ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0389.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: body composition; body condition score; body parameters; fat; live weight; ewes condition; im-age analysis
Online: 6 June 2023 (05:54:38 CEST)
Farmers are continually looking for new reliable, objective and non-invasive methods for evaluation of ewe condition. Live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) are used by farmers as a basis to determine the condition of the animal. Body composition is an important aspect of monitoring animal condition. The body composition is the amount of fat, lean and bone; knowing the amount of each is important because the information can be used for better strategic management interventions. Experiments were conducted to establish the relationship between body composition and body parameters, at key life’s stages (weaning and pre-mating), using measurements automatically determined by an image processing ap-plication at Lincoln University sheep farm for 88 Coopworth ewes. Computerized Tomography technology was used to develop relationship with body parameters and a subset was used to validate the predicted model. Multivariate linear regression (MLR), artificial neural network (ANNs) and regression tree (RT) statistical analysis methods were evaluated to determine their efficacy to predict body fat, lean and bone. The results showed a correlation between fat, lean and bone determined by CT and the fat, lean, bone weight estimated by live weight and body parameters calculated using the image processing application with R2 values of 0.90 for fat, 0.72 for lean and 0.50 for bone using ANNs statistical model. From these results, farmers can utilize accurate measures of fat which will enhance nutritional and management practices.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: body posture defects; the shape of anterior-posterior spinal curvatures; body composition; school-children
Online: 11 April 2020 (05:38:01 CEST)
The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvature of the spine and body composition in school-children. The study included 257 children, aged 11-12. Correct spinal curvature was established in 106 (41.08%) subjects. Other types included: decreased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 40 participants (15.50%), correct kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 24 individuals (9.30%), increased kyphosis and correct lordosis - 17 subjects (6.59%), correct kyphosis and increased lordosis - 22 children (8.53%), decreased kyphosis and decreased lordosis - 32 people (12.40%), decreased kyphosis and increased lordosis - 4 of the examined subjects (1.55%), increased kyphosis and lordosis - 13 people (5.04%). In addition, 134 (51.94%) demonstrated scoliotic posture and 8 (3.10%) scoliosis. There were significant relationships between the shape of the anterior-posterior curvatures and body composition in school-children. Those with a strong body build (predominance of mesomorphs) were generally characterised by the correct formation of these curvatures. In contrast, lean people (with the predominance of ectomorphic factors) were more likely to experience abnormalities. No correlations with body composition were observed in the group with scoliotic posture or scoliosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0651.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: body composition; pubescent; somatic maturity; football
Online: 11 October 2023 (14:19:41 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to compare players anthropometric (AP) and body composition (BC) characteristics between different maturity bands (pre-PHV, circa-PHV, post-PHV)) in youth elite football. This study considered 320 male football players (mean age 13.8 y.) from U14 (n=157) and U15 (n=163) age-groups. The Khamis-Roche method was used for calculating the percentage of predicted adult height (PAH) at the time of observation based on which the players were further divided into maturity bands (pre-PHV ≤ 87%, circa-PHV = 88-95%, post-PHV > 95%). Height and weight were measured, body mass index (BMI), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW), body fat mass (BFM), percentage of body fat (%BF), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), FFM of both upper limbs and lower limbs and FFM of trunk were estimated according to In-body 270. All observed AP and BC characteristics differed between maturity bands (F= 139.344 – 7.925; p< 0.001; large effect sizes) except the BFM (F= 2.998; p=0.051; small effect size). Current somatic maturity stage of athletes should be considered while evaluating BC results, otherwise there is a risk of misinterpretation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2096.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: body composition; physical activity; intellectual disability
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:09:45 CET)
This study aims to assess several morphofunctional parameters in female teenagers with and without intellectual disability to characterise normality and its disturbances. More precisely, the purpose was to examine the factors contributing to the differences in body composition elements between groups, such as the physical activity level. To evaluate these parameters, we used bioelectrical impedance analysis technology (BIA), most commonly used in studies concerning body composition because it is non-invasive, quick, with high data fidelity; it can be easily moved to various locations and applied straightforwardly among populations with diverse types of intellectual disability. Our research sample comprised 212 subjects (boys and girls) aged 17.1±0.6, divided into six groups by gender and type of intellectual disability. The study found influences of physical activity level on body composition components. In addition, we report a highly significant relationship for p<0.05, body mass index and the independent variable (No. of min./week) in some groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0608.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Football; athletic performance; body composition; Latin-American soccers
Online: 9 May 2023 (08:38:34 CEST)
Knowledge of body composition is essential for athletes for their sport performance. It has yet to be determined whether differences in body composition are present between international and non-international players playing in the same elite professional club competition. Similarly, it is not yet clear whether differences in body composition according to ethnic origin exist in the elite professional game, where relative homogeneity is to be expected among soccer players. There is no single anthropometric profile that guarantees sporting success, as the somatotype of football players differs according to their individual characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess the description and comparison of the body composition profile of latin american professional football players playing in european leagues. The sample was composed of 238 subjects football players from European professional football leagues. Differences were found in all variables measured. The present study shows that in Latin American professional football players playing in Europe, there are significant differences in different body composition variables such as weight, height, WC, skinfold and fat values. This means that the treatment of these data and the possible classifications of sporting performance carried out in football clubs should be different to other European or African-American football players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: celiac disease; body composition; gluten free diet; children
Online: 15 October 2018 (13:19:09 CEST)
The primary and proven therapy, in cases of celiac disease (CD), is a rigorous gluten-free diet. However, there are reports of its negative effects in the form of nutritional deficiencies, obesity and adverse changes in body composition. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of a gluten free diet (GFD) on the body composition of children with CD. In a case-controlled study (n = 41; mean age 10.81 y; SD = 3.96) children with CD, in various stages of treatment, underwent medical assessment. The control group consisted of healthy children and adolescents, strictly matched for gender and age in a 1:1 case-control manner. More than half of the examined children (n = 26) followed a GFD. CD children had significantly higher mean values of the fat free mass (FFM% = 80.68 vs. 76.66, p = 0.015), and total body water (TBW% = 65.22 vs. 60.47, p = 0.012), and lower mean values of the fat mass (FM% = 19.32 vs. 23.34, p = 0.015). Children who were on a GFD presented slightly higher, but not statistically significant, mean values of FM and FFM, than children who did not follow dietary recommendations (FM [kg] = 7.48 vs. 5.24, p = 0.064; FM% = 20.81 vs. 16.73, p = 0.087; FFM [kg] = 28.19 vs. 22.62, p = 0.110). After minimum one year of a GFD, CD children showed significantly higher values of FFM [kg] (p = 0.001), MM [kg] (p < 0.001), TBW [L] (p < 0.001) and BCM [kg] (p < 0.001). Furthermore, CD children who were on a GFD presented significantly higher weight (p = 0.034) and body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.021) increase. The children adhering to a GFD demonstrate a tendency towards higher indices of selected body composition components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1994.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: gestational weight gain; DNA methylation; ultrasonography; plethysmography; offspring body composition
Online: 28 June 2023 (10:18:01 CEST)
Background: Changes in body weight are associated with the regulation of DNA methylation (DNAm). In this study, we investigated the associations between maternal gestational weight gain-related DNAm and foetal and neonatal body composition. Methods: Brazilian pregnant women from the Araraquara Cohort Study were followed up during pregnancy, delivery, and after hospital discharge. Women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI were allocated to two groups: adequate gestational weight gain (AGWG, n=45) and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG, n=30). Foetal and neonatal body composition was evaluated by ultrasound and plethysmography, respectively. DNAm was assessed in maternal blood using Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip arrays. Linear regression models were used to explore the associations between DNAm and foetal and neonatal body composition. Results: Maternal weight, GWG, neonatal weight, and fat mass were higher in the EGWG group. Analysis of DNAm identified 46 differentially methyl-ated positions and 11 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) between the EGWG and AGWG groups. Nine human phenotypes were enriched for these 11 DMRs located in 13 genes (EMILIN1, HOXA5, CPT1B, CLDN9, ZFP57, BRCA1, POU5F1, ANKRD33, HLA-B, RANBP17, ZMYND11, DIP2C, TMEM232), highlighting the terms insulin resistance, and hyperglycaemia. Maternal DNAm was associated with foetal total thigh and arm tissues and subcutaneous thigh and arm fat, as well as with neonatal fat mass percentage and fat mass. Conclusion: The methylation pat-tern in the EGWG group indicated a risk for developing chronic diseases and involvement of ma-ternal DNAm in foetal lean and fat mass and in neonatal fat mass.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: central obesity; waist circumference; physical activity; basal metabolic rate; body composition
Online: 12 September 2022 (11:36:37 CEST)
This article aims to systematically review the available evidence concerning the relationship between basal metabolism (BM), body composition (BC), and physical activity (PA) with central obesity. The search strategy was carried out using Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, and SciELO following the PRISMA guidelines. The STROBE checklist and the Jadad scale for quality assessment were also used. A total of 1382 studies were initially identified being 25 publications eligible for systematic data extraction. Individual studies showed that adults with waist circumference (WC) above 88 cm in women and above 102 in men had a higher risk of metabolic alterations related to high absolute energy expenditure and less maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Participants with central obesity presented a high percentage of body fat (BF%) between 30.6% and 41.6%. Most of the PA intervention studies reported reductions in WC between 1.3 and 5.8 cm. In conclusion, there is a direct relationship between the components of BM with central obesity and a direct association between central obesity and BF%. PA is a protective factor that needs to be promoted to reduce WC and control central obesity as a public health problem. PROSPERO ID registration: CRD42021232917.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Magnesium deficiency; Body composition; Chronic kidney failure.
Online: 13 July 2022 (09:27:18 CEST)
(1) Background: Reduced magnesium (Mg) levels may be associated with a faster de-cline in renal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of serum and uri-nary Mg levels with body composition and inflammatory markers; (2) Methods: Lon-gitudinal study with patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing non-dialysis treatment in stages 3A, 3B and 4. Venous samples were collected after a 12-hour night fast. Body composition was evaluated by Double X-Ray Emission Absorptiometry and Air Displacement Plethysmog-raphy; (3) Results: The sample consisted of 134 patients. In the adjusted linear regression model, uric acid, percentage of lean mass and ali-mentar intake of Mg were positively associated with the sergic Mg. Triglyceride levels, WC and fat mass percentage were negatively associated with serum Mg. For the Mg urinal, in the adjusted model, the eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate), IL (interleukin 6), food intake of Mg and the percentage of lean mass showed a positive correlation.; (4) Conclusions: Serum Mg levels were positively associated with lean mass and negatively with total and central body fat and urinary Mg was positively associated with IL6 and lean mass.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: hypertension; obesity; body composition; intra-abdominal fat; sleep apnea; obstructive
Online: 10 May 2022 (04:45:21 CEST)
Background: Elevated fasting plasma glucose and visceral fat area (VFA) is highly prevalent in obese adults. This study investigated the associations between systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and laboratory, anthropometric, heart rate variability (HRV), and obstructive sleep apnea markers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 95 obese patients treated at Obesity Treatment and Surgery Center, located in Salvador, BA, Brazil. SAH data were obtained from electronic medical records of patients. To evaluate the association of SAH with the predictor variables, the sample was stratified in Normotense Group (NG) and Hypertensive Group (HG), and laboratory markers, body composition, polysomnography data, and HRV were measured. Results: The average age of the NG was 36.3 ± 10.1 and HG 40.4 ± 10.6 years, 73.7% were women in the NG and 57.9% in HG; 82.4% in HG had insulin resistance. In the multivarious logistics regression model with adjustments age, sex, height, and oxyhemoglobin saturation, SAH was inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose mg/dL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.96; 95% interval confidence [CI] = 0.92 - 0.99) and VFA cm2 (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97 - 0.99). The area under curve the VFA was 0.728; CI 95% (0.620 - 0.836) and fasting plasma glucose 0.693; CI 95% (0.582 - 0.804). Conclusions: Lower VFA and fasting plasma glucose concentrations were inversely associated with SAH. These results indicate opportunities to improve the outcome in obese patients through counseling and clinical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; physical fitness; body composition; functional mobility; physiotherapy
Online: 27 September 2019 (03:03:10 CEST)
Background and objectives: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have many potential factors (spasticity, immobilization, glucocorticoids use) which can deteriorate the anthropometrical status and body composition and may have the potential impact on the functional mobility and basic motor skills improvement after physiotherapy. The aim of the study was to assess the functional mobility and basic motor skills in patients with MS and to correlate them with disability and anthropometrical status and body composition parameters. Materials and Methods: Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed in 36 patients with MS before and after 4 weeks of physiotherapy. Body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (W/HtR), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed in this group. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and fat mass (FAT), fat free mass (FFM), total body water (TBW) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were expressed as percentage of body mass. Clinical status was assessed by EDSS and AI scales. Results: After physiotherapy, there was a significant improvement in functional mobility and basic motor skills assessed by total distance in 6MWT (p<0.001) and in TUG trials (p<0.001). Positive significant correlations were found between the results obtained in both tests (either before and after physiotherapy) vs. FFM, TBW and PMM, whilst worse results in functional mobility and basic motor skills correlated significantly with higher WHtR, WHR and FAT (p<0.05). Clinical status (EDSS) were significantly related to the WHtR and body composition parameters with the same manner as the results in the either 6MWT and TUG. However, there were no significant relationships between BMI vs. either clinical status (EDSS, AI) and functional mobility tests results in patients with MS. Conclusions: Functional mobility and basic motor skills may be significantly improved during the physiotherapy, but they are related to the anthropometrical status and body composition of MS patients. Moreover, disability status is also significantly related to this parameters. Body composition deterioration seems to be the important target for the therapeutic intervention in MS patients. For proper nutritional status assessment in patients with MS, body composition analysis or WHtR instead BMI should to be used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: overweight; obesity; body fat; maximal oxygen uptake; double-blind; randomized controlled trial
Online: 24 August 2018 (07:40:00 CEST)
: Background: Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for many chronic diseases, and weight-loss interventions often include systematic exercising and nutritional supplements. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent/synergistic effects of Spirulina maxima supplementation (6-week, 4.5 g/day) and a systematic physical exercise program (6 weeks/ 2 times) on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness of overweight and obese subjects. Methods: 27 overweight and 25 obese sedentary male subjects were assigned to four interventions through a randomized double-blind, crossover controlled trial: Physical exercise program with (SE) or without (Ex) Spirulina maxima or no-exercise program with (Sm) and without (C) Spirulina maxima. Body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters were taken during a maximal intensity test. Results: As compared to C group, SE, Sm and Ex groups reduced (p < 0.05) their body fat percentage while improving their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max; r = −0.40), being obese subjects more benefited. Weight loss, time to reach fatigue and onset of blood lactate accumulation were improved in both Spirulina maxima supplemented groups, regardless the subjects’ body composition. Conclusions: Spirulina maxima supplementation synergistically improves the effects of systematic exercise in body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness parameters in overweight but mostly in obese adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0349.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Body dissatisfaction, Body image, Female students, Perfection
Online: 3 August 2023 (14:07:43 CEST)
Many university female students are concerned about their bodies. Body image perception has become a public health issue globally. This study aimed to explore factors contributing to body image dissatisfaction among female students at the University of Venda. The study was qualitative in nature and employed exploratory research design. A sample of 10 female students enrolled at the University of Venda were identified using convenience sampling method. A pre-tested, semi-structured interview guide was used to collect data and thematic content analysis technique was used to analyse the collected data. The findings of the study showed that body comparison, societal beauty standards, social media, and body shaming by family and friends were the main factors contributing to student’s body image dissatisfaction. The findings further revealed that lack of self-confidence, stress, avoidance, anxiety and depressive symptoms were the challenges faced by students with body image dissatisfaction. Acceptance. Self-care, and healthy diet were identified as coping strategies to help deal with the challenges of student’s body image dissatisfaction. Conclusively, students should be encouraged to seek professional help timeously, to help navigate their body image concerns to avoid decline in their daily functioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: musculoskeletal pain; body height; body weight; schoolchildren
Online: 8 November 2018 (11:07:54 CET)
Background Children often suffer the nonspecific musculosceletal pain as reported in literature. Aim To determine relationship between body weights with development of musculoskeletal pain and to determine whether growing in body height is associated with musculoskeletal pain in schoolchildren. Subjects/ Methods A prospective longitudinal study included 1315 school children aged 7-14 years (652 boys and 663 girls) and was performed in 13 elementary schools in B&H. Child body height and body weight were measured. The survey of perception of musculoskeletal pain in different body regions of subjects was conducted by adjusted Nordic Musculosceletal Questionnaire (NMQ). Results The highest prevalence of an overweight and obesity in the 10th year 35.7% and the lowest frequency 17.8% in the 14th year was. In the age 14th obesity was’nt found. Boys have more prevalence of overweight. Using logistic regression model, we found that school children with normal BMI were protected with increased body height of acute lower back pain (β= -0.089, 95%CI, -9.730- -0.023, P< 0.049), and increased body height was protector of obese school children of acute upper back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001) and chronic lower back pain (β= -0.356, 95%CI, -14.077- -3.878, P< 0.001). Conclusion Schoolchildren with normal weight more often have had musculosceletal pain than those with overweight or obesity. This can be associated with intense physical growth period in height, especially. The assumption is that the increase in height changes the relationship between excessive BMI and musculoskeletal pain in children of school age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: insulin resistance; body weight; body fat; visceral fat; waist circumference; body mass index
Online: 28 February 2018 (04:43:50 CET)
The incidence of obesity which leads to insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic disorder increases in developing countries including Indonesia. Male adult has higher risk to have abdominal obesity than female which is associated with cardiometabolic disorders. Several anthropometric measurements have been proposed to predict IR. The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF) or visceral fat percentage (VF) could become a better predictor of IR in healthy young male adult. Total of 140 healthy young male adults ranging from 18-25 years were recruited in the study. Insulin resistance was measured by calculating Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects with HOMA-IR value >75th percentile with cut off 3.75 were defined as IR. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, BMI, WC were performed whereas BF and VC were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). IR had significant strong correlation with body weight, BMI, WC, BF and VF. The area under curve of body mass, BF, VF were greater than WC and BMI. Anthropometric measurements correlated strongly with IR but body weight, BF, VF have stronger correlation than WC and BMI in healthy young male adult.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1618.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: body image; body schema; gender; interoception; motor imagery
Online: 28 November 2023 (01:45:38 CET)
Body image disturbance (BID) involves negative attitudes towards shape and weight and is associated with lower levels of interoception (awareness of and attention toward internal physiological states). This association is considered a risk factor for developing eating disorders (EDs) and is linked to altered sensorimotor representations of the body (i.e., body schema). BIDs manifest across genders and are currently understudied in men. This study investigated gender-related differences in BID and its relationship to the body schema and interoception. Data were collected from 86 men and women. BID was assessed using questionnaires measuring self-objectification, state, and trait body dissatisfaction. Interoceptive sensibility was measured via the MAIA-2. The body schema was indexed via an embodied mental rotation task. Results showed that women reported higher BID than men across all scales. Gender differences in sub-components of interoceptive sensibility were found. Overall, both gender and interoceptive sensibility predicted BID. However, interoceptive sensibility exhibited its own unique association with BID beyond the influence of gender. BID, IS and gender were not significant predictors of performance in the body schema task. Therefore, while gender predicts differences in BID and interoceptive sensibility, there was no evidence of gender-related differences in body schema.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0754.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: human body segments; body dimensions; biomechanical modeling; anthropometry
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:54:14 CEST)
The knowledge of human body proportion and segmental properties of limbs, head and trunk are of fundamental importance in biomechanical research. As many methods are employed, it is important to know which they are currently available, which data on human body masses, lengths, center of mass (COM) location, weights and moment of inertia are available and which methods are most suitable for a specific research purposes. The present review examines the literature concerning human body segments properties for biomechanical purposes. It emerges that data obtained in studies on cadaveric specimens are still the most accurate, whilst technological tools currently available are manifolds, each one with proper advantages and disadvantages. Classical studies were focused mainly on white men, while in recent year the available data of body segments has been extended to children, woman, and other races. Also, data on special population (obese, pregnant women) are starting to appear in the scientific literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0190.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: thinness, girls, youth, body satisfaction, body mass index
Online: 21 March 2018 (16:00:02 CET)
Psychological wellbeing can be impacted substantially by changes in body image during youth, which can be a predictive factor for positive or negative attitudes, such as for self-esteem and satisfaction. In this study, adherence to the thinness model and to healthy behaviours were analysed in terms of the emotional patterns and body management of the young female Italian population (N = 2287). Skinny girls fitting better with the thinness model tended to develop higher positive emotional patterns, but their body management was low. Findings suggest the urgent need for preventive programmes to enhance awareness of healthy behaviours against appearance models.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:50:10 CEST)
TThe passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Question-naire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, (p=0.001), and the subscales of dieting (p=0.01) and bulimia. (p=0.001). Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. (p=0.01). The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both profes-sional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0471.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Athletes; eating disorders; weight loss; body dissatisfaction; body image disorders
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:10:51 CEST)
The passion of bodybuilding athletes for a symmetric, lean, heavily muscled body leads them to carry out exhausting exercise programs and restrictive eating regimens, sometimes resulting in disordered eating behaviors. This study investigates potential exacerbators on the development of disordered eating in bodybuilding and strength athletes. The study involved 103 Cypriot bodybuilding athletes of both sexes, performing at three levels: professional, recreational and strength athletes. The Eating Attitude Test 26 (EAT-26) and The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R21) were used to evaluate disordered eating and eating behaviors respectively. The current study was performed under the auspices of the Hellenic Center of Education & Treatment of Eating Disorders (KEADD). The degree of deviation between the perceived ideal body weight and the actual body weight was associated with increased risk of eating disorder. Athletes who desired a lower body weight recorded higher scores on EAT-26 overall, and the subscales of dieting and bulimia. Cognitive restraint and emotional eating scales of TFEQ-R21 were more pronounced in the non-professional athletes. The emotional eating score was higher in women. There is a need for appropriate sport-specific, gender-specific preventive intervention to deescalate the risk of eating disorder, in both professional and non-professional bodybuilding athletes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0266.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: ultrawideband (uwb); localization; ranging; body wearable sensors; human body shadowing
Online: 23 September 2019 (11:36:26 CEST)
In recent years, several Ultrawideband (UWB) localization systems have already been proposed and evaluated for accurate position estimation of pedestrians. However, most of them are evaluated for a particular wearable sensor position; hence the accuracy obtained is subject to a given wearable sensor position. In this paper, we study the effects of body wearable sensor positions i.e., chest, arm, ankle, wrist, thigh, fore-head, hand, on the localization accuracy. The conclusion drawn is that the fore-head is the best, and the chest is the worst body sensor location for tracking a pedestrian. While the fore-head position is able to set an error lower than 0.35 m (90th percentile), the chest is able to set 4 m. The reason for such a contrast in the performance lies in the fact that in NLOS situations, the chest as an obstacle is larger in size and thickness than any other part of the human body, which the UWB signal needs to overcome to reach the target wearable sensor. And so, the large errors arise due to the signal arriving at the target wearable sensor from reflections of a nearby object or a wall in the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: lung transplantation; body mass index; nutrition; body composition; lean body mass; muscle mass; leptin; sarcopenia; creatinine-height index
Online: 1 November 2019 (13:02:51 CET)
Lung transplantation offers patients with end stage lung disease an opportunity for a better quality of life, but with limited organ availability it is paramount that selected patients have the best opportunity for successful outcomes. Nutrition plays a central role in post-surgical outcomes and historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used as the de facto method of assessing a lung transplant candidate’s nutritional status. Here we review the historical origins of BMI in lung transplantation, summarize the current BMI literature, and review studies of alternative/complementary body composition assessment tools, including lean psoas area, creatinine-height index, leptin, and dual x-ray absorptometry. These body composition measures quantify lean body mass versus fat mass and may provide a more comprehensive analysis of a patient’s nutritional state than BMI alone.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1508.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: zoom dysmorphia; body dysmorphic disorder; screening; scale; questionnaire; telehealth; body image
Online: 21 June 2023 (08:41:57 CEST)
Zoom dysmorphia (ZD) is a facial dysmorphia triggered or aggravated by frequent virtual meetings. The frequent use of videoconferencing platforms has been linked to a distorted perception of facial images as individuals have an increased awareness of their appearance, given constant video feedback. As a result, dysmorphic concerns can develop. It is crucial to identify ZD as the condition interferes with the individual’s life and can trigger or aggravate body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). A standardized approach for screening ZD in non-psychiatric settings has yet to be defined. We discuss the features of ZD and the challenges of screening for ZD in a virtual setting. To facilitate the recognition of ZD in telehealth consultations, we propose a comprehensive ZD screening questionnaire that includes questions related to typical ZD features and a BDD-focused question. The questionnaire is concise and allows the identification of individuals with a potential ZD. A BDD assessment in such individuals should follow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0068.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: head and neck neoplasms; head and neck cancer; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma; radiotherapy; radiochemotherapy; salvage surgery; time interval; body composition; skeletal muscle; computed tomography scan; radiomics
Online: 4 September 2023 (02:41:55 CEST)
Patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) frequently require primary radiochemotherapy (RCT). Despite intensity-modulation, desired radiation-induced effects observed in HNSCC, may also be observed as side-effects in healthy tissue e.g. the sternocleidomastoideus muscle (SCM). These side-effects (e.g. tissue fibrosis) depend on the interval between completion of RCT and restaging-CT. For salvage surgery, the optimal time window for surgery is currently postulated between 6 and 12 weeks after completion of RCT. Thus, no extensive tissue fibrosis is to be expected. This interval is based on studies exploring surgical complications. Studies directly exploring radiation-induced changes of the SCM in HNSCC-patients are sparse. The present study quantifies tissue alterations in SCM and paravertebral musculature (PVM) after RCT applying radiomics to determine the optimal time window for salvage surgery. Three radiomic key parameters 1) volume, 2) mean positivity of pixels (MPP) and 3) uniformity were extracted with mint lesionTM in the staging-CTs and restaging-CTs of 98 HNSCC-patients. Of these, 25 were female, the mean age was 62 (±9.6) years and 80.9% were UICC Stage IV. The mean restaging-interval was 55 (±28; range29-229) days. Only the mean volume significantly decreased after RCT from 9.0 to 8.4 and 96.5 to 91.9 ml for SCM and PVM, respectively (both p=0.007, both Cohen’s d=0.28). In addition, the mean body mass index (BMI) decreases from 23.9 (±4.2) to 21.0 (±3.6) kg/m² (p<0.001); Cohen's d = 0.9). The mean BMI-decrease significantly correlated with the volume decrease for SCM (r=0.27; p=0.007) and PVM (r=0.41; p<0.001). If t-test p-values were adjusted for the BMI-decrease, no significant change in volumes for SCM and PVM was observed (both p>0.05). The present data supports the postulated optimal interval for salvage surgery of 6 to 12 weeks. Irrespective of the remaining risk-benefit ratio of salvage surgery, the risk of additional surgical complications due to fibrosis is not supported by the present observations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0210.v1
Online: 16 May 2019 (10:44:55 CEST)
We propose a method for the estimation of the spectral response of a photodetector, using only the variation of the temperature of a black body source without the need of an expensive monochromator or a circular filter. The proposed method is suitable especially for infrared detectors in which the cut – off wavelength and the responsivity vs. wavelength is not exactly known. The method provides a rough estimation of the curve S(l) solving a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The precision of this technique depends on the number of temperatures at which the detector output is measured. Some example is given in order to better explain the proposed technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0198.v1
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:11:12 CET)
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of transduser design and its elements, and their materials on temperature in deeper layers of tissues measurement results. A digital modeling was performed to evaluate the influence of the properties of transduser design elements. Experimental research was carried out. Revealed that the accuracy, similar to that of an invasive method using needle probes, can be achieved by measuring the temperature in deeper muscle layers using the proposed transducer.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body shape index; body roundness index; metabolic risk factors; Southern China adults
Online: 24 May 2020 (16:44:12 CEST)
This purpose was to compare the ability of body shape index (ABSI) and body roundness index (BRI) with waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body adiposity index (BAI) to predict metabolic risk. The cross-sectional study was conducted in 17,360 Chinese subjects (were aged 18-95 years old) who escaped cardiovascular disease (CVD) or diabetes. Biochemical and anthropometric variables were measured by trained staff. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and optimal cutoff values of obesity indices were recruited to compare the predictive ability for metabolic risk factors. The mean age of subjects was 53.7(13.1) years, 41.6 % were males. Within young group (<60 years), the areas under the curve (AUC) demonstrated that WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BRI were able to similarly predict high metabolic risk in males (0.74 vs. 0.74 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) and in females (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.71 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73), while the approximate predictive ability were only acquired in males (0.73 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.70 vs. 0.73 vs. 0.73) within elder group (≥60 years). The optimal cut-off values of BRI for high metabolic risk were calculated in males (<60 y: 3.49 vs. ≥60 y: 3.46) and females (<60 y: 3.47 vs. ≥60 y: 3.60). Meanwhile, BRI displayed a strong prediction to elevated BP and elevated TG in males (AUC = 0.64; AUC = 0.70) and to elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA in females (AUC = 0.67; AUC = 0.69; AUC =0.70). BRI was able to similarly predict high metabolic risk compared to WC, BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI, while ABSI was not. Moreover, BRI revealed specific predictive ability for elevated BP, elevated TG and elevated SUA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: obesity; diabetes; body weight; body composition; glucose tolerance; insulin tolerance; incretin; energy expenditure
Online: 12 February 2019 (10:37:42 CET)
Background/Goals: The gut hormone PYY secreted from intestinal L-cells has been implicated in the mechanisms of satiation via Y2-receptor (Y2R) signaling in the brain and periphery and is a major candidate for mediating the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on appetite and body weight. Methods: Here we assessed the role of Y2R signaling in the response to low- and high-fat diets and its role in the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure and glucose handling, in global Y2R-deficient (Y2RKO) and wildtype mice made obese on high-fat diet. Results: Both male and female Y2RKO mice responded normally to low- and high-fat diet in terms of body weight, body composition, fasting levels of glucose and insulin, as well as glucose and insulin tolerance for up to 30 weeks of age. Contrary to expectations, obese Y2RKO mice also responded similarly to RYGB compared to WT mice for up to 20 weeks after surgery, with initial hypophagia, sustained body weight loss, and significant improvements in fasting insulin, glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, and liver weight compared to sham-operated mice. Furthermore, non-surgical Y2RKO mice weight-matched to RYGB showed the same improvements in glycemic control as Y2RKO mice with RYGB that were similar to WT mice. Conclusions: PYY signaling through Y2R is not required for the normal appetite-suppressing and body weight-lowering effects of RYGB in this global knockout mouse model. Potential compensatory adaptations of PYY signaling through other receptor subtypes or other gut satiety hormones such as GLP-1 remain to be investigated.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; weight bias; body image; body dissatisfaction; exposure avoidance; shape dissatisfac-tion; empty stomach
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:10:22 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between weight-bias internalization and eat-ing-disorder psychopathology in treatment-seeking patients with severe obesity using a network approach. Two thousand, one hundred and thirteen patients with obesity consecutively admitted to a specialist clinical unit for obesity were recruited from January 2016 to February 2023. Body mass index was measured, and each patient completed the Weight Bias Internalization Scale (WBSI) and the Eating Disorder Examination Interview (EDE). Network analysis showed that the most central and highly interconnected nodes in the network were related to the EDE items exposure avoidance, dissatisfaction with shape, and wanting an empty stomach. Bridge nodes were found, but the bootstrap difference test on expected bridge influence indicated non-significant centrality differences. Nevertheless, the eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization network structure in patients seeking treatment for obesity indicate the prominent role of body dissatisfaction and control of eating and weight in these psychological constructs. This finding, if replicated, could pave the way for a new understanding of the psychological mechanisms operating in patients with obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1249.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD); Whole body cryotherapy (WBC); skin temperature; extreme cold; human body
Online: 17 May 2023 (12:39:36 CEST)
This study aims to investigate the impact of body heat loss on the thermal and aerodynamic conditions in a whole-body cryotherapy chamber. The underlying hypothesis is that the heat generated by the human body alters the thermal and aerodynamic environment inside the cabin. A numerical study was conducted to test this hypothesis to analyze the thermodynamic exchanges between the human body and the cabin during a 3-minute whole-body cryotherapy session. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach was used to study the unsteady heat transfer between the human body and the interior of the cryotherapy cabin. A thermal boundary condition, based on a mathematical model developed from experimental data, was applied to simulate skin cooling kinetics over time. The post-processing of the 3D results, including temperature, velocity fields, and thermal flux maps at the body surface, provided insight into the thermo-convective mechanisms involved in a whole-body cryotherapy session. The study found that body heat loss significantly affects the temperature fields inside the cabin, leading to global modifications of the aeraulic and thermal conditions. These findings suggest that cryotherapy protocols may need to be adjusted or the cabin set temperature optimized to enhance the therapeutic benefits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0439.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cognition; cognitive functions; localization; lesion studies; body perception; functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI); electrical microsimulation; transcranial magnetic stimulation; extrastriate body area; fusiform body area
Online: 28 July 2022 (11:16:04 CEST)
It is one of the central goals of cognitive neuroscience to understand how structure and function relate in the brain. We review how cognitive function characterization has been approached in the past. In addition, we examine the ongoing efforts, as well as the implications for the future. Clinical studies on patients with lesions have provided key insights into the relationship between brain areas and behavior over the past century. We describe cognitive function according to localization considering these early efforts for characterization. We chose a perceptual-cognitive function, namely body perception, to describe our current efforts. Using body perception as an example, we summarize contemporary techniques. Finally, we outline the trajectory of current progress into the future and discuss the implications for clinical and basic neuroscience.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1277.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: body control; awareness; balance; training; assessment
Online: 20 September 2023 (03:28:25 CEST)
Proprioception is an essential part of human movement and body awareness. It is the body's perception of its own spatial understanding, which helps us to accurately move our limbs and maintain balance. Purpose: This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and analyse bibliometric data about proprioception in gymnastics and acrobatics. Methodology: This article consisted of two phases: 1) a bibliometric review (based Web of Science) and 2) a systematic review (Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus) of literature. "Gymnast*", "propriocep*", were utilized as search terms to find and choose published data. From a total of 164 studies, 30 were included for data extraction (n participants= 1432 of different age, sports, physical activities, and physical condition. Heterogeneity of studies design and assessment make it difficult to interpret the outcomes and the effect of proprioceptive interventions and comparations between samples. Proprioception is difficult to define in gymnastics considering the evidence references and the physiological considerations. Also, assessment tools used do not necessary evaluate proprioception globally considering the senses involved in gymnastics. Gymnastics training enhances joint awareness and force sense, improving proprioception and reducing injury risk. Proprioceptive exercises should be incorporated into gymnastics programs to enhance stability and precision in movements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0254.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Centella asiatica; body weight; obesity; adipocyte
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:36:10 CEST)
To understand the mechanisms involved in the anti-obesity effects Centella asi-atica (CA), we examined body weight, serum levels, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, histological analysis, and the expression of cholesterol homeostasis- and lipid metabolism-related genes in mice with high-fat, high-sugar diet (HFHSD)-induced obesity that were orally treated with CA for 12 weeks. Eight-week-old, male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to the following four groups (eight mice/group): NOR, normal diet; Control, HFHSD; CA-L, HFHSD+CA 300 mg/kg; CA-H, HFHSD+CA 600 mg/kg. CA treatment signifi-cantly attenuated HFHSD-induced increase in body weight gain, serum glucose, serum triacylglycerol, and WAT weight (p < 0.05). Compared to that in Control group, adipocyte diameter and macrovesicular area of epididymal WAT signif-icantly decreased with CA treatment (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), 3- hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCR), and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 (SCD 1) were significantly downregulated in the CA-H group compared to the Control group (p < 0.05). CA exerts anti-obesity effects by lowering body fat accumulation via regulat-ing gene expression in the liver and thus, is a potential lipid-lowering agent.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0215.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: aging; body composition; kidney; sex differences
Online: 11 November 2022 (03:53:06 CET)
Aging is a complex biological process, with gradual and progressive decline in structure and function in many organ systems. Our objective is to determine if structural changes produced by aging, vary with sex, in a stressful situation such as dehydration. The expression of Slc12a3 mRNA in renal cortex, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and fibronectin, was evaluated in male and female rats aged 3 and 18 months submitted or not to water deprivation (WD) for 48 hours. When comparing ages, 18-month-old males showed lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than 3-month-old males, and control and WD 18-moth-old male and female rats exhibited higher expression of α-SMA than respective 3-month-old rats. Fibronectin was higher in both control and WD 18-month-old males than respective 3-month-old males. In females, only control 18-month-old rats showed higher fibronectin than control 3-month-old rats. When we compared sex, control and WD 3-month-old female rats had lower expression of Slc12a3 mRNA than re-spective males. WD 18-month-old male rats presented higher expression of fibronectin and α-SMA than WD 18-month-old female rats. When we compared hydric condition, WD 18-month-old males displayed lower relative expression of Slc12a3 mRNA and higher α-SMA expression than control 18-month-old males. Aging, sex, and dehydration lead to alteration in kidney structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0355.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Neck Muscle Vibration; Proprioception; Body Schema
Online: 23 September 2022 (03:45:37 CEST)
Upper limb control depends on accurate internal models of limb position relative to the head and neck, accurate sensory inputs, and accurate cortical processing. Transient alterations in neck afferent feedback induced by muscle vibration may impact upper limb proprioception. This research aimed to determine the effects of neck muscle vibration on upper limb proprioception using a novel elbow repositioning task (ERT). 26 right-handed participants aged 22.21 2.64 performed the ERT consisting of three target angles between 80-90 (T1), 90-100 (T2) and 100-110 (T3). Controls (CONT) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of rest and the vibration group (VIB) (n=13, 6F) received 10 minutes of 60Hz vibration over the right sternocleidomastoid and left cervical extensor muscles. Task performance was reassessed following experimental manipulation. Significant time by group interactions occurred for T1: (F1,24 = 25.330, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.513) where CONT improved by 26.08% and VIB worsened by 134.27%, T2: (F1,24 = 16.157, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.402) where CONT improved by 20.39% and VIB worsened by 109.54%, and T3: (F1,24 = 21.923, p < 0.001, p2 = 0.447) where CONT improved by 37.11% and VIB worsened by 54.39%. Improvements in repositioning accuracy indicates improved proprioceptive ability with practice in controls. Decreased accuracy following vibration suggests that vibration altered proprioceptive inputs used to construct body schema, leading to inaccurate joint position sense and the observed changes in elbow repositioning accuracy.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: body plan; archetype; burden; generative entrenchment
Online: 1 March 2022 (10:17:43 CET)
A body plan is a stable configuration of characters for a major taxonomic group, such as chordates or arthropods. Despite widespread casual reliance on the concept for guiding comparisons within and between groups, the nature of body plans as well as the biological causes underlying their evolution have remained elusive. This paper proposes an abstract mechanistic model of body plan identity. We hypothesize that body plans are an evolutionary phenomenon that only applies to a relatively small subset of major clades, rather than being associated with each and every so-called “phylum.” Body plans arise in evolution by stepwise accretion, and require a level of developmental complexity that is only found in some animal clades. Further, we suggest that, parallel to the developmental mechanisms controlling character identity, there are “body plan identity mechanisms” (BpIMs) that maintain entire configurations of characters while possessing a mechanistic architecture that is itself stable and traceable through evolutionary change. These BpIMs, we suggest, are entrenched intercellular signaling networks operating between transient embryonic structures that are destined to differentiate into distinct individualized characters. The activity of a BpIM results in a transient long-range integration of the embryo that is highly sensitive to genetic and environmental perturbations, and that can be detected morphologically as a conserved phylotypic stage. This model is illustrated with detailed interpretations of the notochord signaling system and the segment polarity network as candidate BpIMs in vertebrates and arthropods, respectively. We conclude by contrasting the proposed developmental-mechanistic conception of body plans with the phylogenetic notion of ground plans, and sketch the general outlines of an empirical research program on body plan evolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Obesity; Eating Disorder; Body Image; Adolescents.
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:34:57 CEST)
There is growing recognition of the adverse effects of body image dissatisfaction (BID) and eating disorder (ED) symptoms on adolescent health. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ED symptoms, BID, and their relationship in adolescents from public schools in Southern Brazil. A total of 782 schoolchildren (male: n=420, female: n=362); age: 15 ± 0,4 years) answered a self-administrated questionnaire to identify sociodemographic data. Children´s Figure Rating Scale was adopted to identify body image and Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) was applied to investigate ED symptoms. Inferential statistics and hierarchical model-controlled logistic regression were used for association between variables. Most of the schoolchildren reported being satisfied with their bodies. However, we observed a higher prevalence of dissatisfaction among girls for being overweight and thinness among boys. Female students and students from schools located in the central area of the city showed higher chances of developing ED symptoms, and the absence of symptoms of ED appeared to act as a protective factor against BID in schoolchildren. Results of this study show the need to reflect on these factors that influence the development of ED and non-acceptance of their own body in a population concerned with their physical appearance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0064.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: body; action; abstract concepts; metacognition; sociality
Online: 2 August 2021 (23:19:08 CEST)
Recent research has shown that the sensorimotor system plays a significant role in a variety of cognitive processes. In this paper, we will review recent studies performed in our lab (Body Action Language Lab, BALLAB) or in labs with which we collaborate, showing the involvement of the sensorimotor system at different levels. With the purpose of expounding on this aspect, we focus on studies that highlight two main characteristics of the involvement of the sensorimotor systems. First, we concentrate on the flexibility of sensorimotor grounding during interaction with objects. We report evidence showing how social context and current situations influence affordance activation. We then focus on the tactile and kinesthetic involvement in body-object interaction. Second, we illustrate flexible sensorimotor grounding in word use. We review studies showing that not only concrete words, like “bottle,” but also abstract words, like “freedom,” “thinking,” and “perhaps,” are grounded in the sensorimotor system. We report evidence showing that abstract words activate sensory modalities and involve the mouth effector more than concrete words due to their privileged relationship with language, both outer and inner speech. We discuss the activation of the mouth sensorimotor system in light of studies on adults (e.g., studies employing articulatory suppression), children (e.g., studies on the effects of pacifier use on word acquisition and processing), and infants (e.g. studies on emergence of new words). Finally, we pinpoint possible mechanisms at play in the acquisition and use of abstract concepts. We argue that with abstract concepts, we rely more on other people to learn or negotiate the meaning of words; we have called this mechanism social metacognition.Social metacognition is bidirectionally linked to our sensorimotor system. On the one hand, linguistic explanations constitute a primary source of grounding that may be re-enacted when retrieving a concept, for example through inner speech. On the other hand, it leads us to feel closer and be more synchronous in movement with others, who can help us understand the meaning of very complex words. Overall, we show that the sensorimotor system provides a grounding basis not only for objects and concrete words but also for more abstract and concrete ones. We conclude by arguing that future research should address and deepen two different and interrelated aspects concerning the involvement of the sensorimotor system during object and word processing. First, the sensorimotor system is flexibly modulated by the context, as studies on affordances reveal. Second, the sensorimotor system can be involved at different levels, and its role can be integrated and flanked by that of other systems, like the linguistic one, as studies on abstract concepts clearly show. We urge future research aimed at unravelling the role of the sensorimotor system in cognition to fully explore the complexity of this intricate-and sometimes slippery-relation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0504.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: body size; foraging; hominid; slope; terrain
Online: 19 November 2020 (11:06:21 CET)
Meganthropus palaeojavanicus was known very tall with body height of 8 feet and this made M. palaeojavanicus as the tallest hominid ever existed. This species was living in closed tropical woodland and hilly landscape as the fossil remains were found in a remote forest in Sangiran, central Java. Owing large body size, it may influence the foraging ecology of M. palaeojavanicus to cope with the terrain. In here, this study aimed to model the M. palaeojavanicus foraging ecology along terrain gradients. The model indicates that within 5 km home range radius, the most suitable foraging areas were in north east since these areas have more flat landscapes with slopes of <7.5%. While less suitable areas in north west and south west areas were characterized by hilly landscapes with rugged terrain and steep slopes with slopes of >62.8%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0310.v1
Online: 14 August 2020 (06:32:59 CEST)
Finding a solution for Euler's equations is a classic mechanics problem. This study revisits the problem with numerical approaches. For ease of teaching and research, a Maple code comprising 2 lines is written to find a numerical solution for the problem. The study's results are validated by comparing these with previous studies. Our results confirm the correctness of the principle of maximum moment of inertia of the rotating body, which is verified by thermodynamics. As an essential part of this study, the Maple code is provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; body mass index; vaccination; evolution
Online: 31 October 2023 (08:28:08 CET)
Body mass index has been studied as one of the factors that negatively influences COVID-19. In this work we intend to analyze this influence. A representative sample of the population of Beira Interior was used (around 2%), to which immunity research and a socio-demographic survey were carried out. It was found that obesity influences the vaccination rate, and all other variables analyzed were not influenced by the body mass index.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0616.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: assessment; body; mass; index; women; healthcare services
Online: 10 October 2023 (10:42:35 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is calculated by dividing a person's height in meters by their weight in kilograms and is always expressed in kg/m2. BMI is a reliable risk indicator for various diseases that can develop due to a higher percentage of body fat. There is a possibility of developing certain medical conditions including heart disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, gallstones, breathing problems and some malignancies that increase with BMI. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to identify the trends in the Body Mass Index (BMI) of women visiting Better Life Primary Health Care Centre in Ondo City, Ondo State, Nigeria for various healthcare services. METHODOLOGY: Seventy (70) women who participated in this study were randomly selected using systematic random sampling. Their necessary information was obtained using a prepared record sheet to collect their data. Results were analysed using SPSS version 21. RESULTS: The results show mean age of the respondents is 30.50 + 6.52921 21 (30%) were between 31 – 35 years, 21 (30%) were traders, 36 (51%) had tertiary education, 39 (55.7%) were between 151 – 160 cm in height. 32 (45.7%) were between 60 – 80 kg in weight and 30 (42.9%) had normal weight, respectively. CONCLUSION: Body Mass Index (BMI) calculation is an essential tool that can help in identifying one of the significant public health issues that leads to obesity; a predisposing factor to various medical conditions like hypertension, musculoskeletal issues, heart diseases, cancers, and lots more. It is therefore important to incorporate BMI calculation into routine checks to prevent or reduce health burdens that may arise from obesity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0036.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Non-verbal communication; neuroscience; body language; gestures
Online: 2 October 2023 (08:37:59 CEST)
This publication delves into the intricate world of human communication, extending beyond the realm of spoken and written language to explore the profound influence of non-verbal communication. Focusing on body language—comprising gestures, facial expressions, postures, and movements—it reveals the pivotal role it plays in conveying emotions, intentions, and psychological states. The rapidly evolving fields of neuroscience and cognitive science are investigating the neural mechanisms and cognitive processes that underpin the interpretation and utilization of these non-verbal cues. Notably, the amygdala's involvement in processing emotional facial expressions has provided a neurological foundation for our emotional understanding in non-verbal communication. Concurrently, cognitive psychology sheds light on how perception, attention, and memory influence our interpretation of non-verbal cues and communication strategies.In our modern, technologically advancing society characterized by global interconnectivity and cultural diversity, the significance of non-verbal communication, especially in digital and virtual contexts, is paramount. The transformation of non-verbal expression into digital symbols like emoticons and emojis raises questions regarding its ability to maintain authenticity and emotional understanding. This publication endeavors to comprehensively explore the fundamental role of body language and non-verbal communication in contemporary society. By integrating insights from psychology, neuroscience, social sciences, and digital technologies, it aims to elucidate the underlying mechanisms guiding non-verbal communication. Additionally, it delves into the implications of non-verbal communication across diverse domains, including interpersonal communication, the workplace, politics, advertising, and the virtual world.The research presented herein strives to offer a thorough understanding of interpersonal dynamics, relationships, and social behavior, with the goal of promoting the development of more effective, conscious, and ethically guided communication strategies. Ultimately, this analysis aspires to inspire further interdisciplinary research and reflection, addressing emerging challenges and fully leveraging the potential of non-verbal communication in modern society. This, in turn, guides our path towards a communication landscape that is more inclusive, authentic, and empathetic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1891.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: thermography; tendons; quadriceps muscle; body temperature regulation
Online: 28 September 2023 (03:09:33 CEST)
In the last decade there has been a growing interest in infrared thermography in the field of sports medicine in order to elucidate the mechanisms of thermoregulation. The aim of this study was to describe bilateral variations in skin temperature of the anterior thigh and patellar tendon in healthy athletes, to provide a model of baseline tendon and muscle thermoregulation in healthy sprinters following a unilateral isokinetic fatigue protocol. Fifteen healthy national-level sprinters underwent unilateral isokinetic force testing and electrostimulation in which body temperature was measured before, during, and after the protocol using an infrared thermographic camera. ANOVA detected a significant difference in the time x side interaction for patellar temperature changes (p≤0.001) and a significant difference in the time x side interaction for quadriceps temperature changes (p≤0.001). The thermal challenge produces homogeneous changes evident in quadriceps areas, but not homogeneous in tendon areas. these data show that metabolic and blood flow changes may depend on the physical and mechanical properties of each tissue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1846.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: team sports; explosive strength; body composition; CMJ
Online: 26 May 2023 (04:24:30 CEST)
Player’s performance in an intense sport such as basketball is known to be related to attributes like speed, agility, and power. This study presents a comparative analysis of associations between anthropometric assessment and physical performance in different age-group elite youth basketball players, while simultaneously identifying the predictors for speed and agility in these players. U14 (n=44), U15 (n=45) and U16 (n=51) players were tested for anthropometry, lower body power, speed, and agility. U16 players were found to be taller, heavier, more muscular than U14 and U15 players. Also, the U16 group showed better performance in all performance tests. Age had a significant positive correlation with countermovement (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) performance in U14 players, and a significant negative correlation with 10m and 20m sprint times in U15 group. CMJ and DJ emerged as the most significant predictors for sprint and agility variables, respectively. Body fat percentage was found to be a significant predictor for the speed and agility tests in all age groups, but a negative lower-body power predictor. Therefore, besides all sport-specific and fitness tests, it is essential to place emphasis on the percentage of body fat when designing players’ individualized training programs, and during team selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0522.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: astragalus; body mass; Bovid; Pleistocene; population density
Online: 22 September 2020 (11:37:26 CEST)
Astragalus bone is one of the most important fossil records as it can reconstruct the prehistoric life. Respectively, this study aims to model the body mass, habitat preference, and population density of prehistoric bovid Duboisia santeng (Dubois 1891) in eastern Java island in the early Pleistocene. The astragali from 9 specimens were used to estimate the body mass and population density. Likewise regression models are used to analyze the relationship between astragalus lateral length, width, and body mass compared to the astragalus of extant Bovid species. The result revealed the body mass average was 60.3 kg (95%CI: 58.9-61.7) and this indicates the D. santeng belongs to large herbivores. While the population density was estimated at about 5.39 individuals per km2 (95% CI: 3.18-7.6).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: vitamin D; obesity; weight-loss; body composition
Online: 12 April 2020 (16:44:13 CEST)
Background: Vitamin D was studied in regards to its possible impact on body mass reduction and metabolic changes in adults and children with obesity yet there were no studies assessing the impact of vitamin D supplementation during a weight management programme in children and adolescence. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 26 weeks of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese children undergoing an integrated 12-months’ long weight loss programme on body mass reduction, body composition and bone mineral density. Methods: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Vitamin D deficient patients ( <30 ng/ml level of vitamin D) aged 6-14, participating in multidisciplinary weight management programme were randomly allocated to receiving vitamin D (1200 IU) or placebo for the first 26 weeks of the intervention. Results: Out of the 152 qualified patients, 109 (72%) completed a full cycle of four visits scheduled in the programme. There were no difference in the level of BMI change. Although the reduction was greater in the vitamin D vs. placebo group (-4.28 ± 8.43 vs. -2.53 ±6.10) the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.319). Similarly the reduction in fat mass – assessed both using bioimpedance and DEXa was achieved, yet the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our study ads substantial results to support the thesis on no effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight reduction in children and adolescents with vitamin D insufficiency undergoing a weight management programme. Trial registration no: NCT 02828228; trial registration date: 8 June 2016 registered in: ClinicalTrials.gov.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: body self-image; adolescent; anthropometry; nutritional status
Online: 16 April 2018 (10:51:45 CEST)
The critical changes in physical appearance during adolescence can considerably influence the self-appraisal of body image. The purpose of this study is to analyze body self-image gender differences in Mediterranean adolescents, and his relationships to the anthropometric characteristics of this population in different phases of the adolescence. Participants were 809 Mediterranean teenagers (396 females) aged 11 to 17. A relative low prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was observed among healthy urban Mediterranean adolescents (boys 17.3%; girls 22.7%). Girls showed statistically significantly higher mean BSQ scores than boys (M = 61.7, SD = 26.6 versus M = 56.3, SD = 27.1; p < 0.001). Girls in the late adolescence were more often classified as being dissatisfied (31%) in comparison to those in the early adolescent group (19.1%; p < 0.05). There was a good correlation of BSQ scores with all the anthropometric variables in males but not in females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: coffee; obesity; body mass index; waist circumference
Online: 30 September 2017 (05:12:52 CEST)
The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5,995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption was evaluated using the food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity measured by BMI (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; P for the trend < 0.001) and abdominal obesity measured by WC (≥ 3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.11; 95% CI = 1.59-2.79; P for the trend < 0.001). The positive association between daily coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains to be elucidated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1433.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Biomarkers; metabolomics; nonhuman primates; preterminal; total-body irradiation
Online: 22 November 2023 (13:47:20 CET)
Ionizing radiation exposure is known to induce molecular and cellular injury, inflicting a cascade of potentially catastrophic events leading to tissue and organ damage. Metabolomic analysis allows for the identification and quantification of small molecules downstream of genomic changes induced by radiation exposure. We aimed to characterize metabolomic changes that underscore the prefinal stage of lethally irradiated rhesus nonhuman primates (NHPs). Peripheral blood was drawn at baseline, post-exposure as well as at the preterminal stage of NHPs (immediately prior to death in moribund NHPs), which did not survive exposure with 7.2 Gy total-body radiation (LD70/60). Herein, we analyzed global metabolomic changes using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS) in plasma samples of NHPs collected at various timepoints in relation to irradiation. The overall goal was to identify metabolic shifts present immediately prior to death. Our findings, for the first time, show that radiation induced significant time dependent metabolic perturbations when compared to pre-irradiation samples, particularly in the glycerophospholipid metabolism and steroid hormone biosynthesis and metabolism pathways. These findings provide valuable insights for identifying biomarkers for lethality, which may be helpful for triage during a mass casualty scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0281.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: amputation; body image; validation study; reproducibility of results
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:43:49 CET)
Background: Assessing body image and personalized rehabilitation in lower limb amputation is essential to measure impact on an individual’s quality of life and psychosocial wellbeing. The aim of this study was to develop a Spanish version of the Amputee Body Image Scale (ABIS-E) for Spanish-speaking lower limb amputee. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted including amputee patients in local in Madrid, Spain. Clinical outcomes about body image (Amputee Body Image Scale, ABIS), health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D-5L), depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS), pain (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, BPI-SF) and functional capacity (Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire, PEQ) were collected. Results: Seventy-three participants were assessed. Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC=0.847) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.753) were obtained. Three factors were extracted in the factor analyses. Convergent validity with Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated for the depression and anxiety questionnaires (HADS) (values between .57 and .67), functional capacity (PEQ) (values between -.35 and .71) and quality of life (EQ-5D-5L) (values between -.37 and .61). Conclusions: The ABIS-E is a reliable and valid tool for measuring body image in the Spanish population with a lower limb amputation, potentially useful in primary care to identify psychosocial problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1105.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: MethylRAD-Seq; A. japonicus; body wall; age identification
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:21:09 CEST)
The A. japonicus industry has expanded significantly, but no research has focused on how to de-termine the age of A. japonicus during farming. Correctly estimating the age of A. japonicus can provide a decision-making basis for the breeding process, and data for the protection of A. japonicus aquatic germplasm resources. DNA methylation levels in the body wall of Apostichopus japonicus at 4 months, 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years old were determined by MethylRAD-Seq, and differentially methylated genes related to age were screened. The results of the study found that 441 and 966 differentially methylated genes were detected at CCGG and CCWGG sites, respectively. As-partate aminotransferase, succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, the histone H2AX, heat shock protein Hsp90, aminopeptidase N, cell division cycle CDC6, Ras GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), slit guidance ligand slit 1, integrin linked kinase ILK, mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase Mtor, protein kinase A Pka, and autophagy-related 3 atg3 these genes may play key roles in the growth and aging process of A. japonicus. This study provided data for identifying the age of A. japonicus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: female athletes; winter sports; nutrition; altitude; body composition
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:49:31 CEST)
Eating disorders, especially restrictive eating, are common among female athletes. There are two main types of winter sports, those that are practised outdoors on snow (-25 to +5ºC and 2500 m), such as alpine skiing or snowboarding, and those that are practiced indoors on ice (5-10º C at low altitude), such as figure skating and ice hockey. The aim of this research was to identify the nutritional status and potential risk of female athletes practising winter sports considering the altitude of training. The sample was composed of 58 women (aged 19.81 years (SD: 12.61) who were competitors in some winter sports. Anthropometrics and nutritional variables were taken. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for all the characteristics except thigh skinfold and neither group had an EI that matched their TEE. Both groups met at least 2/3rd of the RDI for all minerals and vitamins, except iodine, fluorine, vit D, E and retinol. This study suggest that female winter sports athletes have insufficient energy, vitamin and mineral intake that can be worsened by altitude.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1620.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: diagnostic; stem cells; human body; transplantations; regenerative medicine
Online: 23 August 2023 (04:33:23 CEST)
Stem cells can be used in cellular therapy. This happended in order to replace damaged cells or having aim to regenerate organs. The definition of stem cells can be extended. From this point of view, we can mention taking in consideration the idea in which it is known that these cells form the base of the building body. More than, we can mention that stem cells are characterized by two knowing properties namely differentiation and selfrenewal. Based on the observation that differentiation of adult stem cells into specific derivativescan be controlled by laboratory techniques, it is anticipated that adult stem cells may become the basis of therapies for many, and various types of medical conditions. Taking on stem cells, regenerative medicine (RM) it is known as being one of the hottest topics in biotechnology nowadays. From this purpose, stem cells can be used in regenerative medicine (RM). The principles of regeneration are found in different types of cultures, from long time ago, centuries etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1118.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: monocular camera; world coordinates; pose measurement; rigid body
Online: 15 August 2023 (10:33:35 CEST)
A method of measuring the absolute pose parameters of a moving rigid body using a monocular camera is proposed, aiming at addressing calibration difficulties and inconsistencies of repeated measurements of the rigid-body pose for a camera having a varying focal length. The proposed method does not require calibration beforehand. Using more than six non-coplanar control points symmetrically arranged in the rigid-body and world coordinate systems, the matrices of rotation and translation between the camera and two coordinate systems are obtained and the absolute pose of the rigid body measured. In this paper, formulas of the absolute pose measurement of a moving rigid body are deduced systematically and the complete implementation is presented. Position and attitude measurement experiments carried out on a three-axis precision turntable show that the average absolute error in the attitude angle of a moving rigid body measured by an uncalibrated camera at different positions changes by no more than 0.2 degrees. Analysis of the three-dimensional coordinate errors of the centroid of a moving rigid body shows little deviation in measurements made at three camera positions, with the maximum deviation of the average absolute error being 0.53 cm and the maximum deviation of the standard deviation being 0.66 cm. The proposed method can measure the absolute pose of a rigid body and is insensitive to the position of the camera in the measurement process. This work thus provides guidance for the repeated measurement of the absolute pose of a moving rigid body using a monocular camera.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1334.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: body composition; ergogenic aids; adipose tissue; strength training
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:06:57 CEST)
Adiposity is associated with adverse health conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The combination of resistance exercise and creatine supplementation has been shown to decrease body fat % in adults ≥ 50 years of age. However, the effects in adults < 50 years of age is unknown. To address this limitation, we systematically reviewed the literature and performed several meta-analyses comparing studies that included resistance exercise and creatine supplementation to resistance exercise and placebo. Twelve studies were included involving 266 participants. Adults (< 50 years of age) that supplemented with creatine and performed resistance exercise experienced a significant reduction in body fat % (-1.19%, p=0.006) and a non-significant reduction in absolute fat mass (-0.09 kg, p=0.88). Collectively, the combination of resistance exercise and creatine supplementation produces a very small reduction in body fat % in adults < 50 years of age.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0969.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: electrocardiography; infant formula; breastfeeding; body mass index; asthma
Online: 14 June 2023 (03:36:23 CEST)
BACKGROUND: It has been known for decades that breastfeeding leads to a lower risk of asthma, respiratory infections, or metabolic syndrome at school age. In addition, evidence is now accumulating on the influence of breast milk on the shape, volume, or function of the heart and lungs. Within this field of research into the effects of breast milk on the structure of the heart and lungs, we have set out to analyze the differential electrocardiographic characteristics of schoolchildren who were once breastfed. METHOD: Observational cross-sectional study including 138 children aged 6 or 12 consecutively presenting to a well-child clinic between May and December 2022. Inclusion criteria: the ability to perform reproducible ECG records, the feasibility of weighing and measuring patient, and breastfeeding data collected from birth. RESULTS: Using the 40º cut-off value for the mean P-wave axis among schoolchildren, 76% of never breastfed children in our sample have a P-wave axis in a more vertical position than the mean as compared to 58% of ever-breastfed children (OR:2.25;95%CI:3.13-1.36); there was no other significant difference between infant feeding groups in somatometric characteristics or ECG parameters, CONCLUSION: We found a significant difference of the mean values of the P-wave axis between never and ever breastfed children. Although this report should be approached cautiously, these findings add to the renewed interest in discerning developmental interventions to improve cardiovascular health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0250.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: Peanut oil body; caproic acid; demulsification; oil quality
Online: 5 June 2023 (07:13:03 CEST)
Aqueous enzymatic method is a green oil extraction technology with limited industrial application owing to the need for demulsification of the oil body intermediate product. Existing demulsification methods have problems including low demulsification rates and high costs, such that new methods are needed. Free fatty acids produced by lipid hydrolysis can affect the stability of peanut oil body (POB) at a certain concentration. After screening even-carbon fatty acids with carbon chain lengths below ten, caproic acid was selected for demulsification of POB using response surface methodology and a Box–Behnken design. Under the optimal conditions (caproic acid concentration, 0.22%; material-to-liquid ratio, 1:4.7 (w/v); time, 61 min; and temperature, 79 C), a demulsification rate of 97.87% was achieved. Caproic acid not only adjusted the reaction system pH to cause aggregation of the POB interfacial proteins, but also decreased the interfacial tension and viscoelasticity of the interfacial film with increasing caproic acid concentration to realize POB demulsification. Compared with pressed oil and soxhlet-extracted oil, the acid value and peroxide value of caproic acid demulsified oil were increased, while the unsaturated fatty acid content and oxidation induction time were decreased. However, the tocopherol and tocotrienol contents were higher than those of the soxhlet-extracted oil. This study provides a new method for the demulsification of POB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0437.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: freshman; weight gain; body composition; diet; physical activity
Online: 12 September 2022 (11:10:16 CEST)
Background: Students in the United States gain weight significantly during their first year of university, however limited data are available for Australian students. Methods: This 12-month observational study was conducted to monitor monthly body weight and composition, as well as quarterly eating behaviours, dietary intake, physical activity, sedentary behaviours, and basal metabolic rate changes amongst first-year Australian university students. Participants were first-year university students over 18 years. Results: Twenty-two first-year university students (5 males and 17 females) completed the study. Female students gained weight significantly at two, three, and four-months (+0.9 kg; +1.5 kg; +1.1 kg, p <0.05). Female waist circumference (2.5 cm increase at three-months, p = 0.012), and body fat also increased (+0.9%, p = 0.026 at three-months). Intakes of sugar, saturated fat (both >10% of total energy), and sodium exceeded recommended levels (>2000 mg) at 12-months. Greater sedentary behaviours were observed amongst male students throughout the study (p <0.05). Conclusions: Female students are at risk of unfavourable changes in body composition during the first year of university, while males are at risk of increased sedentary behaviours. High intakes of saturated fat, sugars, and sodium warrant future interventions in such a vulnerable group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder; EEG; optical illusions; alpha oscillations
Online: 6 January 2022 (09:44:14 CET)
Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with imagined defects in appearance. Optical illusions induce illusory effects that distort the presented stimulus thus leading to ambiguous percepts. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated whether BDD is related to differentiated perception during illusory percepts. Methods: 18 BDD patients and 18 controls were presented with 39 optical illusions together with a statement testing whether or not they perceived the illusion. After a delay period, they were prompted to answer whether the statement is right/wrong and their degree of confidence for their answer. We investigated differences of BDD on task performance and self-reported confidence and analysed the brain oscillations during decision-making using nonparametric cluster statistics. Results: Behaviorally, the BDD group exhibited reduced confidence when responding incorrectly, potentially attributed to higher levels of doubt. Electrophysiologically, the BDD group showed significantly reduced alpha power at mid-central scalp areas, suggesting impaired allocation of attention. Interestingly, the lower the alpha power of the identified cluster, the higher the BDD severity, as assessed by BDD psychometrics. Conclusions: Results evidenced that alpha power during illusory processing might serve as a quantitative EEG biomarker of BDD, potentially associated with reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0106.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: cesarean section; body mass index; obesity; meta-analysis
Online: 7 December 2021 (13:48:15 CET)
Overweight/obesity is one of the most important health problem worldwide. Birth by cesarean section has been shown to influence long-term health outcome including obesity. The aim of this systematic review-meta-analysis is to examine whether cesarean section increases the risk of offspring’ s overweight/obesity. The study follows the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. A systematic literature search was con-ducted on Scopus, PubMed, and WoS until December 2020. For inclusion, studies must have re-ported either (I) both Birth by cesarean section and adult (≥ 18 years) offspring BMI, (II) cohort or case–control study design and (III) a risk estimate. Heterogeneity testing was performed using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed by Egger’s test and Begg’s test. Me-ta-analysis was performed through a random effect model. Eleven studies with a combined population of 180.408 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The overall analysis (n = 18) yielded a combined risk estimate for overweight/obesity of 1.19 (95% CI 1.08-1.31) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=53,37 (I2 = 70,37 %, P≤0•0001). The risk of offspring obesity is 1.23 (95% CI 1.09-1.39) and the test of heterogeneity resulted Q=39.50 (I2= 72,15%, P≤0•0001). Children born by cesarean section have an increased risk of developing obesity in adulthood
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0705.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: elite athletes; olympic sailors; body temperature; heat adaptation
Online: 27 April 2021 (11:41:24 CEST)
Objective On the eve of the summer Olympic Games in Tokyo research focus has shifted on the core temperature responses of elite athletes competing in the heat. In the absence of the field data of core temperature during Olympic sailing competition aim of the present study was to identify core temperature response during the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Test Event. Methods Four elite athletes from Olympic sailing (177.5±5.2 cm, 71.1±7.4 kg, body mass index 22.5±1.4 kg/m2, 24.8±3.7 yrs, VO2max 50.6±7.2 mL/min/kg)): 2 males and 2 females participated in the study. Core temperature was recorded using e-Celsius ingestible capsules, heart rate using a heart rate monitor. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were measured using portable meteo station. Results Core temperature was recorded at water environment via an ingestible capsule in 4 sailors during the training (T), and competition (C), respectively. Ambient conditions in direct sunlight were hot and humid: during training temperature were 30.9°C±1.7°C and relative humidity 81.4%±2.8%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 41°C±4°C and during competition temperature was 31.2°C±2.3°C and relative humidity 87.2%±4.4%, corresponding to a wet-bulb globe temperature of 45.2°C±8.9°C. Core temperature increased during training reaching higher peak values (38.6°C±0.4°C) and during competition (38.9°C±0.4°C). The highest temperature recorded was 39.4°C (C). Conclusion The current study provides unique information into the core temperature parameters under heat stress in elite Olympic sailors during training and race event.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0611.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: validity; reliability; assessment; body image; self-evaluation; students
Online: 22 April 2021 (14:05:42 CEST)
Body-Esteem Scale is an assessment tool for adolescents and adults that evaluate three dimensions of self-evaluations of one’s body. Body-Esteem Scale has been translated and validated in some countries since America down to Europe. Lack of translation and reliability evidence in Portugal was detected. This study aimed to translate and test the validity and reliability of the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) in students in the context of Portuguese higher educa-tion. A total of 173 students (60.7% are female) with a mean age of 19.7 (standard deviation = 2.2) years participated. Categorical Principal Component Analysis was used to assess the underlying dimensions of BESAA. Construct validity was evaluated through correlation with the Appearance Schemas Inventory – Revised and a three-factor model (“Appearance”, ‘‘Weight’’ and “Attribu-tion’’) was established. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to verify the construct validity of the instrument. Items that had factor weights (λ)<.40 were removed, as well as those that were considered redundant by the modification indices estimated by the Lagrange Multipliers (LM) method (LM>11, p<.001). We observed high correlations between theoretically similar factors, and low correlations between different factors. The Portuguese BESAA showed adequate validity and reliability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: anthropometry; height; somatotype; body mass; soccer; sports performance
Online: 22 February 2021 (12:03:33 CET)
The aim of this article was to examine if there are position-specific differences in the morphological characteristics of sub-elite female football players and to establish normative standards for this level of female football players. The morphological features of 101 sub-elite female football players (age: 21.8±2.7 years) were assessed. Twenty anthropometric sites were used in the measurements of body composition and somatotype. The average value of body fat percentage was 20.8±5.7%. The somatotype of the overall group was 4.0–2.4–2.1. Positional significant (p ≤ 0.05) differences were found between goalkeepers and outfield players in morphological characteristics. Goalkeepers were taller, heavier, possessed the highest body fat percentage and showed higher values for all skinfolds, breadth, girth and length measurements. However, there were very few practically worthwhile differences between the outfield positions. Positional groups did not differ (p ≤ 0.05) in somatotype characteristics either. The study suggests that at sub-elite level there are mainly differences between goalkeepers and outfield players, but outfield players are homogeneous when comparing morphological characteristics. These results may serve as normative values for future comparisons regarding the morphological characteristics of female football players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0267.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Knowledge; Overweight; Obesity; Body Mass Index; Health Risks
Online: 14 January 2021 (12:47:52 CET)
Background: Overweight and obesity are becoming serious public health menace in the world today. Weight gain is skyrocketing across the globe due to growing economy, fast food expansion and a shift towards more sedentary living. However, most people lack knowledge regarding risks associated with overweight and obesity. Aim: The study aimed to explore the knowledge level of bankers in the Ho Municipality on the health risks associated with overweight and obesity. Methodology: A cross-sectional study design with quantitative method was employed. The study spanned from September 7, 2018 to April 25, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire and convenience sampling technique were used to obtain data. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 21 Developer and the results presented in statistical tables and graphs. Results: Of 136 participants investigated, 67 (49.3%) were between 31 - 40 years. 2 participants (1.5%) were underweight, 49(36.0%) had normal weight, 43(31.6%) were overweight while 42 (30.9%) were obese. The study revealed that female bankers were prone to overweight (37.78%) while the males were prone to obesity (56.52%). Participants generally had low knowledge and awareness on health risks of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: Most bankers in the Ho Municipality were overweight and obese due to insufficient knowledge and low awareness on the risks associated with overweight and obesity. Public education and awareness creation are urgently needed to stem the tide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0052.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: body composition; physical fitness; sedentary behavior; nutritional status
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:51:42 CET)
Mexico shows a high prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Geographical location and cultural environment could play a role in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB) and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to assess rural and urban differences in body composition (BC), physical fitness (PF), PA and nutritional status of adolescents from the state of Jalisco (Mexico). The study involved 469 students aged 13-17 years (55.0% girls) from 8 high schools. BC was analyzed by bioimpedance, and PF by standardized field tests. Objective measurements of PA and SB were taken in a subsample (n=240). Energy intake (EI) was calculated from two 24h recalls. Rural residents presented a higher prevalence of overweight, waist circumference, trunk fat mass, regional fat free mass and muscle handgrip strength (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.06). Cardiorespiratory fitness was similar among participants, whereas urban adolescents showed higher muscle power, speed-agility and flexibility scores (all p<0.05, ηp2<0.07). Overall lifestyle behavior in urban adolescents was more sedentary (p<0.05, ηp2= 0.11). EI was similar in both locations. In conclusion, urban Mexican adolescents presented a generally higher sedentary behavior and better fitness and fatness profile than their rural peers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: spatiotemporal parameters; gait; gender; age; Body Mass Index
Online: 9 September 2020 (07:12:18 CEST)
Studies on the gait's parameters have been identified on the patients population. Most researchers confirm that the patients walk differently than normal people and they may have a risk for falls. Consistent finding and description of gender, age, and body mass index differences in gait studies is rare in healthy subjects. A cross-sectional study with forty-five young adult (F = 20, M = 25) was conducted. Stadiometer and Physilog 4 inertial sensors were used for data collection. A gait analyser 5.2 software (GaitUp, S.A. Lausanne, Switzerland) was used to determine spatiotemporal parameters. No statistically significant differences were found in any bilateral foot gait parameters with respect to gender, age, and body mass index. Females are found with higher total double support and cadence than males. Cadence also increases with age. Obese people showed lower gait speed, cadence, and total double support. These findings may be beneficial to those who have abnormal gait pattern due to age, body mass index differences, decreased muscle strength, spasticity, and joint mobility. This important informations should be considered to rehabilitate patients with abnormal gait patterns to controlling dynamic balance and riks to falling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sport; health; body mass index; obesity; morbidity; mortality
Online: 28 July 2020 (04:21:17 CEST)
The classic Body Mass Index, (BMI), developed in the 19th century by the Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet  is an important indicator of the risk of death, of obesity, of negative health consequences, body fat percentage and of the shape of the body. While he BMI is assumed to indicate obesity in sedentary people and in people who do not practice sports, it is undisputed and a consensus among researchers  that Body Mass Index (BMI) is not a good indicator for obesity in people who developed their body through heavy physical work or sport but also in other segments of population such as those who appear to have a normal weight but in fact have a high body fat percentage and obese methabolism. The BMI also does not include all the variables essential for a health predictor. The BMI is not always a good predictor of metabolic disease, people who appear of healthy weight according to BMI have in some cases an obese metabolic syndrome. The BMI was developed as a law of natural sciences and “social physics” , as it was called then, before the middle of the 19th century, and it had been used from the 70s for medical purposes, to detect obesity and the risk of mortality . The BMI has a huge importance for modern society, affected by an obesity epidemic . BMI has applications in medicine, sport medicine, sport, fitness, bodybuilding, insurance, nutrition, pharmacology. The main limitation of the BMI is that it does not account for body composition including non fat body mass such as muscles, joints, body frame and makes no difference between fat and non fat components of the body weight. The body composition and the proportion of fat and muscles make a difference in health outcomes  …. Body composition makes a difference also in the level of sport performance for athletes of every level. In nearly two centuries since the Body Mass Index was developed, no formula had been successfully developed to account for body composition and make the difference between muscle and fat in a consistent way. This can be considered a longstanding open problem of major importance for society. The objective of this analysis is to develop new formulae taking into account the health implication of body composition measured through indirect, simple indicators and making the difference between muscles and fat, healthy and non healthy metabolism. The formulae developed in this article are the only formula to successfully generalize BMI and make this difference. I develop a direct generalization of BMI, in the mathematical and physiological sense to account for fat and fat free mass and muscles, small and large body frames. It is the first such generalization because the classic BMI can be determined as a particular case of my formulae in the strict mathematical and practical physiologic sense. No other formula generalized the BMI to make the difference between fat and a large frame and muscles has ever been published in nearly two centuries since the BMI formula had been developed. The formulae I developed explain and generalize the conclusions of a large number of highly cited empirical experiments cited in the reference section.  .. Most of the experimental proof I bring in support of my formulae and bodyweight quantification theory comes from many highly cited experimental research publications in medicine, sports medicine, sport science and physiology. My formulae explain also performance in decades of competitive sports and athletics
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0415.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: coronavirus; self-defense mechanisms of the human body
Online: 29 March 2020 (03:12:09 CEST)
Social distancing, washing hands and good hygiene are essential and currently the most potent methods available to curb down the unprecedented speed by which the new coronavirus is spreading across the globe. Even under lockdown, which is necessary to significantly reduce the number of people that get infected by an ill person, are there additional measures that each of us can embrace to even further reduce the risk of infection and the severity of the COVID-19 disease? Given the lack of licensed drugs that target SARS-CoV-2 specifically, we have to look into additional non-specific defense mechanisms that animals and humans evolved to protect themselves from pathogen invasions. The goal of this article is to describe how various of our non-specific defense mechanisms work, which actually precede the inflammatory response, and to discuss whether we can exploit the unique features of the coronavirus envelope and the self-cleaning machinery of the human respiratory tract to strengthen our self-defense. The challenge is to actively interfere with supportive measures during the short time window between getting exposed and before an inflammatory response gets initiated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0067.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Fluids And Plasmas Physics Keywords: Mathematical Model; Streamline; Shape of the body; Theory
Online: 5 April 2019 (15:28:58 CEST)
This article attempts to propose a mathematical model and potential explanation regarding the unavoidable impact of a rigid body's peculiar shape on the seamless flow over it. The solid body completely immersed in a Newtonian fluid and respectively has a relative open circuit flow on it will typically experience various observable phenomena. These typical phenomena in laminar flow are explained using the proposed theory rather than conventional approximations or several partial theories. This article respectively represents an understanding of the laminar flow over a rigid body's external surface with due respect to its distinctive shape and size. To formulate a more realistic and simplified mathematical model for open circuit laminar flow over a body, a mathematical model is proposed based on the historical data of aerodynamics and theoretical mechanics. This mathematical model is intended to properly estimate forces on the continuous surface of the body in a laminar flow, to properly explain, understand and predict various phenomena like flow separation, flow transition, down-wash, stalling at the higher angle of attack, stalling velocity and how cambered airfoil can typically generate lift at a zero incidence angle. Most of all a mathematical model and the mechanism of streamline formation in an open-circuit laminar with respect to the shape and size of the body are illustrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: body-worn cameras; police; activation; attitudes; principled agents
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:03:46 CET)
What drives an individual police officer to activate his body-worn camera (BWC)? Some evidence suggests officer attitudes and resistance to the technology contributes to the equivocal results in studies testing for BWCs effect on use-of-force, complaints, and other outcomes of interest. Leveraging a novel survey and administrative dataset, we investigate the predictors of BWC activation among 147 police officers in a single agency. With a test of three nested models, we find job function covariates offer robust predictive power of how often an officer activates her or his BWC. Neither demographic nor attitudinal measures significantly predict BWC activations, except for a negative relationship with how officers perceive BWC impacts on professional discretion. The study furnishes empirical support for understanding officers as Principled Agents: job function, guided by administrative policy is the most explanatory and parsimonious, while models of attitudes and demographics fail to improve upon the job function model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: nuts; walnuts; body weight; adiposity; obesity; elderly; energy
Online: 14 September 2018 (08:05:18 CEST)
Objective: To assess the effects of chronic walnut consumption on body weight and adiposity in elderly individuals. Methods: The Walnuts And Healthy Aging study is a dual-center (Barcelona, Spain and Loma Linda University [LLU]), 2-year randomized parallel trial. This report concerns only the LLU cohort. Healthy elders (mean age 69 y, 67% women) were randomly assigned to walnut (n = 183) or control diets (n = 173). Subjects in the walnut group received packaged walnuts (28–56 g/d), equivalent to ≈15% of daily energy requirements, to incorporate into their habitual diet, while those in the control group abstained from walnuts. Adiposity was measured periodically, and data were adjusted for in-trial changes in self-reported physical activity. Results: After 2 years, body weight significantly decreased (P = 0.031), while body fat significantly increased (P = 0.0001). However, no significant differences were observed between the control and walnut groups regarding body weight (−0.6 kg and −0.4 kg, respectively, P = 0.67) or body fat (+0.9% and +1.3%, respectively, P = 0.53). Lean body mass, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio remained essentially unchanged. Sensitivity analyses were consistent with the findings of primary analysis. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that walnuts can be incorporated into the daily diet of healthy elders without concern for adverse effects on body weight or body composition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0042.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Pentagon; fivefold morphology; body plan; spatial organization; morphospace.
Online: 2 August 2018 (09:00:56 CEST)
A basic pattern in the body plan architecture of many animals, plants and some molecular and cellular systems is five-part units. This pattern has been understood as a result of genetic blueprints in development and as a widely conserved evolutionary character. Despite some efforts, a definitive explanation of the abundance of pentagonal symmetry at so many levels of complexity is still missing. Based on both, a computational platform and a statistical spatial organization argument, we show that five-fold morphology is substantially different from other abundant symmetries like three-fold, four-fold and six-fold symmetries in terms of spatial interacting elements. We develop a measuring system to determine levels of spatial organization in 2D polygons (homogeneous or heterogeneous partition of defined areas) based in principles of regularity in a morphospace. We found that spatial organization of five-fold symmetry is statistically higher than all other symmetries studied here (three to ten-fold symmetries) in terms of spatial homogeneity. The significance of our findings is based on the statistical constancy of geometrical constraints derived from spatial organization of shapes, beyond the material or complexity level of the many different systems where pentagonal symmetry occurs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Early diagnosis; lung cancer; biomarkers; body fluids; research management
Online: 2 November 2023 (09:32:59 CET)
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The main issue is the absence of a screening test available in clinical practice; the identification of non-invasive biomarkers is thus an urgent clinical necessity. Currently, low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) demonstrates a 20% reduction of lung cancer mortality. However, it is not particularly suitable for clinical practice because of the costs, radiation, and the false positive rate. Several studies have therefore focused on research into biomarkers in body fluids. Despite the power of certain molecules to distinguish lung cancer patients from healthy subjects, no biomarker has yet been shown to significantly and reliably influence clinical decisions or to be translated from the laboratory to clinical practice. We performed an overview of the peer-reviewed biomedical literature published in the last 10 years on the research regarding biomarkers for the early diagnosis of lung cancer via a comprehensive analysis of the reviews published this past year. Our main aim was to bring to light the limitations and strengths of the research already conducted. Furthermore, future prospectives have been explored, bearing in mind the management of clinical trials and their integration into clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0124.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Body-mass-index; intracerebral haemorrhage; bleeding volume; functional outcome
Online: 3 October 2023 (10:35:39 CEST)
The association between obesity and clinical as well as radiological outcomes in patients suffering non-traumatic intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) remains unclear. The obesity paradox suggests a protective effect regarding in-hospital mortality. This study evaluates the impact of body mass index (BMI) on functional long-term outcome and bleeding volume in patients with non-traumatic ICH. A retrospective cohort study including all consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH treated at a tertiary referral centre between December 2017 and June 2021, aged 80 years or younger (n = 218), were included. Patients were dichotomized into overweight (OW, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and normal weight (NW, BMI < 25 kg/m2). Functional outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin scale (mRS), extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) at 1, 3, 6 and 12-months follow-up. Bleeding volumes were calculated as ABC/2. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to assess clinical predictors of favourable outcome in the long-term. Of 218 patients (66.04 ± 15.18 years) suffering non-traumatic ICH, 115 (52.75%) were OW (29.72 ± 3.82). Female sex (p = 0.1), NIHSS (p = 0.69), cardiovascular risk factors (p = 0.55), ICH volume (p = 0.19), and presence of anticoagulation (p = 0.67) did not significantly differ between the OW and NW cohort. At discharge, functional outcome did not significantly differ between both cohorts (NW, mRS 3.92 ± 2.54 vs. OW, mRS 3.21 ± 2.43, (p = 0.28)). Multivariate analysis revealed that haemorrhage volume (p = 0.01) was the only robust risk factor to predict functional outcome after 1 year. Our data suggests that in ICH patients, neither obesity nor patient’s age are negative predictors for functional outcome in the long-term. Instead, bleeding volume is a robust risk factor predicting poor functional status after ICH. Therefore, prospective randomized trials analysing this coherence are highly warranted.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0685.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: crossbreeding; Holstein; Bangladeshi local cattle; body size; milk traits
Online: 11 September 2023 (11:10:23 CEST)
Crossbreeding in dairy cattle with exotic breeds continues to be an appealing practice to the dairy farmers of Bangladesh. However, there is limited knowledge regarding the impact of crossbreeding on both the physical attributes and milk quality traits of crossbred cattle in Bangladesh. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of crossbreeding Bangladeshi local cattle with the exotic Holstein breed on their body characteristics and milk quality. To achieve the goal, data pertaining to body traits and milk samples were gathered from a total of 981 cows from 19 dairy farms located in the northwestern region of Bangladesh. A trained evaluator measured body condition score (BCS), udder score, locomotion score, and body conformation traits. Milk yield information was acquired from official records, while milk composition details were determined through milk analysis. The average measurements for body traits were as follows: wither height (WH) at 138 cm, body length (BL) at 155 cm, and heart girth (HG) at 203 cm. Notably, crossbred cows (Holstein x Local cattle) exhibited greater values for WH, BL, HG, BCS, and udder score than their Bangladeshi local counterparts. Furthermore, the average daily milk yield of sampled cows was recorded at 8.7 kg, with fat and protein contents of 3.78% and 3.67%, respectively. It is worth noting that crossbred cows produced a higher volume of milk compared to Bangladeshi local cattle. However, milk from crossbred cows displayed lower fat and protein content, although their somatic cell score (SCS) remained similar. Additionally, milk from crossbred cows exhibited a longer coagulation time when compared to that of Bangladeshi local cattle. A more comprehensive assessment of the crossbreeding scheme, particularly in comparison to Holstein, would necessitate further research, including an examination of its impact on cheese yield traits, health, fertility, and longevity.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1452.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: body composition; bioelectrical impedance analysis; chronic kidney disease; nutrition
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:57:23 CEST)
Body composition measurement plays an important auxiliary role in the nutritional assessment of diseases, nutritional diagnosis and the evaluation of the effect of nutritional therapy. There are many techniques and methods available for the measurement of body composition. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA ) of body composition has been widely used and explored in many diseases in the past 30 years. Its main advantages are its non-invasiveness, non-radiation, economy, convenience and feasibility. With the development of bioelectrical impedance technology, bioelectrical impedance analysis has gradually developed from single-frequency BIA (SF-BIA) to dual-frequency BIA (DF-BIA). now devices are available that measure at multiple ﬁxed frequencies (multi-frequency BIA, MF-BIA) and over a range of frequencies (bioimpedance spectroscopy, BIS). The clinical significance of nutrition management in chronic kidney disease has gradually become prominent. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition is favored by nephrologists and nutritionists as an auxiliary method for nutrition diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. In the past 20 years, there have been many studies on body composition measurement by bioelectrical impedance analysis in the nutritional management of CKD patients. This article will summarize the recent research results of BIA of body composition method in the nutrition management of CKD patients in pre-dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation, in order to provide reference for the application and research of BIA method in the nutrition management of chronic kidney disease in the future.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1618.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Mucispirillum schaedleri; pleomorphism; biofilm; round body; spirochete; cording; mycobacteria
Online: 24 July 2023 (12:27:28 CEST)
Round bodies in spirochete cultures have been a controversial subject since their description seven decades ago. We report the existence of round bodies (spherical cells) in cultures of Mucispirillum schaedleri, a spiral bacterium phylogenetically distant from spirochetes. Furthermore, when grown in biofilms, M. schaedleri demonstrates a unique morphology known as cording, which has been previously described only in mycobacteria. Thus, M. schaedleri has two distinct features, each previously thought to be unique to two different phylogenetically distant groups of bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1363.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Baculoviridae; bioinsecticide; genotypic variant; pathogenicity; virulence; occlusion body production
Online: 19 June 2023 (13:23:00 CEST)
Outbreaks of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Hübner, 1818) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), a major pest of soybean, can be controlled below economic thresholds with methods that do not involve the application of synthetic insecticides. Formulations based on natural isolates of the Anticarsia gemmatalis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgMNPV) (Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus), played a significant role in integrated pest management programs in the early 2000s, but a new generation of chemical insecticides and transgenic soybean, have displaced AgMNPV-based products over the past decade. However, the marked genotypic variability present among and within alphabaculovirus isolates suggests that highly insecticidal genotypic variants can be isolated and used to reduce virus production costs or overcome isolate-dependent host resistance. This study aimed to select novel variants of AgMNPV with suitable insecticidal traits that could comple-ment the existing AgMNPV active ingredients. Three distinct AgMNPV isolates were compared by restriction endonuclease profile and in terms of their occlusion body (OB) pathogenicity. One isolate was selected (AgABB51) from which eighteen genotypic variants were plaque purified and characterized in terms of their insecticidal properties. The five most pathogenic variants varied in OB pathogenicity although none of them was faster-killing or had higher OB production characteristics than the wild-type isolate. We conclude that the AgABB51 wild-type isolates ap-pear to be genotypically structured for fast speed-of-kill and high OB production, both of which would favor transmission. Interactions among the component variants are likely to influence this insecticidal phenotype.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0988.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Whole-Body Cryostimulation; Inside Temperature Fields; Thermal Stratification; CFD
Online: 14 June 2023 (05:08:42 CEST)
(1) Background: This article presents a study that aims to provide a precise understanding of the temperature distribution within a Whole-Body Cryostimulation (WBC) chamber, whether it is empty or occupied by one or several individuals.; (2) Methods: The study employs a mixed numerical and experimental approach, utilizing simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and an experimental analysis that employs thermocouples to determine the 3D thermal field in actual conditions.; (3) Results: The results reveal a non-negligible temperature difference between the setpoint and actual temperature in the middle of the cryochamber. Furthermore, it is shown that the presence of individuals inside the chamber results in both an average temperature rise and a more heterogeneous thermal behavior, which appear to be associated with the number of individuals present.; (4) Conclusions: The findings of this study emphasize the need for further research to establish temperature guidelines and standardize measurement methods for effective WBC treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0547.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: Fold belt; Metasediments; Ore-body; Orogenesis; Pull-apart basin
Online: 7 June 2023 (11:57:26 CEST)
The acquisition of regional, 1 metre resolution LIDAR in the PNG Highlands combined with 3D modelling in MoveTM has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of the Porgera gold mine and areas of new potential. The new 3D model demonstrates active pull-apart basins along a regional transfer during ongoing fold and thrust deformation. When overlain on regional aeromagnetic data, new potential is revealed. The Porgera gold mine is one of the richest in the world and lies in a wide valley at an elevation of 2800m surrounded by mountains up to 4000m high in the middle of the PNG Highlands. It lies along a major lineament, the Porgera Transfer Zone (PTZ), cutting across the orogen that is associated with a 50 km offset of the ophiolite belt. To the NW of the mine there is an extensive belt of low- to high-grade metasediments that formed in deep water during Jurassic rifting, but were metamorphosed during Eocene subduction to the north. Subduction ceased due to accretion of the Sepik Terrane which caused inversion and mild erosion of the Porgera area. The Late Oligocene onset of wrenching in the Mobile Belt to the north placed that area into extension, emplacing metamorphic core complexes, and led to regional subsidence in the Early Miocene. Collision of the margin with the Melanesian Arc in the Middle Miocene caused Late Miocene to Pliocene orogenesis creating the broad mountain belt that we see today, that is still active, as shown by the 2018 MW 7.5 earthquake. Regional mapping of the area using high resolution LIDAR in association with limited field mapping, analysis of gravity and magnetics data and drilling of 300-500m deep core-holes has allowed development of a detailed 3D structural model. The Porgera valley is constrained laterally by the Eastern Boundary and Western Boundary dextral strike-slip faults that lie along the PTZ cutting across the orogeny. However, whilst the position and nature of the faults is clear, due to bending, fracturing and offset of major synclines and anticlines, the faults do not crop-out as significant through-going features. Rather, the dextral offset of basement is soft-linked to the Tertiary limestones at surface due to intervening thick, ductile Cretaceous shales. Fold and thrust structures are ubiquitous in the Tertiary limestones, but the youngest structural features are large extensional faults, particularly around the Porgera valley. The intrusive underlying the Porgera ore-body was emplaced at 6.0+-0.3 Ma, the time of maximum compression during orogenesis. At this time the Eastern Boundary fault and Western Boundary fault were both active allowing a pull-apart basin to form locally along the PTZ at the south-eastern boundary of the Jurassic metasediments. This enabled emplacement of the intrusive. The gold-bearing fluids from the intrusive and metasediments were brought up through the Mesozoic muds to the contact with the Paleogene carbonates where the Porgera ore body was emplaced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2027.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Bos indicus; Body condition; Primiparous cows; Reproductive efficiency; Supplementation
Online: 30 May 2023 (03:24:19 CEST)
The objective was to evaluate the metabolic and performance differences in primiparous Nellore cows, which became pregnant at 14 or 24 months. Thirty-eight primiparous Nellore cows, which were bred for first pregnancy at 14 or 24-mo of age, with 202 ± 5 days of gestation were divided into two treatments according to breeding age: 14 or 24 months in the breeding season. Cows were evaluated for weight, body condition score (BCS), carcass characteristics, milk yield and blood parameters: glucose, total proteins, albumin, urea, beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), progesterone, and for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). There was an in-teraction (p < 0.01) between age at first pregnancy and time for body weight, where 24-mo cows were heavier, but both categories loss weight at parturition which concomitant decrease in the BCS (p < 0,01). However, BW of 24-mo remained stable (p > 0.05) after parturition. Milk yield was higher in 24-mo cows (p < 0.01). Interaction between sampling time and breading age was observed for Longissimus muscle area (p < 0.01) and tended for Longissimus muscle depth, where 24-mo cows had greater values in prepartum. Calves born from the cows bred at 24-mo, where was higher (p < 0.01) from 160 days of age until weaning at 240 days. Glucose, urea, total proteins, albumin and NEFA were affected (p < 0.01) by the parturition data-point. There was an interaction (p < 0.01) between breading age and sampling period for β-OHB. Progesterone concentration was greater in 24-mo cows (p < 0.01). It was concluded that primiparous cows that became pregnant at 14 or 24 months of age have different nutritional and metabolic responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0552.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: virtual reality; exercise; overweight; body mass index; depression; immersion
Online: 29 December 2022 (03:52:25 CET)
Background: This study explored the effects of a virtual reality exercise program on overweight middle-aged women. Methods: This randomized controlled trial included women 4065 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) of 23 kg/m2 or more living in D city. The virtual reality environment was set up by attaching an IoT sensor to an indoor bicycle and linking it with a smartphone, enabling exercise in an immersive virtual reality through a head-mounted display. Results: In the virtual reality exercise group, the BMI was significantly decreased after the 8-week intervention compared with the baseline value (F=100.806, p<.001). The depression scores were significantly different among the three groups, with the intervention effect being more significant in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and con-trol groups (F=3.462, p<.001). Furthermore, the levels of exercise fun (F=12.373, p<.001) and exer-cise immersion (F=14.629, p<.001) were significantly higher in the virtual reality exercise group than in the indoor bicycle exercise and control groups. Conclusions: The virtual reality exercise program positively affected the BMI and the levels of depression, exercise fun, and exercise im-mersion in overweight middle-aged women. It is an effective home exercise program for obesity management in this population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0243.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: diabetes; antioxidant; antihyperglycemic; lipid profile; body weight; algal treatments
Online: 14 December 2022 (03:17:46 CET)
Currently, algae arouse a growing interest in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic area due to the fact that they have a great diversity of bioactive compounds with the potential for pharmacological, cosmetic, and nutraceutical applications. Many of these bioactive compounds are secondary metabolites whose amounts in the algae vary with varying environmental conditions. Free radicals and other active oxygen derivatives are recognized as a natural by-product of aerobic metabolism. However, reactive oxygen species directly participate in mechanisms related to various pathological states such as cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's, among others. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease resulting from changes in glucose metabolism and/or deficient production/action of insulin. This review has as its main objective to reveal the potential antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of algae extracts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0047.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; nutrition assessment; body composition; electric impedance; prognosis
Online: 5 September 2022 (07:33:30 CEST)
Background: Some studies have shown that an increase in visceral fat is associated with postoperative clinical and oncologic outcomes. However, no studies have used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to determine the effects of visceral fat on the oncologic outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) and clinical, and oncologic outcomes in CRC. Methods: This study included 203 patients who underwent anthropometric measurements by BIA before surgical treatment for CRC between January 2016 and June 2020. Results: According to the cutoff level of VFA by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, 85 (40.5%) patients had a low VFA, and 119 (59.5%) had a high VFA. Multivariate analysis found that preoperative CRP (hazard ratio [HR], 3.882; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.001–15.051; p=0.050) and nodal stage (HR, 7.996; 95% CI, 1.414–45.209; p=0.019) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival, while sex (HR, 0.110; 95% CI, 0.013–0.905; p=0.040), lymphovascular invasion (HR, 3.560; 95% CI, 1.098–11.544; p=0.034), and VFA (HR, 4.263; 95% CI, 1.280–14.196; p=0.040) were independent prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS). Conclusion: High VFA preoperatively measured by BIA was associated with inflammations and was an independent prognostic factor for DFS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0309.v9
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: obesity; body weight regulation; macronutrients; energy balance theory; mass balance model; paradigm shift; living review
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:18:08 CEST)
According to known laws of physics, chronic positive mass balance is the actual etiology of obesity, not positive energy balance. The relevant physical law in terms of body mass regulation is the Law of Conservation of Mass, not the Law of Conservation of Energy. A recently proposed mass balance model (MBM) describes the temporal evolution of body weight and body composition under a wide variety of feeding experiments, and it seems to provide a highly accurate description of the very best experimental human feeding data. By shifting to a mass balance paradigm of obesity, a deeper understanding of this disease may follow in the near future. The purpose of this living review is to present the core issues of the upcoming paradigm shift as well as some practical applications related to the topic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0349.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: yak; semantic segmentation; binocular vision; body size; weight stimation
Online: 9 March 2022 (10:02:00 CET)
In order to solve the labor-intensive and time-consuming problem in the process of measuring yak body ruler and weight in yak breeding industry in Qinghai Province, a non-contact method for measuring yak body ruler and weight was proposed in this experiment, and key technologies based on semantic segmentation, binocular ranging and neural network algorithm were studied to boost the development of yak breeding industry in Qinghai Province. Main conclusions: (1) Study yak foreground image extraction, and implement yak foreground image extraction model based on U-net algorithm; select 2263 yak images for experiment, and verify that the accuracy of the model in yak image extraction is over 97%. (2) Develop an algorithm for estimating yak body ruler based on binocular vision, and use the extraction algorithm of yak body ruler related measurement points combined with depth image to estimate yak body ruler. The final test shows that the average estimation error of body height and body oblique length is 2.6%, and the average estimation error of chest depth is 5.94%. (3) Study the yak weight prediction model; select the body height, body oblique length and chest depth obtained by binocular vision to estimate the yak weight; use two algorithms to establish the yak weight prediction model, and verify that the average estimation error of the model for yak weight is 10.7% and 13.01% respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0521.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional processing; disgust; cocaine dependence; alcohol dependence; face; body
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:58:19 CET)
Background: Different drugs damage the frontal cortices, particularly the prefrontal areas involved in both emotional and cognitive functions, with a consequence of decoding emotion deficits for people with substance abuse. The present study aims to explore the cognitive impairments in drug abusers through facial, body and disgust emotion recognition, expanding the investigation of emotions, processing, measuring accuracy and response velocity. Method: We enrolled 13 addicted to cocaine and 12 alcohol patients attending treatment services in Italy, comparing them with 33 matched controls. Facial emotion and body posture recognition tasks, a disgust rating task, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale were included in the experimental assessment. Results: We found that emotional processes are differently influenced by cocaine and alcohol, suggesting that these substances impact diverse cerebral systems. Conclusion: The contribution made by the duration of consumption on emotional processing seems far less important than for cognitive processes. Drug abusers seem to be slower on elaboration of emotions and, in particular, of disgust emotion. Considering that the participants were not impaired in cognition, our data support the hypothesis that emotional impairments emerge independently from damage to cognitive functions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hardened steel; cubic boron nitride; rolling body; structural equations
Online: 6 December 2021 (11:55:19 CET)
This article deals primarily with the problem of determining the cutting force when machining hardened steels. Secondary issues are focused on the evaluation of surface quality on machined samples and the recommendation of cutting conditions. A wide variety of components are used in engineering, the final heat treatment of which is hardening. These components are usually critical in a particular product. The quality of these components determines the correct functioning of the entire technical equipment and ultimately its service life. In our case, these are the core parts of thrust bearings, specifically the rolling elements. The subject of the experiment is machining these components in the hardened state with cubic boron nitride tools and continuous measurement of the cutting force using a dynamometer. The following evaluation assesses the surface quality by both touch and non-touch methods. A structural equation with appropriate constant and exponents was then constructed from the data obtained using the dynamometer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0113.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Body-size; Cerrado; Evolutionary history; Nymphalidae; Phylogeny; Species traits
Online: 5 November 2021 (10:35:29 CET)
Introduction: Body size is correlated with many aspects of an animal species' natural history, such as life span, abundance, dispersal capacity and diet breadth. However, contrasting trends have been reported for the relationship between body size and these ecological traits. Methods: Butterfly species from fruit-feeding guilds were used to investigate whether body size correlates with species abundances, dispersal, permanence, and diet breadth in a Neotropical savanna in Brazil (Cerrado). We used Blomberg’s K and Phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares models (PGLS) to measure phylogenetic signal strength in species traits, and to estimate size-dispersal-diet breadth associations while taking shared ancestry into account. Results: 539 individuals from 27 species were captured, and 190 individuals were recaptured, representing a 35% recapture rate. We found that body size negatively influenced butterfly abundance. In contrast, body size was positively associated with dispersal levels, distance traveled, number of traps visited, individual permanence, and diet breadth. These results indicate that larger butterflies have a greater proportion of dispersing individuals over longer distances, as they permanence were detected over longer periods than their smaller relatives. Moreover, larger butterflies are more generalized, based on the number of host plant families and genera they consume. Smaller butterflies demand fewer resources, which is reflected in their higher survival in small patches, and may explain their lower dispersal ability, and higher diet specialization. Nevertheless, lower dispersal ability, if not compensated by large population sizes, may threaten small-bodied species inhabiting environments with intense deforestation rates, such as the Cerrado. Conclusions: Body size positively influences dispersal and diet breadth in the fruit-feeding butterflies collected in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: human body; anthropometric dimensions; personalization; subject-specific model; biofidelity
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:15:24 CEST)
Virtual human body models contribute to designing safe and user-friendly products through virtual prototyping. Anthropometric biomechanical models address different physiques using average dimensions. In designing personal protective equipment, biomechanical models with the correct geometry and shape shall play a role. The presented study shows the variations of subject-specific anthropometric dimensions from the average for the different population groups in the Czech Republic and China as a background for the need for personalized human body models. The study measures a set of clothing industry dimensions of Czech children, Czech teens, Czech adults and Chinese adults and compares them to the corresponding age average, which is represented by a scaled anthropometric human body model. The cumulative variation of clothing industry dimensions increases the farer is the population group from the average. It is smallest for the Czech adults 7.54% ± 6.63%, Czech teens report 7.93% ± 6.25% and Czech children differ 9.52% ± 6.08%. Chinese adults report 10.86% ± 11.11%. As the variations of the particular clothing industry dimensions from the average prove the necessity of having personalized subject-specific models, the personalization of particular body segments using the measured clothing industry dimensions leading to a subject-specific virtual model is addressed. The developed personalization algorithm results in the continuous body surface desired for contact applications for assessing body behavior and injury risk under impact loading.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: homology; developmental mechanism; evidential integration; eumetazoan body plan; phylogenetics
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:45:06 CEST)
Reconstructing ancestral species is a challenging endeavour: fossils are often scarce or enigmatic, and inferring ancestral characters based on novel molecular approaches (e.g. comparative genomics or developmental genetics) has long been controversial. A key philosophical challenge pertinent at present is the lack of a theoretical framework capable of evaluating inferences of homology made through integration of multiple kinds of evidence (e.g. molecular, developmental, or morphological). Here, I present just such a framework. I start with a brief history and critical assessment of attempts at inferring morphological homology through developmental genetics. I then bring attention to a recent model of homology, namely Character Identity Mechanisms (DiFrisco, Love, & Wagner, 2020), intended partly to elucidate the relationships between morphological characters, developmental genetics, and homology. I utilise and build on this model to construct the evaluative framework mentioned above, which judges the epistemic value of evidence of each kind in each particular case based on three proposed criteria: effectiveness, admissibility, and informativity, as well as providing a generalised guideline on how it can be scientifically operationalised. I then point out the evolution of the eumetazoan body plan as a case in point where the application of this framework can yield satisfactory results, both empirically and conceptually. I will conclude with a discussion on some potential implications for more general philosophy of biology and philosophy of science, especially surrounding evidential integration, models and explanation, and reductionism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aggregative multicellularity; fruiting body; stalk formation; social amoebae; dictyostelium
Online: 5 May 2021 (13:10:59 CEST)
Throughout the eukaryotic tree of life, amoeboid organisms have evolved that aggregate upon starvation and form multicellular fruiting bodies, consisting of a ball of spores atop a stalk. This chapter discusses the remarkable convergent evolution of a stalked fruiting body in these different taxa. It then discusses a well-studied group of aggregative fruiters, the cellular slime molds, in more detail. These organisms exhibit substantial variation in their stalk formation and composition, which allows a better understanding of the evolution, maintenance and possible functions of stalked fruiting bodies, but also points to potential costs and benefits of different types of stalks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: BMI; Body Mass Index; Grip Strength; Health; Sport; strength
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:53:09 CEST)
The Body Mass Index (BMI) formula has been developed by Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quetelet and published in 1840  as a law of nature and society, based on statistics about the weight and height of the population of that time, the first part of the 19th century. He called it “social physics”. From then, for nearly two centuries, the BMI had been the most important formula describing the normal relations and ratio of weight to the square of the height for humans. The problem arises if the BMI formula, developed in the first part of the 19th century is still good today when the type of work people perform is very different? In modern times, most people are less muscular than at the time when the BMI was developed because they do not work physically as heavy as at that time. In many cases, the Body Mass index can predict mortality, morbidity and illness but not always, for example cases such as (a) the obesity paradox for some cardiovascular problems and (b) the U shape mortality paradox as well as (c) false positive obesity diagnostic in regard to people who are strong and muscular, have low body fat percentage but are classified as obese by the BMI and (d) cases where BMI is normal but people have an “obese metabolism” (e) BMI normal but high fat percentage. The objective is to develop a formula good for all body types, a formula that makes the difference between fat and non-fat body weight such as muscle and body frame and quantifies the effect of strength and fitness, which BMI does not. Another objective is to develop a formula to predict the health risks and fitness status of people, better than BMI. The first generalizations of BMI using anthropometric metrics could be found in , where I discuss and analyze many formulae, developed, tested, and simulated by me, using similar new methods, accounting for body shape, physical shape and body function, making the difference between muscle mass and fat, fat and non fat body weight. Nearly all formulae and methods developed and proposed in this new model are new, never published before. Many experiments published before, in highly cited papers show that grip strength and muscle strength is a predictor of health, mortality, morbidity, endocrine and metabolic disease outside the BMI and anthropometric measures. The purpose of my formula is to explain the outcome of those experiments and create a formula which predicts these experiments [21-41].
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; bone turnover markers; leptin; body composition
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:33:41 CEST)
The link between scoliotic deformity and bone metabolism in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has not been well researched. Moreover, the data concerning the cross-talk between fat tissue content/hormonal activity and bone markers in this group of patients are lacking. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the bone turnover vs. leptin level and nutritional status in girls with AIS. The study encompassed 77 AIS girls, aged 14.7 ± 2.17 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb’s angle was categorized as mild (10-19o) moderate (20-39º) or severe (≥40º). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height Z-score, BMI Z-score and waist/height ratio (WHtR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Bone turnover markers (osteocalcin (OC) and amino terminal of collagen cross-links NTx) and leptin levels were assessed in serum. Multiple regression analysis showed that, OC, NTx (negatively with p<0.05) and leptin (positively with p<0.01) were significantly associated with curve severity in AIS girls. Moreover, Cobb’s angle was positively correlated with W/HtR (p<0.01)and FAT (p<0.05). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences in leptin (p<0.05 vs. mild only), OC (p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate)) and W/HtR (p<0.01 and p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate respectively) between the three AIS severity subgroups. OC was significantly lower in the severe AIS subgroup, while leptin and W/HtR were significantly higher. Significant correlations between leptin and anthropometrical parameters as BMI z-score and W/HtR were shown. Leptin level correlated also significantly with BMI z score (p<0.001), W/HtR (p<0.0001) and body composition parameters (p<0.000001). Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between NTx and leptin level (p<0.05). Bone metabolism in AIS girls seems to be altered and significantly related to the scoliotic curve severity. Leptin may be a crucial link in the cross-talk between bone turnover and body composition in this group of patients. Further studies concerning this topic are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: image analysis; Turin Shroud; body-image formation; energy propagation
Online: 18 October 2018 (03:55:21 CEST)
Recent studies on the image of the Turin Shroud (TS) lead to think it could have been formed through a not well-identified mechanism of energy radiation. In order to remove some lacunas about this imaging process, a reverse engineering method has been applied to it, arriving to exclude some possible mechanisms. The image formation of a human face wrapped on a cloth by using an ad-hoc developed software has been simulated. The results of different kinds of the radiation depending from different parameters have been simulated, each one connected with accredited hypotheses. On the basis of the comparison among the different images produced by the software and the TS Face, some useful information both about the kind of radiation and the cloth wrapping conditions have been obtained. The effect of image distortion of a cloth wrapped around a face has been discussed too by defining the best laws of radiation and of their attenuation with distance. A Lambertian law is not compatible with the TS image. A vertical radiation shows a problem in reproducing the requested resolution. A radiation perpendicular to the emitting surface, like that produced by an electric field appears promising to explain the TS Face.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0005.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: physical activity; accelerometer; neck circumference; obesity; body composition; anthropometric
Online: 2 July 2018 (08:58:54 CEST)
The present study investigated the association of accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with neck circumference (NC) in adolescents and adults from eight Latin American countries. The sample consisted of 2370 participants from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health, a multicenter cross-sectional nutrition and health surveillance study of a nationally representative sample from eight Latin American countries. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to monitor MVPA. Adolescents were categorized as NC > 34.25 cm in boys and NC > 31.25 cm in girls, and adults were categorized as NC > 39 cm in men and NC > 35 cm in women. The average time of MVPA was 34.88 min/day, ranging from 31.16 in Venezuela to 40.27 in Chile. Concerning NC, 37.0% of the sample was classified as having elevated NC. Chile was the country with the highest percentage of people with elevated NC (56.9%), and Colombia had the lowest percentage (24.8%). Overall, the MVPA (min/day) was associated with elevated NC (OR = 0.994, CI95% = 0.990–0.998). In Costa Rica and Peru, there were significant associations between MVPA and NC when analyzed by country. Further research is required to understand the differences between countries in the observed associations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0048.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Aging, Nutrition, Diet, Muscle atrophy, Body wasting, Food choice
Online: 5 February 2018 (23:43:16 CET)
Inadequate protein intake can impair protein balance and lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, impaired body growth, and functional decline. Foods provide both non-essential (NEAAs) and essential amino acids (EAAs) that may convey different metabolic stimuli to specific organs and tissues. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of six diets with various EAA/NEAA blends on body composition and the risk of developing tissue wasting in late middle-aged male mice. Mice consuming NEAA-based diets, although showing increased food and calorie intake, suffered the most severe weight loss. Interestingly, even moderate NEAAs prevalence was able to induce inflammatory catabolic stimuli, generalized body wasting and systemic metabolic alterations. Complete depletion of retroperitoneal white adipose tissue and a severe loss (>75%) of brown adipose tissue were observed together with muscle wasting. Conversely, EAA-based diets induced significant decreases in weight by reducing primarily fat reserves, but improved clinical parameters. Tissue wasting was caused by altered AA quality, independent of reduced nitrogen or caloric intake. Our results indicate that an optimized balance of AA composition is necessary for preserving overall bodily energy status. These findings are particularly relevant in the context of aging and may be exploited for contrasting its negative correlates including body wasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0057.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: galaxies; clusters; general; methods N-body simulations; cosmology; theory
Online: 9 December 2016 (16:38:17 CET)
We explore the possibility of using the external regions of galaxy clusters to measure their mass accretion rate (MAR). The main goal is to provide a method to observationally investigate the growth of structures on the nonlinear scales of galaxy clusters. We derive the MAR by using the mass profile beyond the splashback radius, evaluating the mass of a spherical shell and the time it takes to fall in. The infall velocity of the shell is extracted from N-body simulations. The average MAR returned by our prescription in the redshift range z=[0, 2] is within 20-40% of the average MAR derived from the merger trees of dark matter haloes in the reference N-body simulations. Our result suggests that the external regions of galaxy clusters can be used to measure the mean MAR of a sample of clusters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1820.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: injury prevention; body weight support; electromyography; fatigue; slope; uphill running
Online: 27 July 2023 (04:49:32 CEST)
Body weight support (BWS) and incline running (IR) are commonly used either during rehabilitation or during training separately, with many positive effects on athletes’ performance and rehabilitation. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of BWS and IR. In eighteen healthy men (age: 20.3 ± 1.2 yr, body weight: 70.2 ± 4.8 kg, body height: 179.6 ± 5.4 cm), the changes in electromyographic activity (EMGA) during a 10-min run with BWS (15% or 30% of body weight; in different occasions) and IR at 7%, as well as jumping performance and gait spatiotemporal parameters were evaluated. Lower Rating of Perceived Exertion and a significant decrease in VL (33,4%), SOL (17%), and GL EMGA (28.5%, p < 0.05) but not in GM (10.5%, p > 0.05), were observed during BWS30% at 7% slope compared to flat running. Also, low-frequency fatigue of the quadriceps was induced only after running without BWS at 7% slope (P = 0.011). No changes were found in jumping performance (p = 0.246) and gait spatiotemporal parameters (p > 0.05) except for flight time (p < 0.006). In conclusion, compared to normal flat running, BWS reduces electromyographic activity and fatigue during slope running.