Preprint Review Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

The Incidence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Elderly Population of the United States of America: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Version 1 : Received: 23 May 2021 / Approved: 24 May 2021 / Online: 24 May 2021 (10:52:36 CEST)

How to cite: Sadjadi, R. The Incidence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Elderly Population of the United States of America: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Preprints 2021, 2021050563 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0563.v1). Sadjadi, R. The Incidence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Elderly Population of the United States of America: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Preprints 2021, 2021050563 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202105.0563.v1).

Abstract

Current epidemiological data reports that adults aged 65 years and older comprise the most vulnerable age group with the highest proportion of CAP-attributable hospitalizations. Pneumococcal vaccine efficacy (VE) has been shown to decrease over time, contributing to increasing incidence rates of CAP. A holistic evaluation of age, sex, seasonality, and VE are is conducted in this systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 prospective and retrospective cohort studies. The findings suggest that incidence and age are positively associated and that incidence in females is more often reported to be higher in females than in males. In studies that observed seasonality of CAP, high seasons and low seasons were reported to be in winter and summer months, respectively. Lastly, studies that reviewed the effect of vaccination on incidence consistently found decreased observance of CAP in elderly adults following reception of PCV13 or PPSV23. However, one study suggested that such vaccinations may have decreased effectiveness in elderly populations and that research examining potential explanations for this require further investigation. Furthermore, distinct diagnostic and case ascertainment standards, descriptive measures, and methods of prevention and treatment of CAP used across the US are outlined in this review. Public health guidance such as encouraging the reception of pneumococcal vaccinations and mask-wearing during high seasons of CAP, and communicating the risks of not adhering to the aforementioned preventative measures can facilitate an effort to reduce the incidence of CAP and its associated adverse outcomes in the US elderly population.

Keywords

Community-acquired pneumonia; incidence; prophylaxis; pneumococcal; vaccination

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