Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Mental Health, Greenness and Nature Related Behaviours in the Adult Population of Stockholm County during Covid-19-related Restrictions

Version 1 : Received: 5 March 2021 / Approved: 5 March 2021 / Online: 5 March 2021 (21:37:50 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Lõhmus, M.; Stenfors, C.U.D.; Lind, T.; Lauber, A.; Georgelis, A. Mental Health, Greenness, and Nature Related Behaviors in the Adult Population of Stockholm County during COVID-19-Related Restrictions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3303. Lõhmus, M.; Stenfors, C.U.D.; Lind, T.; Lauber, A.; Georgelis, A. Mental Health, Greenness, and Nature Related Behaviors in the Adult Population of Stockholm County during COVID-19-Related Restrictions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3303.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3303
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18063303

Abstract

International data suggests that exposure for nature is beneficial for mental health and well-being. The restrictions related to Covid-19 pandemic have created a setting that allows us to investigate the importance of greenness exposure on mental health during a period of increased isolation and worry. Based on 2060 responses from an online survey in the Stockholm County, Sweden, we investigated: 1) weather the Covid-19 pandemic changed peoples’ life-style and nature-related habits, and 2) if peoples’ mental health differed depending on their exposure to greenness. Neighbourhood greenness levels were quantified by using the average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) within 50m, 100m, 300m, and 500m buffers surrounding the participant’s place of residence. We found that the number of individuals that reported that they visited natural areas “often” was significantly higher during the pandemic than before the pandemic. Higher levels of greenness surrounding one’s location of residence were in general associated with higher mental health/wellbeing and vitality scores, and less symptoms of depression, anxiety, and perceived and cognitive stress, after adjustments for demographic variables and walkability. In conclusion, the results from the present study provided support to the suggestion that contact with nature may be important for mental health in extreme circumstances.

Subject Areas

COVID-19; greenness; mental health; societal change; social isolation; psychological factors; resilience

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