Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: anxiety; COVID-19; depression; mental health; mental health nurses; nurses; Portugal; stress
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:05:05 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has contributed to mental health problems worldwide. Nurses are particularly prone to stress because they directly care for individuals with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to explore the association between the mental health promotion strategies used by nurses during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak and their symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress, and to compare the strategies and symptoms of mental health nurses and non-mental health nurses. Cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 821 nurses. Portuguese nurses demonstrated high symptoms of depressive symptoms, stress, and anxiety. Healthy eating, physical activity, rest between shifts, maintaining social contacts, verbalizing feelings/emotions, and spending less time searching for information about COVID-19 are associated with better mental health. Mental health nurses have less depression, anxiety, and stress, and use more strategies to promote mental health than other nurses. We consider it important to promote nurses’ mental health literacy by encouraging them to develop skills and strategies aimed at improving their resilience and ability to deal with difficult situations while caring for the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0636.v1
Online: 28 August 2020 (11:27:39 CEST)
Coronavirus is believed to have originated from a wet market in Wuhan, China, and has spread all over the world, resulting in a large number of hospitalizations and deaths. Social scientists are just beginning to understand its consequences on human behavior. One policy that public health officials put in place to help stop the spread of the virus were stay-at-home/shelter-in-place lockdown-style orders. Schools, Colleges and Universities across the country have now been shut down till now due to Covid-19. Some Governments in India impose lockdown to reduce the crises created by this unknown virus. It is now difficult to make final assessments by school, school leaving examinations and entrance tests for undergraduate and post-graduate courses. This disruption implies for students across the socio-economic spectrum, both in terms of learning outcomes , food and economic security. Here the aim is to discuss the implications of lockdown-induced in schools in both urban and rural areas in India.The whole world implemented a nationwide lockdown to curb the transmission of the virus. A survey was over Five hundred families to complete a questionnaire with questions around symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, and family affluence. The humans who do not have enough supplies to sustain the lockdown were most affected Families with affluence were found to be negatively correlated with stress, anxiety, and depression. Stress, anxiety, and depression more than others are seen in students and healthcare professionals. The main aim of the paper is to find out how symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress on parents due to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0350.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Mental stress Covid-19; Covid-19 vaccine dataset; Vaccine sociodemographic; Vaccine acceptance rate; Vaccine perception
Online: 18 August 2022 (13:36:16 CEST)
In this study, we surveyed over 600 participants to determine: a) major causes to mental stress during the pandemic and its future impacts, and b) diversity in public perception and acceptance (specifically for children) of Covid-19 vaccination. Statistical results and intelligent clustering outcomes indicate significant relationships between sociodemographic diversity, mental stress causes, vaccination perception, and Covid-19 infections. For instance, statistical results indicate significant dependence between mental stress due to Covid-19 and gender (p = 1.7e-05). Over 25% of males indicated work related stress comparing 35% in females however, females indicated more stressed (17%) due to relationships comparing to males (12%). Around 30% of Asian/Arabic participants don’t feel vaccination being safe as compared to 8% of white-British and 22% of white-European indicating significant dependence (p = 1.8e-08) with ethnicity. More specifically, vaccination acceptance for children is significantly dependent to ethnicity (p = 3.7e-05) where only 47% participants show willingness towards children’s vaccination. Primary dataset in this study along with experimental outcomes identifying sociodemographic information diversity with respect to public perception and acceptance of vaccination to children and potential stress factors might be useful for public and policy makers to be better prepared for future epidemics as well as working globally to combat mental health issues and running more effective vaccination campaigns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0617.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: coronavirus; mental health; Norway; population study; PTSD
Online: 24 November 2020 (13:33:17 CET)
The COVID-19 outbreak and the sudden lockdown of society in March 2020 had a large impact on people’s daily life and gave rise to concerns for the mental health in the general population. The aim of the study was to examine post-traumatic stress reactions related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of symptom-defined post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and factors associated with post-traumatic stress in the Norwegian population during the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. A survey was administered via social media channels, to which a sample of 4527 adults (≥18 years) responded. Symptom-defined PTSD was measured with the PTSD Checklist for the DSM-5. The items were specifically linked to the COVID-19 pandemic. We used the DSM-5 diagnostic guidelines to categorize participants as fulfilling the PTSD symptom criteria or not. Associations with PTSD were examined with single and multiple logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of symptom-defined PTSD was 12.5% for men and 19.5% for women. PTSD was associated with lower age, female gender, lack of social support, and a range of pandemic-related variables such as economic concerns, expecting economic loss, having been in quarantine or isolation, being at high-risk for complications from COVID-19 infection, and having concern for family and close friends. In conclusion, posttraumatic stress reactions were common in the Norwegian population in the early stages of the COVID-19 outbreak. Concerns about finances, health, and family and friends seem to matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0129.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: infectious disease; organizational justice; stress; loneliness; compassion fatigue; meditation; prayer; insomnia; mental health; perspective study; emergency
Online: 7 May 2021 (09:12:57 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic has severely tested the mental health of frontline health care workers. A repeated cross-sectional study can provide information on how their mental health evolved during the various phases of the pandemic. The intensivists of a COVID-19 hub hospital in Rome were investigated with a baseline survey during the first wave of the pandemic in April 2020 and were contacted again in December 2020, during the second wave. 152 of the 205 eligible workers responded to an online questionnaire designed to measure procedural justice, occupational stress (effort/reward imbalance), sleep quality, anxiety, depression, burnout, job satisfaction, happiness, and turnover intention. Workers reported a further increase in workload and compassion fatigue, which had already risen during the first wave, and a marked reduction in the time devoted to meditation and mental activities. A low level of confidence in the adequacy of safety procedures and the need to work in isolation, together with an increased workload and lack of time for meditation were the most significant predictors of occupational stress in a stepwise linear regression model. Occupational stress was, in turn, a significant predictor of insomnia, anxiety, low job satisfaction, burnout, and intention to leave the hospital. The number of workers manifesting symptoms of depression increased significantly to exceed 60%. Action to prevent occupational risks and enhance individual resilience cannot be postponed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0018.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: mental health; COVID-19; psychological reactions
Online: 2 May 2020 (15:59:01 CEST)
The Covid-19 started in China and took over the world, becoming a pandemic. Especially in Latin America, the coronavirus arrived on the continent in mid-February 2020. The South American continent is going through a delicate political, economic and social moment, which is reflected in the fragility of our health systems and science and to reduce the rates of contagion and not overburden health services, including hospitals. Nevertheless, several studies are being carried out in Brazil and worldwide, with the objective sought to understand the characteristics, and even, the cure of people infected by the coronavirus. Therefore, we must consider science-based strategies to combat the pandemic and promote a health system that takes care of the population that needs it.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0255.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Psychological Symptoms
Online: 15 May 2020 (15:17:21 CEST)
This work presents a compilation of data obtained by clinical psychologists during the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil. Through searches on social media with #Covid19 and #MentalHealth and the exchange of information on networks of professionals, it was possible to compile and group the main psychological symptoms presented during isolation. Information was clustered according to the period it appeared, in order to guide future situations. Moreover, to prepare a group of clinical psychologists to provide online assistance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0381.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Alcohol dependence; Depression; Stress; Gender; Income; Differences; Behavioural disorders; Mental disorders; Socio-economic effects; Pandemic; Isolation; COVID-19; Slovak students
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:24:34 CET)
The objective of the study was to examine the effects of perceived stress on depression and subsequently to examine the effects of depression on alcohol use disorders. The data were obtained by an electronic questionnaire survey during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (n=1523 Slovak college students). Descriptive, regression and correlation analysis were used in the analytical processing, while the analyses included students' scores in three diagnostic tools (Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ 9) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)), as well as gender and income characteristics. The PSS identified an increased level of perceived stress in female students, in contrast, the AUDIT showed an increased level of alcohol use disorders in male students. Differences in mental and behavioural disorders between the gender and income categories were significant in most of the analysed cases. In terms of gender-income characteristics, it was possible to confirm a significant positive effect of the PSS score on the PHQ 9 score, as well as a significant positive effect of the PHQ 9 score on the AUDIT score. As a result, efforts to reduce stress will be reflected in a reduction of depressive disorders as well as a reduction of excessive alcohol consumption among students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0403.v1
Online: 17 September 2020 (11:48:17 CEST)
This study has been taken during COVID-19. It describes the working scenario of all class of peoples and their mental anxieties are analysed based on their psychological behaviour patterns.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Greenspace; mental health; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; South Korea; social determinants of mental health; intervention
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:56:52 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating consequences for health, social, and economic domains, but what has received far less focus is the effect on people’s relationship to vital ecological supports, including access to greenspace. We assessed patterns of greenspace use in relation to individual and environmental factors and their relationship with experiencing psychological symptoms under the pandemic. We conducted an online survey recruiting participants from social media for adults in Korea for September–December 2020. The survey collected data on demographics, patterns of using greenspace during the pandemic, and major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2-item (GAD-2) were applied to identify probable cases of MD and GAD. A logistic regression model assessed the association decreased visits to greenspace after the outbreak compared to 2019 and probable MD and GAD. Among the 322 survey participants, prevalence of probable MD and GAD were 19.3% and 14.9%, respectively. High rates of probable MD (23.3%) and GAD (19.4%) were found among persons currently having job-related and financial issues. Of the total participants, 64.9% reported decreased visits to greenspace after the COVID-19 outbreak. Persons with decreased visits to greenspace had 2.06 higher odds (95% CI: 0.91, 4.67) of probable MD at the time of the survey than persons whose visits to greenspace increased or did not change. Findings suggest that barriers to greenspace use could deprive people of mental health benefits and affect mental health during pandemic; an alternative explanation is that those experiencing poor mental health may be less likely to visit greenspaces during pandemic. This implies the need of adequate interventions on greenspace uses under an outbreak especially focusing on how low-income populations may be more adversely affected by a pandemic and its policy responses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0217.v1
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:32:36 CET)
Since its initial outbreak in late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the global community. In addition to the negative health consequences of contracting COVID-19, the implementation of strict quarantine and lockdown measures has also disrupted social networks and devastated the global economy. As a result, there is rising concern that the pandemic has taken a toll on the mental health of the general population. To better understand its impact, an increasing number of studies examined the effects of the pandemic on mental health and psychosocial implications of enforced quarantine and lockdown. In this article, we aim to review and summarize the findings from a variety of studies that have explored the psychosociological effects of the pandemic and its impact on the mental well-being of the general population. We will also examine how various demographic groups, such as the elderly and youth, can be more susceptible or resilient to the pandemic’s mental health effects. We hope to provide a broader understanding of the underlying causes of mental health issues triggered by the pandemic and provide recommendations that may be employed to address mental health issues in the population over the long-term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Search engine; Baidu Index; Children's Mental Health; Mental Health
Online: 31 March 2022 (07:08:56 CEST)
This study aims to understand the temporal and spatial characteristics of public concern for "children's mental health" in China in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic. Baidu Index is a research tool to collect and analyze massive data of Chinese netizens' behaviors. Using Baidu Index as the research tool, this paper analyzes the trend and distribution of Chinese netizens' attention to "children's mental health" from December 1st, 2019 to March 20th, 2022 from three aspects of trend research, need map, and crowd portrait. The study found that since the outbreak of COVID-19, the search trend of "children's mental health" has shown a cyclical change, peak in May and valley around the Spring Festival and National Day, and stable in other periods. "Mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "youth mental health" are the most popular buzzwords among the public. The groups concerned of "children's mental health" is mainly distributed in Guangdong, Jiangsu, Beijing, and the majority are women between 30 and 39 years old. Meanwhile, search trend for "mental health" are like that for "children's mental health." The factors influencing the search volume change of "children's mental health" include Chinese traditional holidays, Spring Festival, National Day, Chinese Mental Health Day, and policies and instructions on children's mental health issued by the PRC Ministry of Education. The public would like to know about "mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "adolescent mental health".
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; Anxiety; Mental Health; Hospitalized; Malaysia
Online: 26 October 2022 (09:55:34 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic creates anxiety among hospitalised SARS-CoV-2 patients. Therefore, this study aims to determine the prevalence of anxiety and its associated factors among stable inpatient COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a web-based online survey involving 401 patients from Malaysia's leading COVID-19 hospitals from 15th April until 30th June 2020 who were chosen using quota sampling. General Anxiety Disorders 7 items (GAD-7), Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory (Brief-COPE) and Socio-demographic profile questionnaire were used. Descriptive analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed using SPSS v23 to determine the prevalence of anxiety and its associated factors. The results showed that prevalence of anxiety was 7.0%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that female (p < 0.05), fear of infection (p < 0.05), lack of information (p < 0.05), maladaptive coping mechanism of behavioural disengagement (p < 0.001) and self-blame (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with anxiety. Whereas adaptive coping mechanisms via instrumental support (p < 0.001) was a significant protective predictor of anxiety. COVID-19 infection has had a significant influence on the mental health of patients. Findings in our study provides baseline findings on prevalence of anxiety among stabilized COVID-19 inpatient in Malaysia. Despite the relative low prevalence, the data has the potential to improve the present mental health monitoring system and the deployment of suitable treatments in dealing with similar circumstances
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0149.v1
Online: 4 March 2021 (09:53:18 CET)
Background: The COVID 19 pandemic and associated public health measures have disrupted the lives of people around the world. It is already evident that the direct and indirect psychological and social effects of the COVID 19 pandemic are insidious and affect the mental health of young children and adolescents now and will in the future. The aim and objectives of this knowledge-synthesis study were to identify the impact of the pandemic on children’s and adolescent’s mental health and to evaluate the effectiveness of different interventions employed during previous and the current pandemic to promote children’s and adolescent’s mental health. Methodology: We conducted the systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included experimental randomized, nonrandomized controlled trials; observational studies; and qualitative studies. Results: Of the 5,828 articles that we retrieved, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. We thematically analyzed and put up the major findings under the thematic areas of impact of pandemic on children and adolescent’s mental health. These studies reported that pandemics cause stress, worry, helplessness, and social and risky behavioral problems among children and adolescents (e.g., substance abuse, suicide, relationship problems, academic issues, absenteeism from work). Interventions such as art-based programs, support services, and clinician-led mental health and psychosocial services effectively decrease mental health issues among children and adolescents. Conclusion: Children and adolescents are more likely to experience high rates of depression and anxiety during and after a pandemic. It is critical that future researchers explore effective mental health strategies that are tailored to the needs of children and adolescents. Explorations of effective channels regarding the development and delivery of evidence-based, age-appropriate services are vital to lessen the effects and improve long-term capacities for mental health services for children and adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Psychological distress; Fear; Coping; COVID-19; Bangladesh; Dental; Mental health
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:22:59 CET)
Background: Psychological sufferings are observed among dental students during their academic years, which had been intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objectives: This study assessed the levels and identified factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping experienced by dental undergraduate students in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross sectional online survey was conducted during October-November, 2021. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) were used in order to assess psychological distress, fear and coping strategies respectively. Results: A total of 327 students participated; the majority (72%) were 19-23 years old and females (75%). One in five participants were infected with COVID-19 and 15% reported contact with COVID-19 cases. Negative financial impact (AOR 3.72, 95%CIs 1.28-10.8), recent or past COVID-19 infection, contact with COVID-19 cases were associated with higher levels of psychological distress; but being a 3rd year student (0.14, 0.04-0.55) and being satisfied about current social life (0.11, 0.03-0.33) were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Being a 3rd year (0.17, 0.08-0.39) and a 4th year student (0.29, 0.12-0.71) were associated with lower levels of fear. Health care service use and feeling positive about life were associated with medium to high resilience coping. Conclusions: This study iden-tified dental students in Bangladesh who were at higher risk of psychological distress, fear and coping during the ongoing pandemic. Development of mental health support system within dental institution should be considered in addition to the academic and clinical teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; health care workers; Greece; mental health; depression; anxiety; traumatic stress; burnout
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:41:59 CET)
COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to adversely affect the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs). The public healthcare system in Greece was already facing serious challenges at the outset of the outbreak following years of austerity and an escalating refugee crisis. The multi-center, cross-sectional study aims to assess the levels and associated risk factors of anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and burnout of frontline staff in Greece. A total of 464 HCWs in six reference hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising of sociodemographic and work-related information and psychometric scales. The proportion of HCWs with symptoms of moderate/severe depression, anxiety and traumatic stress were 30%, 25% and 33% respectively. Burnout levels were particularly high with 65% of respondents scoring moderate/severe in Emotional Exhaustion, 92% severe in Depersonalization and 51% low/moderate in Personal Accomplishment. Predictive factors of adverse psychological outcomes included fear, perceived stress, risk of infection, lack of protective equipment and low social support. The psychological burden associated with Covid-19 in healthcare professionals in Greece is considerable with more than half experiencing at least mild mental health difficulties. Findings signal the need for immediate organizational and individually tailored interventions to enhance resilience and support wellbeing under pandemic conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0104.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); pandemic; infectious disease; psychological (mental) consequences; mental distress; outbreak; epidemiological study
Online: 4 August 2020 (16:16:23 CEST)
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing pandemic and life-threatening highly infectious disease. The people of Bangladesh are at high risk of COVID-19 and have already experienced various socio-economic, health and psychological (mental) consequences. Particularly, mental health problems are dominantly reported in the literature and should be controlled. The main objective of this epidemiological study is to assess the mental distress and identify its determinants using online-based survey. Such information is urgently needed to develop feasible strategies for Bangladesh. Methods: An online survey was conducted for this study from May 01 to May 05, 2020. A total of 240 respondents provided self-reported online responses. Respondent’s mental distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12) and by the self-rated mental health (SRMH) question. Various kinds of statistical analyses ranging from simple to multivariable logistic recession were performed using SPSS 23.0. Results: About 31.3% and 48.3% of respondents were mentally distressed by GHQ-12 and SRMH question, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mental distress was significantly higher among those respondents, whose usual activity was affected by the coronavirus (OR = 6.40, 95% CI: 1.87 - 21.90, p<0.001) and whose financial stress was increased due to lockdown (OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.01 – 4.46, p<0.05) on GHQ-12. Female sex (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.03 – 3.75, p<0.05) and respondents with poor mental health before the outbreak (OR = 3.38, 95% CI: 1.18 – 9.72, p<0.05) were also significantly affected by mental distress on SRMH. Conclusions: At least thirty percent of the respondents were found to be mentally distressed. Some of the study findings, particularly significant determinants, should be considered while developing strategies to reduce the burden of mental distress among study respondents or similar group in Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mental health; psychological well-being; depression; anxiety; stress; COVID-19; students' academic satisfaction; undergraduate students; Bachelor's degree students
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:20:50 CET)
Background University students’ psychological health is linked to their academic satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate students’ psychological health and academic satisfaction in the context of COVID-19 and academic year-end stress. Methods Standardized self-filled scales for anxiety, depression, stress, psychological well-being, and an ad-hoc COVID-19 stress scale were used in this cross-sectional study. Participants were first- to third-year students of eight different health-related tracks in Geneva, Switzerland. Descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. Results In June 2020, out of 2835 invited students, 433 (15%) completed the survey. Academic satisfaction was a stronger mental health predictor than COVID-19, which mainly predicted stress and anxiety. Lower academic satisfaction scores were significantly associated with stress (β = -.53, p < .001), depression (β = -.26, p < .001), anxiety (β = -.20, p < .001), while higher scores with psychological well-being (β = .48, p < .001). Being female was strongly associated with anxiety and stress but not with depression or psychological well-being. Lower age was associated with stress only. The nature of the academic training had a lesser impact on mental health and the academic year none. Compared to students starting the academic year, year-end students reported significantly lower academic satisfaction, higher depression, and particularly higher anxiety and stress. There was, however, no difference in psychological well-being. Conclusion Students suffer more from anxiety, stress, depression, and lower satisfaction with studies at the end of the academic year than at the beginning. Academic satisfaction plays a more substantial role than COVID-19 in predicting students’ overall mental health status. Training institutions should address the underlying factors that can enhance students’ academic satisfaction, especially during the COVID-19 period, in addition to ensuring that they have a continuous and adequate learning experience, as well as access to psychosocial services that help them cope with mental distress and enhance their psychological well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0500.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: burnout; healthcare workers; mediation analysis; covid-19 pandemic; mental health
Online: 1 October 2021 (14:50:44 CEST)
The COVID19 pandemic tested the performance of hospitals and intensive care units around the world. Health care workers (HCWs) have been used to develop mental symptoms, but this was especially true during the COVID19 pandemic when HCWs must deal with many other sources of stress and anxiety that can usually be avoided, and long-term shifts and unprecedented population restrictions have weakened people's ability to cope with stress. The research aims to observe the dynamic interplay between burnout, depression, distress, and anxiety in HCWs working in various settings, with specific a focus on Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a diminished sense of personal achievement in mediating a worst mental health status during the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic in Italy. To analyze that we performed a mediation analysis, from which resulted a strong correlation among depression, psychological distress, health perception and anxiety, and the impact of job burnout on anxiety, depression, and distress. Gender seemed to have a strong correlation with burnout, anxiety, and distress; the impact of COVID19 pandemic on Quality of Life seemed to affect anxiety and depression; the changing of mansion influenced depression and job burnout. Encouraging supportive and educational strategies would certainly be recommended to policy makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0323.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: social media; netnography; mental health; natural language processing; visualization; data analysis; COVID-19
Online: 8 February 2022 (11:12:14 CET)
Abstract: Understanding social media networks and group interactions are crucial to the ad-vancement of linguistic and cultural behaviour. This includes the manner in which people ac-cessed advice on health, especially during the global lockdown periods. Some people turned to social media to access information on health where most activities were curtailed with isolation rules, especially for older generations. Facebook public pages, groups and verified profiles, using "senior citizen health", "older generations", and "healthy living" keywords were analysed over a 12-month period to analyse the engagement promoting good mental health. CrowdTangle was used to source English language status updates, photo and video sharing information which resulted in an initial 116,321 posts and 6,462,065 interactions Data analysis and visualisation were used to explore large datasets, including natural language processing for “Message” content discovery, word frequency and correlational analysis and co-word clustering. Preliminary results indicate strong links to healthy aging information shared on social media which showed correla-tions to global daily confirmed case and daily death totals. The results can be used to identify public concerns early on and address mental health issues in the senior generation on Facebook.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0375.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; healthcare workers; psychological wellbeing; mental health; wobble rooms; wellbeing centres
Online: 13 November 2020 (12:35:32 CET)
Supported Wellbeing Centres have been set up in UK hospital trusts in effort to mitigate the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers, although the extent to which these are utilised and the barriers and facilitators to access are not known. The aim of the study was to determine facility usage and gather insight into employee wellbeing and the views of employees towards this provision. The study included i) 17-week service use monitoring, ii) employee online survey with measures of wellbeing, job stressfulness, presenteeism, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, and work engagement as well as barriers and facilitators to accessing the Wellbeing Centres. Over 17 weeks, 14,934 facility visits were recorded across two sites (peak attendance in single week n= 2,605). Facilities were highly valued, but the service model was resource intensive with 134 wellbeing buddies supporting the centres in pairs. 819 hospital employees completed an online survey (88% female; 37.7% working in COVID-19 high risk areas; 52.4% frontline workers; 55.2% had accessed a wellbeing centre). There was moderate-to-high job stress (62.9%), low wellbeing (26.1%), presenteeism (68%) and intentions to leave (31.6%). Wellbeing was higher in those that accessed a wellbeing centre. Work engagement and job satisfaction were high. Healthcare organisations are urged to mobilise access to high-quality rest spaces and Psychological First Aid, but this should be localised and diversified. Strategies to address presenteeism and staff retention should be prioritised, and high dedication of healthcare workers should be recognised.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0191.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; coping; mental health; doctors; frontline
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:18:35 CET)
Background: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital medical staff (HMS) have faced significant personal, workplace, and financial disruption. Many have experienced psychosocial burden, exceeding already concerning baseline levels. This study examines the types and predictors of coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours utilised by Australian junior and senior HMS during the first year of the pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of Australian frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Data collected included demographics, personal and workplace disruptions, self-reported and validated mental health symptoms, coping strategies, and help-seeking. Results: The 9518 participants included 1966 hospital medical staff (62.1% senior, 37.9% junior). Both groups experienced a high burden of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout. Coping strategies varied by seniority, with maintaining exercise the most common strategy for both groups. Adverse mental health was associated with increased alcohol consumption. Engagement with professional support, although more frequent among junior staff, was uncommon in both groups. Conclusions: Junior and senior staff utilised different coping and help-seeking behaviours. Despite recognition of symptoms, very few HMS engaged formal support. The varied predictors of coping and help-seeking identified may inform targeted interventions to support these cohorts in current and future crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0287.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Covid-19; quality of life; mental health; physical health
Online: 8 March 2021 (09:51:55 CET)
Introduction: The majority of epidemiological reports focus on confirmed cases of COVID-19. In this study, we aim to assess the health and well-being of adults not infected with Covid-19 after two months of quarantine in Morocco. Materials and methods: Two months after the declaration of quarantine in Morocco following the Covid-19 epidemic, we carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 279 Moroccan citizens. We used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a determinant of quality of life, which is based on eight dimensions of health. The data were collected using an electronic questionnaire distributed online. The participants also indicated their socio-demographic data, their knowledge and practices regarding the Covid-19 pandemic and whether they had chronic health problems. Results: The quality of life of all participants was moderately disrupted during the Covid-19 pandemic with a mental health score (MCS) of 34.49 (± 6.44) and a physical health score (PCS) of 36.10 (± 5.82). Participants with chronic diseases scored lower with 29.28 (± 1.23) in mental health (MCS) and 32.51 (± 7.14) in physical health (PCS). The seriousness of COVID-19 has an impact on the quality of life and health well-being of people and this impact is more marked in people with chronic health problems. Conclusion: Our results confirm the need to pay attention to the health of people who have not been infected with the virus. Our results also point out that uninfected people with chronic illnesses may be more likely to have well-being problems due to quarantine restrictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; mental health; anxiety, work; stress; personality; loneliness
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:39:19 CET)
Background: COVID-19 crisis has changed the conditions of many throughout the globe. One negative consequence of the on-going pandemic is anxiety brought by uncertainty and the COVID-19 disease. Increased anxiety is a potential risk factor for wellbeing at work. This study investigated psychological, situational, and socio-demographic predictors of COVID-19 anxiety using longitudinal data. Methods: Nationally representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1308) was collected before and during the COVID-19 crisis. Eighty percent of the participants responded to the follow-up study (N=1044). COVID-19 anxiety was measured with a modified Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. Psychological and situational predictors included perceived loneliness, psychological distress, technostress, personality, social support received from work community, and remote working. Also, number of socio-demographic factors were investigated. Results: Perceived loneliness, psychological distress, technostress, and neuroticism were identified as robust psychological predictors of COVID-19 anxiety. Increase in psychological distress and technostress during the COVID-19 crisis predicted higher COVID-19 anxiety. Recent change in work field and decreased social support from work community predicted COVID-19 anxiety. Women and young people experienced higher anxiety. Conclusions: Different factors explain workers’ COVID-19 anxiety. Increased anxiety can disrupt wellbeing at work, emphasizing organizations’ role in maintaining an inclusive and caring work culture and providing technical and psychological support to workers during crisis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0346.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mental health; COVID-19; school-going children; lockdown
Online: 22 July 2020 (07:43:01 CEST)
During this epidemic of COVID-19, children are in need of much concentration and profound love of the senior family members. Although the measures taken by the organizations are necessary to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus, they may be causing widespread mental health issues, including depression and loneliness. Therefore, it is imperative that parents have to spend the lion-share of time with children while listening to them cordially. Parents can participate in sports with them to help them stay fit so that they can enjoy commemorating moments. However, in this additional time, the parents can also make them habituated to practice the rules of health, so does social distancing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0242.v1
Online: 19 June 2020 (12:13:41 CEST)
Corona Virus Infectious Disease (COVID-19) is newly emerging infectious disease. This disease is known to the globe in early 2019. Poor status of mental health is often caused by unemployment, ongoing socio-economic condition. Poor mental health may even accelerate the process of panic attack. It has been happening rapidly during COVID-19. It has a great effect on human health. This paper utilizes multiple related factors those have impact on causing panic attack. Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) based framework is utilized in this paper that assembles multiple RNN layers along with other parameters into a single platform. This method is implemented by capturing interfering factors and predicts panic attack tendency of people during COVID-19. Early prediction of panic attacks may assist in saving life from unwanted circumstances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0027.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: athletic program; collegiate sports; UNIVAS; COVID-19; mental management
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:24:42 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among student athlete’s identity and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, this study aimed to clarify the relationship between perceived social support from teammates and mental health in student-athletes. Two studies were conducted to investigate to clarify the mental health states of student-athletes in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic. In Study 1 conducted in April 2020, the participants were 402 male student-athletes, and examined the relationships among student-athlete’s identity and mental health. The results of correlational analyses indicated that there were significant negative correlations between degree of student-athlete’s identity and depression and sports helplessness. In Study 2 conducted in March 2021, the participants were 136 male student-athletes, and examined the relationship between perceived social support from teammates, student-athlete’s identity and mental health. The results indicated that there was significant correlation among social support, student athlete’s identity and mental health. These results suggested that mental health may be improved if student-athletes are strongly aware of their social identity, which is their social role, when unforeseen events such as the COVID-19 pandemic occur. In addition, social support provided by significant others such as teammates may contribute to the improvement of mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0361.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mental workload; burnout; Covid-19; pandemic; fashion retailing sector; Spain
Online: 15 December 2020 (09:32:05 CET)
This study analyzed the levels of mental workload and the presence of burnout on a sample of fashion retailing workers from Spain and its relationship with the actual Covid-19 pandemic by exploring Covid-19 pandemic predictors of burnout and mental workload. We established a prospective cross-sectional design. Participants (n = 360) answered an online survey including questions about sociodemographic data, perception of Covid-19, CarMen-Q questionnaire (workload), and MBI (burnout syndrome). We obtained data throughout October-November 2020. The results showed that participants exhibit deep concern about the Covid-19 pandemic and its influence at the work level. Although the mental workload was near the middle point of the scale, participants showed moderate to high burnout levels, revealing that the sample is at risk of experiencing higher burnout levels over time as the pandemic and associated economic crisis continue. The multidimensional regression analysis results indicated that environmental changes, work overload, somatic symptoms, insomnia, negative job expectations, and uncertainty constituted significant mental workload predictors. Insomnia, somatic symptoms, and negative job expectations constituted significant predictors for burnout. In conclusion, the uncertainty at work derived from the Covid-19 pandemic is harming the psychological wellbeing of fashion retailing workers in Spain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0474.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: COVID-19; fear of COVID-19; mental health; emotional distress; social effects
Online: 18 March 2021 (11:01:24 CET)
The aim of the article is to determine the predictors of mental health among Polish society. Research was conducted after the first wave of the pandemic. Due to such an approach, it was possible to determine whether secondary effects of the pandemic have impact on mental health, apart from socio-demographic and psychological factors. In order to gather the research material, the CAWI on-line survey method was applied and carried out within the framework of the Ariadna Research Panel on the sample of 1079 Poles aged 15 and over. The FCV-19S scale, which is used to measure the fear of COVID-19 was applied in the measurement. It is a verified diagnostic instrument used to measure mental health in a lot of countries. The results of a hierarchical regression analysis have shown that the factors which increase the level of fear of COVID-19 are demographic, social and psychological features as well as attitudes towards the pandemic. The results of research indicate the significance of social context in the analysis and explanation of the effects of disasters and cataclysms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0322.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; physical activity; mental health; wellbeing, outdoor space
Online: 21 September 2022 (10:08:45 CEST)
Background Several quantitative studies have found a decline in physical activity in response to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions. The aim of the present study was to use large-scale free text survey data to qualitatively gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity, then map barriers and facilitators to the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, and Behaviour (COM-B) Model of Behaviour to aid future intervention development. Methods 17,082 participants provided a response to the free text module, and data from those who mentioned physical activity in any context were included. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and key themes identified. Results 5396 participants provided 7490 quotes related to physical activity. The sample were predominately female (84%), white (97%) and aged <60 years (57%). Seven key themes were identified: the importance of outdoor space, changes in daily routine, impact of COVID-19 restrictions, perceived risks or threats to participation, the importance of physical health, the importance of physical activity for mental health and the use of technology. Conclusion Future physical activity interventions could encourage people to walk outdoors, which is low cost, flexible, and accessible to many. Developing online resources to promote and support physical activity provides a flexible way to deliver quality content to a large audience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Occupational Health; Telecommuting; Masking; Physical Distancing
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:27:48 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a considerable expansion in the way work settings are structured with a continuum emerging between working fully in-person and from home. The pandemic has also exacerbated many risk factors for poor mental health in the workplace, especially in public-facing jobs. Therefore, we sought to test the potential relationship between work setting and self-rated mental health. Methods: We modeled the association of work setting (only working from home, only in-person, hybrid) on self-rated mental health (Excellent/Very Good/Good vs. Fair/Poor) in an online survey of Canadian workers during the 3rd wave of COVID-19. Mediating effects of vaccination, masking, and distancing were explored due to the potential effect of COVID-19 related worries on mental health among those working in-person. Results: Among 1,576 workers, most reported hybrid work (77.2%). Most also reported good self-rated mental health (80.7%). Exclusive work from home (aOR: 2.79, 95%CI:1.90,4.07) and exclusive in-person work (aOR: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.83,4.26) were associated with poorer self-rated mental health than hybrid work. Vaccine status mediated only a small proportion of this relationship (7%), while masking and physical distancing were not mediators. Conclusion: Hybrid work arrangements were associated with positive self-rated mental health. Compliance to vaccination, masking, and distancing did not meaningfully mediate this relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; CNN; DLNN; GRU; mental anxiety; hybrid approach
Online: 15 September 2020 (02:56:33 CEST)
COVID-19 and new concept, lockdown, change social life of all classes of humans. Children partially feel the changes of daily life and this situation has been children’s free mind. Children are under a new type of restriction imposed on them by their parents. Normally they prefer play with their their friends than study and always waiting for holidays. They heard a new jargon i.e. lockdown where everything stands still. Very often they see peoples in the roads and few vehicles are moving in the roads. However, a peculiar thing happens now that they sit in front of computer to hear the virtual classes that are taken by the teachers. This also happens when there is no lockdown since COVID-19 still affects people. The environment is totally changed and they do not find any proper answers from the parents about the scenario.This study has been made an attempt to carry out the mental affairs of children in West Bengal, India. Several families are surveyed for collecting responses mostly from rural areas as well as urban areas for the time-period from April, 2020 to July, 2020. An effort has been given in this paper to predict the stress, depression and anxiety faced by children during the COVID-19. A Deep Learning Neural Network (DLNN) based method is applied to understand the stress level, depression level and anxiety level amongst the children. A hybrid DLNN has been presented in this research that combines both Convolutional Layer and Gated-Recurrent Unit (GRU) for obtaining the prediction of the mental health of children. The model obtains an accuracy of 89.57% for defeminizing mental anxiety of children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0604.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Prevalence; Depression; Anxiety; Insomnia; Stress; PTSD; Distress
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:29:20 CEST)
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, stress, PTSD, and distress in Chinese healthcare workers (HCWs) and the changes in prevalence before and after the peak incidence of COVID-19 in China. 20 cross-sectional studies assessing the aforementioned psychological outcomes were included. Eligible studies were searched from the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Comparative analysis based on the time period of the included studies was conducted to assess changes in prevalence before and after peak incidence. Additionally, subgroup analyses based on study quality, province, survey tools, gender and healthcare profession, frontline or non-frontline working status, and severity of psychological outcomes were conducted to evaluate the prevalence of outcomes across various study methods, geographic regions, and professions. The findings of this study suggest that the overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, insomnia, stress, PTSD, and distress before peak incidence were 36.2%, 34.2%, 22.4%, 31.3%, 9.8%, and 56.7% as opposed to 31.8%, 24.1%, 34.4%, 59.0%, 20.9%, and 40.7% after the peak. The higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, and distress prior to the peak incidence of COVID-19 in China and of insomnia, stress, and PTSD thereafter serve as evidence that the mental health decline of HCWs is dynamic and should be addressed with adaptive approaches that provide tailored treatments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0654.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Depression; Big data; Social media.
Online: 28 June 2021 (13:50:49 CEST)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is provoking a prevalent consequence on mental health because of less interaction among people, economic collapse, negativity, fear of losing jobs, and death of the near and dear ones. To express their mental state, people often are using social media as one of the preferred means. Due to reduced outdoor activities, people are spending more time on social media than usual and expressing their emotion of anxiety, fear, and depression. On a daily basis, about 2.5 quintillion bytes of data are generated on social media, analyzing this big data can become an excellent means to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on mental health. In this work, we have analyzed data from Twitter microblog (tweets) to find out the effect of COVID-19 on peoples mental health with a special focus on depression. We propose a novel pipeline, based on recurrent neural network (in the form of long-short term memory or LSTM) and convolutional neural network, capable of identifying depressive tweets with an accuracy of 99.42%. Preprocessed using various natural language processing techniques, the aim was to find out depressive emotion from these tweets. Analyzing over 571 thousand tweets posted between October 2019 and May 2020 by 482 users, a significant rise in depressing tweets was observed between February and May of 2020, which indicates as an impact of the long ongoing COVID-19 pandemic situation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0255.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: mental stress; EEG; data analysis; connectivity network; machine Learning
Online: 12 July 2021 (12:06:13 CEST)
Mental stress is one of the serious factors that lead to many health problems. Scientists and physicians have developed various tools to assess the level of mental stress in its early stages. Several neuroimaging tools have been proposed in the literature to assess mental stress in the workplace. Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal is one important candidate because it contain rich information about mental states and condition. In this paper, we review the existing EEG signal analysis methods on the assessment of mental stress. The review highlights the critical differences between the research findings and argues that variations of the data analysis methods contribute to several contradictory results. The variations in results could be due to various factors including lack of standardized protocol, the brain region of interest, stressor type, experiment duration, proper EEG processing, feature extraction mechanism, and type of classifier. Therefore, the significant part related to mental stress recognition is choosing the most appropriate features. In particular, a complex and diverse range of EEG features, including time-varying, functional, and dynamic brain connections, requires integration of various methods to understand their associations with mental stress. Over this, the review suggests fusing the cortical activations with the connectivity network measures and deep learning approaches to improve the accuracy of mental stress level assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: COVID-19; university student; socio-demographic factors, satisfaction; perception; online learning; mental health; habits; institutions; continents
Online: 19 August 2020 (08:20:09 CEST)
The paper presents the most comprehensive and large-scale study to date on how students perceive the impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on various aspects of their lives on a global level. With a sample of 30,383 students from 62 countries, the study reveals that amid the worldwide lockdown and transition to online learning students were most satisfied with the support provided by teaching staff and their universities’ public relations. Still, deficient computer skills and the perception of a higher workload prevented them from perceiving their own improved performance in the new teaching environment. Students were mainly concerned about issues to do with their future professional career and studies, and experienced boredom, anxiety and frustration. The pandemic has led to the adoption of particular hygienic behaviours (e.g. wearing masks, washing hands) and discouraged certain daily practices (e.g. leaving home, shaking hands). Students were also more satisfied with the role played by hospitals and universities during the epidemic compared to the government and banks. The findings also show that students with selected socio-demographic characteristics (male, part-time, first level, applied sciences, lower living standard, from Africa or Asia) were generally more strongly affected by the pandemic since they were significantly less satisfied with their academic work/life. Key factors influencing students' satisfaction with the role of their university are also identified. Policymakers and higher education institutions around the world may benefit from these findings while formulating policy recommendations and strategies to support students during this and any future pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Men's Health; COVID-19; Mental Disorders; Stress, Psychological; Social Support
Online: 24 November 2021 (08:13:48 CET)
Objective: to analyze the relationships between sociodemographic variables, intolerance to uncertainty (INT), social support and psychological distress (i.e., indicators of Common Mental Disorders [CMDs] and perceived stress [PS]) in Brazilian men during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: a cross-sectional study with national coverage, of the web survey type, and conducted with 1,006 Brazilian men during the period of social circulation restriction imposed by the health authorities in Brazil, for suppression of the coronavirus and control of the pandemic. Structural equation modeling analysis was performed. Results: Statistically significant direct effects of race/skin color (λ=0.268; p-value<0.001), socioeconomic status (SES) (λ=0.306; p-value<0.001), household composition (λ=0.281; p-value<0.001), PS (λ=0.513; p-value<0.001) and INT (λ=0.421; p-value<0.001) were evidenced in the occurrence of CMDs. Black-skinned men, with higher SES, living alone and with higher PS and INT levels presented higher prevalence values of CMDs. Conclusions: high levels of PS and INT were the factors that presented the strongest associations with the occurrence of CMDs among the men. It is necessary to implement actions to reduce the stress-generating sources, as well as to promote an increase in resilience and the development of intrinsic reinforcements to deal with uncertain threats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVD-19; moral distress; healthcare worker; mental health; communication; leadership
Online: 28 July 2021 (10:45:50 CEST)
Background: Sudden changes in clinical practice and the altered ability to care for patients due to the COVID-19 pandemic have been associated with moral distress and mental health concerns in healthcare workers internationally. This study aimed to investigate the severity, prevalence, and predictors of moral distress experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey of self-identified frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts, and national media. Results: 7846 complete responses were received from nurses (39.4%), doctors (31.1%), allied health staff (16.7%) or other roles (6.7%). Many participants reported moral distress related to resource scarcity (58.3%), wearing PPE (31.7%) limiting their ability to care for patients, exclusion of family going against their values (60.2%), and fear of letting co-workers down if they were infected (55.0%). Many personal and workplace predictors of moral distress were identified, with those working in certain frontline areas, metropolitan locations, and with prior mental health diagnoses at particular risk of distress. Moral distress was associated with an increased risk of adverse mental health outcomes. Feeling appreciated by the community mitigated this risk in healthcare workers. Conclusions: Safeguarding healthcare workforces during crises is important for both patient safety and workforce longevity. Targeted interventions are required to prevent or minimise moral distress and associated mental health concerns in healthcare workers during COVID-19 and other crises.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: long-term care; healthcare workers; mental health; moral distress; resilience; COVID-19
Online: 12 August 2022 (12:43:46 CEST)
Healthcare workers (HCWs) in long-term care (LTC) faced and continue to experience significant emotional and psychological distress throughout the pandemic. Despite this, little is known about the unique experiences of LTC workers. This scoping review synthesizes existing research on the experiences of HCWs in LTC during the COVID-19 pandemic. Following Arksey and O’Malley’s framework, data were extracted from six databases from inception of the pandemic to June 2022. Among 3,808 articles screened, 40 articles were included in the final analysis. Analyses revealed three interrelated themes: carrying the load (moral distress); building pressure and burning out (emotional exhaustion); and working through it (a sense of duty to care). Given the impacts of the pandemic on both HCW wellbeing and patient care, every effort must be made to address the LTC workforce crisis and evaluate best practices for supporting HCWs experiencing mental health concerns during and post-COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0201.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; greenness; mental health; societal change; social isolation; psychological factors; resilience
Online: 5 March 2021 (21:37:50 CET)
International data suggests that exposure for nature is beneficial for mental health and well-being. The restrictions related to Covid-19 pandemic have created a setting that allows us to investigate the importance of greenness exposure on mental health during a period of increased isolation and worry. Based on 2060 responses from an online survey in the Stockholm County, Sweden, we investigated: 1) weather the Covid-19 pandemic changed peoples’ life-style and nature-related habits, and 2) if peoples’ mental health differed depending on their exposure to greenness. Neighbourhood greenness levels were quantified by using the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 50m, 100m, 300m, and 500m buffers surrounding the participant’s place of residence. We found that the number of individuals that reported that they visited natural areas “often” was significantly higher during the pandemic than before the pandemic. Higher levels of greenness surrounding one’s location of residence were in general associated with higher mental health/wellbeing and vitality scores, and less symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived and cognitive stress, after adjustments for demographic variables and walkability. In conclusion, the results from the present study provided support to the suggestion that contact with nature may be important for mental health in extreme circumstances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; pandemic; GAD-7; mental health; quality of life; Asia
Online: 14 March 2022 (16:20:20 CET)
This study aims to identify factors associated with anxiety levels of adults living in Singapore before the pandemic and during the COVID-19 outbreak. Data were collected using a cross-sectional web-based survey conducted from July to November 2020 accruing 264 eligible participants. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), ranked as minimal (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), and severe (15-21) before the pandemic and during the pandemic. About 74% of participants were female, 50% were aged 25-34, and 50% were married. The GAD-7 level went up from pre-pandemic for both moderate (from 12.5% to 16%) and severe GAD (from 2% to 11%). Alcohol consumption (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.04-3.06), loneliness (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and difficulty in switching off social media (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.29-3.79) predicted increased GAD-7 levels. The quality of life (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90) was significantly associated with decreased GAD-7 levels. The results heighten the awareness that early initiation of mental health support is crucial for the population in addition to the various financial support measures provided by the government as they are adapting to live with the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Physical activity; Sitting; Alcohol; Diet; Smoking; SARS-CoV-2; Sweden; Mental health; Health anxiety; Depression
Online: 19 February 2021 (10:07:47 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency of international concern, which may affect lifestyle habits and mental health. Based on national health profile assessments, this study investigates perceived changes of lifestyle habits in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and associations between perceived lifestyle changes and mental health in Swedish working adults. Among 5,599 individuals (50% women, 46.3 years), the majority reported no change (sitting 77%, daily physical activity 71%, exercise 69%, diet 87%, alcohol 90%, and smoking 97%) due to the pandemic. Changes were more pronounced during the first wave (April-June) compared to the second (October-December). Women, individuals <60 years, having a university degree, being white-collar workers and having unhealthy lifestyle habits at baseline had higher odds of changing lifestyle habits compared to their counterparts. Negative changes in lifestyle habits as well as more time in mentally passive sitting at home was associated with higher odds of mental ill-health (including health anxiety regarding one’s own and relatives’ health, generalized anxiety and depression symptoms, and concerns regarding employment and economy). The results em-phasize the need to support healthy lifestyle habits to strengthen the resilience in vulnerable groups of individuals to future viral pandemics, and prevent health inequalities in society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0253.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: social media, Covid-19, cross-sectional, trans-national, mental health, loneliness, pandemic
Online: 31 May 2021 (23:10:36 CEST)
Background Due to the Covid-19 pandemic and the strict national policies regarding social distancing behavior in Europe, America and Australia, people became reliant on social media as a means for gathering information and a tool for staying connected to family, friends and work. This is the first trans-national study exploring the qualitative experiences and challenges of using social media while in lockdown or shelter in place during the current pandemic. Methods This study was part of a wider cross-sectional online survey conducted in Norway, UK, USA and Australia during April/May 2020. The manuscript reports on the qualitative free text component of the study asking about the challenges of social media users during the Covid-19 pandemic in UK, USA and Australia. 1991 responses were included in the analysis. Thematic analysis was conducted independently by two researchers. Results Three overarching themes identified were: Emotional/Mental Health, Information and Being Connected. Participants experienced that using social media during the pandemic amplified anxiety, depression, fear, panic, anger, frustration and loneliness. They felt that there was information overload and social media was full of misleading or polarized opinions from which was difficult to switch off. Nonetheless, participants also thought that there was an urge for connection and learning which was positive and stressful and the same time. Conclusion Using social media while in shelter in place or lockdown could have a negative impact on the emotional and mental health of some of the population. To support policy and practice in strengthening mental health care in the community, social media could be used to deliver practical advice on coping and stress management. Communication with the public should be strengthened by unambiguous and clear messages and clear communication pathways. We should be looking at alternative ways of staying connected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0423.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: longitudinal study; emergency; infectious disease; organizational justice; stress; loneliness; compassion fatigue; meditation; prayer; insomnia; mental health; anaesthetists
Online: 23 August 2021 (10:22:05 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely tested the physical and mental health of health care workers (HCWs). The various stages of the epidemic have posed different problems; consequently, only a prospective study can effectively describe the changes in the workers’ health. This repeated cross-sectional study is based on a one-year investigation (spring 2020 to spring 2021) of intensive care physicians in one of the two COVID-19 hub hospitals in Central Italy. Changes in their work activity due to the pandemic were studied anonymously together with their perception of organizational justice, occupational stress, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, burnout, job satisfaction, happiness, and intention to quit. In May-June 2021, one year after the baseline, doctors reported an increased workload, isolation at work and in social life, lack of time for physical activity and meditation and compassion fatigue. Stress was inversely associated with the perception of justice in safety procedures and directly correlated with work isolation. Occupational stress was significantly associated with anxiety, depression, burnout, dissatisfaction, and intention to quit. Procedural justice was significantly associated with happiness. Doctors believed vaccinations would help control the problem; however, this positive attitude had not yet resulted in improved mental health. Doctors reported high levels of distress (73%), sleep problems (28%), anxiety (25%), depression (64%). Interventions to correct the situation are urgently needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0268.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 outbreak; lockdown protocols; individual and social activities; mental health challenges; older people; Indonesia
Online: 19 September 2022 (07:51:50 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused detrimental impacts on different population groups throughout the world. This study aimed to explore the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic’s mandatory lockdown protocols on activities and mental health conditions of community-dwelling older people in Jakarta, Indonesia. A qualitative design using one-on-one in-depth interviews was employed to collect data from the participants (n=24) who were recruited using the snowball sampling technique. Data analysis was guided by a qualitative data analysis framework. The findings showed that before the COVID-19 outbreak participants engaged in different kinds of regular individual and social activities. However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its mandatory lockdown protocols significantly influenced both their activities and social life, which led to social disconnection and financial difficulties for them. COVID-19 outbreak, mandatory lockdown protocols, and disruption of individual and social activities of the participants also caused mental health challenges to them, including feelings of loneliness, loss, sadness, stress, and anger. The findings suggest that there is a need for intervention programs addressing the socio-economic and mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on older populations to help them cope with these challenges. Future studies involving large-scale older populations to comprehensively understand COVID-19 impacts on them are recommended.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0636.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Autism Spectrum Disorder; Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; Behavioural Neuroscience; Mental Health; COVID-19; Pandemic; Paediatric Neurology
Online: 26 July 2020 (15:31:51 CEST)
Children and young people (CYP) with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) may be particularly vulnerable to adverse mental health effects due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional U.K parent-reported study from 2nd April-2nd June 2020, using the Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire. CYP with NDDs (n=371) compared to neurotypical controls, had a higher prevalence of emotional symptoms (42% vs 15%), conduct problems (28% vs 9%), and lower prosocial behaviours (54% vs 22%). Those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed inflated conduct, and those with autism spectrum disorder exhibited decreased prosocial behaviours. Females with ASD had higher emotional symptoms compared to males.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; healthcare workers; United Kingdom; mental health; burnout; resilience; insomnia; depression; anxiety; lifestyle
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:24:40 CEST)
The burden of COVID-19 pandemic on health systems and the physical and mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs) has been substantial. This cross-sectional study aims to assess the effects of Covid-19 on the psychological wellbeing of mental health workers who provide care to a vulnerable patient population that have been particularly affected during this crisis. A total of 387 HCWs from across a large urban mental health service completed a self-administered questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic, lifestyle and work-based information and validated psychometric scales. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) respectively, sleep problems with the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), burnout with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and resilience with the Resilience Scale-14 (RS-14). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine potential mediating factors. Prevalence of burnout was notable, with 52% recording moderate/severe in Emotional Exhaustion, 19.5% moderate/severe in Depersonalisation and 55.5% low/moderate Personal Accomplishment. Over half of all respondents (52%) experienced sleep problems; the presence of depressive symptoms was a significant predictor of insomnia. An increase in potentially harmful lifestyle changes, such as smoking, alcohol consumption and over-eating was also observed. However, high Resilience was reported by 70% of the sample and the importance of this is highlighted. Female gender was associated with increased levels of depression and emotional exhaustion while those with a history of mental health conditions were most at risk of affective symptoms, insomnia and burnout. Overall, our study revealed considerable levels of psychological distress and maladaptive coping strategies but also resilience and satisfaction with organizational support provided. Findings can inform tailored interventions in order to mitigate vulnerability and prevent long-term psychological sequelae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0707.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: Anxiety; Audio-Visual stimulation; COVID-19; Environmental enrichment; Forest environments; Forest therapy; Lockdown; Mental health; Stress; Quarantine
Online: 31 August 2020 (05:20:50 CEST)
The prolonged lockdown imposed to contain the COVID-19 pandemic prevented many people from direct contact with nature and greenspaces, raising alarms for a possible worsening of mental health. This study investigates the effectiveness of a simple and affordable remedy for improving psychological well-being, based on audio-visual stimuli brought by a short computer video showing forest environments, with an urban video as a control. Randomly selected participants were assigned the forest or urban video, to look at and listen early in the morning, and filled questionnaires. In particular, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Form Y, collected in baseline condition and at the end of the study, and the Part II of the Sheehan Patient Rated Anxiety Scale (SPRAS), collected every day immediately before and after watching the video. The virtual exposure to forest environments showed effective to reduce perceived anxiety levels in in people forced by lockdown in limited spaces and environmental deprivation. Although significant, the effects were observed only in the short term, highlighting the limitation of the virtual experiences. The reported effects might also represent a benchmark to disentangle the determinants of health effects due to real forest experiences, for example, the inhalation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0047.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: HPA axis; NGFs; psychiatric disorders; prevention of mental diseases; stress
Online: 4 December 2017 (07:45:28 CET)
Apart from their established role in embryonic development Nerve Growth Factors (NGFs) have diverse functions in the nervous system. Their role in integration of physiological functioning of the nervous system is now attracting attention. In the present analysis, we propose a novel paradigm about a novel role of NGFs: NGFs play imperative role in maintaining psychological integrity of an individual as a biological system. This function may be mediated through HPA-axis- operated homeostatic mechanisms; stress induced disruption of which may lead to psychiatric disorders. Current literature suggests existence of constitutive homeostatic regulatory mechanisms for NGFs disruption which may lead to pertinent and imperative behavioural effects. NGFs are known to play crucial role in endocrine regulation. This is especially true with the prototype ‘NGF’ and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). These moieties have been observed to play important function in maintaining neuro-endocrine homeostasis thereby having a profound impact on the psychological health of an individual. Role of NGFs and HPA-axis activation (in separate studies) in developing psychiatric disorders - especially those born of stress - have been reported. Literature suggests their unique interplay for producing a common effect which might be implicated in stress induced genesis of psychiatric disorders. This aspect, therefore, needs to be elucidated further as a disease etiogenesis model. This model may yield important insights into the biology of psychiatric disorders and may open ways for new therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID-19; sub-Saharan Africa; mental health; feeling anxious; worried; frustrated; psychological problem; bored and angry
Online: 18 January 2021 (13:56:06 CET)
Mental health and emotional responses to the effects of COVID-19 lockdown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are of serious public health concern and may negatively affect the mental health status of people. Hence, this study assessed the prevalence of mental health symptoms as well as emotional reactions among sub-Saharan Africans (SSAs) and associated factors among SSAs during the COVID-19 lockdown period. This was a web-based cross-sectional, a study on mental health and emotional features from 2005 respondents in seven SSA countries. This study was conducted between April 27 and May 17, 2020 corresponding to the lockdown period in most SSA countries. Respondents aged 18 years and above and the self-reported symptoms were feeling anxious, being worried, angry, bored and frustrated. These were the main outcomes and were treated as dichotomous variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with these symptoms. We found that over half (52.2%) of the participants reported any of the mental health symptoms in SSA and the prevalence of feeling bored was 70.5% followed by feeling anxious (59.1%), being worried (57.5%), frustrated (51.5%) and angry (22.3%) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariate analysis revealed that males, those aged >28 years, Central and Southern Africans, those who were not married, the unemployed, those living with more than six persons in a household, had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Similarly, people who perceived low risk of contracting the infection, and those who thought the pandemic would not continue after the lockdown had higher odds of mental health and emotional symptoms. Health care workers had lower odds for feeling angry than non-healthcare workers. During COVID-19 lockdown periods in SSA, about one in two participants reported mental health and emotional symptoms. Public health measures can be effectively used to identify target groups for prevention and treatment of mental health and emotional symptoms. Such interventions should be an integral component of SSA governments’ response and recovery strategies of any future pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0399.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; coronavirus; mass testing; social isolation; social distancing; mental health; students; focus groups; qualitative
Online: 20 January 2021 (13:03:57 CET)
We aimed to explore university students’ perceptions and experiences of SARS-CoV-2 mass asymptomatic testing, social distancing and self-isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic. This qualitative study comprised of four rapid online focus groups conducted at a higher education institution in England during high alert (tier 2) national COVID-19 restrictions. Data were analysed thematically. Participants were purposively sampled university students (n = 25) representing a range of gender, age, living circumstances (on/off campus) and SARS-CoV-2 testing/self-isolation experiences. Six themes with 16 sub-themes emerged from the analysis of the qualitative data: ‘Term-time Experiences’, ‘Risk Perception and Worry’, ‘Engagement in Protective Behaviours’, ‘Openness to Testing’, ‘Barriers to Testing’ and ‘General Wellbeing’. Students described feeling safe on campus, believed most of their peers are adherent to protective behaviours and were positive towards asymptomatic testing in university settings. University communications about COVID-19 testing and social behaviours need to be timely and presented in a more inclusive way to reach groups of students who currently feel marginalised. Barriers to engagement with SARS-CoV-2 testing, social distancing and self-isolation were primarily associated with fear of the mental health impacts of self-isolation, including worry about how they will cope, high anxiety, low mood, guilt relating to impact on others and loneliness. Loneliness in students could be mitigated through increased intra-university communications and a focus on establishment of low COVID-risk social activities to help students build and enhance their social support networks. These findings are particularly pertinent in the context of mass asymptomatic testing programmes being implemented in educational settings and high numbers of students being required to self-isolate. Universities need to determine the support needs of students during self-isolation and prepare for the long-term impacts of the pandemic on student mental health and welfare support services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0473.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: mental health; perceived stress; university students; gender differences; COVID-19; post-lockdown; Romania
Online: 21 July 2021 (09:38:11 CEST)
The rapid spread of COVID-19 worldwide was accompanied by intense fears, confusion, worries, anger and stress threatening people’s mental health. Unprecedented measures to slow down and prevent the transmission of COVID-19 have had various impacts on the population’s health behaviour and mental health. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the lockdown’s effects on university students’ mental health in Romania. Based on a cross-sectional design, the survey data were collected from a sample of 722 participants (247 males; M = 21.1 years; SD ± 1.73). A path analysis was performed to verify the hypothesised direct and indirect effects included in the multiple mediation model. The findings showed a positive association between stress and boredom proneness, missing daily social interactions, spending more time on phone conversations and the increasing interest in following news about the pandemic. The path analysis revealed an excellent fit between the proposed multiple mediation model and the sample data. Boredom proneness and missing daily social interactions both affected stress, directly and indirectly, through more time spent on phone conversations. In addition, it was found that the increased interest in following news about the pan-demic mediated the relationship between boredom proneness and perceived stress. In terms of gender differences, our findings revealed that female students experienced significantly higher stress levels than male students, perceived to a greater extent the lack of daily social interactions and spent more time on phone conversations. Overall, the findings further extend the empirical evidence on university students’ mental health in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, universities need to organise support programmes focused on developing university students’ coping strategies to maintain their mental health even in adverse contexts.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: neuropsin; KLK8; mental disorders; mental health
Online: 24 December 2019 (08:53:38 CET)
Neuropsin is a brain-expressed extracellular matrix serine protease that governs synaptic plasticity through activity-induced proteolytic cleavage of synaptic proteins. Its substrates comprise several molecules central to structural synaptic plasticity, and studies in rodents have documented its role in cognition and the behavioral and neurobiological response to stress. Intriguingly, differential usage of KLK8 (neuropsin gene) splice forms in the fetal and adult brain has only been reported in humans, suggesting that neuropsin may serve a specialized role in human neurodevelopment. Through systematic interrogation of large-scale genetic data, we review KLK8 regulation in the context of mental health and provide a summary of clinical and preclinical evidence supporting a role for neuropsin in the pathogenesis of mental illness.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci2030068
Subject: Keywords: COVID-19; pooling clinical trials; hyperinfection; steroids; treatment; targeted healthcare; population health management; cancer treatment; clinical research; clinical trials; developing vaccines; ranking and rating hospital quality; school closures; interventions for delirium; assessments of COVID-19 death inequities; regulatory safeguards; preventing child abuse and maltreatment; prevalence of health care worker burnout; nursing home ratings; challenging oncology practice; addressing racial; ethnic; social and economic divides; violence against sexual minority adolescents; primary tumors; metastasis; stages of cancer; reforming cancer clinical trials; supporting carers; protection and prevention; benign and malignant tumors; reforming cancer clinical trials; protection of healthcare personnel; comparing excess deaths in NYC; 1918 influenza pandemic; the possibility of full recovery from COVID-19; mental health impact of COVID-19 on young adults; ranking and rating nursing home quali
Online: 21 August 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes the COVID-19 disease has wreaked havoc on the world community in terms of every imaginable parameter. The research output on COVID-19 has been nothing short of phenomenal, especially in the medical and biomedical sciences, where the search for a potential vaccine is being conducted in earnest. Much of the advanced research has been distributed in the leading medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), where the latest research is distributed on a daily basis. The purpose of this paper is to provide some perspectives on 44 interesting and highly topical research papers that have been published in JAMA, at the time of writing, within the past two weeks. The diverse topics include public health, general medicine, internal medicine, oncology, paediatrics, geriatrics, and biostatistics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0630.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Attitude; Community; Knowledge; Mental health; Mental illness
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:59:46 CET)
Knowledge and attitude towards mental illness play major role in the recognition, management, sociocultural factors and health seeking behavior among those with mental disorders. The study aim was to determine the knowledge and attitude among Nyamagana community members towards mental illness, Tanzania; A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study involving 384 participants from sample population aged 18 years and above who were mentally health and semi-structured questionnaires was used to collect data. The results 110 (28.8%) respondents have good knowledge toward mental illness, about 292(76%) have negative attitude towards mentally ill people, 92(24%) respondents have positive attitude toward people who are mentally ill. More over about 318 (82.9%) respondents agreed that care and support of family and friends, could help people with mental illness to get rehabilitation while 66(17.1%) respondents disagreed on the care and support of the family and friends could help mentally ill people to get rehabilitation; The findings show most have poor knowledge and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness and may impair their social reintegration in the community. There’s need to develop strategies to enlighten the public regarding nature of mental illness so as to foster acceptance of people with mental illness by the community members.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0048.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: craniofacial; laboratory animal; mental foramen; mental nerve; polecat
Online: 3 June 2022 (11:18:03 CEST)
In order to analyse asymmetries between hemimandibles, a sample of 24 mandibles from ferrets was studied by means of geometric morphometric methods, using a set of 3 landmarks and 14 semilandmarks, on the lateral aspect. Results showed that both size and shape played a significative role in mandibular asymmetry. For shape, there appeared significative fluctuating and directional asymmetries, with an especially high level for this latter. Landmarks corresponding to muscular attachments showed greater landmark asymmetry. This it is supported the hypothesis of a chewing side preference, e.g., a mastication-related driver for mandibular shape asymmetry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0721.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: perinatal; mental health; perinatal mental health program; South Africa
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:28:12 CET)
Background. Perinatal depression is one of the leading causes of disability in perinatal women and is highly prevalent in disadvantaged communities in LMICs. However, care capacity remains low in most LMICs. As such, we decided to find and assess a screening program that addresses perinatal mental health problems in a resource-efficient manner. This leads us to a critically appraisal of the Perinatal Mental Health Project (PMHP), a screening program based in peri-urban Western Cape Town that stresses task sharing and stepped care intervention. Method. PubMed, Ovid Medline (1946 to 2018), and Google Scholar were searched for publications until March 2018, with data or evaluation of the PMHP. PMHP website publications were used for data and interpretation. The program’s viability was evaluated based on criteria published by UK National Screening Council. The program’s impact was analyzed using published patient outcome data. Access to care was evaluated at three barriers to accessing care proposed by Gjerdingen et al. (2007). The financial model was evaluated using the “four-pillars” of sustainable organization financial management proposed by León (2001). Findings. The PMHP’s screening program viability satisfies most criteria of the UK National Screening Council, and the program’s benefits outweigh its harms. Patient self-reports indicate successful impact with several highlights in accessibility. The program also demonstrates financial sustainability and potential for scaling-up. Interpretations. The operation model of the PMHP shows satisfactory viability and sustainability. With modifications fitting local context and government cooperation, this model offers promising potential in bringing public health and economic benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mental health; mental health literacy; psychological vulnerability; health promotion; adult
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:40:28 CET)
Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a Saúde Mental Positiva (SPM) e a sua relação com características sociodemográficas, literacia em saúde mental e escala de vulnerabilidade psicológica (PVS) em estudantes universitários portugueses com idades compreendidas entre os 17 e os 62 anos. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo-correlacional. Uma pesquisa online foi realizada para avaliar variáveis demográficas, e vários questionários foram aplicados para avaliar saúde mental positiva, vulnerabilidade psicológica e alfabetização em saúde mental. Os dados foram coletados de 1º de novembro de 2019 a 1º de setembro de 2020. No geral, 3.405 alunos participaram do estudo. Os resultados mostram que 67,8% dos alunos revelaram um alto nível de PMH, 31,6% apresentaram um nível médio de PMH e 0,6% apresentaram um nível baixo de PMH. Os estudantes do sexo masculino relataram maior satisfação pessoal (t (3170) = -2,39, p=0,017) e autonomia (t (3170) = -3,33, p=0,001), no PMH em relação ao sexo feminino. Alunos sem bolsa pontuaram mais alto (t (3.127) = -2,04, p=0,42) no PMH do que alunos com bolsa. Estudantes que não foram deslocados de casa relataram maior (t (3170) = -1,99, p=0,047) Autocontrole em PMH do que aqueles deslocados de sua casa. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0007.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: mental health; natural language processing; interdisciplinary research; mental health helpline
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:03:47 CET)
During the last two years the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world population in several ways. An important increase in mental health problems is a consequence of this pandemic that is ubiquitous worldwide. In this work we study the effect of the pandemic on the mental health of a population of teenagers and youth based on the analysis of natural language processing, machine learning algorithms and expert knowledge. The data analysed was obtained from a chat helpline called Safe time from theIt Get’s Better Foundation in Chile. The data consists of 10,986 conversations gathered from 2018 until 2020 between volunteers from the foundation and users of the platform. We compared the conversationsbefore and during the pandemic in terms of their thematic content. Our analysis found: a significantdecrease in self-image appreciation during the pandemic; a significant decrease in the quality of personalrelationships during the pandemic, and a significant increase of performance appreciation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0365.v1
Subject: Keywords: Menstruation; menstrual health; menstrual hygiene; period poverty; mental health; mental disorder
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:51:34 CEST)
Context: Mental and menstrual health, two emerging aspects of health critical to the female population, are bidirectionally linked. But there is limited empirical evidence that establishes the association between these entities. This essay aims to draw the attention of researchers to this healthcare niche. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review was carried out on literatures sourced from medical databases (e.g. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science), and gray sources—popular and reputable institutional and journalistic websites that publishes mental or menstrual health research. The key words used for the search are “Menstruation, menstrual hygiene, menstrual disorders, premenstrual syndrome, period poverty, menarche, menopause, mental health, mental disorder, mental illness, depression, anxiety, phobia, mania, mood, and affect”. The initial search generated 368 results. But after the duplicates were removed, the exclusion criteria (publication before 2000) was applied, and manual review of abstract (for relevance) was done, 21 publications from the databases and 5 from gray sources were included in this essay. Results: Associations were found between menstrual cycle irregularities and disorders; and mental disorders such as premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, major depressive disorder, major anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, sleep disorder, substance use/abuse, and suicidal ideation and attempts.Few positive associations between mental and menstrual health were recorded, and several research and treatment gaps were identified. Conclusion: Research into the links between mental and menstrual health should not remain a fringe area of scientific curiosity, as it shows tremendous promise in improving healthcare offered to women/girls globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0251.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: mental health assessment; vitality; mental activity; voice index; emotion analysis; noninvasiveness
Online: 11 August 2020 (05:33:57 CEST)
In many developed countries, mental health disorders have become problematic, and the economic loss due to treatment costs and interference with work is immeasurable. Therefore, we developed a method to assess individuals’ mental health using emotional components contained in their voice. We propose two indices of mental health: vitality, a short-term index, and mental activity, a long-term index capturing the trends in vitality. To evaluate our method, we used the voices of healthy individuals (n = 14) and patients with major depression (n = 30). The patients were also assessed by specialists using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). A significant negative correlation existed between the vitality extracted from the voices and HAM-D scores (r = -0.33, p < .05). We could discriminate the voice data of healthy individuals and patients having depression with a high accuracy using the vitality (p = .0085, area under the curve = 0.76). Further, we developed a method to estimate stress through emotion instead of analyzing stress directly from voice data. By daily monitoring of vitality using smartphones, we can encourage hospital visits for people before they become depressed or during the early stages of depression, to prevent adverse consequences of depression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0276.v1
Online: 16 May 2020 (18:16:48 CEST)
Introduction: Governance, the least studied health system component, comprises a system of rules and processes, and is a key determinant for effective decision making for health care planning. This study aims to identify institutional, legal and policy factors which are either barriers or facilitators for the implementation of integrated mental health in primary care in the India. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 key informants at the district and national levels with policy makers, state level health care planners and district planners and managers in India. The data were analysed using thematic analysis using the qualitative software NViVO 10. Findings: Participants stated that a conducive environment for mental health service delivery is necessary at the legislative, policy and planning levels, to facilitate integration of mental health into primary care. Amongst other factors, the need for active involvement of civil society and service user organisations, strengthening mental health information systems, and building the non-technical skills of the mental health workforce, were identified as particularly necessary to deliver adequate mental health services.Conclusion: Amidst the favourable policy context supporting collaborative and integrated care in India, this study identified low resourcing, weak collaborations and inadequate information to be crucial for integrated mental health in India at present.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mental health; migrant health; undocumented migrants; COVID-19; coping strategy; Myanmar; Thailand; mixed method
Online: 19 September 2022 (05:40:23 CEST)
Migrant population have always been vulnerable for high burden of social exclusion, mental disorders, physical illness and economic crisis. The current COVID-19 pandemic has further created the frantic plight among them, particularly for the undocumented migrant workers in global south. We have conducted a mixed method study among the undocumented Myanmar migrant workers (UMMWs) in Thailand to explore how the COVID-19 disruption has impacted on their mental health and what are the coping strategies adopted by them. Following the onset of COVID-19 and the recent coup d'etat in Myanmar, our current study is the first attempt to understand the mental health status and predicament of this neglected migrant group. A total of 398 UMMWs were included in the online survey among whom 23 participated in qualitative interviews. The major mental health issues reported by the study participants were depression, generalised anxiety disorder, frustration, stress and panic disorder while loss of employment, worries about the pandemic, social stigma, refused access to healthcare, lockdown and fear of detention were the predominant contributing factors. In response, we identified two key coping mechanisms- coping at personal layer (listening to music, playing online game, praying, self-motivation) and social layer (chatting with family and friends, visiting religious institutions). These findings point to the importance of policy and intervention programs aimed to uphold mental health at such humanitarian conditions. Sustainable institutional mental health care support and social integration for the migrant workers irrespective of their legal status should be ensured.
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:48:51 CEST)
Depression continues to be a glaring global challenge. The most worrisome trend is eating up the youthful generation more than anyone could predict years back. As Addis & Martell (2004) note, these adolescents end up succumbing to conditions that can be traced wholly from depression. Behavioral activation can be a rewarding intervention that will go a long way in cutting down on these cases and ensure the youthful global population's lives are safeguarded if applied and monitored to ensure correct and collective implementation processes and systems. The insights and arguments presented in the research paper will focus on the utility of behavioral activation in reducing depression cases among adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0273.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: bilingualism; mental-state-talk; socialization
Online: 17 March 2020 (09:10:04 CET)
Chinese-speaking parents are argued to use less cognitive mental-state-talk than their English-speaking counterparts due to their goals in socializing their children to follow an interdependence script. To extend this research, we investigated bilingual Mandarin-English Singaporean mothers who associate different functions for each language as prescribed by their government: English for school and Mandarin for in-group contexts. English and Mandarin maternal mental-state-talk from bilingual Mandarin-English mothers with their toddlers was examined. Mothers produced more cognitive terms in English than in Mandarin and more desire terms in Mandarin than in English. We show that mental-state-talk differs between bilingual parents’ languages, suggesting that mothers adjust their mental-state-talk to reflect each language’s function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0229.v1
Online: 22 April 2019 (10:29:32 CEST)
The goal of the project was to gain an understanding of the secondary school youth experience with food literacy and school gardens on their mental well-being. Over the course of five months, sixteen youth participated in a photovoice research project in which they expressed their personal experiences about food and gardening through photography and writing. The aspects of secondary school youths’ life experiences affected by exposure to food literacy and school gardens and their impact upon their well-being were identified. These included emotions and feelings, having a safe place, nutrition and relaxation. The youth explicitly connected relaxation with the themes of love and connectedness, growing food, garden as a place, cooking, and food choices. This was linked to nature, beauty, environment and sustainability. Youth clubs or groups were also identified as a key enabler for connection. Youth shared their food literacy experiences, observing that their engagement improved some aspect of their mental well-being. They identified food literacy and gardens as being the most important to mental well-being including: connecting, personal health and personal growth. The youth recognized that connecting comes from having community, relationships and respect. Fostering opportunities for food literacy such as growing and preparing food contributes to resiliency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0151.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: psychopharmacology; mental health; addiction; biopsychology
Online: 23 November 2017 (08:51:06 CET)
This study investigated the psychosocial factors influencing substance abuse among undergraduates. The study was conducted in Ekiti State university Ado Ekiti. 150 participants who are undergraduates of the university were used in this research. They consist of 82 males and 68 females selected from all faculties in the institution. 3 questionnaires were administered to respondent to measure the factors influencing substance abuse and the level at which they are abused. Independent T-test, multiple regression and Pearson Correlation method were used to analyze the data collected. Five hypotheses were tested: hypothesis 1, 2, 3 and 4 were significant while hypothesis 5 was insignificant. It was observed that there was significant influence of religiosity on substance abuse among undergraduates, the result also revealed that there was a significant influence of self-esteem on substance abuse among undergraduates, it also revealed that religiosity and self-esteem jointly predicted substance abuse among undergraduates, likewise the result also show that there was significant influence of sex on substance abuse among undergraduates and finally the result revealed there was no significant relationship between religiosity and self-esteem among undergraduates. The results were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusion and recommendations subsequently followed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0134.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: refugee mental health; gender and mental health; Afghan; resettlement stressors; dissonant acculturation; gender ideology
Online: 28 December 2016 (11:04:54 CET)
Recent studies have emphasized the influence of resettlement factors on the mental health of refugees resettling in developed countries. However, little research has addressed gender differences in the nature and influence of resettlement stressors and sources of resilience. We address this gap in knowledge by investigating how gender moderates and mediates the influence of several sources of distress and resilience among 259 Afghan refugees residing in northern California. Gender moderated the effects of four factors on levels of distress. Intimate and extended family ties have little correlation with men’s distress levels, but are strongly associated with lower distress for women. English ability is positively associated with lower distress for women, but not men. In terms of gender ideology, traditionally oriented women and egalitarian men have lower levels of distress. And experiencing greater dissonant acculturation increases distress for men, but not women. The influence of gender interaction terms is substantial and patterns may reflect difficulty adapting to a different gender order. Future studies of similar populations should investigate gender differences in sources of distress and resilience, and efforts to assist new arrivals might inform them of changes in gender roles they may experience, and facilitate opportunities to renegotiate gender roles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0554.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Metabolic syndrome; Mental disorders; Obesity; Multimorbidity
Online: 30 November 2021 (10:38:08 CET)
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with a greater risk of morbimortality. Ob-jective: To estimate the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and associated factors in patients of a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) in the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional study set at CAPS in the city of Salvador-Bahia, between August 2019 and February 2020. MS was evaluated according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III. In addition to descriptive statistics, gross and adjusted prevalence ratios were described. Results: MS was found in 100 (35.2%) individuals, 116 (40.9%) were obese and 165 (58.1%) had increased waist circumference. Polypharmacy was identified in 63 (22.3%) patients and 243 (85.9%) used antipsychotics. In the gross evaluation, the female (PR = 1.88; 95% CI: 1.35-2.63) and the use of antidepressants (PR = 1.41; 95%CI: 1.05-1.88) were associated with MS. After logistic re-gression, depression (PR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.38-2.51), acanthosis (PR = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.18 - 1.90), use of antipsychotics (PR = 1.88; 95%CI: 1.13 - 2.75) and the hypertriglyceremic waist (PR = 3.33; 95%CI: 2.48- 4.46) were associated with MS. Conclusion: The prevalence of MS alerts to multimorbidity among individuals with mental disorders and the need for clinical screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0665.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Sick leave; mental illness; predictors, prevention
Online: 27 May 2021 (11:36:39 CEST)
(1) Background: This study identifies and analyzes those variables that may influence sick leave due to mental illness, based on a retrospective descriptive study of a mutual insurance company in the industrialized region of southern Europe (Catalonia). (2) Methods: All workers who were on sick leave due to mental illness during the period 2009-2019 were included in the study. The relationships between sick leave due to mental illness and social/employment-related and economical and demographic factors were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression model. (3) Results: The period studied included 34,764 workers. Anxious-depressive disorders account for 83.3% of the diagnosed mental disorders. The age cohorts between 30 and 50 years represent 60% of the affected workers. Highest income and high population density regions are the most affected. The levels of mental illness are higher in spring and summer. Professions related to manufacturing industry, automobile mechanics companies, the hospitality industry, education and healthcare and social service companies was more heavily affected. (4) Conclusions: Population density and GDP per capita, the age cohort, the season of the year, the type of payment, the type of contract, and the worker’s business and profession can predict the appearance of sick leave due to mental illness. Mutual insurance companies should plan interventions to minimize these factors and avoid the socioeconomic consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0249.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mental health; psychedelics; psychopharmacology; psychiatry; innovative
Online: 24 January 2019 (08:46:50 CET)
The current crisis in psychopharmacology has a long history and needs to be addressed with innovative and effective strategies. Here we discuss some of the roots of this crisis and suggest that the therapeutic use of psychedelic drugs represents a promising and integrative treatment with enduring effects for mental health problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: unwed mother; mental health; intellectual ability
Online: 22 February 2018 (09:03:42 CET)
Although the number of unwed mothers have mental health problems and intellectual disability, little research have focused on their mental and cognitive status. Since there has been public stigma of unwed mother in South Korea, they tend to conceal their status and less likely to seek psychiatric and psychological help. In this context, this study aims to assess current status of their mental health and intellectual characteristics. A total 48 unwed mothers from two shelter homes in South Korea were agreed to participate in the study. To compare mental health and intellectual abilities of unwed mothers with the general women population, reference data from national studies was used. Unwed mothers were more likely to have mood disorder, post traumatic stress disorder(PTSD), alcohol and nicotine use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than the general women population. Among 48 participants, 20 (41.7%) were lower than 70 Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and the mean of IQ (78.31) was significantly lower than normalized IQ mean of general women population. In logistic regression analysis, psychiatric disorders were associated intellectual disability. This study confirmed that unwed mothers dwelling in Korean shelter homes have more experience of mental disorders and lower intellectual ability than general women population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: pregnant women; quarantine; mental health; pandemic; survey
Online: 26 July 2022 (09:54:30 CEST)
The objective of this study was to compare the mental well-being of French women who were and were not pregnant during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. We performed a nationwide online quantitative survey including all women between 18 and 45 years of age during the second and third weeks of global lockdown (March 25–April 07, 2020). The main outcome measures was the mental well-being measured by the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS). This study analysed 275 responses from pregnant women and compared them with those from a propensity score–matched sample of 825 non-pregnant women. The median WEMWBS score was 49.0 and did not differ by pregnancy status. Women living in urban areas reported better well-being, while those with sleep disorders or who spent more than an hour a day watching the news reported poorer well-being. During the first lockdown in France, women had relatively low mental well-being scores, with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. More than ever, health-care workers need to find a way to maintain their support for women’s well-being. Minor daily annoyances of pregnancy, such as insomnia, should not be trivialised because they are a potential sign of poor well-being.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: digitalisation; digital learning; mental health; parenting; China
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:28 CET)
While a raft of existing Chinese literature examines the associations between the outbreak of the pandemic and students’ mental health, rarely do Chinese studies assess the nuanced relationships between digital learning, parenting, and students’ mental health since the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Such a rarely discussed topic has substantial scholarly value as mismanagement of digital learning and parenting, such as the exposure to cyberbullying and negative parenting during the public health crisis, could add substantial, unforeseeable psychological burdens for Chinese students. In this article, the author applied a systematic review to find all relevant Chinese literature that contains the words “digital learning”, “children/adolescents”, “mental health”, and “parenting” published since January 2020. As such a complex topic has rarely been addressed in Chinese contexts, the author was only able to find four related scholarly articles. The author summarises the arguments and empirical findings to explore the nuanced relationships between a) digitalisation, isolation, parenting, and children’s mental health, b) parenting, teacher-student relationships, and students’ mental health, and c) maternal and paternal parenting styles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0148.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: mental health; working population; labour; migration; depression
Online: 3 November 2020 (13:52:38 CET)
Background: Mental health is a growing concern worldwide. It is not well understood whether Nepali workers, including international labour migrants from Nepal, are at higher risk of developing mental health problems. The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence of and examine the risks factors for depression among returnee migrants and non-migrant working male adults in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a probability-based sample of 725 participants was conducted in February 2020. The sample was comprised of two groups based on migration status: returning migrants and non-migrants. Logistic regression was applied to investigate factors associated with symptoms depression.Results: The overall prevalence of depression was 10.1%. However, the prevalence of depression was lower (7%) among returnee migrants compared to non-migrants (13.7%). Participants in the lower income group were more at risk of depression (OR=5.38, 95% CI: 1.96-14.78) than those in the higher income group. Similarly, Buddhists and Christians were more likely to be depressed (OR=2.17, 95% CI: 1.02-4.64) than Hindus. Interestingly, participants having more than two children had a higher prevalence of depression (OR=5.14, 95% CI: 1.22-21.63) compared with those having no children. Unmarried participants were more likely to be depressed (OR=4.05, 95%, CI:1.10-14.93) than those who were married. Conclusion: The working Nepali adult male population in Nepal, including returning migrants, is at risk of depression, but this risk is lower in those in the higher income group, returnee migrants, married, Hindus and those with no children. This study highlights the need to monitor and develop national policies to ensure the mental health of Nepali male adult population, including returnee migrants.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0072.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: consciousness; mental monism; idealism; automata; cellular automata
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:21:55 CET)
Models of consciousness are usually developed within physical monist or dualistic frameworks, in which the structure and dynamics of the mind derive from the workings of the physical world (in particular, the brain). Little attention has been given to modeling within a mental monist framework, deriving the structure and dynamics of the mental world from primitive mental constituents only. Mental monism is gaining attention as a candidate solution to Chalmers’ Hard Problem, and it is therefore timely to examine possible formal models of consciousness within it. Here, we propose a minimal set of hypotheses that any credible model of consciousness (within mental monism) should respect. From those hypotheses, it is feasible to construct many formal models that permit universal computation in the mental world, through cellular automata. We need further hypotheses to define transition rules for particular models, and we propose a transition rule with the unusual property of deep copying in the time dimension. In conclusion, we hope to dispel the notion that mental monism requires a deus ex machina, by showing that a parsimonious set of assumptions can yield a naturalistic and computationally potent mental world.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0201.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: Iran; sanctions; mental health; quality of life
Online: 17 November 2019 (10:53:30 CET)
In order to synchronize foreign policies of governments, firm actions in the form of economic sanctions have long been employed by western countries. Those countries that tend to have independent views and policies are made to undergo economic adversity to fall in line. But the hardest hit by these coercive actions are the ordinary citizens who have to endure immense difficulty with social and economic issues not to mention the human rights violations. This paper provides a review regarding the effect of economic sanctions on mental health and quality of life of Iranian citizens based on data available from Iran post-sanctions. From 2012 stronger sanctions have been implemented on Iran as its nuclear program failed to draw faith in terms of its peaceful execution. Evidence have pointed out that economic sanctions imposed by western countries have a detrimental and destructive effect on the health of individual Iranians and they violated some basic human rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0283.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, General Psychology Keywords: well-being; mental health; bonsai; art; psychotherapy
Online: 25 September 2019 (10:24:02 CEST)
Background: Bonsai integrates relaxation, leisure and art therapy into one medium that can have personal, emotional and commercial value and have benefits beyond the therapist’s couch. The art of bonsai, when used as a therapy tool may affect the capacity of the bonsai practitioner to adjust to negative and stressful life events. Objective: The study was initiated to evaluate the benefit of bonsai on the wellbeing of practitioners of the art. Method: 255 bonsai artists participated in a study that examined the effect of bonsai on their well-being. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with bonsai artists. Results: The majority of participants agreed that being able to work on their bonsais affected their moods positively. Discussion: Although bonsai artists did not report better mental health, participants reported an improvement in their mood when working on a bonsai tree. These findings are significant in that it can be especially useful in settings such as psychiatric hospitals, old age homes, orphanages, prisons, etc., as a preventative measure as well as restorative measures in the well-being of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0133.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: military; veterans; anger; aggression; PTSD; mental health
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:40:42 CEST)
Prevalence rates of anger and aggression are often higher in military personnel, so it is important to understand more about why this is and factors with which they are associated. Despite this, there is little evidence relating to anger and aggression in UK veterans who are seeking treatment for mental health difficulties such as PTSD. This study investigated the prevalence rates of anger and aggression in this population, as well as the associations between anger and aggression, and various sociodemographic, functioning and mental health variables. A cross-sectional design was used, with participants completing a battery of self-report questionnaires. Prevalence rates for significant anger and aggression were 74% and 28% respectively. Both women and those over 55 were less likely to report difficulties. Those with high levels of PTSD and other mental health difficulties were more likely to report anger and aggression. Other factors related to anger and aggression included childhood adversity; unemployment due to ill health; and a perceived lack of family support. Findings show that veterans who are seeking support for mental health are likely to experiencing significant difficulties with anger and aggression, especially if they have co-morbid mental health difficulties. The associations between anger and aggression and other variables has implications for the assessment and treatment of military veterans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: recovery; mental illness; mental health; psychiatry; social inclusion; occupational therapy; occupations; time use; activities of daily living; work.
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:56:09 CET)
Research has consistently found that people with mental illness (known as consumers) experience lower levels of participation in meaningful activities, which can limit their opportunities for recovery support. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of participation in a group program designed to address all stages of activity participation, known as Pathways to Participation (P2P). A descriptive longitudinal design was utilized, collecting data at three time points. Outcomes were measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal (CANSAS), Recovery Assessment Scale – Domains and Stages (RAS-DS), Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Living in the Community Questionnaire (LCQ) and time use diaries. All data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and Chi square analyses. Seventeen consumers completed baseline data, eleven contributed post program data and eight provided follow up data. Most were female (63.64%) and had been living with mental illness for 11.50 (± 7.74) years on average. Reductions in unmet needs and improvements in self-rated recovery scores were re-ported, but no changes were identified in either time use or psychosocial health. The findings indicate the P2P program may enable consumers to achieve positive activity and participation out-comes as part of their personal recovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0458.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mental illness; homicide; violence; psychiatry; Penrose hypothesis; deinstitutionalization
Online: 26 August 2022 (10:00:36 CEST)
The association between mental illness and violent crimes such as homicide is complex. In 1939, Lionel Penrose hypothesized that the availability of psychiatric hospital beds was inversely related to the prison population, presumably due to the hospitalization of potential offenders with a mental illness. Subsequent studies have found evidence for this association, but questions remain about the contributions of confounding factors. Moreover, there has been a move towards deinstitutionalization and community care of the mentally ill over the past six decades. In this study, the association between national homicide rates and three measures of the availability of psychiatric care – the numbers of psychiatrists, general hospital psychiatric beds, and psychiatric hospital beds per 100,000 population – was examined using a time-lagged correlation analysis. Associations between homicide rates and socioeconomic factors associated with crime were also examined. It was found that the availability of psychiatrists and of general hospital psychiatric beds were both negatively correlated with homicide rates, and that the association with general hospital psychiatric beds remained significant even after correction for confounding factors. These results suggest the need for a more nuanced interpretation of Penrose’s original formulation, involving the interplay of social, economic factors and psychological factors rather than linear causality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0004.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Mental Models; Dynamic Decision Making; Systems Thinking; Learning
Online: 24 August 2022 (03:49:41 CEST)
This article is a theoretical contribution to mental model research, which currently has different threads. Whereas some researchers focus on the perceived causal structure, others also include decision policies and decisions. We focus on the link between recognized causal structure (“mental models of dynamic systems”) and policies, proposing Johnson-Laird’s theory of mental models as the link. The resulting framework hypothesizes two types of systematic mental model errors: (1) misrepresentation of the system’s structure and (2) failure to deploy relevant mental models of possibilities. Examination of three experiments through this lens reveals errors of both types. Therefore, we propose that the cognitive theory of mental models opens a path to better understand how people construct their decision policies and develop interventions to reduce such mental model errors. The article closes by raising several questions for empirical studies of the reasoning process leading from mental models of dynamic systems to decision policies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: ethnic identity; mental health; migrant; transcultural psychiatry; youth
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:58:41 CEST)
Background: The number of young Japanese Brazilians, who are return migrants with Japanese ancestral roots, is increasing rapidly in Japan. However, the characteristics of their mental health and the relation between mental health and a complex ethnic identity remains unclear. Methods: This cross-sectional study compared 25 Japanese-Brazilian high school students with 62 Japanese high school students living in the same area. Research using self-report questionnaires on mental health, help-seeking behavior tendencies, and ethnic identity was conducted. The Japanese-Brazilian group was also divided into high and low ethnic identity groups, and their mental health conditions were compared. Results: The Japanese-Brazilian group had significantly poorer mental health conditions and lower ethnic identities than the Japanese group and were less likely to seek help from family members and close relatives. Among the Japanese Brazilians, those with low ethnic identity had significantly poorer mental health than those with high ethnic identity. Conclusions: Young Japanese Brazilians may face conflicts of ethnic identity that can disturb their mental health. To build an inclusive society, the establishment of community services to support mental health and to help return migrants develop their ethnic identity is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0391.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: occupational health; leadership; mental health; workplace climate; worksite
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:27:08 CEST)
Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O’Donovan et al.’s (2020) composite measure of psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees with teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was tested using Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha of the total score was 0.92 - 0.96 and ICC was 0.88 - 0.92. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, suggesting one factor combined with peers and team. The scale showed good convergent validity. The total score of the scale showed significant associations with all outcomes in adjusted model in all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees’ mental health and performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0214.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: depression, anxiety, stress, ischemic stroke, psychiatry, mental disorders
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:49:20 CEST)
Objectives To delineate the features of ischemic stroke patients and their caregivers that may predict distress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in the caregivers. Methods The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS), Zarit Burden Interview (22 item-ZBI), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used to assess caregivers' burden, stress, depressive, and anxiety symptoms. We performed partial least square-structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in order to delineate a multi-step mediation model.Results In this study, 97 stroke patients and their caregivers were included. Multiple regression analysis revealed that ZBI-personal strain and stroke of other determined etiology explained 15.0 percent of the variance in the HADS depression score (p=0.001). We discovered that the caregiver's underlying disease and the National Institute Stroke Score (NIHSS) of the patients explained 13.6 percent of the variance in the total ZBI score of the caregivers (p=0.001). The total ZBI score, the presence of lacunar circulation infarction in the patients, and the caregiver's underlying disease explained 40.9 percent of the variance in the total PSS score of the caregivers (p <0.001). Moreover, PLS analysis showed that the NIHSS and the caregiver's underlying disease had significant indirect effects on the HADS score which were mediated by the ZBI score. Conclusions A large part of the variance in stress and depressive scores in caregivers of ischemic stroke patients is determined by the patient's disability, dependency, cognition, and stroke phenotypes, as well as the caregiver's health status and burden. Screening for the aforementioned factors in ischemic stroke caregivers is critical.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0080.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: depression; anxiety; social solidarity; corona virus; mental health
Online: 4 August 2020 (08:14:35 CEST)
Introduction: Corona epidemic and quarantine enforcement, various effects on the psychological and social aspects of the population has left. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between depression, anxiety and relationship with medical staff and mental health is caused by corona. Methods: For this purpose, samples of 650 health personnel of private hospitals were selected. Inventory DASS, HADS, and selected social cohesion (Keyes) and the Internet and through social media networks were evaluated. To analyze the data, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: The results showed that straw anxiety corona) to negative (and social cohesion caused by corona) to positive (mental health correlates. It was also found that anxiety and social cohesion caused by corona, respectively 47 and 26 percent predict changes in mental health. Conclusion: These results show the positive and negative effects of psychosocial interventions in quarantine and it have practical implications in the development of the epidemic crisis is Corona.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0306.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Mental disorder, treatment gap, health system, Madhya Pradesh.
Online: 30 January 2019 (09:25:43 CET)
Background: India has one-fifth of the world's population and the number of people suffering from mental illness is assumed to be huge considering the contribution of mental disorders to the overall burden of the disease being 13.9 %. Objectives of Study: To estimate prevalence and patterns of mental illnesses to assess the current mental health services and systems in the Madhya Pradesh. Material and Methods: Multi-stage, stratified, random cluster sampling technique, with random selection based on probability proportionate to size at each stage. A total of 3240 individuals aged 18 years and above were interviewed. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. A set of 10 instruments including Mini International Neuro-psychiatric Interview were utilized. Results: The overall weighted prevalence for any mental illness was 16.7% lifetime and 13.9% current. Treatment-gap for all mental health problems is as high as 91% in the state along with huge socioeconomic impact of mental illness. Conclusions: This huge burden of mental, behavioural and substance use disorders, in Madhya Pradesh, calls for immediate attention of political leaders, policy makers, health professionals, opinion-makers and society at large. It is hoped that the data from the study will inform mental health policy and legislation and help shape mental health care delivery systems in the country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0246.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: mental health services, attitudes; beliefs; coercion; paternalism; discrimination
Online: 17 January 2019 (13:26:53 CET)
We aimed at developing and validating a scale on the beliefs and attitudes of mental health professionals towards services users’ rights in order to provide a valid evaluation instrument for training activities with heterogeneous mental health professional groups. Items were extracted from a review of previous instruments, as well as from several focus groups which have been conducted with different mental health stakeholders, including mental health service users. The preliminary scale consisted of 44 items and was administered to 480 mental health professionals. After eliminating non-discriminant and low weighting items, a final scale of 25 items was obtained. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses produced a four-factor solution consisting of the following four dimensions; system criticism/justifying beliefs, freedom/coercion, empowerment/paternalism, and tolerance/discrimination. The scale shows high concordance with our theoretical model as well as adequate parameters of explained variance, model fit, and internal reliability. Additional work is required to assess the cultural equivalence and psychometrics of this tool in other settings and populations, including health students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0074.v1
Online: 5 November 2018 (02:34:30 CET)
Dietary factors are one of the risk factors that can impact the brain chemistry, which leads to mental distress. Based on our data mining approach, we found that mental distress in men is associated with eating unhealthy food. Our aim in this paper is to apply results from our big data analytics approach to inform system dynamics (SD) modeling to investigate the causal relationships between brain structures, nutrients from food and dietary supplements, and mental health. We perform descriptive analysis based on a large data set to estimate the SD modeling parameters. Finally, we calibrate the model towards a time series data collected for individuals on their dietary and distress patterns. The results reveal that bridging these different methodologies leads to further insights from the SD model and decreases the error of calibrated parameter values. Future research is needed to validate our initial results for investigating the relationship between mental distress and dietary intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0016.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: rural; mental health; adolescents; access; service user experience; interventions
Online: 1 December 2022 (08:14:59 CET)
1)Background: Mental health difficulties during adolescence are common and are a risk factor for later mental and physical health problems. Rural young people are at greater risk for mental health difficulties and have less access to services than their urban counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore young people and their carers’ experiences of mental health support provided by a rural mobile service, and to identify access enablers from the service users’ perspective. 2) Methods: A qualitative descriptive approach was used to analyse twelve interviews with current service users and eight interviews with family members of young people who had accessed the service. 3) Results: Three main themes were identified: (a) Access and flexibility, (b) Clinicians’ qualities and strategies, and (c) Experiences of change. The mobile service was perceived to be effective in producing positive change in mental health, relationships and attainment of life goals. Key enablers to access included the flexibility of the mobile service, the variety of service delivery modes and therapeutic methods offered, the ease of access facilitated by location in schools, and young people’s autonomy in how they chose to utilise the service. 4) Conclusion: This study provides information about what is important to rural young people and their families in mental health service provision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0007.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Eritrean refugees; mental wellbeing; social resilience; Germany; ADAPT model
Online: 1 August 2022 (05:27:03 CEST)
Mental health and social resilience play a significant role in refugees’ adaptation during the resettlement process in the host country. Maintaining good mental wellbeing helps the refugees to respond to stressful experiences with healthy life choices. This study aimed to explore the mental wellbeing and social resilience of Eritrean refugees living in Germany and to identify social conditions and enablers to foster adaptation. This study employs a qualitative approach with a semi-structured, in-depth interview data collection method. Informants were identified among mostly young adult refugees living in Heidelberg, Germany, with a migration history of 3-6 years. In total, 15 informants were recruited through snowball sampling. Data were sorted and analyzed using the five pillars of the Adaptation and Development after Persecution and Trauma (ADAPT) model. The findings suggest that Eritrean refugees experience psychological distress after resettlement in Germany, however with time, their mental health has improved. The study revealed conditions that were experienced as hindrances, as well as ones that were considered to be resources of positive mental wellbeing and social resilience for resettled refugees. Challenges described were the language barrier, discrimination, unemployment, insecure residence status, loss of family and friends, conflict within the diaspora community, and isolation. The main sources of mental wellbeing and social resilience include the feeling of being welcomed by local communities, access to social services, adopting new relationships, and educational opportunities. These experiences encouraged refugees to have a favorable view of their lives and futures as well as also found to facilitate better integration and adaptation. Understanding refugee mental wellbeing and social resilience require a multidimensional perspective. Eritrean refugees living in Germany have experienced and still are experiencing resettlement challenges, as for example loss of family and friends, negative perception of the German system, loss of past achievements, or unemployment. But they have developed adaptive and resilience mechanisms, too, such as seeing an opportunity for a better life, adopting new roles, and accepting Germany as a “second home”. In addressing those by the refugees as hindrances reported issues, these could be turned into sources of mental well-being and resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Mental Health; Primary Health Care; Collaborative Care; Health Assessment
Online: 29 June 2022 (05:05:41 CEST)
The supply of mental health processes in primary care has gaps. This study aims to analyze the association of agreement criteria and flows between primary care teams and the Family Health Support Center (NASF) for mental health collaborative care, considering the difference between capital and non-capital cities in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement Program. Agreement criteria and flows were obtained from 3883 NASF teams of the matrix support or collaborative care. The Chi-square test and multiple Poisson regression were used; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence ratios of negative associations demonstrated protective factors for support actions: follow-up at Psychosocial Care Center, management of psychopharmacotherapy, offer of other therapeutic actions, care process for users of psychoactive substances, and offer of activities to prevent the use of psychoactive substances. Collaborative care in primary care was effective, and capital cities were a protective factor compared with non-capital cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0279.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Paramedic; Violence; Qualitative Research; Operational Stress Injury; Mental Health
Online: 19 January 2022 (16:04:48 CET)
Purpose Violence against paramedics is a complex – but underreported – problem. Extant research suggests organizational culture may play a role in sustaining cultural norms that downplay the significance and limit reporting. Our objective was to qualitatively explore paramedics’ experience with violence, with particular emphasis on understanding how organizational culture contributes to under-reporting. Approach We surveyed paramedics from a single, large, urban service in Ontario, Canada, asking participants to describe their experiences with violence, including whether – and why or why not – the incidents were reported. Within a constructivist epistemology, we used inductive thematic analysis with successive rounds of coding to identify and then define features of organizational culture that limit reporting. Findings A total of 196 (33% of eligible) paramedics completed the survey. Fully 98% of participants disclosed having experienced some form of violence; however only a minority (40%) reported the incidents to management, or the police (21%). We defined a framework within which a lack of support from management, and consequences for offenders, implicitly positions the ability of paramedics to “brush off” violent encounters as an expected professional competency. Disclosing emotional or psychological distress in response to violent encounters invited questions as to whether the individual is personally suited to paramedic work. Originality While the extant research has indicated that underreporting is a problem, our findings shed light on why – a critical first step in addressing what has been described as a serious public health problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Diabetic Ketoacidosis; Mental health; Type 1 diabetes; Transition; Glycemia
Online: 12 November 2021 (12:04:43 CET)
The transition of people from paediatric to adult diabetes services is associated with worsening glycaemia and increased diabetes-related hospitalisation. This study compared the clinical characteristics of those with and without mental health conditions among attenders at a diabetes young adult clinic diabetes before and after changes in service delivery. Retrospective review of 200 people with diabetes attending a Sydney public hospital over eight years corresponding to the period before (2012-2016) and after (2017-2018) restructuring of a clinic for young adults aged 16-25 years. Characteristics of those with and without mental health conditions (depression, anxiety, diabetes related distress, eating disorders), were compared. Among clinic attenders (type 1 diabetes n=184, 83.2%), 40.5% (n=89) had a mental health condition particularly, depression (n=57, 64%), which was higher among Indigenous than non-Indigenous people (5.6% vs 0.8% p=0.031) but similar between diabetes type. Over eight years, those with, compared with those without a mental health condition had higher HbA1c at the last visit (9.4%[79 mmol/mol] vs 8.7% [71 mmol/mol], p=0.027), the proportion with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA 60.7% vs 42.7%,p=0.009), smoking (38.4 vs 13.6%,p=0.009), retinopathy (9.0 vs 2.3%,p=0.025), multiple DKAs (28.4 vs 16.0%,p=0.031) were significantly higher. Having a mental health condition was associated with 2.02 (95% Confidence intervals 1.1-3.7) fold increased risk of HbA1c ≥ 9.0%[75mmol/mol]. Changes to the clinic were not associated with improvements in mental health condition (39.0% vs 32.4%, p=0.096). In conclusion, we found that mental health conditions, particularly depression, are common in this population and are associated with diabetes complications. Diabetes type and clinic changes did not affect the reported mental health conditions. Additional strategies are required to reduce complication risks among those with mental health conditions. .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0766.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: healthy life style; physical activity; physical and mental health
Online: 31 March 2021 (12:28:13 CEST)
The purpose of this article was to check the effects on health of various types of physical activities, diet, BMI, smoking and alcohol consumption and their interrelationships with control for age, sex and level of education. The study was based on epidemiological data (9617 participants from 19 to 81 years old for whom we have health indicators over a period of 11 years) together with questionnaires about diet, alcohol, tobacco and the frequency of different types of physical activities. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric correlational analysis of epidemiological data was performed with use of SPSS v.19. Our results indicate the existence of the significant relationship between leading a healthy life style (type of physical activities, limitations of fats consume and weight maintenance). However, the different categories of physical activities were analysed separately and showed slight differences on health indicators impacts. Our findings confirm that leading a healthy life style (all types of physical activities, limitations of fats consume and weight maintenance) is an important issue since it has a significant relationship with physical and mental health indicators, but outdoor physical activities and practicing sport in group have shown slightly higher impact on health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0585.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: activism; discrimination; mental health; Obertament; primary care; participation; stigma
Online: 23 December 2020 (11:11:53 CET)
Although it may seem paradoxical, primary care and mental health professionals develop prejudices and discriminatory attitudes towards people with mental health problems in a very similar way to the rest of the population. The main objective of this project was to design, implement and evaluate two awareness interventions respectively tailored to reduce stigma and discrimination beliefs and attitudes towards persons with a mental health diagnosis among primary care (PC) and mental health (MH) professionals. These interventions were developed by Obertament, the Catalan alliance against stigma and discrimination in mental health. The TLC3 (Targeted, Local, Credible, Continuous Contact) methodology was adapted to the Catalan PC and MH professional contexts. Activists with lived experience of mental health diagnosis carried out awareness-raising interventions in PC and MH health centres. The efficacy of these interventions was evaluated using two prospective double-blind cluster-wait-list-randomized-controlled trial experimental designs. Stigmatizing beliefs and behaviours were measured with the Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers in primary care centres and with the Beliefs and Attitudes towards Mental Health Service users’ rights in mental health centres. Positive reductions in both PC and MH professionals’ stigmatising beliefs and attitudes were found in the 1-month follow-up, although a ‘rebound effect’ at the 3-month follow up was also detected. This emphasizes the importance of the continuity of the presence of anti-stigma activities and messages. Attrition rates where high, which can hamper the reliability of the results. Further follow-up studies should enquiry effects of long-term interventions aimed at reducing stigmatising beliefs and attitudes among primary care and mental health professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: meditation; vagal nerve activity; high-burden caregivers; mental health.
Online: 1 December 2020 (15:11:39 CET)
Background: Caring for a loved one can be rewarding but also associated with substantial caregiver burden, developing mental outcomes and affecting happiness. Eventually, these physical and psychological disorders can lead to an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system. Meditation has been found to offer multiple benefits to relieve these disorders and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a four-week 16-hour presential meditation program on physiological and psychological parameters and vagal nerve activity in high-burden caregivers, comparing the results with those not receiving this program. Methods: A non-randomized repeated-measures controlled clinical trial was conducted, dividing participants between intervention and control groups by convenience allocation because random assignment was ethically inappropriate. Results: After the meditation program, the experimental group showed a significant reduction in anxiety levels (F= 24.92, p<0.001), a non-significant amelioration of depression levels (F= 1.75, p=0.19), and significantly improved heart rate variability (F= 8.40, p<0.05) and SDNN (F=15.59, p<0.05). Conclusions: Meditation can be a useful therapy to enhance the mental health and autonomic nervous system balance of informal caregivers, improving symptoms of physical and mental overload.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: hope; mental health; reliability; validity; principal component analysis; schizophrenia
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:18:42 CEST)
Hope is important in the rehabilitation of persons with schizophrenia, through scales to measure hope are not appropriate for this population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify the psychometric properties of the Schizophrenia Hope Scale-9 (SHS-9) using data from 83 people with schizophrenia in four mental health centers and 762 healthy persons from two universities in South Korea. The mean (standard deviation) SHS-9 score of the participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants was 11.24 (4.90) and 14.83 (3.10), respectively. Lower scores indicate a lower level of hope. The internal consistency alpha coefficient was 0.92 with a 4-week test-retest reliability of 0.89. Criterion-related construct validity was established by examining the correlation between the SHS-9 and the State-Trait Hope Inventory scores. Divergent validity was identified through a negative relationship of SHS-9 with the Beck Hopelessness Scale. The construct validity of the SHS-9 was confirmed through principal component analysis with extraction methods, which resulted in a one-factor solution, accounting for 49–60% of the total item variance.. This study provided evidence for the validity and reliability of the SHS-9; therefore, it could be used to measure hope in people with schizophrenia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0150.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mental health services; climate change; disasters; trauma; prevention treatment
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:22:41 CEST)
This review examines from a services perspective strategies for preparedness and response to mental health impacts of three types of climate-related events: 1) acute climate-related events such as hurricanes, floods and wildfires, 2) sub-acute or long-term changes in the environment such as drought and heat stress; and 3) the existential threat of long-lasting changes, including higher temperatures, rising sea levels and a permanently altered and potentially uninhabitable physical environment. Strategies for acute events include development and implementation of guidelines and interventions for monitoring and treating adverse mental health outcomes and strengthening individual and community resilience, training of non-mental health professionals for services delivery, and the mapping of available resources and locations of at-risk populations. Additional strategies for sub-acute changes include advocacy for mitigation policies and programs and adaptation of guidelines and interventions to address the secondary impacts of sub-acute events such as economic loss, threats to livelihood, health and well-being, population and family displacement, environmental degradation and collective violence. Strategies for long-lasting changes include implementation of evidence-based risk communication interventions that address the existential threat of climate change, promoting the mental health benefits of environmental conservation, and promoting positive mental health impacts of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0355.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: social media; unemployment; crowdsourcing; natural language processing; mental health
Online: 17 August 2020 (08:29:47 CEST)
Social media, traditionally reserved for social exchanges on the net, has been increasingly used by researchers to gain insight into different facets of human life. Unemployment is an area that has gained attention by researchers in various fields. Medical practitioners especially in the area of mental health have traditionally monitored the effects of involuntary unemployment with great interest. In this work, we compare the feedback gathered from social media using crowdsourcing techniques to results obtained prior to the advent of Big Data. We find that the results are consistent in terms of 1) financial strain is the biggest stressor and concern, 2) onslaught of depression is typical and 3) possible interventions including reemployment and support from friends and family is crucial in minimizing the effects of involuntary unemployment. Lastly, we could not find enough evidence to study effects on physical health and somatization in this work.