Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Alcohol Consumption, Loneliness, Quality of Life, Social Media Usage, and General Anxiety Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Singapore

Version 1 : Received: 10 March 2022 / Approved: 14 March 2022 / Online: 14 March 2022 (16:20:20 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Ung, M.; Wan, K.Y.Y.; Liu, S.Y.; Choo, Y.J.; Liew, N.S.W.; Shang, Z.A.; Khoo, S.S.H.; Tay, W.X.; Lin, R.; Yi, S. Alcohol Consumption, Loneliness, Quality of Life, Social Media Usage and General Anxiety before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Singapore. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 5636. Ung, M.; Wan, K.Y.Y.; Liu, S.Y.; Choo, Y.J.; Liew, N.S.W.; Shang, Z.A.; Khoo, S.S.H.; Tay, W.X.; Lin, R.; Yi, S. Alcohol Consumption, Loneliness, Quality of Life, Social Media Usage and General Anxiety before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Singapore. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 5636.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 5636
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph19095636

Abstract

This study aims to identify factors associated with anxiety levels of adults living in Singapore before the pandemic and during the COVID-19 outbreak. Data were collected using a cross-sectional web-based survey conducted from July to November 2020 accruing 264 eligible participants. Ordered logistic regression was used to assess Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), ranked as minimal (0-4), mild (5-9), moderate (10-14), and severe (15-21) before the pandemic and during the pandemic. About 74% of participants were female, 50% were aged 25-34, and 50% were married. The GAD-7 level went up from pre-pandemic for both moderate (from 12.5% to 16%) and severe GAD (from 2% to 11%). Alcohol consumption (AOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.04-3.06), loneliness (AOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and difficulty in switching off social media (AOR 2.21, 95% CI 1.29-3.79) predicted increased GAD-7 levels. The quality of life (AOR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.90) was significantly associated with decreased GAD-7 levels. The results heighten the awareness that early initiation of mental health support is crucial for the population in addition to the various financial support measures provided by the government as they are adapting to live with the COVID-19 pandemic.

Keywords

COVID-19; pandemic; GAD-7; mental health; quality of life; Asia

Subject

MEDICINE & PHARMACOLOGY, Psychiatry & Mental Health studies

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