CET)
The article is devoted to the assessment of the network community as a collective subject, as a group of interconnected and interdependent persons performing joint activities. According to the main research hypothesis, various forms of group subjectness, which determine its readiness for joint activities, are manifested in the discourse of the network community. Discourse constitutes a network community, mediates the interaction of its participants, represents ideas about the world, values, relationships, attitudes, sets patterns of behavior. A procedure is proposed for identifying discernible traces of the subjectness of a network community at various levels (lexical, semantic, content-analytical scales, etc.). The subjective structure of the network community is described based on experts’ implicit representations. The revealed components of the subjectness of network communities are compared with the characteristics of the subjectness of offline social groups. It is shown that the structure of the subjectness of network communities for some components is similar to the structure of the characteristics of the subjectness of offline social groups: the discourse of the network community represents a discussion of joint activities, group norms and values, problems of civic identity. The specificity of network communities’ subjectness is revealed, which is manifested in the positive support of communication within the community, the identification and support of distinction between “us” and “them”. Two models of the relationship between discursive features and the construct “subjectness” are compared: additive-cumulative and additive. The equivalence of models is established based on the discriminativeness and the level of consistency with expert evaluation by external criteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0292.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: maternal death; marginalized community; flood; natural disaster; Bangladesh
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:23:48 CET)
The study explored the community perception of maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster, practice of maternal complications during natural disaster among the rural population in Bangladesh. It also explored the challenges faced by the community for providing health care and referring the complicated pregnant mothers during disaster. Three focus group discussions (FGDs) and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted in the marginalized rural communities in the flood-prone Khaliajhuri sub-district, Netrakona district, Bangladesh. Flood is one of the major risk factors for influencing maternal death. Pregnant mothers seriously suffer from maternal complication, lack of antenatal checkup and even any doctor during flood. During the time of delivery, it is difficult to find even a skilled attendant and referring the patient with delivery complications to the healthcare facility. Boat is the only mode of transport. Majority maternal deaths occur on the boats during transfer from the community to the hospital. The rural people feel that the maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster are the natural phenomena. It needs some pre-preparation to support pregnant women during the disaster. There is unawareness of maternal health, related care and complications during disaster among the local health service providers and volunteers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0602.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Dust; Mining; Environment; Sustainability; community health; occupational health
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:10:56 CET)
Dust inhalation is a huge concern in the mining environment and within all its operations. In fact, dust to be one of the most serious occupational hazards in the mining industry. Coal and crystalline silica dust are the causes of serious, sometimes fatal lung diseases such as pneumoconiosis, which affects coal miners, as well as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease, which affect coal and other types of miners. The resulting effects both affect workers and nearby communities. The mining industry has in the past, employed several approaches to reduce effects of dust. But these strategies have often been ineffective because the grass withers during the dry season and sprayed water is rapidly absorbed or evaporates. This paper endeavors to review information on dust in the mining environment and how it is a nuisance to workers and communities and establish what strategies exist for this.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0303.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community engagement; health disparities; precision medicine; participant recruitment
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:21:34 CEST)
In response to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) All of Us Medicine Research Initiative, the Precision Medicine Research (PreMeR) Diversity Consortium was formed by four institutions from the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN). This synergistic approach proposed evidence-based, best practices used by experienced researchers to engage, recruit and retain diverse populations in the All of Us initiative. Conceptualization of the proposed approach was aided by social influence theories to better understand how people’s beliefs and opinions should be modified to affect change leading to action . The Social-Ecological Model (SEM), for Health Promotion , from Stokols  and Community-Based Participatory (CBPR) Models, guided proposed engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies contextualized with the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy spheres of influence. The PreMeR produced a partnership to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of current engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies for minority participation in scientific studies. This approach illustrates the need to incorporate multiple methods of engagement to reach a diverse audience to participate in scientific research. Engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies in community and biomedical research must be viewed as community engaged public health interventions, utilizing the same theoretical principles and approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0119.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; law and rule violations; moral community; China
Online: 8 May 2018 (04:33:21 CEST)
This paper examines the moral community thesis in the secular context of China. Using multilevel logistic regression, we test (1) whether both individual- (measured by affiliation with institutional religion) and aggregate-level religiosity (measured by the number of religious sites per 10,000 people in province) are inversely related to law and rule violations at the individual level and (2) whether the province-level religiosity enhances the inverse relationship between individual religiosity and the deviant behaviors. Results from analyzing data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the Spatial Explorer of Religions show that both individual- and aggregate-level religiosity are inversely related to the odds of violating the law and various rules of government, transportation, workplace, and other organizations. However, the cross-level interactions are not significant across models, indicating that the contextual religiosity does not increase the effect of individual-level religiosity on deviance. Implications of findings for the moral community thesis are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: soil; Robinia pseudoacacia; PLFA; stand age; microbial community
Online: 5 September 2017 (15:28:05 CEST)
Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) can be used as biomarkers for qualitative and quantitative analyses of soil microbial community diversity. In this study, we collected soil samples at 10-cm intervals to a depth of 1 m from Robinia pseudoacacia plantations of four different ages (10, 15, 25 and 40 years) in a loess area and analysed the soil microbial community structure by PLFA analysis. A total of 97 PLFAs were detected in soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations of different ages. The individual PLFA contents gradually decreased in the 0- to 40-cm soil layers, with little variation in the 40- to 100-cm soil layers. The individual PLFAs were similarly distributed in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations of different ages, and there was a clear variation with stand age and soil depth. The individual PLFA contents in the 0- to 20-cm soil layers were highest for the 25-year-old plantation, while those in the 20- to 40-cm soil layers were relatively high for the 25- and 40-year-old plantations; the 16:0 content was the highest among individual PLFAs. The total PLFA content and the PLFA contents of different microbial groups [bacteria, fungi, Gram-positive bacteria (G+), Gram-negative bacteria (G-) and actinomycetes] initially increased before decreasing in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations with increasing stand age, whereas these contents gradually decreased with increasing soil depth; the highest PLFA contents was found in the 25-year-old plantation. The total PLFA content and the contents of fungal, G- and actinomycete PLFAs in the soils of R. pseudoacacia plantations differed significantly among stands of different ages in the 0- to 10-cm, 10- to 20-cm and 30- to 40-cm soil layers, while no significant differences were found in the 20- to 30-cm soil layers; the G+ and bacterial PLFAs contents in each of the 0- to 40-cm soil layers were significantly different. The PLFA ratios between different microbial groups differed among the stands of different ages. The fungi/bacteria ratio showed a “decrease-increase-decrease” trend with stand age, while the G+/G- ratio showed an “increase-decrease” trend. The saturated/monounsaturated PLFA ratio initially decreased before plateauing, while the opposite trend was observed for the cyclopropyl/precursor ratio. The PLFA contents of different microbial groups were ranked as follows: bacteria > G- > G+ > actinomycetes > fungi. In the principle component analysis, 18:1ω9c, 10Me18:0, i17:0, a17:0, 18:1ω7c, 18:1ω5c and 18:0 made the greatest contribution to principal component 1, and a14:0, i14:0 3OH, i14:0, i14:1ω7c and 14:0 made the greatest contribution to principal component 2. In conclusion, soil nutrient status and other soil eco-environmental stress factors should be considered in 10- to 25-year-old (particularly ~15-year-old) plots for the management of R. pseudoacacia plantations to prevent forest soil degradation and improve forest stand quality, thereby achieving better soil and water conservation and environmental improvement in R. pseudoacacia plantations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: adaptive co-marketing; social marketing; community-based social marketing; social license to operate; community engagement; corporate social responsibility; marketing strategy
Online: 30 November 2016 (05:13:35 CET)
The concept of a Social License to Operate (SLO) has become increasingly important in the sustainability literature in recent years. Having its origins in the business discourse of the mining industry with respect to limiting opposition to mining projects, the notion of a social contract above and beyond legal requirements has since become applied across a number of different industries. Despite the concepts adoption confusion exists over the practices and outcomes of SLO, and particularly the nature of engagement. Given this situation it is surprising that not more attention to the role of marketing, and social marketing in particular, in operationalizing the concept. The paper discusses the potential of social marketing to contribute to SLO. Economic, political and social relations are complex in SLO and exchange is intricate in such relational environments. A community-based social marketing orientation is proposed as a means to improve exchange relations and enhance engagement. Seven models of SLO related social marketing models are discussed with community-based social marketing and adaptive co-marketing models being regarded as the most positive for the achievement of an SLO. Potential barriers to adoption of these approaches are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0411.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: community participatory asset mapping; asset-based approaches to health; health inequalities; basic healthcare services; community-based healthcare; democratic republic of congo
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:32:40 CEST)
Populations with healthcare needs often reside in post-conflict settings where basic services needed to maintain good health may be non-existent or hard to access. Therefore, there is a need for better identification and reallocation of resources as part of the post-conflict health rehabilitation effort. This study applies an asset-based approach to explore the more optimal design of health services and to identify the resource constraints for basic health service delivery to the most vulnerable communities in eastern Congo. We implemented the asset mapping in two phases. Firstly, we combined a qualitative survey with community walks to identify the assets already present in the communities. Secondly, we conducted group discussions to map out assets that are the core of Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD) practice. We finally documented all assets in a Community Asset Spreadsheet. Overall, 209 assets were identified as available and potentially valuable resources for the communities in eastern Congo. Among them, 60 were local associations, 24 were land and physical environment, 43 were local institutions, 46 were individuals, 32 to economy and exchange, and only 6 were related to culture, history, and stories. Drawing upon the findings from the qualitative survey, community walks, and group discussions, we conclude that an important number of resources were in place for basic health service delivery. By activating the existing and potential resources, the most vulnerable populations in eastern Congo might have the required resources for basic health service delivery. Our findings support the use of an asset-mapping research method as appropriate to identify existing and potential resources for basic health services in a post-conflict setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0016.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: macrobenthos; species diversity; community structure; Cosmonaut Se; Environmental factors
Online: 1 November 2023 (04:33:02 CET)
The Cosmonaut Sea is an under-studied area and a “blank canvas” for macrobenthos research. Here, we report on the species diversity and community structure of macrobenthos collected using the tringle trawl on the 38th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) in the Cosmonaut Sea, East Antarctica. A total of 11 tringle trawls were deployed at different depths across the shelf, slope and seamount of the Cosmonaut Sea. A total of 275 macrobenthic species were found from 207-1994 m. The species richness per station varied from 23 to 89. Echinoderms (100 species), arthropods (48 species) and mollusks (36 species) were the most dominant groups. Echinoderms and arthropods dominated in abundance at seamount stations, and echinoderms, arthropods and polychaetes dominated in abundance at slope stations, while bryozoans, corals, ascidians and sponges were abundant on the Cosmonaut Sea Shelf. Depth was the major driving force influencing the distribution of macrobenthos. The main components were two core communities. One was dominated by sessile suspension feeders and associated fauna. Variants of this community include sponges and bryozoans. The other core community was dominated by mobile deposit feeders, infauna and grazers–epifauna, which included arthropods and echinoderms. The results showed that the slope (40-50° E, 65-67° S) of the Cosmonaut Sea may be an important area with complex ecological processes. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of species diversity and communities of macrobenthos in the Cosmonaut Sea and provide monitoring data for future ecosystem health assessments and better protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: behavior ecology; interspecific competition; interference; community structures； camera-trapping
Online: 17 October 2023 (05:44:09 CEST)
This study presents a comprehensive ecological evaluation of avian species based on 5,322 photographs obtained through camera-trap sampling. We identified 1,427 independent bird sightings, encompassing 26 families and 49 species. The study focused on temporal activity patterns, nesting behaviors, habitat preferences, and the overlap coefficient of activity patterns among 22 species of Passeriformes. Two species exhibited predominant morning activity, while five species were active in the afternoon, and 15 exhibited cathemeral activity (activity throughout the day). A cross-analysis revealed varying degrees of overlap in the activity patterns of pairs of species with similar behavioral ecology. Our findings indicate that despite exhibiting similar ecological behavior, these species display unique activity patterns, likely influenced by factors such as resource availability, competition avoidance, and thermoregulation strategies. The results highlight the richness and complexity of avian temporal niches and emphasize the need for further research into their correlation with environmental factors. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of niche separation within Passeriformes and expands our knowledge of avian behavioral ecology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: phytotherapy; digestive system; andean community; traditional medicine; peruvian andes
Online: 21 September 2023 (07:28:23 CEST)
The use of medicinal plants for the therapy of diseases of the digestive system; where the Andean peoples developed various forms of administration. The objective being the identification of medicinal plants used in the therapy of ailments of the digestive system by the Andean inhabitants of Pampas, Tayacaja, Huancavelica, Peru. Methods, non-probabilistic sampling, using the “snowball” technique, carrying out semi-structured surveys, allowing information to be collected on the prevalence of ailments or diseases of the digestive system treated with medicinal plants, with inhabitants over 20 years of age participating and using the medicinal plants in the therapy of your digestive system ailments; and, exclude those inhabitants who do not comply with it. Results, 16 families, 33 genera and 34 species are reported; where the families that present the greatest abundance of species are Asteraceae, Lamiaceae; Likewise, the widely used species are Minthostachys mollis (11.9%), Aloe vera (10.4%), Clinopodium bolivianum (9%), Artemisia absinthium (9%) and Matricaria chamomilla (8.2%). Concluding with the identification of a diversity of medicinal flora, used in the therapy of diseases of the digestive system, such as stomach pain, constipation, gallbladder ailments, gastritis, gastrointestinal and liver diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Disabled children; Learners; Inclusion; Rights; Parents; Schools; Community; Society
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:55:50 CEST)
Universal education is an elusive goal in many countries, especially for disabled children. Nonetheless determined efforts around the globe have shown that it can become a reality once existing systems were re-imagined by practitioners who arguably have been to the fore more so than academic researchers. Their efforts have identified new ways of thinking about children’s disabilities, the introduction of new practices in schools, forging partnerships between teachers and parents, and mobilising community resources. Societal change is both a consequence of, and a support to these local systems. The complexity of creating education for all may be daunting but it is achievable when driven by committed, creative and inspirational leadership from practitioners as is evident from the examples provided in this paper which have been further validated by research and evaluation into their efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0358.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: microplastics; activated sludge; nutrient removal; microbial activity; microbial community
Online: 4 August 2023 (14:43:30 CEST)
A large number of microplastics (MPs) have been found in various stages of wastewater treatment plants, which may affect the functional microbial activity in activated sludge and lead to unstable pollutant removal performance. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of polylactic acid microplastics (PLA MPs) on system performance, nitrification and phosphorus (P) removal activities, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were evaluated. The results showed that under the same influent conditions, low concentrations (50 particles/(g TS)) of PLA MPs had no significant effect on effluent quality. The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, phosphate and ammonia were all above 80%, and the average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen remained above 70%. High concentrations (200 particles/(g TS)) of PLA MPs inhibited the activities of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and nitrifying bacteria. The specific anaerobic P release rate decreased from 37.7 to 23.1 mg P/(g VSS·h), and the specific aerobic P uptake rate also decreased significantly. The specific ammonia oxidation rate decreased from 0.67 to 0.34 mg N/(g VSS·h), while the change in specific nitrite oxidation rate was not significant. The dosing of PLA MPs decreased the total EPS and humic acid content. As the concentration of PLA MPs increased, microbial community diversity increased. The relative abundance of potential PAOs (i.e., Acinetobacter) increased from 0.08% to 12.57%, while the relative abundance of glycogen accumulating organisms (i.e., Competibacter and Defluviicoccus) showed no significant changes, which would lead to improved P removal performance. The relative abundance of denitrifying bacteria (i.e., Pseudomonas) decreased from 95.43% to 58.98%, potentially contributing to the decline in denitrification performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1248.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Wind power planning; community concerns; controversies; overflowing; citizen participation
Online: 30 April 2023 (03:26:01 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to provide a new perspective on the conditions for the multiple dimensions of concerns, and to understand why some wind power projects run smoothly while others lead to unexpected outcomes due to local resistance. The paper described how multiple community concerns about wind power project planning can be described using conflict management theory and by using different procedures to handle tangible and intangible concerns. Policy recommendations are given on how: to minimise overflowing and the risk of the conflicts; to avoid “boxing” community concerns in categories; to give more attention to the intangible and less calculable concerns; to secure appropriate and early planning with proactive involvement of local communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0238.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social support; older persons; smokers; NHMS 2018; community survey
Online: 12 April 2023 (04:17:11 CEST)
Background Globally the average age of the worlds’ population of older persons continues to upsurge and social support becomes increasingly relevant. Overall, in Malaysia, social support and networking prevalence was found to be lower among older persons at 30.76%. In view of the scarce data on social support and its association with smoking status and its associated factors among the older Malaysian population this study was conducted. Methods Data from the National Health and Morbidity (NHMS) 2018 survey on health of older Malaysian adults was analyzed. This was a cross sectional population-based study using a two-stage stratified random sampling design. Elderly population aged 60 years and above was selected. Data were collected were sociodemographic characteristics, smoking status, and social support. A validated Malay language, interviewer-administered questionnaire of 11-item Duke Social Support Index was applied for assessing social support among the elderly. A complex sampling design analysis was used for the descriptive statistics. The associated risk factors for social support were identified using Multiple Logistic Regression analysis. Results A total of 3923 elderly respondents participated in the study. The prevalence of good social support was significantly higher among the 60-69 years old respondents compared to the > 80 years old (73.1%, 95% CI :69.3% -76.5% vs 50.1 %, 95% CI:41.7 %- 58.6%).Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of poor social support were 1.7 times (aOR: 1.72 % ,95%CI: 1.19 -2.48) higher for the respondents aged > 80 years old, than those aged 60-69 years. Respondents with no formal education were 1.93 higher odds of poor social support than the respondents with tertiary education (aOR: 1.93%, 95%CI: 1.13,3.30). Respondents with income < RM 1000 were 1.94 times more likely to have poor social support compared to respondents with income > RM 3000 (aOR: 1.94, 95% CI : 1.21 -3.13). Former smokers have good social support compared to current smokers (73.6% ,95% CI: 67.7-78.7 vs 65.1 %, 95%CI:58.4 -71.2). For current smokers, the odds of poor social support were 42.0% higher than for non-smokers (aOR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05 -1.91. Conclusion There is poor social support among the older persons who are current smokers, advancing age, no formal education and low income However, further longitudinal studies are needed to determine the exact effects of the studied variables. These findings could assist the policymakers to develop strategies at the national level to enhance social support among the older smokers to ensure cessation of smoking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Lead; Field trial; Phytostabilization; Phytomanagement; Aromatic plants; Bacterial community
Online: 5 October 2022 (17:51:14 CEST)
This field study aimed to assess the base line conditions of a long-term polluted shooting range in Argentina polluted with 428 mg kg-1 lead (Pb), to evaluate the establishment and development of Helianthus petiolaris plants and address the efficacy of the phytomanagement strategy through: i) element accumulation in plant tissues; ii) rhizosphere bacterial diversity changes by Illumina Miseq™ and iii) floral water and essential oil yield, composition and element concentration by GC-MS and ICP. After one life cycle growing in the polluted sites, in the roots of Helianthus petiolaris plants Pb concentration was between 195 and 304 mg kg-1 Pb. Only a limited fraction of the Pb was translocated to the aerial parts. The predominance of the genus Serratia in the rhizosphere of Helianthus petiolaris plants cultivated in the polluted sites and the decrees of the essential oil yield were some effects significantly associated with soil Pb concentration. No detectable Pb concentration was found in the floral water and essential oil obtained. Extractable Pb concentration in the soil reduced between 28-45 % after the harvest.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: integration of sports and health care; sports; health; community
Online: 23 February 2022 (07:06:51 CET)
(1) Background: With continuous globalization and modernization of people's lives, lifestyle has changed dramatically, with decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating patterns in many nations throughout the world. With the COVID-19 pandemic and changes taking place in people’s health and lifestyles around the world, the need for rehabilitation is expected to rise in the coming years.(2)Methods: This paper analyzes the integration model of sports and health care using theoretical analysis, literature reviews, logical reasoning, and other methods.(3)Results: The integration of sports and health care in China has entered the stage of practical implementation after many years of development, forming a few representative integration patterns. Governments, communities, community hospitals, hospitals, and third-party institutions are the main participants, with the community playing an important role in the integration. Pharmacies, sports venues, and schools with sufficient staff have a relatively low participation rate.(4)Conclusion: The grading treatment has been applied in health management and sports rehabilitation, based on the development of digital medicine, a government-led grading treatment model of "health management center" can promote the participation of multiple subjects in the integration of sports and health care, solving the problems existing in the current integration process to a certain extent.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Chlamydia; bacteria community; cryo-soft X-ray tomography; segmentation
Online: 16 July 2021 (08:57:06 CEST)
The impact of the cell community on its individual components in the prokaryotic realm is often overlooked. However, in the case of intracellular pathogens, where each infected cell can be considered as a single community, understanding how a population adapts to its environment to evolve and successfully propagate is key. Chlamydia infections are characterised by a silent propagation of the bacteria within individual hosts and the wider population. Chlamydia are strict intracellular pathogens residing within a specialised membrane-bound compartment called the inclusion. The life cycle of Chlamydia involves altering between the invasive elementary bodies (EBs) and replicative reticulate bodies (RBs). We have used cryo-soft X-ray tomography to observe individual inclusions, combining excellent resolution (40 nm) and large volume imaging (up to 16 µm). Combined with a semi-automated segmentation pipeline, we were able to consider each inclusion as an individual bacterial niche. Within the inclusion, we identified and classified different forms of the bacteria and confirmed the recent finding that RBs have a variety of volumes (small, large and abnormal). Moreover, we demonstrate that the proportions of these different RB forms depend on the bacterial concentration in the cell demonstrating the impact of the group on its individual component. We conclude that each inclusion operates as an autonomous community which regulates the characteristics of individual bacteria within the inclusion
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: community renewable energy; sociotechnical imaginary; multilevel perspective; energy transition
Online: 2 June 2021 (09:11:15 CEST)
The current paper aims to contribute to the literature on community renewable energy by considering two projects developed in the north-west of Italy, in the Piedmont region. The case-studies are analysed by combining two theoretical perspectives: the multilevel perspective and the sociotechnical imaginary approach. On the one hand, applying the first perspective helps reconstruct the context and circumstances that have permitted Piedmont’s energy community projects to emerge. In particular, attention is given to the windows of opportunity created by the passing of the Milleproroghe decree at the national level and by the ensuing regional law 12/2018, which acknowledged the establishment of energy communities in the Piedmont. On the other hand, the sociotechnical imaginary approach allows identifying collective ideas and meanings that emerge when individuals or groups promote a sociotechnical innovation. In our cases, two main future changes are associated with community renewable energy: an integral ecology approach and a stronger sense of community on the one hand, and local development opportunities for rural areas characterised by depopulation, low employment rate and high energy demand, on the other.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Antimicrobial stewardship; Antimicrobial Resistance; Community pharmacist; Qualitative research; Jordan
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:05:40 CET)
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization issued a practical approach and Global Action Plan to control the threatening emerging antibacterial resistance. One of the main basis of this plan is the Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs). This study aimed to evaluate community pharmacists’ awareness and perception towards antimicrobial resistance and ASPs in Jordan. Thus, a qualitative study was conducted through in-depth interviews with twenty community pharmacists. Convienience sampling was used in the study. Qualitative analysis of the data yielded four themes and eleven sub-themes. All the respondents showed good understanding about the causes of antimicrobial resistance. The most important causes reported by them was the non-restricted prescription of antimicrobials. Most of the pharmacists believed that they are competent to provide ASPs, however, they believed that there are several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Barriers demonstrated by the pharmacists, including organizational obstacles, resources obstacles, and personal obstacles. As a conclusion, this study revealed several barriers against the implementation of ASPs in community pharmacies in Jordan. Incorporating ASPs in the community pharmacy settings requires proper pharmacist training, several academic disciplines team efforts, and good pharmacy practice of antimicrobial guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0423.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: community-dwelling older adults; physical frailty; prevalence; risk factors
Online: 18 September 2020 (08:57:56 CEST)
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to stressors, and it predicts the disability and mortality in the older population. This study aimed to investigate standardized prevalence and multidimensional risk factors associated with frailty among the Korean community-dwelling older adults. We analyzed the baseline data of 2,907 adults aged 70–84 years (mean age 75.8±3.9 years, 57.8% women) in the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study. The Fried frailty phenotype was used to define frailty. Analyzed data included sociodemographic, physical, physical function, biological, lifestyle, health condition, medical condition, psychological, and social domains. Data were standardized using the national standard population composition ratio based on the Korean Population and Housing Census. The standardized prevalence of frailty and pre-frailty was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.8–8.9%) and 57.2% (95% CI 45.1–48.8%), respectively. The following 14 risk factors had a significant association with frailty: at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia, severe mobility limitation, poor social capital, rural dwellers, depressive, poor self-perceived health, polypharmacy, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, elevated glycosylated hemoglobin, low 25-hydroxy vitamin D level, longer timed up and go, and low short physical performance battery score (p<0.05). Physico-nutritional, psychological, sociodemographic, and medical factors are strongly associated with frailty.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: systematic review; community intervention; greenhouse gas emissions; climate change
Online: 3 September 2020 (02:54:04 CEST)
This paper reviews research on community efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a systematic search of relevant literature and supplemented our findings with an analysis of review papers previously published on the topic. Results indicate that there have been no peer-reviewed experimental evaluations of community-wide interventions to reduce greenhouse gases involving electricity, refrigeration, or food. The lack of findings limits the conclusions which can be made about the efficacy of these efforts. As a result, we are not accumulating effective interventions and some communities may be implementing strategies that are not effective. We advocate the funding of experimental evaluations of multi-sector community interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Such interventions would attempt to engage every sector of the community in identifying and implementing policies and practices to reduce emissions. Comprehensive multi-sector interventions are likely to have synergistic effects, such that the total impact is greater than the sum of impact of individual components. We describe the value of interrupted time-series designs as an alternative to randomized trials because these designs confer particular advantages for evaluating strategies in entire communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0439.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Participation; Wildlife; Community–Based Conservation; India; Interaction; Northeast India
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:42:21 CEST)
Participation by local communities in wildlife conservation projects have long been advocated since it is socially just and is effective to reach conservation and development goals. Socio–economic variables that drive participation and impact of participation have been studied, but the contextual process that stir up local community participation remains understudied. In this paper, we studied factors facilitating community participation in three wildlife conservation projects in Northeast India. Through ethnographic fieldwork at these sites we identified conservation actors and examined interactions between them.We found common modes of participation at these sites and these were related to gaining material incentives, providing labour, attending consultative workshops. Levels of interaction and coercion were found to be different in three sites. Three critical factors that drive participation were: (1) trigger, (2) negotiation and (3) sustenance. Trigger factors kickstart participation through establishment of a crisis narrative and facilitation by external actors. Negotiation factors emerge from day–to–day interaction between local community and external actors and involve effective entry stage activities, income opportunity, mediating voices within the community and intra–community dynamics. Sustenance factors affect the long term participation by community in the conservation project and involve tangible/intangible results, capability development of locals, funding and availability to critical information. In our paper we argue that investment of time and fund to understand the stakeholders and their concept of participation, periodic feedback sessions, capacity development of locals for self–mobilization, innovative information dissemination and securing long term funding are necessary for effective local community participation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0067.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cognition; depression; agigng; elderly; nonpharmacological therapy; community day-care
Online: 5 May 2020 (10:32:05 CEST)
Nonpharmacological therapeutic interventions in elderly may lead to the reduction of cognitive and depressive symptoms. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in cognitive functions and mood er or not. in older adults participating in therapy, conducted in the community day-care center (CD-CC). 46 elderly adults (21 M, 25 W) (SG) were examined. The control group (CG) included 45 adults (12 M, 33 W), who participated in the activities of the University of the Third Age (U3A). The following measuring tools were used: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock-Drawing Test (CDT), Verbal Fluency Test (VFT), Digit Span Test (DST), Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT), Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The intervention consisted of CD-CC 6-month complex therapy. In the SG, compared to the CG, the scores on the: MMSE, CDT, VFT, DST, and SCWT were significantly lower (p<0,05), and BDI was significantly higher (p<0,05). After intervention, the SG and the CG, did not show substantial differences in their scores on the: MMSE, CDT, and BDI. In the SG, a significant improvement (p<0,05) was reported on the: VFT, BDI, and HADS scores. The CD-CC complex therapy can be helpful for the cognitive and emotional elderly functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: conservation; biodiversity; human rights; livelihood; forest-dependent community; impact
Online: 9 April 2020 (08:18:52 CEST)
Background and Research Highlights: Despite all the concerns and initiatives, natural resources like forests, as well as biodiversity are decreasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Conservation is considered as one of the major tools to prevent such loss and rapid degradation. Evidence around the world shows the adverse effects of conservation laws and policies on indigenous peoples and other local communities. Objectives: This study was conducted in one of the forest-dependent communities situated in Sundarban (world’s largest mangrove forest) to understand the impact of conservation laws and policies on their livelihood. Materials and Methods: A qualitative methodology was designed to collect data, using focus group discussions and case study with community people, and individual interviews with the personnel from NGOs and relevant government departments. Findings: Strict conservation policies and restrictions in accessing forest resources made lives and livelihoods of the local community insecure and unstable, thus putting the community in a vulnerable situation. The had to leave their traditional mode of income and look for alternative livelihood options. Almost no evidence was found in relation to upkeeping their rights in conservation activities. Prohibited movement, provision of punishment for entering into the forest without proper permission and struggles in everyday life were some of the highlighted issues. They had no participation in conservation activities, management of alternative livelihood options, and even they were not sensitized before putting restrictions. Although they had a history of emotional and physical attachment with the forest, existing activities did not consider these issues. In addition, corruption and abuse of power by law enforcement agencies towards the local community intensified the sufferings. Conclusion: This study argues that the realization of human rights in conservation activities and the sensitization of the implementing stakeholders are prerequisites for ensuring the sustainability of both biodiversity and the affected people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0406.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Rhizosphere; Fungal diversity; Community structure; Wheat root rot disease
Online: 31 December 2019 (10:20:33 CET)
Background: Wheat root rot disease due to soil-borne fungal pathogens leads to tremendous yield losses worth billions of dollars worldwide every year. It is very important to study the relationship between rhizosphere fungal diversity and wheat roots to understand the occurrence and development of wheat root rot disease. Results: A significant difference in fungal diversity was observed between the diseased and healthy groups in the heading stage, but the trend was the opposite in the filling stage. The abundance of most genera with high richness decreased significantly from the heading to the filling stage in the diseased groups; the richness of approximately one-third of all genera remained unchanged, and only a few low-richness genera, such as Fusarium and Ceratobasidium, had a very significant increase from the heading to the filling stage. In the healthy groups, the abundance of most genera increased significantly from the heading to the filling stage; the abundance of some genera did not change markedly, or the abundance of very few genera increased significantly. Physical and chemical soil indicators showed that low soil pH and density, increases in ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen contributed to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease. Conclusions: Our results revealed that in the early stages of disease, highly diverse rhizosphere fungi and a complex community structure can easily cause wheat root rot disease. The existence of pathogenic fungi is a necessary condition for wheat root rot disease, but the richness of pathogenic fungi is not necessarily important. The increases in ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen contributed to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease. Low soil pH and soil density are beneficial to the occurrence of wheat root rot disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0019.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: community detection; social network; convolutional neural network; auto-encoder
Online: 3 November 2019 (15:51:34 CET)
With the fast development of the mobile Internet, the online platforms of social networks have rapidly been developing for the purpose of making friends, sharing information, etc. In these online platforms, users being related to each other forms social networks. Literature reviews have shown that social networks have community structure. Through the studies of community structure, the characteristics and functions of networks structure and the dynamical evolution mechanism of networks can be used for predicting user behaviours and controlling information dissemination. Therefore, this study proposes a deep community detection method which includes (1) matrix reconstruction method, (2) spatial feature extraction method and (3) community detection method. The original adjacency matrix in social network is reconstructed based on the opinion leader and nearer neighbors for obtaining spatial proximity matrix. The spatial eigenvector of reconstructed adjacency matrix can be extracted by an auto-encoder based on convolution neural network for the improvement of modularity. In experiments, four open datasets of practical social networks were selected to evaluate the proposed method, and the experimental results show that the proposed deep community detection method obtained higher modularity than other methods. Therefore, the proposed deep community detection method can effectively detect high quality communities in social networks.