ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0111.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Zoonoses, food-borne, disease control, public health, domestic livestock, pigs, One health
Online: 11 January 2019 (10:59:03 CET)
Non-typhoid salmonellosis is a common and problematic foodborne zoonotic disease in which pork and pork products can be an important potential source of infection. In order to prevent this disease important efforts to monitor the situation in the main source, livestock, are conducted in most developed countries. In the European Union EFSA and ECDC compile information at the member state level, even though important differences in production systems and surveillance systems exist. Here, Salmonella surveillance systems in one of the main sources of foodborne salmonellosis, swine, and humans in Spain were reviewed to identify potential gaps and discuss potential ways of integration under a One Health approach. Despite the extensive information generated through the surveillance activities source attribution can be only routinely performed through ad-hoc outbreak investigations, and national reports on human outbreaks do not provide sufficiently detailed information to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the pathogen. Human and animal monitoring of Salmonella would benefit from a better exchange of information and collaboration. Analysis of spatio-temporal trends in livestock and humans could help to identify likely sources of infection and to target surveillance efforts in areas with higher prevalence or where specific strains are found.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0358.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: ecigarette; regulatory science; substantial equivalence; public health; tobacco product comparison.
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:04:52 CET)
This study introduces and demonstrates a comprehensive, accurate, unbiased approach to robust quantitative comparison of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) appropriate for establishing substantial equivalence (or lack thereof) between tobacco products. The approach is demonstrated across a family of thirteen pen- and pod-style ENDS products. Methods employed consist of formulating a robust emissions surface regression model, quantifying the empirical accuracy of the model as applied to each product, evaluating relationships between product design characteristics and maximum emissions characteristics, and presenting results in formats useful to researchers, regulators, and consumers. Results provide a response surface to characterize emissions (total particulate matter and constituents thereof) from each ENDS appropriate for use in a computer model and for conducting quantitative exposure comparisons between products. Results demonstrate that emissions vary as a function of puff duration, flow rate, E-Liquid composition, and device operating power. Further, results indicate that regulating design characteristics of ENDS devices and consumables may not achieve desired public health outcomes; it is more effective to regulate maximum permissible emissions directly. Three emissions outcome measures (yield per puff, mass concentration and constituent mass ratio) are recommended for adoption as standard quantities for reporting by manufacturers and research laboratories. The approach provides a means of (a) quantifying and comparing maximal emissions from ENDS products spanning their entire operating envelope, (b) comparative evaluation of ENDS devices and consumable design characteristics, and (c) establishing comparative equivalence of maximal emissions from ENDS. A consumer-oriented product emissions dashboard is proposed for comparative evaluation of ENDS exposure potential. Maximum achievable power dissipated in the coil of ENDS is identified as a potentially effective regulatory parameter.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0652.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: quantified self; health; physical activity; behavior change; model; support system; persuasive design; user centered design
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:53:52 CET)
Since the emergence of the quantified self movement, users aim at health behavior change, but only those who are sufficiently motivated and competent with the tools will succeed. Our literature review shows that theoretical models for quantified self exist but they are too abstract to guide the design of effective user support systems. Here, we propose principles linking theory and implementation to arrive at a hierarchical model for an adaptable and personalized self-quantification system for physical activity support. We show that such a modeling approach should include a multi-factors user model (activity, context, personality, motivation), a hierarchy of multiple time scales (week, day, hour), and a multi-criteria decision analysis (user activity preference, user measured activity, external parameters). This theoretical groundwork, which should facilitate the design of more effective solutions, has now to be validated by further empirical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0036.v2
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: pathogens; water quality; biofloc; stagnant aquaculture; bacteria; public health
Online: 27 October 2022 (09:25:37 CEST)
Bacteriological and physico-chemical analyses of fish pond water are very important in aquaculture as they give insights into likely threats to aquaculture and associated personnel. Bacteriological and physico-chemical profiles of selected fish ponds in the Ilorin West area of Kwara State, Nigeria, were investigated to evaluate the water quality of rearing enclosures. Physico-chemical analyses revealed quality parameters were within the recommended range for aquaculture. Following bacteriological analyses of static water pond culture, the TVC and TCC showed temporal variations, with concentration increasing with sampling time. However, the FCC showed fluctuation. Totally, 8 bacteria groups were isolated from both rearing enclosures. Of these, Gram-negative bacteria showed dominance. In which 5 Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus spp, Serratia spp, Enterobacter spp, and Pseudomonas spp) and 3 Gram-positive (Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, and Bacillus spp) were encountered. Estimates of bacteria occurrence in both rearing facilities respectively gave: Staphylococcus spp (20%), Streptococcus spp (12%), Proteus spp (8%) Enterobacter spp (20%), Serratia spp (16%), Bacillus spp (9%), Escherichia coli (8%), Pseudomonas spp (7%) from earthen pond water sampled. While Staphylococcus spp (18%), Streptococcus spp (16%), Proteus spp (8%), Enterobacter spp (22)%, Serratia spp (8%), Bacillus spp (15%), Escherichia coli (8%), Pseudomonas spp (6%) from concrete water sampled. Conclusively, although there is the presence of bacteria groups of public health concern, the static water exchange provides benefits of natural processing of wastes and restoration of the pond ecosystem. Notably, the presence of Escherichia coli indicates the presence of pathogenic organisms of enteric origin. The presence of these organisms has been associated with a lack of tentative pond management and effective biosecurity procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0153.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; geographical information systems (GIS); coronavirus; epidemiology of infectious diseases; public health.
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:36:52 CEST)
The epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have affected all the regions of the world, nevertheless, in some countries there is a lack of studies on its main clinical and epidemiological features. We analyzed the incidence, incidence rates, and evolution of COVID-19 cases in Honduras from February 18-April 24, 2020.Methods: Using daily epidemiological data from surveillance about COVID-19 in Honduras, we calculated the rates of incidence (cases/100,000 population), and developed at national, departmental, and municipal levels GIS-based maps.Results: February 18 - April 24, 2020, a sum of 3,169 suspected COVID-19 cases have been assessed by RT-PCR, 533 (16.8%) of them were positive, for an incidence rate of 5.73 cases/100,000 pop. The highest peak was reached on March 31 (48 cases). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortes (383 cases, 71.9% of the total, 21.45 cases/100,000 pop). Discussion: The pattern and evolution of COVID-19 epidemic in Honduras has been particularly focused in the major urban areas, San Pedro Sula and Tegucigalpa, the capital city. Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to attain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of the evolution of the pandemic and monitoring interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0167.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens; water mist system; Legionella; Mycobacterium; Pseudomonas; Acanthamoeba; Naegleria; health risks
Online: 16 September 2019 (12:11:26 CEST)
The exposure of people to opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) such as Legionella, Mycobacterium and Pseudomonas in aerosolised water has been linked to opportunistic infections. Water mist systems (WMS) that are used to cool public places by flash evaporation of tiny water aerosols are gaining prominence in hot climatic regions of Australia. Their potential to be colonised by OPPPs has not been adequately studied. The public health impact of OPPPs is significant, as Legionella caused 63% of waterborne disease case hospitalisations in the United States associated with drinking water systems during 2013–2014, and the incidence of Mycobacterium avium over the same period was 647 cases per 100,000. As WMS are part of premise plumbing, they have structural characteristics that can promote biofilm formation, as well as the presence of free-living amoebae (FLA), low residual disinfection levels, elevated water temperatures and oligotrophic conditions, all of which can promote OPPP inhabitancy. This review highlights the potential public health risks of using WMS as a cooling intervention in public places and advocates for their regulation in places of public assembly and entertainment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0621.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Zika virus (ZIKV); geographical information systems (GIS); public health; travelers; arboviruses; infectious diseases epidemiology; Honduras
Online: 1 February 2019 (09:44:12 CET)
Background: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has significantly affected Latin America in 2015–2017. Most studies have been reported from Brazil and Colombia, and only a few from Central America. For these reasons we analyzed the incidence, incidence rates and evolution of cases in Honduras from 2016–2017. Methods: Using epidemiological weeks (EW) surveillance data on the ZIKV epidemics in Honduras, we estimated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population), and developed maps at national, departmental and municipal levels. Results: From 1 January 2016 to 31 December 2017, a total of 32,607 cases of ZIKV were reported (98.5% in 2016 for an incidence rate of 36.85 cases/100,000 pop; 1% confirmed by RT-PCR). The highest peak was reached on the EW 6°, 2016 (2,559 cases; 29.34 cases/100,000 pop). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortés (13,128 cases, 791.08 cases/100,000 pop in 2016). Discussion: The pattern and evolution of ZIKV infection in Honduras has been similar to that which occurred for chikungunya in 2015. As previously reported, infection with chikungunya involved predominantly the central and capital area of the country, reaching incidences there >750 cases/100,000 pop. Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to attain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of risk for travelers who visit specific areas in a destination country.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Dengue virus (DENV); geographical information systems (GIS); public health; travelers; arboviruses; infectious diseases epidemiology; Honduras
Online: 29 July 2019 (04:36:31 CEST)
Background: After serious epidemics of chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) in the Americas, dengue (DENV) have reemerged in most countries. We analyzed the incidence, incidence rates, and evolution of DENV cases in Honduras from 2015-2018 and the ongoing 2019 epidemic. Methods: Using epidemiological weeks (EW) surveillance data on the DENV in Honduras, we estimated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population), and developed maps at national, departmental, and municipal levels. Results: From 1 January 2016 to 21 July 2019, a total of 109,557 cases of DENV were reported, 28,603 in 2019, for an incidence rate of 312.32 cases/100,000 pop this year; 0.13% laboratory-confirmed. The highest peak was reached on the EW 28°, 2019 (5,299 cases; 57.89 cases/100,000 pop). The department with the highest number of cases and incidence rate was Cortes (8,404 cases, 479.68 cases/100,000 pop in 2019). Discussion: The pattern and evolution of DENV epidemic in 2019 in Honduras has been similar to that which occurred for in 2015. As previously reported, this epidemic involved the north and central areas of the country predominantly, reaching municipality incidences there >1,000 cases/100,000 pop (1%). Studies using geographical information systems linked with clinical disease characteristics are necessary to attain accurate epidemiological data for public health systems. Such information is also useful for assessment of risk for travelers who visit specific areas in a destination country.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: school health; child/adolescent health; health education; health promotion; school nutrition; school health; policy
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:57:43 CEST)
Supporting the implementation of school food and nutrition policies (SFNPs) is an international priority to encourage healthier eating among children and youth. Schools are an important intervention setting to promote childhood nutrition, and many jurisdictions have adopted policies, guidelines, and programs to modify the school nutrition environment and promote healthier eating. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived adequacy and capacity for SFNP implementation on food availability and policy adherence in the province of Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, one of the first regions in Canada to launch a comprehensive SFNP. A cross sectional online survey was conducted in 2014-15 to provide a current-state of policy implementation and adherence. Adequacy and capacity for food policy implementation was used to assess policy adherence through the availability of prohibited ‘minimum’ nutrition foods. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a selected of available foods and ‘slow’ and ‘quick’ service food composition measures were dichotomized for food availability. Schools with above perceived average adequacy and capacity for policy implementation had more than three times (3.62) greater odds of adhering to a lunch policy, while schools that adhered to a snack and lunch policy had 52% and 82% lower odds of serving quick service foods, respectively. This study identified the need for appropriate adequacy and capacity for policy implementation to ensure policy adherence and improve the school food environment. These findings highlight the potential of SFNPs to have a positive impact on childhood nutrition, but adequately supporting their implementation is critical to ensure their impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19; health care; learning health systems; health serives; public health
Online: 30 August 2022 (08:23:26 CEST)
Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed health systems globally, and affected delivery of other health services. We conducted a study in Uganda to describe interventions for continuity of access to other health services. Methods: We reviewed documents and interviewed 21 key informants. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify themes using the World Health Organization health system building blocks as a guiding framework. Results: Governance strategies included establishment of coordination committees and development and dissemination of guidelines. Infrastructure and commodities strategies included review of drug supply plans and allowing emergency orders. Workforce strategies included provision of infection prevention and control equipment, recruitment and provision of incentives. Service delivery modifications included designation of facilities for COVID-19 management, patient self-management, dispensing drugs for longer periods and leveraging community patient networks to distribute medicines. However, multi-month drug dispensing led to drug stock-outs while community drug distribution was associated with stigma concerns. Conclusions: Health service maintenance during emergencies requires coordination to harness existing health system investments. The service continuity committee coordinated efforts to maintain services and should remain a critical element of emergency response. Self-management and leveraging patient networks should address stigma to support service continuity in similar settings and strengthen service delivery beyond the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: migrant; public health; health education; health records; China
Online: 15 July 2017 (00:36:36 CEST)
Background: Internal migrants had obstacles in accessing local public health services in China. This study aimed to estimate the utilization of local public health services and its determinants among internal migrants. Methods: Data were from the 2014 and 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of internal migrants in China. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate the relationship between socioeconomic, migration, demographic characteristics and public health services utilization. Results: Internal migrants in more developed eastern regions used less public health services. Those with higher socioeconomic status were more likely to use public health services. The broader and shorter they migrated, the less they used public health services. Compared to migration within the city, migration across provinces is negatively associated with health records (OR=0.88, 95% CI: 0.86-0.90), health education (OR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94-1.00), and health education on NCDs (OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95) or through Internet channel (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.94-0.99). Conclusion: Public health services coverage for internal migrants has seen great improvement due to government subsides. Internal migrants with lower socioeconomic status and across provinces need to be targeted. More attention should be given to the local government in the developed eastern regions in order to narrow the regional gaps.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: health service managers; competency frameworks; capacity building; digital health; health informatics; health workforce; health management degrees
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:47:29 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has sped up digital health transformation across the health sectors to enable innovative health service delivery. Such transformation relies on competent managers with the capacity to lead and manage. However, the health system has not adopted a holistic approach in addressing the health management workforce development needs, with many hurdles to overcome. The objectives of this paper are to present the findings of a three-step approach in understanding the current hurdles in developing a health management workforce that can enable and maximise the benefits of digital health transformation, and to explore ways of overcoming such hurdles. Methods: A three-step, systematic approach was undertaken, including an Australian digital health policy documentary analysis, an Australian health service management postgraduate program analysis, and a scoping review of international literatures. Results: The main findings will guide the formulation of strategies in developing a digitally enabled health management workforce in the digital health era. Conclusions: With the ever-changing landscape of digital health, being able to lead and manage in times of system transformation requires a holistic approach to develop the necessary health management workforce capabilities and system-wide capacity. The evidence would support that this can be achieved with the required system, policy, educational and professional organizational enablers, which drive a digital health focused approach across all the healthcare sectors, in a coordinated and contextual manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0395.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Mental Health; Primary Health Care; Collaborative Care; Health Assessment
Online: 29 June 2022 (05:05:41 CEST)
The supply of mental health processes in primary care has gaps. This study aims to analyze the association of agreement criteria and flows between primary care teams and the Family Health Support Center (NASF) for mental health collaborative care, considering the difference between capital and non-capital cities in Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on secondary data from the Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement Program. Agreement criteria and flows were obtained from 3883 NASF teams of the matrix support or collaborative care. The Chi-square test and multiple Poisson regression were used; p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Prevalence ratios of negative associations demonstrated protective factors for support actions: follow-up at Psychosocial Care Center, management of psychopharmacotherapy, offer of other therapeutic actions, care process for users of psychoactive substances, and offer of activities to prevent the use of psychoactive substances. Collaborative care in primary care was effective, and capital cities were a protective factor compared with non-capital cities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0095.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: health; climate change; communication; health promotion; health education; perception
Online: 5 October 2020 (14:31:37 CEST)
The negative implications of climate change for human health are now well-established. Yet these have not been fully considered into climate change communication strategies. Research suggests that reorienting climate change communication with a health frame could be a useful communication strategy. We conducted a long-term and broad overview of existing scientific literature in order to summarize the state of research activity in this area, by extent and by nature. The methodology is based on a scoping review of scientific articles published on climate change communication and health between 1990 and mid-2016 indexed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases. The screened citations were reviewed for inclusion and data were extracted and coded in order to conduct quantitative (e.g. frequencies) and qualitative (i.e. content analysis) analyses.Out of 2,866 identified published papers, only 24 articles were eligible for analyses. The main themes identified were effective communication of climate change (n=10, 41.7%), the role of health professionals (n=10, 41.7%) and the perception of climate change (n=4, 16.7%). We identified a large proportion of secondary research articles (n= 15, 62.5%) including reviews (n=5, 20.8%) and opinion articles (n=10, 41.7%). A significant share - 37.57% (n=9) - of the identified articles were classified as original research articles, suggesting that the number of publications in this area - particularly original research - has not grown rapidly.This scoping review identified several themes including effective communication of climate change, the role of health professionals, and the perception of climate change in the selected articles on the subject. The research literature on the communication of climate change and health is relatively recent and emerging: the first articles on the subject were published from 2008 onward only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0450.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: workplace; health promotion; public health; health checks; education; construction
Online: 20 August 2020 (09:42:29 CEST)
Interprofessional learning (IPL) is essential to prepare healthcare trainees as the future public health workforce. WHIRL was an innovative IPL intervention that engaged multi-professional teams of volunteer healthcare trainees (n=20) to deliver health checks (n=464), including tailored advice and signposting, to employees in the UK construction industry (across 21 events, 16 sites, 10 organisations) as part of an ongoing research programme called Test@Work. Volunteers undertook a four-part training and support package of trainer-led education, observations of practice, self-directed learning and clinical supervision, together with peer mentoring. In a one-group post-test only design, IPL outcomes were measured using the Inventory of Reflective Vignette - Interprofessional Learning (IRV-IPL), and the psychometric properties of the IRV-IPL tool were tested. WHIRL demonstrably improved healthcare trainees’ interprofessional skills in all five areas of collaboration, coordination, cooperation, communication, and commendation. The IRV-IPL tool was found to be a valid and reliable measure of interprofessional competencies across three scenarios; before and after health promotion activities, and as a predictor of future health promotion competence. This industry-based workplace IPL programme resulted in attainment of health check competencies, and bridged the gap between research, education and clinical practice.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: mental health; health service research; burnout; public health; physicians
Online: 14 July 2020 (03:43:43 CEST)
This observational study was ordered by the Medical Practitioners’ Chamber in Warsaw. The objective of the study was to evaluate the health status of physicians in relation to their occupational duties. Professional burnout was considered relative to different features of personality. This study was initially carried out from 2005–2008, but further analysis of burnout and personality was carried out from 2017–2018. The research tools were anonymous, validated questionnaires. The sample size was based on the size of the population— the registry of the Regional Chamber of Medical Practitioners— and literature on burnout prevalence. The respondents’ work places were randomly selected from the Mazovian District register. The test on burnout was completed by 378 respondents, while 62 subjects completed a personality test. Results showed that burnout syndrome was an occupational problem for healthcare workers. Professional burnout affected as many as 42% of respondents(n = 158). It affected two age groups in particular: physicians up to 31 years old and individuals aged 41-50. Moreover, neuroticism was found to be significantly related to burnout syndrome. In conclusion, burnout syndrome is common among medical practitioners, and neuroticism may be correlated with burnout syndrome.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0057.v1
Online: 5 July 2022 (04:36:30 CEST)
Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from (vertebrate) animals to humans. Control and prevention of these diseases require an appropriate way to measure health for prudent and well-balanced decisions in public health. We propose a framework that aims to explore, understand and open up a conversation about the non-monetary value of animals through environmental and normative ethics. As an example of its application, participants can choose what they are willing to give in exchange for curing an animal in hypothetical scenarios selecting a human health condition to suffer, the amount of money, and lifetime as a tradeoff. We believe that considering animals beyond their monetary value in public health decisions will contribute to a more rigorous assessment of the burden of zoonotic diseases, among other health decisions. This method might help us complement the existing metrics in health, adding more comprehensive values for animal and human health for the “One Health” approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0081.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Migration; Health; Electronic health records
Online: 5 October 2021 (11:40:07 CEST)
International migrants comprised 14% of the UK population in 2020, but migrant health in the UK has rarely been studied at a population level using primary care electronic health records (EHRs). Given the difficulty of determining migration status using EHRs, this study developed a migration phenotype and assessed its validity. We developed a phenotyping algorithm using codes for country of birth, visa status, non-English main/first language and non-UK origin. It was applied to a Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) GOLD database of 16,071,111 primary care patients between 1997 and 2018. We compared the completeness and representativeness of the identified migrant population to Office for National Statistics (ONS) country of birth and 2011 census data by year, age, sex, geographic region of birth and ethnicity. Between 1997-2018, 403,768 migrants (2.51% of the CPRD GOLD population) were identified using the phenotype. 178,749 (1.11%) of these migrants were identified by codes indicating foreign country of birth or visa status, 216,731 (1.35%) a non-English main/first language, and 8,288 (0.05%) non-UK origin. The cohort was similarly distributed compared to ONS migration statistics in terms of sex and region of birth. Recording of migration improved from identifying approximately one-tenth of the expected proportion of migrants according to the ONS in 2004 to a quarter in 2018. Younger migrants were better represented than those aged 50 and over. The migration phenotype identified a large number of migrants and can be used to undertake large-scale migration health research in CPRD GOLD to inform healthcare policy, practice and action. While the cohort was representative of the UK migrant population in terms of sex and region of birth, migration status was under-recorded in earlier years and older ages, and future studies for these groups should therefore be interpreted with caution.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Nutritional Surveillance; Public Health; Community Health Nursing; Public Health Nursing; Children’s health; Community Participation
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:36 CEST)
Effectively responding to children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique requires a community-based care approach grounded in sound nursing research that is evidence-based. The Community Assessment, Intervention, and Empowerment Model (MAIEC) is a nursing theoretical model that bases clinical decision-making for community health nurses using communities as a unit of care. We used the MAIEC to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis to address children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique. Objectives: (1) To conduct a descriptive study of children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in a school community in Mavalane, Mozambique, and (2) to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis using the MAIEC clinical decision-making matrix in the same school community. Method: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children using anthropometric data, including brachial perimeter and the tricipital skinfold, and standard deviation for the relation of weight-height, in a sample of 227 children. To assess community management of the problem and identify a community-based nursing diagnosis, we surveyed 176 parents/guardians and 49 education professionals, using a questionnaire based on the MAIEC clinical decision matrix as a reference. Results: Malnutrition was identified in more than half of the children (51.3%). We also identified a community-based nursing diagnosis of impaired community management related to the promotion of child health and healthy eating as evident by lack of community leadership, participation, and processing among more than 70% of the community members (parents/guardians and education professionals). Conclusion: A nursing diagnosis and diagnostic criteria for nutritional status and community management were identified. The need to intervene using a multidisciplinary public health approach is imperative, with the school community as the unit of care. In addition, reliable anthropometric data were used to complement the nursing diagnosis and guide future public health interventions.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: rural health: urban health; health status; cancer survivors; United Kingdom
Online: 24 May 2022 (05:13:59 CEST)
Objective: To explore the effect of rural-urban residence on self-reported health status with UK cancer survivors. Design: A cross-sectional postal questionnaire that collected data on demographics, post-code and self-reported health status. Methods: Independent Samples t test was used to detect differences in health status between rural and urban respondents. Pearson’s χ2 was used to control for confounding variables and multivariate analysis was conducted using Stepwise linear regression. Setting: East Midlands of England. Participants: Adult cancer survivors who had undergone primary treatment in the last five years. Participants were excluded if they had recurrence or metastatic spread, started active oncology treatment in the last twelve months and were in receipt of palliative or end of life care. Main Outcome: Residence was measured using the UK ONS RUC2011 Rural-Urban Classifications and Health Status via the UK ONS self-reported health status measure. Results: 227 respondents returned a questionnaire. Forty-five per cent (N=103) were resident in a rural area and fifty-three per cent (N=120) in an urban area. Rural (4.11±0.85) respondents had significantly (p<0.001) higher self-reported health status compared to urban (3.65±0.93) respondents (MD 0.47; 95% CI 0.23, 0.70). Conclusion: Rural respondents had significantly higher self-reported health status compared to their urban counterparts. It is hoped that the results will stimulate further work in this area and that researchers will be encouraged to collect data on rural-urban residency where appropriate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: mental health; mental health literacy; psychological vulnerability; health promotion; adult
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:40:28 CET)
Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a Saúde Mental Positiva (SPM) e a sua relação com características sociodemográficas, literacia em saúde mental e escala de vulnerabilidade psicológica (PVS) em estudantes universitários portugueses com idades compreendidas entre os 17 e os 62 anos. Foi realizado um estudo descritivo-correlacional. Uma pesquisa online foi realizada para avaliar variáveis demográficas, e vários questionários foram aplicados para avaliar saúde mental positiva, vulnerabilidade psicológica e alfabetização em saúde mental. Os dados foram coletados de 1º de novembro de 2019 a 1º de setembro de 2020. No geral, 3.405 alunos participaram do estudo. Os resultados mostram que 67,8% dos alunos revelaram um alto nível de PMH, 31,6% apresentaram um nível médio de PMH e 0,6% apresentaram um nível baixo de PMH. Os estudantes do sexo masculino relataram maior satisfação pessoal (t (3170) = -2,39, p=0,017) e autonomia (t (3170) = -3,33, p=0,001), no PMH em relação ao sexo feminino. Alunos sem bolsa pontuaram mais alto (t (3.127) = -2,04, p=0,42) no PMH do que alunos com bolsa. Estudantes que não foram deslocados de casa relataram maior (t (3170) = -1,99, p=0,047) Autocontrole em PMH do que aqueles deslocados de sua casa. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH. Estudantes universitários com resultados de PMH mais altos têm resultados de PVS mais baixos e resultados de Alfabetização mais altos. Os achados deste estudo contribuirão para identificar as necessidades de intervenção dos alunos na PMH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: primary health care; family health strategy; health personnel; adaptation; psychological
Online: 8 February 2022 (16:23:26 CET)
The aim was to analyze the coping strategies used by primary health care (PHC) professionals. A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted with professionals working in primary health care units in São José do Rio Preto, a large city in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. For data collection we used an instrument developed by the researchers, containing sociodemographic and professional variables, as well as the Problem Coping Modes Scale (EMEP). We evaluated 333 PHC professionals. A difference was observed between the scores of the four coping strategies (p<0.001), with the highest score for the problem-focused strategy (3.8) and the lowest score for the emotion-focused strategy (2.4). Physicians had the lowest scores in coping strategies focused on religious practices/fantastical thinking (p<0.001) and pursuit of social support (p=0.045), while community health agents had the highest scores in these coping strategies). Professionals working in PHC have different coping strategies for the problems and stressful situations experienced in the work environment. These strategies can involve more positive attitudes focused on confrontation and problem solving, to emotional responses that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial that involve attitudes of avoidance and denial of the problem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0075.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Consumers' consciousness for health; companies’ health-friendly activities; health-friendly products and services; health status
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:14:55 CEST)
Although health policy resides mainly with the government, industry can play an important role in building a health ecosystem. From March to May, we administered questionnaires to 1,200 individuals from the general Korean population asking about their perception of health-friendly labels, and if they would purchase such labeled products (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.) and services (purifying water, preventing air pollution, etc.) at extra cost. The participants placed a high value on the importance of mental, social, spiritual, and physical health factors in terms of company’s products and services with a score of about 8 out of 10 (range, 7.74-8.33). Most respondents (72.4%) said they were interested in adopting health-friendly labels. When a health-friendly label is introduced (such as one by the Business for Social Responsiveness), 65.1% of the respondents said they intended to purchase the product or service, while 6.8% said they did not, and 75.0% said they were willing to pay extra for the health-friendly product or service. Multivariate logistic regression models showed urban residence, high education level, and good social health to be significantly associated with positive attitudes toward health-friendly labels. People with high income, no religion, or normal weight were more likely to say they intend to purchase products and services with health-friendly labels. They also had a more positive attitude toward paying more for such products and services, as did people with good spiritual health. This study provides data that illustrate the importance of health-friendly products and services to the general population and companies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0168.v1
Online: 10 May 2020 (14:48:23 CEST)
Trees provide key ecosystem services, but the health and sustainability of these plants is under increasing biotic and abiotic threat, including from the growing incidences of non-native invasive plant pests (including pathogens). The island of Ireland (Ireland and Northern Ireland) is generally accepted to have a high plant health status, in part due to its island status and because of the national and international regulations aimed at protecting plant health. To establish a baseline of the current pest threats to tree health for the island of Ireland, the literature and unpublished sources were reviewed to produce a dataset of pests of trees on the island of Ireland. The dataset contains 396 records of pests of trees on the island of Ireland, the majority of pests being arthropods and fungi, and indicating potentially more than 44 non-native pest introductions. The reliability of many (378) of the records was judged to be high, therefore the dataset provides a robust assessment of the state of pests of trees recorded on the island of Ireland. We analyse this dataset and review the history of plant pest invasions, including (i) discussion on notable native and non-native pests of trees, (ii) pest interceptions at borders and (iii) pests and climate change. The dataset establishes an important baseline for the knowledge of plant pests on the island of Ireland, and will be a valuable resource for future plant health research and policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0147.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Decentralization; National Health Service; Regional Health Administration; Primary Health Care; Portugal
Online: 11 July 2022 (03:46:45 CEST)
The Portuguese health system has a universal, public, general National Health Service (NHS), tending towards free healthcare access. Created in 1979, this delivery model developed from the integration and complementarity between the different response levels (primary, hospital, continuing, and palliative care). However, over these 40 years, the initially centralized system underwent a decentralization process with the creation of Regional Health Administrations in the five mainland administrative regions. Since then, the entire NHS has settled around this new organization. The most recent step started in 2018 with decentralizing primary health care skills to 190 municipalities. This paper presents the various critical issues involved in the latest gradual decentralization process in health, intending to bring services closer to the citizens, and more focused on their needs. The article identifies and discusses the implications of this experience based on the steps foreseen in the already published legal texts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0421.v1
Subject: Keywords: urban morphology; physical activities; health; public health; public space; urban health
Online: 29 March 2020 (06:02:59 CEST)
Along with environmental pollutions, urban planning has been connected to public health. The research indicates that the quality of built environments plays an important role in reducing mental disorders and overall health. The structure and shape of the city are considered as one of the factors influencing happiness and health in urban communities and the type of the daily activities of citizens. The aim of this study was to promote physical activity in the main structure of the city via urban design in a way that the main form and morphology of the city can encourage citizens to move around and have physical activity within the city. Functional, physical, cultural-social, and perceptual-visual features are regarded as the most important and effective criteria in increasing physical activities in urban spaces based on literature review. The environmental quality of urban spaces and their role in the physical activities of citizens in urban spaces were assessed by using the questionnaire tool and analytical network process (ANP) of structural equation modeling. Further, the space syntax method was utilized to evaluate the role of the spatial integration of urban spaces on improving physical activities. Based on the results, the consideration of functional diversity, spatial flexibility and integration, security, and the aesthetic and visual quality of urban spaces plays an important role in improving the physical health of citizens in urban spaces. Further, more physical activities, including motivation for walking and consequently, the sense of public health and happiness, were observed in the streets having higher linkage and space syntax indexes with their surrounding texture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Indigenous; First Nations; Health Services Accessibility; Health Services Administration; Trust; Communication; Primary Health Care; Health Policy
Online: 22 February 2021 (13:22:45 CET)
Background: Australia’s healthcare system is complex and fragmented which can create challenges in healthcare, particularly in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal people experience inequalities in healthcare treatment and outcomes. This study aimed to investigate barriers and enablers to accessing healthcare services for Aboriginal people living in rural and remote Australia. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare delivery staff and stakeholders recruited through snowball sampling. The communities were selected for their high proportion of Aboriginal people and geographical representation (coastal, rural, and border). Thematic analysis identified barriers and enablers. Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted (n =5 coastal, n=13 remote, and n=13 border) and six themes identified: 1) Improved coordination of healthcare services; 2) Better communication between services and patients; 3) Trust in services and cultural safety; 4) Importance of prioritizing health services by Aboriginal people; 5) Importance of reliable, affordable and sustainable services; 6) Distance and transport availability. These themes were often present as both barriers and enablers to healthcare access for Aboriginal people. They were also present across the healthcare system and within all three communities. Conclusions: This study describes a pathway to better healthcare outcomes for Aboriginal Australians by providing insights into ways to improve access.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0478.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: health literacy; media health literacy; ehealth literacy; social environment; health apps; social support; digital health; empowerment
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:45:44 CEST)
Health literacy describes skills and competencies that enable people to gain access to, understand and apply health information to positively influence their own health and the health of those in the social environment. In an increasingly media saturated and digitized world, these skill sets are necessary for accessing and navigating sources of health information and tools, such as television, the Internet, and mobile apps. The concepts of Media Health Literacy (MHL) and eHealth Literacy (eHL) describe the specific competencies such tasks require. This article introduces the two concepts, and then reviews findings on the associations of MHL and eHL with several contextual variables in the social environment such as socio-demographics, social support, and system complexity, as a structural variable. As eHL and MHL are crucial for empowering people to actively engage in their own health, a growing body of literature reports of the potential and the effectiveness of intervention initiatives to positively influence these competencies. From an ethical standpoint, equity is emphasized, stressing the importance of accessible media environments for all - including those at risk of exclusion from (digital) media sources. Alignment of micro and macro contextual spheres will ultimately facilitate both non-digital and digital media to effectively support and promote public health.
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: catastrophes; COVID-19; civil unrests; inflation; public health; Health safety; Health crisis
Online: 28 January 2023 (04:52:49 CET)
Aim: Shockwaves have been felt all over the world as a result of war, inflation, food shortages, and the COVID-19 pandemic's long tail. The aim of the study is to correlate present global conflicts, pandemic and socio-economic crises with present healthcare sustainability, identifying possible threats and visualize future global health crises if all these catastrophes persist for long. Materials and Methods: PubMed, ALTAVISTA, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Registers were prioritized to collect public health issues. Results: The global economic slowdown, sharp decline in financial asset values, decline in imports and exports, contraction of industrial production, rise in inflation, decrease in wages, rise in unemployment, damage to the social security caused by numerous natural calamities, human displacement due to pandemic and ongoing conflicts tear down not only the economic sector but also the health sector. It is already late for taking corrective measure by the participation every country, community or intelligence. Only healthcare issues, highlighted in this study, if focused in the highest platforms, could compel global leaders to forego conflicts and work together. Conclusion: The global health sector will be collapsed soon, if proper initiatives are not taken right now, which has already been grossly mistreated by the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: online health information; digital literacy; e-Health; e-Health solutions; Dr. Google
Online: 5 October 2022 (03:55:03 CEST)
The investment in digital e-Health services is a priority direction in the development of global health care systems. While people are increasingly using the Web for health information, it is not entirely clear what is the physicians’ attitude towards digital transformation, and the acceptance of new technologies in healthcare. The aim of this cross-sectional survey study was to investigate physicians’ self-digital skills, and their opinions on obtaining online health knowledge by patients, as well as the recognition of physicians’ attitudes towards e-Health solutions. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to emerge the variables from self-designed questionnaire, and cross-sectional analysis comparing descriptive statistics and correlations for dependent variables using the one-way ANOVA (F-test). 307 physicians participated in the study, reported using the internet mainly several times a day (66.8%). Most participants (70.4%) were familiar with new technologies and rate their e-Health literacy high, although 84.0% reported the need for additional training in this field, and reported a need to introduce a larger number of subjects shaping digital skills (75.9%) in medical studies 53.4% of physicians perceived Internet-sourced information as sometimes reliable, and in general assessed the effects of using it by their patients negatively (41.7%). Digital skills increased significantly with frequency of internet use (F = 13.167; p = 0.0001), and decreased with physicians’ age, and the need for training. Those who claimed that patients often experienced health benefits from online health showed higher digital skills (-1.06). Physicians most often recommended their patients to obtain laboratory test results online (32.2%), and to arrange medical appointments via the Internet (27.0%). Along with the deterioration of physicians’ digital skills, the recommendation of e-Health solutions decreased (r = 0.413), and lower the assessment of e-Health solutions for the patient (r = 0.449). Physicians perceive digitization as a sign of the times, and frequently use its tools in daily practice. The evaluation of Dr. Google’s phenomenon and online health is directly related to their own e-Health literacy skills, but there is still a need for practical training to deal with digital revolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0045.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Reproductive Health; Sexual Health; Women’s Health; Nursing Curriculum; Nursing Education; Undergraduate Education
Online: 2 September 2021 (14:45:22 CEST)
Background: It is very important that nurses receive adequate training in Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). In this study, the contents of the SRH subject in the undergraduate nursing curricula of 77 Spanish universities were examined in order to determine what SRH training nursing students are receiving. Methods: The contents of the SRH subject of all the curricula that were available online were reviewed. The distribution of the contents (topics) in the two areas (reproductive health and sexual health) was analyzed, and the prevalence of each topic was established. It was also determined whether there were differences in topics between public (n=52) and private universities (n=25). Results: The training of nursing students focuses mainly on the area of Reproductive Health (15 topics). Most of the topics of this area had a prevalence greater than 50%. Although the area of Sexual Health had 14 topics, most of these topics had a low prevalence (<20%), especially in private universities. Conclusions: It was found that there is considerable variation in the distribution and prevalence of SRH topics between universities. The contents of the area of Reproductive Health are usually prevalent in most of the curricula, however the contents of the area of Sexual Health are very limited in most of the universities. An organizational effort is required to determine and standardize the contents of SRH that nursing students should receive in Spain to avoid inequalities in their training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0190.v2
Subject: Keywords: built environment; health equity; insect vectors; public health; social determinants of health
Online: 29 February 2020 (11:01:03 CET)
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are primary vectors of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Ae. aegypti is highly anthropophilic and relies nearly exclusively on human blood meals and habitats for reproduction. Socioeconomic factors may influence the spread of Ae. aegypti due to its close relationship with humans. This paper describes and summarizes the published literature on how socioeconomic variables influence the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the mainland United States. A comprehensive search of PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and EBSCO Academic Search Complete through June 12, 2019 was used to retrieve all articles published in English on the association of socioeconomic factors and the distribution of Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. Additionally, a hand search of mosquito control association websites was conducted in an attempt to identify relevant grey literature. Articles were screened for eligibility using the process described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Initially, 3,493 articles were identified through the database searches and previously known literature. After checking for duplicates, 2,145 articles remained. 570 additional records were identified through the grey literature search for a total of 2,715 articles. These articles were screened for eligibility using their titles and abstracts, and 2,677 articles were excluded for not meeting the eligibility criteria. Finally, the full text for each of the remaining articles (n = 38) was read to determine eligibility. Through this screening process, 11 articles were identified for inclusion in this review. The findings for these 11 studies revealed inconsistent relationships between the studied socioeconomic factors and the distribution and abundance of Ae. aegypti. The findings of this review suggest a gap in the literature and understanding of the influence of anthropogenic factors on the distribution of Ae. aegypti that could hinder efforts to implement effective public health prevention and control strategies should a disease outbreak occur.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0635.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: health literacy; healthcare; disease prevention; health promotion.
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:24:34 CET)
Health literacy is an indicator of a society’s ability to make better health judgement for themselves and the people around them. This study investigates the prevalence of health literacy among Malaysian adults and provides an overall picture of the current health literacy state of the society. The study also highlights socio-demographics markers of communities with limited health literacy which may warrant future intervention. A population based self-administered survey using the Health Literacy Survey Malaysian Questionnaire18 (HLS-M-Q18) instrument was conducted as part of the National Health Morbidity Survey 2019 in Malaysia. The nationwide survey utilized two-staged stratified random sampling method. A sample of 9478 individuals aged 18 and above participated in the study. The health literacy score was divided into three levels; limited, sufficient and excellent. Findings showed that majority Malaysian population has sufficient health literacy level, albeit leaning towards the lower end of the category with an average score of 35.5. The limited health literacy groups are associated with respondents with older age, lower education level and lower household income. Overall health literacy state for Malaysia is categorized at a lower sufficient level. Health literacy improvements should focus on communities with limited health literacy level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0317.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: health equity; emergency care; determinants of health
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:24:42 CET)
Identifying health care equity indicators is an important first step in integrating the concept of equity into assessments of health care system performance, particularly in emergency care. We conducted a systematic review of administrative data-derived health care equity indicators and their association with socio-economic determinants of health (SEDH) in emergency care settings. Following PRISMA-Equity reporting guidelines, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PUBMED and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. The outcomes of interest were indicators of health care equity and the associated SEDH they examine. Among 29 studies identified, 14 equity indicators were identified and grouped into four categories that reflect the patient emergency care pathway. Total emergency department (ED) visits and ambulatory care sensitive condition-related ED visits were the two most frequently used equity indicators. Despite some conflicting results, all identified SEDH (social deprivation, income, education level, social class, insurance coverage and health literacy) are associated with inequalities in access to and use of emergency care. In conclusion, the use of administrative data-derived indicators combined with identified SEDH could improve healthcare equity measurement in emergency care settings across health care systems worldwide.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0489.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: overweight; obesity; health behaviour; health status; adulthood
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:35:44 CET)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among adults in Iraq. Data from a 2015 nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 3,916 persons 18 years and older were analysed that responded to a questionnaire, physical and biochemical measures. Multinomial logistic regression was utilized to predict determinants of overweight and obesity relative to under or normal weight. Results indicate that 3.6% of the participants were underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m²), 30.8% had normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m²), 31.8% were overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m²), and 33.9% had obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m²). In adjusted multinomial logistic regression, aged 40-49 years (Adjusted Relative Risk Ratio-ARRR: 4.47, Confidence Interval-CI: 3.39-5.91), urban residence (ARRR: 1.28, CI: 1.14-2.18), hypertension (ARRR: 3.13, CI: 2.36-4.17) were positively, and male sex (ARRR: 0.47, CI: 0.33-0.68), having more than primary education (ARRR: 0.69, CI: 0.50-0.94), and larger household size (≥5 members) (ARRR: 0.45, CI: 0.33-0.60) were negativey associated with obesity. About two in three adult participants were overweight/obese, and sociodemographic and health risk factors were found that can be utilized in targeting interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0332.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: anxiety; psychological health; public health; COVID-19
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:21:47 CEST)
The epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) has brought many changes to people's life. This study aims to analysis Chinese people's psychological change and life after quarantining Wuhan and explore the influencing factors. Based on data from a web-survey after quarantining Wuhan (N=3268), the principal-component-analysis (PCA), multiple-linear-regression (MLR), propensity-score-matching (PSM) were used to explore the psychological change of people in China and the influencing factors. 83.3% of the respondents said that the impact of the epidemic on their life had increased after quarantining Wuhan. A considerable proportion of people's anxiety increased, being reflected in negative emotion, behavioral response and physiological response. The proportion of people who said their anxiety had increased in Wuhan was higher than that in other regions (p <0.05). The anxiety of people who were in medical isolation increased less than those who were not (p <0.05). All three aspects of people’s anxiety were positively related with time of medical isolation and degree of the attention on the epidemic (p＜0.05) except the effect of attention degree on the physiological response (p＝0.06). The measure of medical isolation at home should be advocated. Yet people should reduce the concern for the epidemic while paying attention to self-protection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0535.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Global health; Health inequalities
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:13:51 CEST)
The COVID-19 crisis has brought unprecedented strain on healthcare systems around the world. It has perhaps taught us some key lessons that are worth considering and addressing to help build more sustainable health systems as well as improve our ability to combat future epidemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0212.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 5G; health risks; EMP exposure; health hazards
Online: 8 August 2020 (17:56:06 CEST)
Recently there is a growing concern regarding potential health hazards linked with 5G deployment and radio frequency emitted by these stations. It becomes fundamentally important to scientifically address these concerns. In this paper, the health risks incorporated with 5G are discussed critically in the light of scientific work and debunk these tittle-tattles where required. We confute scientifically the “5G appeal”, discuss effects of 5G on health, its implications on privacy, pandemics, ecosystem and role of world health organization in fighting these narratives. Finally, we provide future direction to negate these false claims linked with 5G.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0128.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: men's sheds; men's health; health promotion; evaluation; community based health promotion; physical activity
Online: 9 March 2022 (09:36:03 CET)
Abstract Issue Addressed: Men’s Sheds (‘Sheds’) have been identified as inherently health promoting and as potential settings to engage ‘hard-to-reach’ men in more structured health promotion initiatives. However, little is known about the sociodemographic or health and wellbeing characteristics of Shed members (‘Shedders’) on which such initiatives might be based. This study captures a baseline cross sectional analysis of Shedders (n=384) who participated in ‘Sheds for Life’, a health promotion initiative tailored to Sheds. Methods: Objective health measure, (body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids) captured via health screening as well as sociodemographic and health and wellbeing measures (physical activity, subjective wellbeing, mental health, social capital, cooking and diet) via questionnaires were assessed. Results: Participants were mostly over 65 years, retired with limited educational attainment. The majority were in the ‘at-risk’ categories for objective health measures, with most being referred to their GP following health screening. Older Shedders were also more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. Mental wellbeing was positively correlated with life satisfaction and increased social capital and these were also positively correlated with physical activity. Conclusions: Findings highlight the potential of Sheds in reaching a ‘hard-to-reach’ and ‘at-risk’ cohort of men. Despite a high prevalence of ‘at-risk’ objective health measures, participants report their health in positive terms. Future health promotion initiatives should capitalise on the inherent health promoting properties of Sheds. So what? Findings raise important implications for prioritising and designing health promotion initiatives in Shed settings.
Subject: Keywords: health innovation; technological innovation; social innovation; public health; global health; Ebola; Covid-19
Online: 30 March 2021 (10:29:41 CEST)
Health innovations are generally oriented on a techno-economic vision. In this perspective, technologies are seen as an end in themselves, and there is no arrangement between the technical and the social values of innovation. This vision prevails in sanitary crises, in which management is carried out based on the search for punctual, reactive, and technical solutions to remedy a specific problem without a systemic/holistic, sustainable, or proactive approach. This paper attempts to contribute to the literature on the epistemological orientation of innovations in the field of public health. Taking the Covid-19 and Ebola crises as examples, the primary objective is to show how innovation in health is oriented towards a techno-economic paradigm. Second, we propose a repositioning of public health innovation towards a social paradigm that will put more emphasis on the interaction between social and health dimensions in the perspective of social change.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0347.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: structural health monitoring (SHM); acoustic emission, guided waves, Lamb waves, sensors, ultrasound, piezoelectric, composites, piezopolymers, PVDF, interdigital transducer (IDT), PWAS, C-MUT, CMUT, mems, analog electronic front end; analog signal processing, impact localization, impact detection, sensor node, wireless sensor networks (WSN), IoT, aerospace, automotive, infrastructure, condition monitoring.
Online: 7 April 2021 (17:03:14 CEST)
This review article is focused on the analysis of the state of the art of sensors for guided 9 ultrasonic waves for the detection and localization of impacts, therefore of interest for the structural 10 health monitoring (SHM). The recent developments in sensor technologies are then reported and 11 discussed through the many references in recent scientific literature. The physical phenomena re-12 lated to impact event and the main physical quantities are then introduced to discuss their im-13 portance in the development of the hardware and software components for SHM systems. An im-14 portant aspect of the article is the description of the different ultrasonic sensor technologies cur-15 rently present in the literature and what advantages and disadvantages they could bring, in relation 16 to the various phenomena investigated. In this context, the analysis of the front-end electronics is 17 deepened, the type of data transmission both in terms of wired and wireless technology and in terms 18 of online and offline signal processing. The integration aspects of sensors for the creation of net-19 works with autonomous nodes with the possibility of powering through energy harvesting devices 20 and the embedded processing capacity is also studied. Finally, the emerging sector of processing 21 techniques using deep learning and artificial intelligence concludes the review by indicating the 22 potential for the detection and autonomous characterization of the impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0457.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: ethical; legal; artificial intelligence; health; equity; public health
Online: 24 November 2022 (09:59:55 CET)
Background: The potential of Artificial intelligent (AI) models to process and interpret large health datasets at scale could revolutionize public health and epidemiology, providing a foundation for public health. Ethics has been recognized as a priority concern in the development and deployment of AI. Because AI technology can jeopardize patient safety, privacy, and posing a new set of ethical problems that must be addressed. Objectives: We aim to provide a holistic view on what are the different ethical and legal principles that was addressed in the included studies regarding the use of AI in public health and what are the ethical challenges that can arise.Methods: Following PRISMA guideline, five bibliographic databases were used in our search: PubMed, Scopus, JSTOR, IEEE Xplore, and Google Scholar from 2015 to February 2022. Four reviewers carried out study selection and data extraction, and the data extracted was synthesized by a narrative approach. Results: This review included 23 unique publications out of a total of 1123 items that were initially identified. Different ethical principles regarding the uses of AI in public health and community health were identified and discussed distinctly in the current review. The common ethical and legal themes that this review focused on are equity, bias, privacy and security, safety, transparency, confidentiality, accountability, social justice, and autonomy. In addition, five ethical challenges were mentioned. Conclusion: Research regarding ethical and legal principles and challenges about using AI in public health specifically consider a new filed, because all previous themes are concerning the physical and patients’ area where it focuses only on the clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: AMR; agriculture; One Health; health economics; policy; modelling
Online: 12 August 2022 (11:28:08 CEST)
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an increasingly pressing threat to human, animal, and environmental health. Reducing the use of antibiotics in agriculture has been identified as a key way to curb the spread of AMR. However, the effect of such policies on AMR prevalence, and their broader impacts on agricultural, health, and economic outcomes at the population level have proven very difficult to estimate and compare. This paper draws on and formalises ideas presented at the JPIAMR New Perspectives on Bacterial Drug Resistance workshop in June of 2022. With reference to emerging literature on the topic, it proposes a quantitative framework for estimating the relevant causal relationships needed to quantify the cross-sectoral impacts of AMR policies in agriculture, and for comparing these outcomes in like terms in a way which can feed directly into policy decision-making, notably without prohibitive data requirements. The ability of researchers to apply frameworks such as this will be increasingly necessary in order to holistically capture the impacts of AMR policies and to situate them in the broader policy context; especially where the mechanisms of transmission are opaque or complex, where data availability is limited; and where policymakers must allocate scarce resources among many competing objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0391.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: occupational health; leadership; mental health; workplace climate; worksite
Online: 29 June 2022 (03:27:08 CEST)
Objectives: This study validated the Japanese version of O’Donovan et al.’s (2020) composite measure of psychological safety scale and examined the associations of psychological safety with mental health and job-related outcomes. Methods: Online surveys were administered twice to Japanese employees with teams of more than three members. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability was tested using Cronbach’s α and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Structural validity was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Convergent validity was tested. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between psychological safety and psychological distress, work engagement, job performance, and job satisfaction. Results: Two hundred healthcare workers and 200 non-healthcare workers were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha of the total score was 0.92 - 0.96 and ICC was 0.88 - 0.92. CFA demonstrated poor fit, and EFA yielded a two-factor structure, suggesting one factor combined with peers and team. The scale showed good convergent validity. The total score of the scale showed significant associations with all outcomes in adjusted model in all workers. Conclusions: The Japanese version of the measure of the psychological safety scale presented good reliability and validity. Psychological safety is important for employees’ mental health and performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0115.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Health Status; National Survey; KSA; School Health; Students
Online: 7 September 2021 (09:59:44 CEST)
The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) established a National School-based Screening Program (NSBSP) for health screening of school-going children. Students from specific grades were systematically screened for several health problems including obesity, visual and auditory problems, dental cavities, scoliosis, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of these health problems among primary school students based on secondary data obtained from the NSBSP. We included 444,259 screened school children from the 1st and 4th grades of 50% of the selected schools (both private and public) across the KSA during the academic year 2018-2019. Among them, the most prevalent health problems identified were dental cavities (38.7%), eye refractory errors (10.9%), and overweight and obesity (10.5%); the less prevalent problems included ADHD (2.81%), auditory problems (0.6%), and scoliosis (0.48%). A greater prevalence of most health problems was observed in girls than boys. The NSBSP successfully aided the detection of health conditions with high and low prevalence among primary school students in the KSA, and thus, identification of health problems of specific concern. Implementation of effective school health services for the prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of these health problems is imperative.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0329.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; Geospatial Regression; Health Disparities; Public Health
Online: 11 September 2020 (09:48:57 CEST)
COVID-19 is a potentially fatal viral infection. This study investigates geography, demography, socioeconomics, health conditions, hospital characteristics, and politics as potential explanatory variables for death rates at the state and county levels. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Census Bureau, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid, Definitive Healthcare, and USAfacts.org were used to evaluate regression models. Yearly pneumonia and flu death rates (state level, 2014-2018) were evaluated as a function of the governors’ political party using repeated measures analysis. At the state and county level, spatial regression models were evaluated. At the county level, we discovered a statistically significant model that included geography, population density, racial and ethnic status, three health status variables along with a political factor. State level analysis identified health status, minority status, and the interaction between governors’ parties and health status as important variables. The political factor, however, did not appear in a subsequent analysis of 2014-2018 pneumonia and flu death rates. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 has greater and disproportionate effect within racial and ethnic minority groups, and the political influence on the reporting of COVID-19 mortality was statistically relevant at the county level and as an interaction term only at the state level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0570.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: occupational health services; mining; primary health clinics; labour
Online: 24 July 2020 (05:02:16 CEST)
Only 15% of the global population has access to occupational safety and health services. In Africa only 5% of employees working from major establishments, have access to occupational health services (OHS). Access to primary health care (PHC) services is addressed in many settings and inclusion of OHS in these facilities might increase efficiency in preventing occupational diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four SADC countries aiming at assessing the availability of OHS at PHC facilities and the organization of OHS. We conducted a literature review to assess the provision and organization of OHS services. In addition to the review, a total of 23 doctors from PHC facilities were interviewed using questionnaires in order to determine the availability of OHS and training. Consultations with heads of ministries were done in four SADC countries. Results showed that in the SADC region, OHS are fragmented and lack a comprehensive approach. In addition, out of 23 PHC facilities only two (13%) provided occupational health and PHC. However, OHS provided at PHC facilities were limited to TB screening and audiometric testing. Our study showed a huge inadequacy of trained occupational health practitioners. This study supports the World Health Organization’s advocacy of integrating OHS at PHC level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0602.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Dust; Mining; Environment; Sustainability; community health; occupational health
Online: 27 November 2018 (12:10:56 CET)
Dust inhalation is a huge concern in the mining environment and within all its operations. In fact, dust to be one of the most serious occupational hazards in the mining industry. Coal and crystalline silica dust are the causes of serious, sometimes fatal lung diseases such as pneumoconiosis, which affects coal miners, as well as silicosis, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic renal disease, which affect coal and other types of miners. The resulting effects both affect workers and nearby communities. The mining industry has in the past, employed several approaches to reduce effects of dust. But these strategies have often been ineffective because the grass withers during the dry season and sprayed water is rapidly absorbed or evaporates. This paper endeavors to review information on dust in the mining environment and how it is a nuisance to workers and communities and establish what strategies exist for this.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Family and Community Nursing; Covid-19; Community health assessment; Primary Health Care; Health Promotion
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:57:35 CET)
The WHO European Region defined the role of a new central professional for primary care, the Family and Community Nurse (FCN). The introduction of FCN in the framework of health policies highlight a key role of nurses in addressing the families’ and communities’ needs. A scoping review was conducted in order to identify and describe the available tools which has been adopted for the assessment of the community health needs by FNC. A comprehensive literature review on Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycInfo databases was conducted including all studies up to May 2021. A total of 1563 studies were identified and 36 of them were included. The literature review had made possible to identify studies employing twelve different community assessment's tools or modalities. Referring the WHO framework proposed in 2001 some common themes have been identified with an uneven distribution, as profiling the population, deciding on priorities for action and public healthcare programmes, implementing the planned activities, evaluation of health outcomes, multidisciplinary activity, flexibility and involving the community. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide an overview of community assessment tools, keeping the guidance provided by the WHO as a reference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0453.v1
Subject: Keywords: one health; Africa; public health; animal health; environment health; zoonosis; emerging and re-emerging diseases; food safety; antimicrobial resistance; toxicosis
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:05:32 CEST)
An evaluation of emerging issues in One Health (OH) in Sub-Saharan Africa was undertaken to map the existing OH initiatives in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Desk review, expert opinions survey, limited interviews and wider consultations with selected OH stakeholders were conducted. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats to OH initiatives were identified. OH influence, interest and impacts were evaluated. One Health is transiting from multidisciplinary to transdisciplinary concepts and OH viewpoint should move from ‘proxy for zoonoses’, to include issues of climate change, nutrition and food safety, social sciences, geography, policy and planning, economics, welfare and well-being, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), vector-borne diseases, toxicosis and pesticides issues. While the identified major strengths should be boosted, the weaknesses should be addressed.OH Networks in SSA were spatially and temporally spread across SSA and stakeholders were classified as key, latent, marginal and OH defenders. Imbalance in stakeholders’ representation led to hesitation in buying-in from stakeholders who are outside the main networks. Theory of change, monitoring and evaluation frameworks, and tools to standardized evaluation of OH policies is needed for sustained future of OH and the future OH engagement should be outputs and outcomes-driven and not activity-driven.National roadmap for OH implementation and institutionalization is necessary and proofs of concepts in OH should be verified and scaled-up. Dependence on external funding is unsustainable and must be addressed. Necessary policy and legal instrument to support OH nationally and sub-nationally should be implemented taking cognizance of contemporary issues like urbanization, endemic poverty and other emerging issues. Utilizing current technologies and OH approach to address ongoing pandemic of COVID-19 and other emerging diseases is desirable. Finally, OH implementation should be anticipatory and not reactive to significantly benefit budgeting and contain disease outbreaks in animal sources before the risk of spillover to human can be envisaged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0230.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: nurse health coaching; social determinants of health; change talk; health behavior change; natural language analysis
Online: 14 November 2022 (02:18:20 CET)
The practice of nurse health coaching (NHC) draws from the art and science of nursing, behavioral sciences, and evidence-based health coaching methods. This secondary analysis of the audio-recorded natural language of participants during NHC sessions of our recent 8-week RCT evaluates improvement over time in cognitive-behavioral outcomes: Change Talk, Resiliency, Self-Efficacy/Independent Agency, Insight & Pattern Recognition, and Building Towards Sustainability. We developed a measurement tool for coding, Indicators of Health Behavior Change (IHBC), that was designed to allow trained health coach experts to assess the presence and frequency of the indicators in the natural language content of participants. We used a two-step method for randomly selecting the 20-minute audio-recorded session that was analyzed at each time point. Fifty-six participants had high-quality audio recordings of the NHC sessions. Twelve participants were placed in the social determinants of health (SDH) group based on the following: low income (<$20,000/year), early-onset hypertension, and social disadvantages. Our analyses significantly improved Change Talk and the other four factors over time. Our factor analyses indicated two distinct factors at each measurement point of the study, demonstrating the stability of the outcome measures over time. Our newly developed measurement tool, IHBC, proved stable in structure over time and sensitive to change. This NHC program shows promise in improving cognitive-behavioral indicators associated with health behavior change in both non-SDH and SDH individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0097.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Community health workers; Primary healthcare; Mental health; Psychosocial support; Vulnerable populations; COVID-19; Health crisis
Online: 2 March 2021 (14:31:40 CET)
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic some family physicians were overburdened and experienced difficulties reaching vulnerable patients and meeting the increased need for psycho-social support. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested whether a primary healthcare (PHC) based community health worker (CHW) intervention could tackle psychosocial suffering due to physical distancing measures in patients with limited social networks. Methods: CHWs provided 8 weeks of tailored psychosocial support to the intervention group. Control group patients received ‘care as usual’. The impact on feelings of emotional support, social isolation, social participation, anxiety and fear of COVID-19 were measured longitudinally using a face-to-face survey to determine their mean change from baseline. Self-rated change in psychosocial health at 8 weeks was determined. Results: We failed to find a significant effect of the intervention on the prespecified psychosocial health measures. However, the intervention did lead to significant improvement in self-rated change in psychosocial health. Conclusions: This study confirms partially the existing evidence on the effectiveness of CHW in-terventions as a strategy to address mental health in PHC in a COVID context. Further research is needed to elaborate the implementation of CHWs in PHC to reach vulnerable populations during and after health crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0094.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Keywords: vegetable cultivation; health; physical health; mental health; social well-being; qualitative study; adult; Japan
Online: 8 April 2019 (12:49:04 CEST)
The present short communication aimed to determine the effects of vegetable cultivation on health. We conducted a qualitative study using responses to an open-ended question that was part of a survey on regional differences on vegetable intake. Participants in this study were residents of Gunma Prefecture, Japan, and were aged between 20–74 years. In the questionnaire, we asked: “Aside from increasing vegetable intake, how does vegetable cultivation affect your health?” We were able to categorize the answers into six subcategories related to physical health, mental health, and social well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Search engine; Baidu Index; Children's Mental Health; Mental Health
Online: 31 March 2022 (07:08:56 CEST)
This study aims to understand the temporal and spatial characteristics of public concern for "children's mental health" in China in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic. Baidu Index is a research tool to collect and analyze massive data of Chinese netizens' behaviors. Using Baidu Index as the research tool, this paper analyzes the trend and distribution of Chinese netizens' attention to "children's mental health" from December 1st, 2019 to March 20th, 2022 from three aspects of trend research, need map, and crowd portrait. The study found that since the outbreak of COVID-19, the search trend of "children's mental health" has shown a cyclical change, peak in May and valley around the Spring Festival and National Day, and stable in other periods. "Mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "youth mental health" are the most popular buzzwords among the public. The groups concerned of "children's mental health" is mainly distributed in Guangdong, Jiangsu, Beijing, and the majority are women between 30 and 39 years old. Meanwhile, search trend for "mental health" are like that for "children's mental health." The factors influencing the search volume change of "children's mental health" include Chinese traditional holidays, Spring Festival, National Day, Chinese Mental Health Day, and policies and instructions on children's mental health issued by the PRC Ministry of Education. The public would like to know about "mental health", "handwritten newspaper on mental health" and "adolescent mental health".
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0287.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: integration of sports and health care; sports; health; community
Online: 23 February 2022 (07:06:51 CET)
(1) Background: With continuous globalization and modernization of people's lives, lifestyle has changed dramatically, with decreased physical activity and increased unhealthy eating patterns in many nations throughout the world. With the COVID-19 pandemic and changes taking place in people’s health and lifestyles around the world, the need for rehabilitation is expected to rise in the coming years.(2)Methods: This paper analyzes the integration model of sports and health care using theoretical analysis, literature reviews, logical reasoning, and other methods.(3)Results: The integration of sports and health care in China has entered the stage of practical implementation after many years of development, forming a few representative integration patterns. Governments, communities, community hospitals, hospitals, and third-party institutions are the main participants, with the community playing an important role in the integration. Pharmacies, sports venues, and schools with sufficient staff have a relatively low participation rate.(4)Conclusion: The grading treatment has been applied in health management and sports rehabilitation, based on the development of digital medicine, a government-led grading treatment model of "health management center" can promote the participation of multiple subjects in the integration of sports and health care, solving the problems existing in the current integration process to a certain extent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Breastfeeding; Evidence-based Nursing; Health Promotion; Women's Health; Newborn.
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:00:23 CEST)
Background: It is clear that breastfeeding is the gold standard of infant feeding because of the many advantages it offers to both the child and the mother. Objective: to identity the main reasons for cessation breastfeeding declares by the mother themselves during the first year. Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted, recruiting 969 newborns in a third level hospital in Spain. The main maternal variables studied were: maternal age, parity, educational level, work occupation, smoking habit, gestational age, birth, weigh, feeding type, and duration of breastfeeding. All the participants were followed for a year to determinate the duration of breastfeeding and to know the reason of the abandonment. Results: At 6 months, the percentage of maternal lactation was cut in half and only 24.6% of these mothers maintain. Mainly 15.80% of the mothers decide to give up the exclusive maternal lactation of their own free desire, and 15.41% because they suspect hypogalactia. The work cause is the third reason of abandonment in both cases. Conclusions: Our results show the need to improve the health policies of promotion, protection and support the initiation of breastfeeding. In particular, our results show the importance of the work factor with particular emphasis on improving conciliation measures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0217.v1
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:32:36 CET)
Since its initial outbreak in late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly affected the global community. In addition to the negative health consequences of contracting COVID-19, the implementation of strict quarantine and lockdown measures has also disrupted social networks and devastated the global economy. As a result, there is rising concern that the pandemic has taken a toll on the mental health of the general population. To better understand its impact, an increasing number of studies examined the effects of the pandemic on mental health and psychosocial implications of enforced quarantine and lockdown. In this article, we aim to review and summarize the findings from a variety of studies that have explored the psychosociological effects of the pandemic and its impact on the mental well-being of the general population. We will also examine how various demographic groups, such as the elderly and youth, can be more susceptible or resilient to the pandemic’s mental health effects. We hope to provide a broader understanding of the underlying causes of mental health issues triggered by the pandemic and provide recommendations that may be employed to address mental health issues in the population over the long-term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0287.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Covid-19; quality of life; mental health; physical health
Online: 8 March 2021 (09:51:55 CET)
Introduction: The majority of epidemiological reports focus on confirmed cases of COVID-19. In this study, we aim to assess the health and well-being of adults not infected with Covid-19 after two months of quarantine in Morocco. Materials and methods: Two months after the declaration of quarantine in Morocco following the Covid-19 epidemic, we carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 279 Moroccan citizens. We used the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a determinant of quality of life, which is based on eight dimensions of health. The data were collected using an electronic questionnaire distributed online. The participants also indicated their socio-demographic data, their knowledge and practices regarding the Covid-19 pandemic and whether they had chronic health problems. Results: The quality of life of all participants was moderately disrupted during the Covid-19 pandemic with a mental health score (MCS) of 34.49 (± 6.44) and a physical health score (PCS) of 36.10 (± 5.82). Participants with chronic diseases scored lower with 29.28 (± 1.23) in mental health (MCS) and 32.51 (± 7.14) in physical health (PCS). The seriousness of COVID-19 has an impact on the quality of life and health well-being of people and this impact is more marked in people with chronic health problems. Conclusion: Our results confirm the need to pay attention to the health of people who have not been infected with the virus. Our results also point out that uninfected people with chronic illnesses may be more likely to have well-being problems due to quarantine restrictions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0518.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mobile phones; health promotions; short message service; health students
Online: 25 January 2021 (15:53:53 CET)
Students are regarded as frequent users of mobile phones which has proven to be a convenient and acceptable method to promote healthy lifestyle. Students usually engage in relatively high levels of risky behavior and make unhealthy lifestyle choices, a study that investigates how health students access health information is necessary. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study which was undertaken among third-year nursing students from three nurses training institutions in Ghana. A total of 270 students participated in the study. Most of the respondents who were currently subscribers of the health messages reported that they usually received health information on reproductive health issues, nutrition, and practicing safe sex. Most of the health students revealed that they needed more information on safe sex, diet, managing weight, and stress management. The results also show that health students are likely to remember and share short messages with friends. The findings serve as an ‘eye-opener’ for health educators and mobile service providers concerning factors that should be taken into consideration when framing health text messages that will attract health students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0382.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: alcohol, tobacco, mortality, mortality as health indicator, health inequality
Online: 13 November 2020 (13:35:27 CET)
Background: Drinking and smoking have economic consequences and are the main risk factors of mortality and morbidity. Disease-specific deaths attributable to using substances present the primary health indicator in this study. This analysis focuses on mortality in productive age, 15 to 64 years since those deaths are considered the highest economic burden. Method: In the analytical part, data from the Registry of deaths of the Czech Republic for 1994 to 2017 were used. The number of deaths attributable to smoking and drinking was calculated using attributable fractions, based on literature review. This research aimed to reveal the gender differences in deaths attributable to drinking and smoking, according to age, and the differences in deaths regarding smoking or drinking. Results: The mortality attributable to smoking and drinking differs across age groups and genders. The highest median share of tobacco-related deaths is in the age group, 60—64 years. The highest median share of alcoholic deaths is in the age group of 50—54 years. Conclusions: There are significant differences between genders in both, smoking and drinking. A prevention program should be targeted to different age groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0446.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: electronic waste recycling; occupational health; public health; injuries; stress
Online: 19 November 2018 (10:23:06 CET)
Little research has been done on occupational health ramifications of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling work, which is increasingly common in low- and middle-income countries, and very little is known about this in high-income countries. Our study evaluated informal and formal e-waste recycling workers in Chile, which was recently recognized as a high-income country. In 2017 we recruited 78 informal recycling workers from two cities, and 15 formal e-waste recycling workers from one recycling facility. Participants completed a questionnaire and health assessment regarding their involvement in, and potential impacts of, e-waste recycling, among other measures. Participants were primarily male, middle-aged, married with children, and had worked in e-waste recycling for an average of 12 years. Participants generally reported good health status, and chronic disease prevalence was similar to the national prevalence. Workers commonly reported exposures to several occupational stressors, including mental health stressors and noise, as well as insufficient income. Occupational injuries were common and use of safety equipment was low. No significant differences were found between informal and formal workers. Informal e-waste workers in Chile face occupational health challenges. The extent to which these issues impact the health of informal Chilean e-waste workers is unclear and warrants further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0721.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychology Keywords: perinatal; mental health; perinatal mental health program; South Africa
Online: 30 October 2018 (09:28:12 CET)
Background. Perinatal depression is one of the leading causes of disability in perinatal women and is highly prevalent in disadvantaged communities in LMICs. However, care capacity remains low in most LMICs. As such, we decided to find and assess a screening program that addresses perinatal mental health problems in a resource-efficient manner. This leads us to a critically appraisal of the Perinatal Mental Health Project (PMHP), a screening program based in peri-urban Western Cape Town that stresses task sharing and stepped care intervention. Method. PubMed, Ovid Medline (1946 to 2018), and Google Scholar were searched for publications until March 2018, with data or evaluation of the PMHP. PMHP website publications were used for data and interpretation. The program’s viability was evaluated based on criteria published by UK National Screening Council. The program’s impact was analyzed using published patient outcome data. Access to care was evaluated at three barriers to accessing care proposed by Gjerdingen et al. (2007). The financial model was evaluated using the “four-pillars” of sustainable organization financial management proposed by León (2001). Findings. The PMHP’s screening program viability satisfies most criteria of the UK National Screening Council, and the program’s benefits outweigh its harms. Patient self-reports indicate successful impact with several highlights in accessibility. The program also demonstrates financial sustainability and potential for scaling-up. Interpretations. The operation model of the PMHP shows satisfactory viability and sustainability. With modifications fitting local context and government cooperation, this model offers promising potential in bringing public health and economic benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0310.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Economic recession; Mental health; Health status disparities; Spain, GHQ.
Online: 15 October 2018 (12:48:36 CEST)
Previous research suggests that the economic crisis can affect mental health. The purpose of this study was to analyse the association of risk of poor mental health with various socioeconomic, demographic, health, quality of life and social support variables; and to evaluate the contribution of socioeconomic variables most affected by the beginning of the economic crisis (employment situation and income) on the changes in the prevalence of the risk of poor mental health between 2005 and 2010. A study of prevalence evolution in adult population residents of the Valencian Community in the Spanish Mediterranean was conducted. We studied 5781 subjects in 2005 and 3479 in 2010. Logistic regression models have been adjusted to analyse the association between variables. A standardization procedure was carried out to evaluate which part of the changes in overall prevalence could be attributed to variations in the population structure by age, sex, employment status and income between the years under study. The prevalence of GHQ + increased from 2005 to 2010, in both men and women. Several variables were closely associated with the risk of poor mental health (sex, age, country of birth, number of non-mental chronic diseases, social support, disability, cohabitation in couple, employment status, and income). The changes produced as a result of the onset of the economic crisis in income and unemployment (increase in low income and in unemployment rates) contributed to the increase of poor mental health risk. This could confirm the sensitivity of mental health to the economic deterioration caused by the crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Health situation, Health care facilities, Elderly people, Slum areas.
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:12:44 CEST)
The research is carried out to assess factor affecting the health condition of the elderly people in the slum areas in Sylhet City. This research was quantitative type. In Quantitative approach, primary data were collected and used from the randomly selected elderly people in the Sylhet City slum areas. The secondary data were collected from many articles, documents, newspaper, magazine etc. By analyzing the survey data, it is illustrated that the slum dwellers are deprived from the basic needs. Meanwhile, elderly people can‟t fulfill their medical treatment due to their financial condition because of their work incompatibility. This study identifies the factor affecting health condition such as financial condition, lack of knowledge about proper medical facilities, communication gap between the authority and patient, unemployment, and so on. These factors also affect their health situation. Many diseases like asthma, heart disease are occurred. This study also mentions about the livelihood of slum people are so poor in condition. Due to financial condition, aged people can‟t take their proper treatment and their family member can‟t afford it. This study also understands that the people from slum areas are getting concerned about their medical care. They are easily going to the hospital and take their service because of low pricing. On the other hand, people are meanwhile stopped their treatment of financial situation. This study finds the health situation of elderly people at slum areas in metropolitan city and their consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: lead exposure; adult literacy; global health; environmental health; Myanmar
Online: 10 April 2018 (09:51:02 CEST)
Environmental lead exposure is a population health concern in many low- and middle-income countries. Lead is found throughout Myanmar and prior to the 1940s, the country was the largest producer of lead worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine any potential association between lead mining and adult literacy rates at the level of the 330 townships in Myanmar. Townships were identified as lead or non-lead mining areas and 2015 census data were examined with association being identified using descriptive, analytical and spatial statistical methods. Overall, there does appear to be a significant relationship between lead mining activity and adult literacy levels (P<0.05) among townships with both low access [OR= 2.701 (1.136-6.421)] as well as townships with high access to safe sanitation [OR=18.40 (1.794-188.745)]. LISA cluster maps confirm these findings. This exploratory analysis is a first step in the examination of potential environmental lead exposure and its implications in Myanmar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: migration; female genital mutilation; sexual health; reproductive health; communication
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:30:20 CEST)
Objectives: Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a significant public health problem. It is estimated around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. Methods: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of African origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation). Results: Seven of the women were from Somalia and one from Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated), and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Conclusions: Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual matter.
Online: 16 December 2022 (10:10:37 CET)
In the United States, obesity is prevalent, and it could be described as a pandemic. Obesity is excessive fat accumulation, leading to a BMI ≥ 30 (Fruh, 2017). Surveys conducted by the CDC show that the obesity prevalence in the US is on the rise, as several obese people rose from 30.5% to 41.9% between 1999 and 2020 (Bryan et al., 2021). During the same time, several people suffering from severe obesity rose from 4.7% to 9.2% (Bryan et al., 2021). Additionally, childhood obesity is on the rise. Statistics indicate that between 2017-2020 over 19.7% of children and adolescents aged 2-19 years had obesity. During the same period, obesity prevalence in children aged 2-5 years, 6-11 years, and 12-19 years olds was 12.7%, 20.7%, and 22.2%, respectively (Bryan et al., 2021). With so many people suffering from obesity, the WHO declared it a public health crisis (WHO, 2020). The COVID-19 pandemic further exacerbated the prevalence of obesity in the US. According to the surveys, there was a 4.4% increase in obesity between 2019 to March 2020 due to lifestyle changes that were put on people during the COVID-19 pandemic (Akter et al., 2022). Many comorbidities are associated with obesity. Without adequate health interventions, millions of people could suffer severe health disorders like respiratory problems, type II diabetes, psychological issues, gastrointestinal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. It is also essential to develop health interventions to mitigate obesity due to its strain on the healthcare system. Research shows that people suffering from obesity spend $2,505 more than people with average weight on healthcare (Cawley et al., 2021). Obesity has financial ramifications in every healthcare category: inpatient, outpatient, and prescription drugs (Cawley et al., 2021). One essential action toward the efforts to mitigate the soaring obesity rates is understanding the demographic inequities across populations and how they can be resolved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0591.v1
Online: 22 April 2021 (08:52:40 CEST)
Under the dual background of underemployment and health inequality, this paper empirically analyzes the impact of education level on underemployed workers’ health based on CLDS2016 data. The results show that underemployment is significantly related to the decline of self-rated health, increased depression tendency, and morbidity in a certain period. The results indicate that underemployment can significantly reduce the health level of workers in the low education level group and the high education level group. However, it has no significant impact on workers’ health in the middle education level group; even if we change the measurement method of indicators and consider endogeneity, the research conclusion is still robust. Moreover, this kind of health inequality mainly comes from the difference in economic effect and leisure effect of underemployment to workers with different educational levels. This paper provides empirical support for increasing the labor protection mechanism of underemployed people and reducing the health inequality caused by educational level differences.
Online: 26 March 2019 (10:40:24 CET)
Objective: ISPOR is the leading professional society for health economics and outcomes research (HEOR) globally. Recently, it launched its Women in HEOR Initiative, that aims to serve as a catalyst for women’s leadership in the field. Therefore, we were interested to find out how well ISPOR itself is doing in terms of gender diversity at their biggest conference. Methods: We used the conference programmes of ISPOR Europe conferences in 2016, 2017 and 2018 to assess the gender distribution of speakers that participated in issue panels and plenary sessions in these years. Results: 70% of all speakers (N=346) at 85 issue panels and plenary sessions during 2016, 2017, and 2018 were male. Almost one in three panels was all-male (a ‘manel’) and 64% of all panels had mostly male speakers (>50%). In contrast, only 11% of panels had <50% female speakers. Conclusion: Despite laudable effort to support the growth, development and contribution of women in HEOR through its Women in HEOR Initiative, females appear to be severely underrepresented at ISPOR’s biggest conference. ISPOR should make gender diversity a formal requirement for issue panel abstract submissions if it wants to advance women’s leadership in HEOR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0018.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Insomnia; Mental health; Physical health; perceived social support; Postpartum Depression
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:30:00 CET)
Postpartum depression (PPD) can predispose to physical and mental health problems in women. However, PPD is associated with health and perceived social support but their causal relationship is unclear. Therefore, this study intended to evaluate the association of PPD with insomnia, mental health, and physical health. Convenience sampling technique was used to collect data from 320 (52.8 %) young and middle aged postpartum women, in the outpatient departments of obstetrics and gynecology in Government Maula Bakhsh Hospital, District Head Quarter in Sargodha, Pakistan. The Edinburgh Postnatal depression scale, Pittsburg sleep quality index, Warwick-Edinburgh mental wellbeing scale, Patient health questionnaire, and Multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to measure study variables. Results revealed a significant positive relationship of PPD with physical health (r= .45, p=.001), while a negative relationship with insomnia (r= -.24, p<.001), and perceived social support (r= -.38, p=.001). Results further confirmed that perceived social support played a moderating role (β = .97, p=.01) in the relationship between PPD and mental health among females. This study concluded that perceived social support has an important role in PPD and women’s health. The study also concluded that poor health is a risk indicator for identifying aid in the early stages of postpartum among women.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR); Bats; Zoonotic spillover; Planetary health; One health
Online: 10 November 2022 (02:35:46 CET)
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as other outbreaks such as SARS and Ebola, bats are recognized as a critical species for mediating zoonotic infectious disease spillover events. While there is a growing concern of increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) globally during this pandemic, knowledge of AMR circulating between bats and humans is limited. In this paper, we have reviewed the evidence of AMR in bats and discussed the planetary health aspect of AMR to elucidate how this is associated with the emergence, spread and persistence of antibiotic resistance at the human-animal interface. The presence of clinically significant resistant bacteria in bats and wild life has reflective and broad impact on zoonotic pandemic surveillance, disease transmission and treatment modalities. We searched MEDLINE through PubMed and Google Scholar to retrieve relevant studies (n=38) that provided data on resistant bacteria in bats till September 30, 2022. There is a substantial variability in the results from studies measuring the prevalence of AMR based on geographic location, bat types and time. We found all major groups of gram positive and gram negative bacteria in bats which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The most alarming issue is- recent studies have increasingly identified Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ESBL producing and Colistin resistant Enterobacteriaceae in samples from bats. This evidence of superbugs abundance in both humans and wild mammals like bats, could facilitate a greater understanding of which specific pathways of exposure should be targeted. We believe that these data will also facilitate future pandemic prepareness as well as global AMR containment during the pandemic events and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Mental Health; Depression; Physical Activity; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 1 September 2022 (16:13:25 CEST)
Worldwide, depressive disorder is one of the leading determinants of disability-adjusted life years. Although the benefits associated with physical activity (PA), there is a lack of information related to depression, especially in countries like Czechia, where modern approaches to mental health care only recently emerged. The PA levels were associated with aspects of depression such as clinician-diagnosed history; different severities; continuous depression scores; and specific symptoms that characterize the depression. The multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression models were carried out on 2123 participants (45.3% men, median 48 years). Compared to subjects with insufficient PA, the moderate and high PA levels were inversely associated with clinician-diagnosed depression history (respectively, prevalence rate [PR]= 0.84; 95% CI 0.66-0.82 and PR=0.50; 95% CI 0.36-0.67); and with continuous depression scores (PR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75-0.97; and PR=0.79; 95%CI 0.70-0.90).; but only high PA showed association with depression categories (PR=0.75; 95%CI 0.60-0.95). Depressed mood and worthlessness were the symptoms associated with moderate and high PA. Tiredness, change in appetite, and problems with concentration only with high PA. Although only high PA was sufficient for people intending changes among depression categories, the moderate PA may be enough for slight changes in depressive symptoms, and a good strategy when starting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0172.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; Mental Health; Occupational Health; Telecommuting; Masking; Physical Distancing
Online: 9 August 2022 (04:27:48 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a considerable expansion in the way work settings are structured with a continuum emerging between working fully in-person and from home. The pandemic has also exacerbated many risk factors for poor mental health in the workplace, especially in public-facing jobs. Therefore, we sought to test the potential relationship between work setting and self-rated mental health. Methods: We modeled the association of work setting (only working from home, only in-person, hybrid) on self-rated mental health (Excellent/Very Good/Good vs. Fair/Poor) in an online survey of Canadian workers during the 3rd wave of COVID-19. Mediating effects of vaccination, masking, and distancing were explored due to the potential effect of COVID-19 related worries on mental health among those working in-person. Results: Among 1,576 workers, most reported hybrid work (77.2%). Most also reported good self-rated mental health (80.7%). Exclusive work from home (aOR: 2.79, 95%CI:1.90,4.07) and exclusive in-person work (aOR: 2.79, 95%CI: 1.83,4.26) were associated with poorer self-rated mental health than hybrid work. Vaccine status mediated only a small proportion of this relationship (7%), while masking and physical distancing were not mediators. Conclusion: Hybrid work arrangements were associated with positive self-rated mental health. Compliance to vaccination, masking, and distancing did not meaningfully mediate this relationship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0007.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: mental health; natural language processing; interdisciplinary research; mental health helpline
Online: 1 February 2022 (12:03:47 CET)
During the last two years the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world population in several ways. An important increase in mental health problems is a consequence of this pandemic that is ubiquitous worldwide. In this work we study the effect of the pandemic on the mental health of a population of teenagers and youth based on the analysis of natural language processing, machine learning algorithms and expert knowledge. The data analysed was obtained from a chat helpline called Safe time from theIt Get’s Better Foundation in Chile. The data consists of 10,986 conversations gathered from 2018 until 2020 between volunteers from the foundation and users of the platform. We compared the conversationsbefore and during the pandemic in terms of their thematic content. Our analysis found: a significantdecrease in self-image appreciation during the pandemic; a significant decrease in the quality of personalrelationships during the pandemic, and a significant increase of performance appreciation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Knowledge; One Health; Pet ownership; Pets; Portugal; Public Health; Zoonoses
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:21:40 CET)
Pet ownership is common in modern society. In Portugal, 38% and 31% of all households own, at least, one dog or cat, respectively. Few studies have ascertained the knowledge of pet owners about pet ownership and zoonoses, and none of them was carried out in Portugal. The aim of the present study was to assess household knowledge and practices related to pet ownership and zoonoses in the North of Portugal. A questionnaire was completed by 424 pet owners, during November 2019 to February 2020. Most respondents (97.2%) considered pets as an important part of the family, especially women (p = 0.036); 73.1% allowed their pets free access to indoors; 41.3% denied sharing the bed with their pets and 29% assumed they did it daily; 20.3% reported never kissing their pets/pets licking their faces; 73.6% considered animals as potential sources of diseases to humans, but only 25.9% reported knowing the definition of zoonoses; 96.9% considered important the role of veterinarians in protecting public health. The low level of knowledge of pet owners and the occurrence of high-risk behaviors indicate a need to strengthen communication between veterinarians, physicians, pet owners and the general public to reduce the risk of acquisition and transmission of zoonoses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: universal health coverage; health insurance claims; administrative data; claims database
Online: 19 July 2021 (11:38:35 CEST)
Although the universal health coverage (UHC) is pursued by many countries, not all countries with UHC include dental care as their benefits. Japan, with its long-held tradition of UHC, has covered dental care as essential benefit and majority of dental care services are provided to all patients with minimal copayment. Being under the UHC, the scope of services as well as prices are regulated by the uniform fee schedule and dentists submit claims according to the uniform format and fee schedule. The author analyzes the publicly available dental health insurance claims data as well as a sampling survey on dental hygiene and illustrates how Japan’s dental care is responding to the challenges of the population ageing.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0005.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: social intervention; COVID-19; health policy; public health; age; gender
Online: 2 May 2020 (12:04:58 CEST)
Many governments particularly in Europe are designing social interventions for the first post COVID-19 emergency phase. Definition of a ‘best practice’ for restriction release is urgent. Although data uncertainty generate difficulties, we believe near term analysis must shift from attempting to understand the numerous ‘unknowns’ to the clarification and interpretation of the few ‘knowns’, to create stepping stones towards rapid evidence-based decision making.Here, open access data on COVID-19 severity in three European countries were analyzed. Spain’s data were more comprehensive than those from Italy and Germany. Overall, COVID-19 severity shows a remarkable nonlinear growth with age that is significantly higher in adult males. Hence, age-adaptive and gender-balanced social interventions might represent efficient repopulation options for public health policymakers. Furthermore, we urge wider governmental effort for open access to relevant data. Their analysis will allow consolidation of existing trends, validation of key observations and thus facilitation of timely decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0125.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: vegetation health monitoring; leaf water content; terahertz; sensing; plants health
Online: 9 July 2019 (03:25:11 CEST)
An increasing global aridification due to climate change has made the health monitoring of vegetation indispensable to maintaining the food supply chain. Cost-effective and smart irrigation systems are required not only to ensure the efficient distribution of water, but also to track the moisture of plant leaves, which is an important marker of the overall health of the plant. This paper presents a novel electromagnetic method to monitor the water content (WC) and characterization in plant leaves utilizing the absorption spectra of water molecules in the terahertz (THz) frequency for four consecutive days. We extracted the material properties of leaves of eight types of pot herbs from the scattering parameters, measured using a material characterization kit in the frequency range of 0.75 to 1.1 THz. From the computed permittivity, it is deduced that the leaf specimens increasingly become transparent to the THz waves as they dry out with the passage of days. Moreover, the loss in weight and thickness of leaves were observed due to the natural evaporation of leaf moisture cells and change occurred in the morphology of fresh and water-stressed leaves. It is also illustrated that loss observed in WC on day 1 was in the range of 5\% to 22\%, and increased from 83.12\% to 99.33\% on day 4. Furthermore, we observed an exponential decaying trend in the peaks of the real part of the permittivity from day 1 to 4, which was reminiscent of the trend observed in the weight of all leaves. Thus, results in paper demonstrated that timely detection of water stress in leaves can help to take proactive action in relation to plants health monitoring, and for precision agriculture applications, which is of high importance to improve the overall productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0422.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: awareness; education; hearing loss; mineworkers; occupational health; health literacy; audiologists
Online: 18 October 2018 (12:04:09 CEST)
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of occupation health personnels (OHPs) regarding education and training of mineworkers on occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) and its impact on mineworkers’ hearing. Qualitative, in-depth telephonic and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 OHPs comprising representatives from the state, employer and labour as well as audiologists and occupational health hygienists. Purposive and snowball sampling were utilized to recruit participants. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Findings revealed that mineworkers have a superficial awareness and knowledge of the impact of noise on their hearing and health. Moreover, OHPs are not knowledgeable on how mineworkers are educated on ONIHL and its latent consequences. Furthermore, language, low levels of education and literacy as well as the financial constraints were factors that had a negative impact on raising awareness and training mineworkers. There is a need to prioritize health literacy among mineworkers. Additionally, audiologists need to play an active role in educating mineworkers about the effects of excessive exposure to noise. There is a need to take into account literacy levels and language barriers in planning training material for mineworkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: public health; asylum seeker; electronic health insurance card; refugee; Germany
Online: 22 March 2018 (03:38:12 CET)
Objectives Asylum seekers in Germany represent a highly vulnerable group from a health perspective due to a variety of risk factors. At the same time their access to healthcare is restricted. While the introduction of the Electronic Health Insurance Card (EHIC) for asylum seekers instead of healthcare-vouchers is discussed controversially using politico-economic reasons, there is hardly any empirical evidence on its actual impact on the use of medical services Study design Thus, the aim of this study is to examine the influence of the possession of the EHIC on the use of medical services by asylum seekers as measured by their consultation rate of ambulant physicians (CR). For this purpose, a standardized survey was carried out to 260 asylum seekers in different municipalities of which some have introduced the EHIC for asylum seekers, while others have not. Methods Various CR were differentiated considering possible third variables as well as confounding factors. The period prevalence was compared between the groups "with EHIC" and "without EHIC" using a two-sided t-test. Multivariate analysis was done using a linear OLS regression model. Results Asylum seekers who are in possession of the EHIC are significantly more likely to seek ambulant medical care than those receiving healthcare-vouchers. Their CR, however, does not differ significantly from the age-corrected CR of the autochtonous population. Taking into account relevant covariables, the possession of the EHIC can be viewed as an independent influencing factor on the asylum seekers' use of medical care. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that having to ask for healthcare-vouchers at the social security office could be a relevant barrier for asylum seekers. Nevertheless, the ownership of the EHIC does not seem to lead to an overuse of medical services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: BRFSS; Bereavement; Grief; Mental Health; Physical Health; Population Surveillance; Social de-terminants of health; Multiple Imputation; Screening
Online: 4 January 2023 (01:54:29 CET)
The BRFSS is an annual survey conducted by each state and designed to identify trends in a representative sample of the resident population. In its 2019 field survey, the U.S. state of Georgia tested a new 3 – item module to measure the numbers of bereaved, resident adults. Bereavement means that participants answered, ‘Yes’ to the item ‘Have you experi-enced the death of a family member or close friend in the years 2018 or 2019?’. This analysis addresses two questions. Can estimates for bereavement prevalence be derived without large sampling errors, low precision, and small subsamples? Can multiple imputation techniques be applied to overcome non-response and missing data to support multivari-ate modeling? Analyses in this study were conducted under two scenarios. Scenario 1 ap-plies the complex sample weights created by the Centers for Disease Control and imputes values for missing responses. Scenario 2 treats the data as a panel – no weighting com-bined with removal of persons with missing data. Scenario 1 reflects the use of BRFSS data for public health and policy, while Scenario 2 reflects data as it is commonly used in so-cial science research. The bereavement item has a response rate (RR) of 70.8% (5206 of 7534 persons). Subgroups have RR of 55% or more. Under Scenario 1, the prevalence of bereavement is 45.38%, meaning that 3,739,120 adults reported bereaved in 2018 or 2019. The prevalence is 46.02% with Scenario 2 which removes persons with any missing data (4,289 persons). Scenario 2 overestimates the bereavement prevalence by 1.39%. An il-lustrative logistic model is included to show the performance of exposure to bereavement under each scenario. Recent bereavement can be ascertained in a surveillance survey without biases in response. This survey is limited to one US state in a single year and ex-cludes persons aged 17 years and younger.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0276.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: occupational health and safety education; quality of health and safety education; health and safety education best practices
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:14:27 CET)
Research into professionalization in health and safety has recently gained in interest. Graduate training is one of the factors that determines or conditions the role of the safety professional, thus intervene in the professionalization process. This article is the result of a workshop and the discussions of nine academic directors of safety education programs about quality evaluation. This article introduces the issue with a historic overview of safety education, presents a synthesis of nine selected education programs, discusses quality evaluation of health and safety education programs, propose a quality evaluation frame and finally, proposes a process for designing a quality safety education program with an associated model of the learning objectives. The outcomes are interesting for everyone who is interested in health and safety education and quality evaluation and will give insights into how safety professionals are educated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: rehabilitation; indicators; health systems; right to health; monitoring; health services for persons with disability; human rights; accountability
Online: 12 January 2018 (08:10:28 CET)
Background: Access to rehabilitation is crucial for the realization of the right to health and a proper concern of global health. Yet, reliable information to guide rehabilitation service planning is unavailable in many countries in part due to the lack of appropriate indicators. To ensure universal health coverage and meet the central imperative of “leaving no one behind” countries must be able to assess key aspects of rehabilitation policy and provision and monitor how they have discharged their human rights responsibilities towards those most disadvantaged, including people with disability. This article describes the process of developing an expert guided indicator framework to assess governments’ efforts and progress in strengthening rehabilitation in line with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Methods: A systems methodology - concept mapping - was used to capture, aggregate and confirm the knowledge of diverse stakeholders on measures thought to be useful for monitoring the implementation of the Convention with respect to health related rehabilitation. 56 individuals generated a list of 107 indicators through online brainstorming which were subsequently sorted by 37 experts from the original panel into non overlapping categories. 41 participants rated the indicators for importance and feasibility. Multivariate statistical techniques where used to explore patterns and themes in the data and create the indicators’ organizing framework which was verified and interpreted by participants. Results: A concept map of 11 clusters of indicators emerged from the analysis grouped into three broader themes: Governance and Leadership (3 clusters); Service Delivery, Financing and Oversight (6 clusters); and Human Resources (2 clusters). The RESYST was comprehensive and well aligned with the Convention. On average, there was a moderately positive correlation between importance and feasibility of the indicators (r=.58) with experts prioritizing the indicators contained in the clusters of the Governance and Leadership domain. Two of the most important indicators arose from the Service Delivery, Financing and Oversight domain and reflect the need to monitor unmet needs and barriers in access to rehabilitation. In total, 59 indicators achieved above average score for importance and comprised the two–tiered priority set of indicators. Conclusion: Concept mapping was successful in generating a shared model that enables a system’s view of the most critical legal, policy and programmatic factors that must be addressed when assessing country efforts to reform, upscale and improve rehabilitation services. The RESYST provides a data driven basis for the development of standardized data collection tools to facilitate comparative analysis of rehabilitation systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0269.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Exercise; Health Behavior; Attitudes; Referral; Quality of Life; Low Back Pain; Health Services; Models; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Online: 11 December 2020 (11:32:36 CET)
Background: Low-level physical activity (PA) among Chronic Low Back Pain (cLBP) is associated with various biopsychosocial factors. This research aimed to study the predictors of PA behavior among cLBP patients. Methods: In the present study 300 eligible patients with cLBP who referred to comprehensive health service centers in the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBUMS) in Tehran, Iran were random selected.To diagnose the predictors of PA behavior, all the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) constructs were examined as risk factors to see if they influence on the probability of PA behavior occurrence and were interpreted through odds ratio (OR). SPSS version 19 was used to analyze the data. Results: Totally 280 cLBP patients with mean age of 57.07 ±13.09 years old participated in the study. This study showed that motivation to comply significant predictor the cLBP patients for subjective norm OR (%95CI): 2.095(0.116-2.792), p-value<0.001), intention was significant predictor for perform the PA behavior OR (%95CI): 1.431(0.138-1.538), p-value <0.001), behavior beliefs could predictor for attitude OR (%95CI): 1.276(0.106-1.355), p-value= 0.002). attitude, normative beliefs, subjective norm ,and evaluation outcome behavior could predictors the cLBP patients for intention to perform the PA behavior OR (%95CI): 1.188(0.032-1.312), p-value<0.001)., OR (%95CI): 1.158(0.076-2.208), p-value=0.003) ., OR (%95CI): 1.104(0.076-1.128), p-value<0.001) ., OR (%95CI): 0.814(0.301-1.440), p-value=0.007). Conclusions: This study showed that the cLBP patients who were normative beliefs and evaluation regarding PA behavior could effect on the intention to engage in greater PA than those via other constructs (attitude and subjective norm). This study showed that the cLBP patients who were normative beliefs and evaluation regarding PA behavior could effect on the intention to engage in greater PA than those via other constructs (attitude and subjective norm). This study showed that the cLBP patients who were normative beliefs and evaluation regarding PA behavior could effect on the intention to engage in greater PA than those via other constructs (attitude and subjective norm).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0352.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Health record; electronic health record; e-health record; the history of medicine; the economy of the healthcare system
Online: 22 May 2020 (10:48:18 CEST)
The history of health records (later also called medical records), including ones regarding individual patients, is thousands of years old. It finds it roots in the first ancient civilisations. Up until the 19th century the records’ purpose was mainly an educational one. In the 19th and 20th century they started becoming significant in other roles as well, including those not strictly limited to medicine. In particular, to account for medical procedures, insurance proceeds or legal action. Currently we are living in a revolutionary era when it comes to health records, in which their character has changed from a “paper-based” to an electronic one. This paper presents the development of health records from the ancient to modern times, mainly in Europe and North America. Other cultures and civilisations, including China and India, are not discussed. An analysis of available sources was conducted, inter alia digital versions of manuscripts up to hundreds of years old. The analysis was based on PubMed and Google Scholar (several key words, all the available sources). Sources published in non-international languages (e.g. Dutch) were also investigated. Overall, approximately 600 articles were analysed, 158 of which were used and cited in this paper. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are as follows: (1) Health records, priorly used mostly for educational purposes, for about 100 years now have acquired a fully formal status. (2) We are currently facing the most revolutionary changes regarding the transformation of paper-based records into electronic ones. (3) The consequences of this process include systematic applications of solutions within the area of e-health, which allow us to make medical services more flexible, improve the health of individual patients and entire populations and potentially limit expenditure. (4) In the light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, introducing electronic health records could be beneficial in terms of limiting the potential sources of contamination (physical copies of health records), saving time and resources, and improving the network of communication between medical centres.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: road traffic injuries; public safety; global burden; economic loss; health policy; health care system; health indicators; injury prevention
Online: 16 February 2020 (13:48:53 CET)
(1) Background: Pedestrian injuries (PIs) represent a significant proportion of road traffic injuries. We aimed at investigating the incidence and mortality of PIs in different age groups and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) categories between 1990 and 2017. (2) Method: Estimates of age-standardized incidence and mortality along with trends of PIs by SDI levels were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease from 1990 to 2017. We also calculated forecasts until 2040. (3) Results: Globally, PIs incidence increased by 3.31% (–9.94 to 16.56) in 2017 compared to 1990. Men have a higher incidence of PIs than women. Forecasted incidence was 132.02 (127.37 to 136.66) per 100,000 population in 2020, 101.52 (65.99 to 137.05) in 2030 and reduced further to 71.02 (10.62 to 152.65) by 2040. Globally across all SDI categories, there was a decreasing trend in mortality due to PIs with the global estimated percentage reduction of 37.12% (–45.19 to –29.04). (4) Conclusions: The results show that PIs are still a burden for all SDI categories despite some variation. Although incidence and mortality are expected to decrease globally, some SDI categories may require particular attention in addition to specific vulnerable age groups. Further studies addressing incidence and mortality patterns in vulnerable SDI categories are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0199.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Open defecation; rural women; Ghana; Environmental Health; Demographic and Health Survey
Online: 12 December 2022 (10:03:35 CET)
The study investigated determinants of open defecation among rural women in Ghana. The study extracted data from the female’s file of the 2003, 2008 and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS). A total of 4,284 pooled sample size of rural women aged 15-49 with complete information about the variables analyzed in the study. The outcome variable was “open defecation” (i.e., defecating in an open space rather than a toilet facility) whilst fourteen (14) key explanatory variables were used. Two regression models were built, and output reported in odds ratio. Descriptively, 42 in every 100 women aged 15-49 practised open defecation (n=1811, 95’CI=49-52). Open defecation significantly correlated with educational attainment, wealth status, religion, access to mass media, partner's education, and zone of residence. The likelihood to practice open defecation reduced among those with formal education [aOR=0.69, CI=0.56-0.85], those whose partners had formal education [aOR=0.64, CI=0.52-0.80], women in the rich wealth quintile [aOR=0.12, CI=0.07-0.20], the traditionalist [aOR=0.33, CI=0.19-0.57], and those who had access to mass media [aOR=0.70, CI=0.57-0.85]. Residents in the Savannah zone were over 21-fold higher to defecate openly [aOR=21.06, CI=15.97-27.77]. The prevalence of open defecation is disproportionately pro-poor indicating that impoverished rural women are more likely to perform it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0341.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: woodworking program; MCI; mild dementia; psychological health; social health; older adults
Online: 17 November 2022 (16:13:43 CET)
ackground: This study aimed to examine the effects of a woodworking program on psychosocial health in older adults who had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia (MD) in Korea. Setting: The study was carried out in a dementia center in Seoul in Korea. Population: A total of 61 participants who had MCI or MD were allocated into two groups: the experimental group (EG, n = 35) and the control group (CG, n = 26). Methods: This study was carried out using a nonequivalent control group pre-test–post-test design. The EG participated in the woodworking program a total of 10 times for 120 min per session twice a week for 5 weeks, and the CG did not participate in the woodworking program. Both groups completed the same survey before and after the intervention. In the survey, demographic characteristics, psychological health (life satisfaction, depression, self-efficacy, and resilience), and social health (social isolation and social support) were measured. Results: In the within-group comparison, there was no significant difference between any factors of the CG before and after the intervention. In contrast, the EG had a significant improvement before and after the woodworking program. Participants in the EG with MCI and MD significantly improved their social support (p < 0.05). Psychological factors (life satisfaction, depression, and self-efficacy) were positively changed, although not significantly. Conclusions: The woodworking program promoted psychosocial health, such as life satisfaction, resilience, and social support, among older adults with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: health literacy; food literacy; dietary intake; nutrition; office workers; health promotion
Online: 10 November 2022 (10:14:31 CET)
Widespread patterns of poor dietary behavior are a key factor causing the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases around the world. Research provides initial insights into the potential of food literacy (FL) to empower individuals to improve their dietary behavior. Yet, studies on FL interventions in working adults are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of a comprehensive 3-week workplace health promotion program (WHPP) on FL and dietary intake (DI) and to examine the association between FL and DI in a sample of 144 German office workers (30.0% female). Using two random intercept mixed linear regression models, we found significant strong improvements for both FL (β = 0.52, p < .0001) and DI (β = 0.63, p < .0001) after the WHPP when compared to baseline. Significant long-term improvements at 18 months where strong for FL (β = 0.55, p < .0001) and small for DI (β = 0.10, p < .0001). FL showed a significant moderate effect on DI across all measurement time points (β = 0.24, p < .0001). Our study fills a gap of long-term findings in the literature on FL interventions, offers insights into underlying mechanisms, and provides recommendations for effective WHPPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0110.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; Confidence; Health services; Basic health Unit; Hospital; Public policy.
Online: 10 October 2022 (02:12:08 CEST)
Objective: to assess level of trust in health services during COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out between 2020 and 2021, among Brazilians over 18. A non-probabilistic sampling was used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied, using the Local Bivariate Moran’s technique was used to verify the existence of spatial dependence between the incidence and mortality of COVID-19 and trust in health services. Furthermore, multinomial regression was also used to analyze the factors associated with the confidence level, with the calculation of the Odds Ratio and with a confidence interval of 95%. Results: 50.6% reported trust in hospital services while 41.4% did not trust Primary Health Care services. With the application of the Local Bivariate Moran, both for the incidence and mortality of COVID-19, the trust in tertiary care and primary care services showed a statistically significant spatial association predominant in the Midwest (High-Low) and North (Low-High) regions of Brazil. The level of trust was associated with education, religion, region of the country and income. Conclusions: The level of trust in hospital services, more than Primary Health Care services, may be related to the population's culture of prioritizing the search for hospital care at the detriment of health promotion and disease prevention
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0218.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Public Health Emergency; Sexual Health; Monkeypox; Smallpox; JYNNEOS; ACAM2000; Tecovirimat; Brincidofovir
Online: 11 August 2022 (11:46:12 CEST)
Monkeypox, once a rare zoonotic disease, was endemic to some African countries since its original identification among humans in 1970. Since then, cases in non endemic regions were linked to returning travelers or those who had contact with transported animals. The causative agent, Monkeypox virus, belongs to Orthopoxviruses, the same family as Variola; the causative organism for smallpox. Although most Monkeypox outbreaks until recently were linked to zoonotic transmission, secondary human-human transmission in smallpox unvaccinated individuals was observed in a small proportion of overall cases. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980 and since its eradication, monkeypox virus is the most significant poxvirus to cause human disease. The 2022 monkeypox outbreak marks a significant paradigm shift in the human and poxvirus association, with new modes of transmission, concerns of viral evolution and entrenchment as a sexually transmitted disease. Monkeypox clinically resembles smallpox but is far milder. At this time there are no approved therapies for monkeypox and antiviral agents effective against smallpox are being utilized. Additionally, preventive strategies being utilized include smallpox vaccination like JYNNEOS and ACAM2000. In this narrative review, we discuss the virology, epidemiology, transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management and prevention strategies associated with monkeypox.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0341.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: medical education; public health; medical schools; community; global health; human resource
Online: 25 May 2022 (04:03:49 CEST)
Background: With new challenges to the health system, many new competencies within the scope of teaching public health need to be addressed in medical schools’ curricula such as disaster risk management and health system science. The aims of this study were to identify the needs of public health competencies for medical doctors in Thailand and to assess the level of integration for technical collaboration in teaching public health. Method: A total of 17 out of 21 Thai medical schools participated in the national survey. Qualitative inquiries applied focus group interviews of community representatives from ten sample villages and in-depth interviews of representatives from stakeholder organizations particularly employers. The list of public health competencies framework recommended by WHO-SEARO was applied. Quantitative analysis applied descriptive analysis using STATA 15 and qualitative findings were validated by interrelating the meaning of themes from Word Clouds created in NVivo12. Data integration applied a mixed-method Quan-qual approach. Results: 17 medical schools returned the questionnaires (80.95 % yield). The most common regionally-defined public health competencies (in over 70% of schools) were shown to be: Biostatistics, Community Medicine, Epidemiology, Family Medicine, Medical Ethics and Professional Laws, Preventive Medicine, Health Promotion, Holistic Care, and Research. The curriculum in only one medical school lacked Health Economics, whilst Disaster Management was lacking in two other schools. Discipline-based subjects were found to be more prevalent than interdisciplinary competencies. A variety of methods were being applied for teaching public health. The majority of the schools applied lecture as the main teaching method and multiple-choice questions as the main assessment method. Thai communities expect the doctors to get in touch with the community more often, lead the primary health care team through training the health professionals and community health volunteers, and educate the community for better health. Conclusion: Human resource is the main challenge in addressing interdisciplinary competencies. It is necessary to establish a collaborating mechanism among the big and small medical schools and the faculties of public health to improve the teaching of public health to undergraduate students in medical schools. There is also a need to strengthen the health system science and leadership so that future MDs can lead health service delivery according to the needs of their employers such as the Ministry of Public Health and the Rural Doctors Association. The findings of this study may help to identify a national framework of public health core competencies for medical schools and create a common platform for interdisciplinary collaborations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0365.v1
Subject: Keywords: Menstruation; menstrual health; menstrual hygiene; period poverty; mental health; mental disorder
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:51:34 CEST)
Context: Mental and menstrual health, two emerging aspects of health critical to the female population, are bidirectionally linked. But there is limited empirical evidence that establishes the association between these entities. This essay aims to draw the attention of researchers to this healthcare niche. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic review was carried out on literatures sourced from medical databases (e.g. PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science), and gray sources—popular and reputable institutional and journalistic websites that publishes mental or menstrual health research. The key words used for the search are “Menstruation, menstrual hygiene, menstrual disorders, premenstrual syndrome, period poverty, menarche, menopause, mental health, mental disorder, mental illness, depression, anxiety, phobia, mania, mood, and affect”. The initial search generated 368 results. But after the duplicates were removed, the exclusion criteria (publication before 2000) was applied, and manual review of abstract (for relevance) was done, 21 publications from the databases and 5 from gray sources were included in this essay. Results: Associations were found between menstrual cycle irregularities and disorders; and mental disorders such as premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, major depressive disorder, major anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, sleep disorder, substance use/abuse, and suicidal ideation and attempts.Few positive associations between mental and menstrual health were recorded, and several research and treatment gaps were identified. Conclusion: Research into the links between mental and menstrual health should not remain a fringe area of scientific curiosity, as it shows tremendous promise in improving healthcare offered to women/girls globally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: menstrual health literacy; menstrual health education; menstrual hygiene management; menstruation; dysmenorrhea
Online: 21 January 2021 (15:02:47 CET)
Background: Poor menstrual health literacy impacts adolescents’ quality of life and health outcomes across the world. The aim of this systematic review was to identify concerns about menstrual health literacy in low/middle (LMIC) and high-income (HIC) countries. Methods: Relevant social science and medical databases were searched for peer-reviewed papers from January 2008 to January 2020 identifying 61 relevant studies. Results: A thematic analysis of the data revealed that LMICs report detrimental impacts on adolescents in relation to menstrual hygiene and cultural issues, while in HICs, issues related to pain management and long term health outcomes were reported more frequently. Conclusions: In order to improve overall menstrual health literacy in LMICs and HICs, appropriate policies need to be developed, drawing on input from multiple stakeholders to ensure evidence-based and cost-effective practical interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Geographic Information Systems; Women’s Health; Cancer Screening; Breast Cancer; Health Programs
Online: 22 October 2020 (12:36:12 CEST)
The National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) of Minnesota, “Sage”, provides breast cancer screening to uninsured women. We introduce a novel mapping technique, spatially adaptive filters (SAFs), to estimate utilization of Sage screening in Minnesota. Sage screenings (N = 74,712) were geocoded. The eligible population was modeled with the RTI synthetic population dataset. Between 2011 and 2015, 36,979 women a year were Sage eligible. Utilization was highly variable across Minnesota (M = 37.2%, range 0% - 131%, SD = 18.7%). This replicable approach modeled utilization rates to the neighborhood-level, allowing Sage to prioritize locations and engage communities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0059.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Connected healthcare; ageing society; health accessibility; e-health; telemedicine; telehealth; telecare
Online: 4 March 2020 (10:29:39 CET)
Background: The evolution of names, from “medical informatics” to “connected health”, implies that the evolvement of technology in health care has been shifted from technology-oriented to healthcare-oriented implementation. Connected healthcare, a healthcare platform of remote monitoring and self-management through technological measures, is suggested to contribute to the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and satisfaction of healthcare recipient enhancement. However, limited understanding of related connected health (CH) terminology may constrain its implementation. Whether CH is a Buzzword only or a practice that can contribute to an ageing society is controversial. Objective: This study aims to distinguish CH-related terminology and to identify the trend of CH through reviewing its definition, initiation, development, and evolvement, in order to offer management insights and implications. The objective is to understand what is connected and who is cared about in the connected health model, so that better applications can be addressed for the benefit of society. Method: This study reviews the evolution of names, from “medical informatics” in the 1970s to “connected health” after 2000, as well as relevant literature of CH, including e-health, telemedicine, telehealth, telecare, and m-health, to discover the trend of technology-related healthcare implementation. The current status and issues facing CH will be presented and its future trends will be explored through reviewing how changes in healthcare are managed, in addition to its operation and practice. Issues of accessibility, quality, and cost will be discussed, as well as its market status. Results: Preconditions and requirements for implementing CH are identified to select a typical case to study. Areas with a complete business ecosystem, including advanced technology and medical services, a payment system, an ageing population, geographic isolation, integrated health, and social care, are prevalent. These findings may be beneficial to designing and establishing comprehensive CH implantation and environments. Conclusion: The evidence and tendency of technological convergence create a demand for innovation and partnering with start-up companies that offer a competitive advantage in innovation. Specifically, it is necessary to innovate both the public and private operation model of the CH ecosystem. This focus will be further explored in future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0016.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: patient engagement; consumer health; recommendation; consensus conference; guidelines; health services research
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:31:43 CET)
Patient engagement is receiving a growing attention in the healthcare context. However, although worldwide healthcare stakeholders agree that patient engagement is a priority for quality and effective care, no shared recommendations on how to promote patient engagement are currently available. Based on these premises, a Consensus Conference (CC) was promoted to address four main issues: What is the definition of Patient Engagement? How measuring Patient Engagement? What are the most recommended methodologies and the tools to promote Patient Engagement? What is the role of new technologies in promoting of Patient Engagement? The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with a systematic synthesis of the available literature in each domain followed by plenary expert discussions. This CC - including the systematic analysis of internationals scientific evidences (2749 sources across the major international scientific databases) together with experiences of a multi-disciplinary consortium of investigators and key stakeholders - attempted to provide the first evidence-based Expert Consensus Statement for the promotion of Patient Engagement in chronic care. These recommendations should be envisaged as inspirational principles to promote a real eco-system of engagement and might orient health services research and interventions.
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: value co-creation; National Health Insurance; My Health Bank; Service Ecosystem
Online: 22 January 2020 (02:55:28 CET)
Objective: Taiwan Government’s organizations have endeavored to promote the applications of big data and open data. The “My Health Bank” is one of the measures promoted by the National Health Administration, Ministry of Health and Welfare. This study proposes the perspective of the “value co-creation” with the attempt to extend the concept of service ecosystem and apply it on the platform of My Health Bank to examine whether people (patients, families, and caregivers) can promote their health literacy? Method: This cross-sectional study, with people that have registered at “My Health Bank” as subjects. Complying with the inclusion criteria, 401 questionnaires were delivered, with 391 valid ones, excluding those incompletely and inaccurately filled. Result: That the affecting factors of the co-creation of values: age, education level, annual income, and platform operation show to be significant ( p＜0.05); and gender, occupation, and resource exchange do not reach the significant level (p＞0.1). Conclusion: We found My Health Bank changed the inertia of “value creation” in the traditional medical value, it allows the traditional medical and healthcare industry to expose to the impacts of the mega trend of the internet, the transformation of the platform in a necessary trend.