REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0330.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: consciousness; awareness; attention; free will; self-awareness
Online: 17 November 2022 (08:59:13 CET)
Consciousness is usually perceived as a state of being aware of one’s environment as well as self. Despite its omnipresence in our life, understanding this concept is challenging. This has given rise to several theories attempting to explain the nature of consciousness, as well as hard and soft problems of consciousness. In fact, the boundaries of consciousness defined by these theories are a topic of continued discussion, particularly in light of the recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI). Some of these theories consider consciousness as a simple integration of information while others purport the need for an agency in the process of integration for an entity to be considered conscious. Some theories consider consciousness as a graded entity and some equate consciousness with content of awareness. In this work, major theories of consciousness are reviewed and compared, focusing on awareness, attention, and sense of self. These findings are interpreted in relation to AI in order to ascertain what makes AI distinct from natural intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0073.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Consciousness; awareness; free will; attention; self-awareness
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:01:24 CEST)
Consciousness is usually interpreted as a state of being aware of one’s environment as well as self, while awareness is understood as knowledge of something. Despite their semantic differences, in philosophy, these terms are often used interchangeably, as is the case of the hard problem of consciousness proposed by Chalmers, which in fact is the hard problem of awareness. Trilogy paradigm of consciousness (or simply “trilogy”) offers a new paradigm where consciousness is the result of a unique interaction between awareness and the decision-making process. By conferring the input of awareness to the decision-making process, a new mental function of awareness-based choice selection (ABCS) or true free will emerges. Likewise, application of the power of decision-making to the process of awareness gives rise to discretionary selection of information for awareness (DSIA) or intentional attention. The intertwined actions of ABCS and DSIA comprise “I” which is the faculty of our consciousness and is what sets natural intelligence (NI) apart from artificial intelligence (AI). Based on trilogy, mind is an unconscious compilation of all mental function excluding ABCS and DSIA that are the essence of consciousness. As humans, we are a union of “I,” our minds, and our bodies.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0136.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Consciousness; awareness; free will; decision-making; attention; self-awareness
Online: 9 June 2022 (07:27:39 CEST)
The notion of free will seems so intuitive to us that it would be hard, even impossible, to imagine that we live in a world without ever exerting any willpower. This view of reality is not only hindrance to inspiration, it poses a serious threat to our moral and social responsibilities. Nonetheless, many scientific and philosophical schools of thought such as determinism purport free will as a mere illusion. As an attempt to rescue free will put forward by libertarianism, compatibilism or physical indeterminism that either exempts our mind from the universal rules of cause and effect by offering our minds a metaphysical status or substitute free will with random will rooted in the laws of quantum mechanics. This manuscript offers an alternative perspective under a new paradigm of consciousness called physical libertarianism that explicates true free will through the unwavering laws of cause and effect. Based on this paradigm, consciousness is the result of interaction of awareness and decision-making process. By applying awareness to the process of decision-making awareness-based choice selection or true free will is conceived. In return, by assigning the power of decision making to the process of awareness discretionary selection of information for attention or intentional attention is emerged. Through integration of these two mental functions, an independent entity called “I” is formed that differentiates natural intelligence from artificial intelligence. While determinism can aptly describe the world of inanimate objects and artificial intelligence, because of “I,” determinism has no jurisdiction over the realm of natural intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0515.v1
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:41:16 CET)
Background : The current corruption case in Indonesia are severely problematic since it is normalized by society. As a response, the current agenda of the Indonesian government to tackle it is by raising awareness of youth towards Indonesia’s corruption case. Aim : This study aims to knowing the importance of anti-corruption education and its applications among students. Method : The methodology of this study is the use of a qualitative survey on Faculty of Pharmacy students and interviews with representatives of students of the Faculty of Pharmacy. The population of this study is students of Airlangga University. The sample of this study is 52 students of class C the Faculty of Pharmacy Result : Students have awareness about corruption and even proposed that the current anti-corruption education is not enough to tackle corruption. Recommendation : The researcher suggests that students can be brave to campaign about the importance of anti-corruption education to the public. Limitation : The limitation of this study is that it is difficult to conduct research because in the online pandemic era, this results in delays in the research process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0633.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: amyloidosis; cardiologist; awareness; survey; ATTR
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:16:31 CET)
Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is a restrictive cardiomyopathy characterized by deposition of amyloid in the myocardium and recent studies revealed it is more frequently seen than we thought. Advances have been made over the last years, but a delayed diagnosis is frequently seen. An online survey was conducted among cardiologists from Romania representing the first assessment of the knowledge of CA among them with 195 cardiologists answering the questionnaire. There was a wide variation in their knowledge regarding CA. Our participants had few experience with CA and reported a significant delay between first cardiac symptom and diagnosis. Around one half of them did not seem familiar with the noninvasive diagnostic algorithm and with the wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt). Even the participants who are aware of this condition and the available treatment options stated this is a rare disease and there is no disease modifying treatment available for ATTRwt. Awareness among cardiologists is the most important challenge in diagnosing CA. Romanian cardiologists are partially aware of this topic, but there are still gaps in their knowledge. Educational programs can improve screening of patients with a high suspicion for this progressive condition whose evolution has been dramatically changed by the new treatment options.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0298.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Cybersecurity; Security Awareness Assessment; Machine Learning
Online: 20 July 2022 (08:22:30 CEST)
Cyber-threat is now a global concern to all internet users, as the rate of crimes has tremendously changed from physical to virtual. Implementing awareness programs at various organization levels is required, Also there is a need to know the methodologies used in measuring cybersecurity awareness program effectiveness. The paper aims to review and explore the previous methodologies applied, target organizations, and application of Machine Learning techniques in the assessment of awareness programs. Systematic literature review techniques were used to conduct the search using pre-defined keywords and published papers from 2006 to 2019, the information was used in providing an answer to the research questions. The finding shows questionnaire was widely used as a method of evaluating cybersecurity awareness and also organizations implement more awareness programs, the gap found is the lack of using ML in assessing the effectiveness of design, and implemented cybersecurity awareness programs
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Population screening; eye disease; prevalence; awareness
Online: 16 July 2021 (14:36:36 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Vision impairments and related blindness are major public health problems. Prevalence of eye disease and barriers to optimal care markedly vary among different geographic areas. In the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), an epidemiological surveillance on the state of ocular health in the population aged over 50 years was performed in 2019. Materials and Methods: Participants were sampled to be representative of the region inhabitants. Data were collected through a telephone interview and an eye examination. Prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy, maculopathy was assessed. The Cohen’s kappa (k) was used to measure the agreement between presence of eye disease and awareness of the disease by the participants. Results: Overall, 983 people with mean age of 66.0±9.5 years were included in the study. The prevalence of cataract, glaucoma, maculopathy, and retinopathy was 52.6%, 5.3%, 5.6%, and 29.1%, respectively. Among the total of affected people, those aware of their condition were 21.8% (k=0.12, slight agreement) for cataract, 65.4% (k=0.78, substantial agreement) for glaucoma, 7.1% (k=0.10, slight agreement) for maculopathy, and 0% for retinopathy (k=-0.004, agreement lower than that expected by chance). Refractive defects were corrected in the vast majority of participants. Conclusion: In the Abruzzo region, about two third of citizens aged 50 years or over suffer from cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy or maculopathy, which are recognized as leading causes of blindness. Many people with eye disease do not know they have it. These data can be used by clinicians and policymakers to undertake clinical, political, and social actions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0370.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Awareness; Readiness; Covid-19; Bangladesh; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice
Online: 25 June 2020 (15:57:11 CEST)
Bangladesh has adopted some special steps to control the quick spread of the COVID-19 pandemic situation. However, the local residents’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards the disease have a direct impact on the success of the controlling measures taken by the state. This article explores knowledge (K) about preventions, attitude (A) to the disease, and practices (P) of preventing COVID-19 situation of the young age groups residing in Bangladesh. Quantitative data were collected online using a KAP questionnaire from 932 participants. Results show the population is generally aware of the symptoms, keeping social distance by staying home and are concerned about re-spreading after the lock-down period. However, they are quite unsure about the possible medicines frequently talked about in the media and the necessity of avoiding animal protein. One of the major limitations is, these findings should not be generalized due to the low number of participants compared to the total population in Bangladesh.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: mobile phones; awareness; driving; Saudi Arabia
Online: 4 March 2020 (05:26:12 CET)
The use of mobile phones has increased dramatically among drivers in multiple countries in the past few years. The primary objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of cell phone use while driving in Saudi Arabia and to find whether there is a relationship between car accidents and the use of mobile phones while driving. The secondary objective was to explore general knowledge and attitudes toward traffic regulations related to cell phone usage while driving. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 585 drivers in Saudi Arabia using a self-reported online survey distributed through social media channels. Our results showed that 78.6% of the participants acknowledged that they use the phone while driving. The percentage who reported car accidents involving them or their friends or relatives while using the phone while driving was 43.8%, along with 71.8% mentioning near misses. The percentage of respondents who thought that using a mobile phone while driving had a strong impact on the driver’s ability to drive was 31.5%. This study highlights the importance of raising awareness about risks of using Mobile phones during driving in Saudi Arabia and it recommends harsher penalties to reduce the use of mobile phones while driving.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0167.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: green hotel; environmental awareness; environmental knowledge
Online: 18 August 2016 (05:12:57 CEST)
There has been a growing awareness of the need to implement environmentally friendly operations in the hotel industry, but most studies focus on guest behaviors. Only a few studies investigate employees’ willingness to comply with hotels’ green practices. This study seeks to further the investigation from the human resource perspective. Using alumni from a tourism and hospitality programs, this study collected 233 responses. The study hypothesizes that the employees’ green ability consisting of environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, and environmental skill creates a positive impact on hotels’ green ability. The results indicate that employees contribute approximately a fifth of hotels’ ability to implement greener practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0123.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: phonological awareness; phonology; word decoding ability; spelling
Online: 13 April 2022 (10:16:40 CEST)
This study focused on the level of Phonological awareness and Word Decoding ability among second year BSED English students in the University of Southeastern Philippines in terms of critical sound. Moreover, it aimed to recognize the significant relationship between the two variables. To verify, there were tests being employed to gather the necessary data. These were: listening test for measuring the respondents' level of awareness to words with critical sounds; phonetic transcription test to identify the respondents' level of awareness to sound-symbol relationship; and spelling test to know the respondents' level of ability for transcriptions to be translated to its Standard English spelling. After the data have been gathered, it was interpreted that the students have a moderate Phonological awareness. On the other hand, their Word Decoding ability resulted to high level. As being correlated, it is being found that there is a great significant relationship between the two variables. With these marks, the researchers encourage the schools in enhancing the students' sound-word relationship knowledge by primarily utilizing speech laboratory and establishing a speech club in the school for extending their exposure about these concepts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0413.v1
Online: 24 December 2021 (23:40:18 CET)
Background Recently, a surge of COVID 19 was observed globally, regionally and nationally. With increasing numbers of cases, the frequency of long COVID is on the rise. Management and control of long COVID depend on changes in respect of human behaviors and requires an understanding of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding health threats. MethodsA descriptive cross sectional study using online survey to gather data on the socio-economic background, knowledge, attitudes and practices on long-term complications of COVID. Results: Out of 201 respondents, 89.2% participants have heard about long-term complications of COVID 19. Only 35.9% have demonstrated adequate knowledge in the questions relating to co-morbidities and risk factors of COVID-19. A total of 92.2% believe that they should adhere to preventive measures following vaccination. Less than 60 % were following the advice on avoiding unnecessary travel and crowded places. Further, less than 50% were following COVID preventive measures. ConclusionAlthough the majority of participants have heard about long-term complications and common symptoms, the knowledge regarding co-morbidities that can lead to severe disease and long COVID was not satisfactory. The attitudes of the participants indicated increasing concern about long COVID. Practices indicate lack of adherence to key measures such as avoiding crowded places. These findings highlight the need for further increasing of awareness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Take-back Program; Prescription Disposal; Pharmacist Awareness
Online: 24 September 2021 (08:25:13 CEST)
Background and objective. Globally, disposing of unused medicines has become a source of concern, as pharmaceutical waste enters the ecosystem, posing a threat to human health and the environment. This study aimed to assess the disposal practice of unused medication among pharmacists in Libya. This study also seeks to determine if pharmacists plan to have their pharmacies serve as assembly points for potential take-back initiatives. Methods. A random sample of 150 pharmacists from various government and private pharmacies in Tripoli participated in a self-administered questionnaire about their disposal practices, and knowledge on pharmacies serving as collection points for ideal disposal of unused medicines. Descriptive statistics were used to interpret the data. Results. A total of 128 pharmacists completed the survey. The majority of respondents said that throwing discarded drugs in the trash bin was their preferred method of disposal (53.1%), followed by discarding via burn and drug wholesalers (17.2%, 14.8%, respectively). Only 2.1% of the respondents disposed unused medicines according to the WHO guidelines of drug disposal. Moreover, about 65.6% had poor knowledge about Take-Back program. Conclusion. Failure to follow the WHO guidelines for drug disposal raises the risk of contamination of our environment and the likelihood of humans and animals ingesting harmful pharmaceutical wastes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0201.v1
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:56:38 CET)
Aim of this study is to gather information regarding the sustainability development goals from the public as well as the organizations of Pakistan. A sample of 500 respondents each from five main cities including employs and general public is selected for their opinion regarding sustainability development goal. The level of awareness as well as level of commitment towards the fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goals varies across the cities of Pakistan due to difference in literacy level. The commitment to achieve Sustainable Development Goals of the organizations across the selected cities varies according to the nature of the business, volume and the membership with the United Nations. This study provides the policy makers with the ground level data regarding the awareness and commitment of Pakistan based organizations and public towards SDGs fulfilment. A glance towards the attitudes of the people towards the subject matter could also be seen through this study. This a comprehensive study conducted at federal and provincial level of Pakistan which has yielded ground realities towards the implementation of SDGs. The results could be used for policy making and planning at national level and also serve as bench mark for other countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0375.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: environmental literacy; environmental pollution; awareness; attitude; Yazd
Online: 16 November 2018 (05:19:57 CET)
Introduction: Different factors such as rapid growth of population, urbanization and industrialization of communities have detrimental effects on the environment. In regard to the importance of the environment and its fundamental role in sustainable development along with the awareness and attitude of the people of Yazd which has not yet been assessed, this study aims to assess the level of awareness, attitude and environmental literacy of the people of Yazd in relation to environmental issues and challenges in the year 2017. Materials and methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the sample size was obtained from 410 Yazd city residents through prior studies and the Cochran formula. The sample was then selected by the stratified random sampling method. The data selection tool was a questionnaire with questions on demographic characteristics, awareness level, attitude and practices in relation to menopause. The data was analyzed upon collection by the SPSS-20 software and Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-Square non-parametric tests along with the Spearman correlation test. In this study, the significance level was considered as 0.05. Results: In this study, a total of 404 questionnaires were completed and evaluated. Based on the obtained results, 224 individuals (55.4%) male, 53.3% married, 31.2% had at least a bachelor’s degree and the majority of individuals (40.1%) were in the 18-27 age group. In terms of area of residence, 64.1% reside in region 2. From all the participants, 51.3% of the participants believed that the main environmental issue in Yazd was water deficiency and pollution. The awareness score was statistically significant with the age, education level and employment status variables. Attitude only had significant relationship with the employment status variable. The relationship between the practices score was statistically significant with the age, marital status, and area of residence variables. There is a significant relation between age, income level and knowledge level but there is no significant relation with attitude levels. There is no significant relation between gender, education level, marital status, area of residence, awareness and attitude levels (p-value > 0.05). There is a positive correlation between awareness, attitude and practices scores. The results indicated that the attitude score of most participants (51.5%) was lower than the average score but the awareness and practices score of most participants was average. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, although the awareness of Yazdi citizens on some environmental issues and institutions that are active in the environmental pollution control field in the country appears low, but in general, the awareness of the people of Yazd, specifically regarding health issues stemming from pollution was assessed as adequate. Considering the importance of environmental factors’ role in communities’ health and its continuous improvement, due to the expansion of automated life namely in large cities within the country, it is necessary to conduct various researches to identify and control these factors and to carry out interventional studies to determine suitable solutions before implementing them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: iodine; pregnancy; qualitative research; awareness; perceptions; nutrition
Online: 2 February 2018 (07:29:44 CET)
Iodine is essential for thyroid hormones synthesis and normal neurodevelopment; however, 60% of pregnant women do not meet the WHO recommended intake. Using a qualitative design, we explored perceptions, awareness and experiences of pregnancy nutrition, focusing on iodine. Women in the perinatal period (n=48) were interviewed and filled in a food frequency questionnaire for iodine. Almost all participants achieved the recommended 150 μg/day intake for non-pregnant adults (99%), but only 81% met the increased demands of pregnancy (250 μg/day). Most were unaware of the importance, sources and recommendations of iodine intake. Attitudes to dairy products consumption were positive (e.g. helps with heartburn; easy to increase). Increased fish consumption was considered less achievable, with barriers around taste, smell, heartburn and morning sickness. Community midwives were the main recognised provider of dietary advice. The dietary advice received focused most often on multivitamin supplements rather than food sources. Analysis highlighted a clear theme of commitment to change behaviour, motivated by pregnancy, with desired focus on user-friendly documentation and continued involvement of the health services. The study highlights the importance of redirecting advice on dietary requirements in pregnancy and offers practical suggestions from women in the perinatal period as the main stakeholder group.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0469.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: diabetes knowledge; diabetes; prediabetes; prevention; health promotion; awareness
Online: 25 November 2022 (06:02:45 CET)
We aimed to study the knowledge of diabetes among high-risk individuals for diabetes in the Indian state of Kerala. The baseline data collected from 1007 participants of the Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program were analyzed. Diabetes knowledge was assessed using a scale adapted from a large nationwide study conducted in India. The composite score of the scale ranges from 0 to 8. The mean age of participants was 46.0 (SD: 7.5) years, and 47.2% were female. The mean diabetes knowledge score was 6.9 (SD: 2.1), with 59.5% having the maximum possible score of 8. Of 1007 participants, 968 (96.1%) had heard the term diabetes, and of them, 84.7% know what diabetes is, 87.2% think more and more people are getting diabetes nowadays, 79.6% know that diabetes can cause complications in organs, and 75.9% know that diabetes can be prevented. While the level of diabetes knowledge was high among our participants, a quarter of them (24.1%) were not aware that diabetes can be prevented. Thus, there is a need for health promotion programs to increase the knowledge of diabetes prevention among high-risk individuals in Kerala.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0227.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: earth buildings; residential construction; awareness; education; New Zealand
Online: 15 July 2022 (05:48:48 CEST)
The construction of earth buildings, both throughout history and in the current day, is well-established worldwide. Despite New Zealand's pre- and post-colonial history of earth construction, earth buildings as residential homes have not been well-received or popularised throughout present-day New Zealand. This research aims to identify the reasons for this lack of awareness and to determine methods that promote earth buildings in New Zealand. This research is based on data collected from semi-structured interviews conducted with subject matter experts and via an online questionnaire completed by members of the Earth Building Association New Zealand (EBANZ). The data collected revealed the experiences and perceptions of all participants regarding the advantages, challenges and promotion of earth buildings specific to New Zealand. Upon analysing these responses, key reoccurring themes were identified and compared. Regarding New Zealand's lack of awareness of earth buildings, interview and questionnaire participants responded that this shortcoming was due to earth construction being a very niche market and lacking commercial marketing. Education was the most frequently reoccurring theme raised by all participants as the top promotional tool for raising awareness of earth buildings. The results of this research can be applied to future work regarding obstacles that limit the growth of New Zealand's earth building industry, as well as research on the role of New Zealand's education system in exposing the next generation of builders, designers, and consumers to earth construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0054.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: social engineering; security countermeasures; security awareness; security policies
Online: 5 July 2022 (03:39:36 CEST)
This research paper describes the social engineering concepts, techniques, and security countermeasures. This research aims to study various social engineering techniques to find the best countermeasures that would help to reduce social engineering attacks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0430.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: stroke awareness; hypertensive patients; community health center; Indonesia
Online: 16 June 2021 (09:35:30 CEST)
The global burden of stroke is still high, particularly in developing countries, with hypertension serves as the main risk factor. Knowledge related to stroke is essential to establish better prevention strategies. This study aimed to identify factors associated with stroke awareness among hypertensive patients in Indonesia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in five Community Health Centers in Indonesia. We used a standardized questionnaire to asses stroke awareness and the influencing factors. The knowledge on hypertension was assessed using Hypertension Knowledge Level Scale (HK-LS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to measure factors associated with stroke awareness. A total of 457 hypertensive patients were included. Majority of patients (77.46%) had low stroke awareness. Having higher knowledge on hypertension, higher income, and a history of previous stroke were associated with higher level of stroke awareness (odds ratio [OR] 1.878, 95%CI 1.176-2.999, p 0.008; OR 1.887, 95%CI 1.170-3.045, p 0.009; OR 5.276, 95%CI 2.210-12.594, p<0.001, respectively). This study suggests that knowledge on hypertension, income, and history of previous stroke are factors which may influence the level of stroke awareness. This emphasizes the need to provide better campaign and education program to raise stroke awareness in a community setting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0080.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Symmetry; Self-Face Recognition; Right Hemisphere; Self-Awareness
Online: 2 April 2021 (18:19:34 CEST)
While the desire to uncover the neural correlates of consciousness has taken numerous directions, self-face recognition has been a constant in attempts to isolate aspects of self-awareness. The neuroimaging revolution of the 1990’s bought about systematic attempts to isolate the underlying neural basis self-face recognition. These studies, including some of the first fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) studies, revealed a right hemisphere bias for self-face recognition in a diverse set of regions including the insula, the Dorsal Frontal Lobe, the Temporal Parietal Junction and Medial Temporal Cortex. Confirmation of these data (which are correlational) was provided by TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) and patients in which direct inhibition or ablation of right hemisphere regions leads to a disruption or absence of self-face recognition. These data are consistent with a number of theories including a right hemisphere dominance for self-awareness and/or a right hemisphere specialization for identifying significant social relationships including to oneself.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0442.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: COVID-19; knowledge; awareness; perceptions; Indian dentists; coronavirus
Online: 27 May 2020 (07:56:19 CEST)
Introduction: COVID-19 is an unprecedented global public health emergency currently impacting India in an unprecedented manner. Aim of this study was to assess knowledge, awareness, perceptions and related factors of Indian dentists on COVID-19. Methodology: A cross-sectional, on-line questionnaire-based study was conducted over one week between 3rd May, 2020 to 10th May, 2020. The sample comprised 403 Indian dentists in solo, group practices and in the academic arena. The self-administered questionnaire assessed 1) knowledge/awareness on factors related to COVID-19 patient identification and symptomatology, 2) knowledge/awareness of COVID-19 transmission and 3) perceptions of COVID-19 history taking procedure. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows, version 21.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY., USA). Frequency distributions and logistic regression analyses were used. Results: Indian dentists demonstrated an overall modest level of knowledge on identification of patients with COVID-19. Moreover, they had a high level of awareness of the COVID-19 transmission means, and the generally accepted procedural perceptions on patient history taking. However, there were some gaps in specific aspects of knowledge and perceptions. Those who were aged ≥ 30-years had a significantly higher level of knowledge of patient identification means than those who were < 30-years (OR=1.78:1.12-2.83); p=0.01. Moreover, specialized dentists were significantly knowledgeable of COVID-19 transmission means than the general dentists (OR=1.89:1.22-2.93; p=0.004). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate identifiable gaps in knowledge/awareness and perceptions of COVID-19 in Indian dental professionals. These gaps should be fulfilled, at the earliest, due to the rising burden of COVID-19 in India, to ensure safe dental care delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0215.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: socioeconomic health inequality; public awareness; social class; life expectancy
Online: 15 June 2022 (08:17:27 CEST)
Objective. It is unknown whether the public accurately estimate socioeconomic health inequality and whether they wish to see it reduced or eliminated. Methods. Representative samples of the UK and US indicated the perceived and ideal lifespan of people working in “higher managerial/professional” and “routine” occupations. We present perceived and desired lifespan ratios for each sample and for key socio-demographic variables. Results. The UK public estimated the lifespan of professionals to be 5.9% longer than routine workers (true value of 5.8%), and 67.8% (UK) and 53.7% (US) participants correctly identified that professionals live longer than routine workers. In both populations, the median respondent expressed equal ideal lifespans for routine workers and professional workers. Conclusion. The UK public appear well-appraised on the average lifespan for professionals and routine workers. Across nationalities and most socio-demographic groups, the median respondent was aware of social class inequalities in lifespan and preferred that they be eliminated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0081.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Neoliberalism; Environmental Awareness; Climate Change; Plastic Pollution; Environmental Activism
Online: 6 May 2021 (12:50:41 CEST)
We currently face several, interlinked environmental crises, including climate change, habitat destruction and biodiversity loss. However, many governments seem unwilling to take strong and immediate action to address these threats, preferring to promote neoliberal approaches to allow consumers and the general public to make environmentally friendly choices. This is despite neoliberal approaches being much less likely to be successful than government leadership, taxation, subsidies, and legislation in addressing environmental issues. In this study, we examine public perception of environmental threats and solutions to these threats, in a survey, mainly completed in the UK. Climate change is seen as the biggest issue, likely due to recent activist campaigns and subsequent media attention on the issue. Neoliberal attitudes, such as green consumer choices to environmental concerns, do still dominate in a series of possible presented solutions, and score more highly than lifestyle changes such as changing diet. However, when questioned specifically about plastic pollution, government intervention to ban all unnecessary plastic scored very strongly, indicating a shift from a consumer driven response. Furthermore, most participants think they are at best only partly ‘doing their bit’ to protect the environment. The results demonstrate that the public are aware that not enough is happening to protect the environment and provide evidence that there is willingness for stronger government intervention to address environmental issues, although there is potential resistance to major lifestyle changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0159.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: awareness; livestock farmer; ICT-source; market information; rural; smallholder
Online: 9 May 2020 (08:46:42 CEST)
The utility of ICTs for providing market information to rural smallholder farmers is growing rapidly, and access to reliable information and sources is considered crucial for beneficial market interaction. This study explored critical factors contributing to usage of electronic sources for market information search among rural smallholder livestock farmers. Using data collected from 129 respondents through a non-random sampling technique; descriptive and regression analysis was applied to identify key factors responsible for their awareness and use of ICT-based market information sources. Level of education was found to be a driver of awareness of ICT-based sources, and use of these sources was influenced by farmer-specific characteristics such as household size, education, income, membership of cooperatives and herd-size. The key ICT tools used was radio and mobile phones, widely available in the study area. Identified constraints to use of these ICTs include cost and patchy network signals in some areas. Policy interventions to reduce cost of mobile phone services and expansion of base stations; including practical recommendations for improved programming in radio and television offerings, are considered indispensable for greater uptake of e-information sources among smallholder livestock farmers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: expectations convergence; NAFTA; sustainable development; technological transfer; youth awareness
Online: 13 May 2019 (08:01:33 CEST)
Relying on the USA, Canada and Mexico extract from the cross-national data sample on the environmental affection and cognition of adolescent students (Niankara, 2019), along with seemingly unrelated bivariate weighted ordered probit regression modeling (Niankara and Zoungrana, 2018), this study reports on the convergence of technological awareness and expectations within the context of international trade. We achieve this by adopting a regional perspective in investigating the effects of affective, cognitive and situational factors on youth's awareness and expectations about genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and nuclear power technology (NPT) within the North American free trade block. Identification of model parameters is achieved using maximum simulated likelihood methods. The findings show that although it has been over 20 years as of 2015 that USA, Canada, and Mexico ratified the north American free trade agreement (NAFTA), the diffusion of technology and information within the trade block has not succeeded in homogenizing awareness and expectations about GMOs and Nuclear power technology, as observed in the youth population across the three countries. Indeed, with regards to technological awareness, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada show 15% (GMOs) and 7.1% (NPT) more awareness respectively; while those in Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 19.5% less aware about GMOs and NPT. With respect to technological expectations, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada and Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 39.9% more optimistic about GMOs, while 15% and 49.7% more optimistic about NPT. Overall, youth within NAFTA country members are respectively 2.5% and 6.7% more optimistic about GMOs and NPT for every level increase in their awareness about the two technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: deforestation; environmental awareness; media consumption; sustainable development; species extinction
Online: 20 April 2018 (12:01:26 CEST)
This study inscribes itself in the global discussion about the issue of environmental awareness, beliefs and behaviors. Here we focus on the role that cultural differences and scientific media dieting play in explaining heterogeneities in students' awareness and expectations about the two environmental issues of deforestation and species (plant and animal) extinction in the Middle East and North America. To this end, we use the cross-sectional survey data of the OECD's Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, along with seemingly unrelated Bi-variate ordered Probit modeling techniques. The results show that compared to their North American Counterparts, students' in the Middle East are 14.2% less aware of, and 14.5% less optimistic about the issue of deforestation, while 38.9% less aware of, and 59.0% less optimistic about the issue of species extinction. In addition, we found that science club attendance and broad science reading in books are the two most effective communication media for raising students awareness about the two environmental issues. In fact, every one level increase in students' awareness is found to raise their optimism by 20.4% for the issue of deforestation, and 15.0% for the issue of plant and animal extinction. Therefore raising young people environmental awareness and optimism through proper communication strategies, could be invaluable for achieving an economic development in line with our need to preserve the natural environment and ecosystem services for generations to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0168.v2
Online: 13 May 2021 (11:02:43 CEST)
Background: Work experience is a key factor that influences safety awareness among workers. This study investigated the influence of work experience on the level of awareness on adverse health effects of silica dust exposure among stone quarry workers in Ghana while controlling for theoretically relevant compositional and contextual factors, evaluated the magnitude and order of association between the predictors and the predicted variable. Method: A cross-sectional survey data of 524 randomly selected stone quarry workers were subjected to multivariate statistical analyses. Results: Stone quarry workers who had 6 to10 years and more than 10 years of work experience were 48% (OR = 1.475, P = 0.021) and 82% (OR = 1.816, P = 0.003) respectively more likely to be aware of the adverse health effects of silica dust exposure compared to their counterparts who had 1 to 5 years work experience. Workers who had secondary or higher education were 32% (OR = 1.320, P = 0.036) more likely to be aware of the adverse health effects of silica dust exposure compared to their counterparts who had no education. Conclusion: These findings provide relevant information for managers and policymakers to plan and maximize awareness on silica dust health hazards among silica exposed workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0315.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: awareness of sustainability; education; psychological adaptation; environmental attitudes; policy support
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:43:46 CEST)
Identifying the determinants of human behavior is useful to adjust interventions and lead the civil society towards a stronger commitment with climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives, achieving greater support for successfully implementing environmental policies. Existing research has largely focused on case studies of pro-environmental behaviors (PEBs) in developed economies but there is yet very little evidence for developing countries. This study provides estimations of the effect of internal factors, such as sociodemographic variables, and four psychological dimensions (climate change knowledge, environmental attitudes, self-efficacy, trust in sources of environmental information) on PEBs. Data was obtained through a survey applied with future decision makers - university students - from Colombia (n = 4769) and Nicaragua (n = 2354). Indices were generated for PEBs and the psychological dimensions using z-scores and Principal Component Analysis. Partial correlations were evaluated through the Ordinary Least Squares method. Our results suggest that, in order to reach the planned emission reduction targets, policy approaches should more strongly focus on educating and motivating citizens and prepare them for contributing to the environmental cause, as well as provide individual solutions to combat climate change, rather than providing only information on its causes and consequences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0384.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Mixed reality; Interactivity; Vividness; Brand loyalty; Brand awareness; Brand association
Online: 31 January 2020 (11:35:28 CET)
Mixed reality technology is being increasingly used in cultural heritage attractions to enhance visitors’ experience. However, how the characteristics of mixed reality affect satisfaction and brand loyalty has not been explored in previous research. The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting satisfaction with mixed reality experiences at cultural and artistic visitor attractions and their influence on brand loyalty, which is connected with management performance. We propose a theoretical model based on brand equity theory in the context of mixed reality experience. Survey data were gathered from 251 respondents visiting a cultural and artistic visitor attraction in Seoul, Korea using a stratified sampling method. PLS-SEM was employed for the data analysis. The results suggest that the characteristics of mixed reality (interactivity, vividness) not only influence the affective aspects (perceived immersion, perceived enjoyment) of visitors’ experience, but also positively affect brand awareness, brand association, and brand loyalty.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0379.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: awareness emergency; evacuation time; fire hazard; fire safety; knowledge; Libya
Online: 16 November 2018 (06:56:01 CET)
Fire accidents are common accidents amongst residential house occupants in Libya. Some of the factors that can mitigate fire accidents in Libyan residential houses include fire safety awareness and knowledge. This study investigated the level of awareness and knowledge of fire safety amongst residential house occupants in Libya. The possibility and consequences of fire hazards and risk existing in residential houses in Libya were also studied. Experimental data obtained for 1.5 m/s and 3.5 m/s as walking and running evacuation time, respectively amongst residential house occupants in Libya were also compared. The sample consist of 90 respondents with instruments of fire safety awareness and knowledge, fire hazard and consequences, and the involvement of residential house occupants in fire emergency. Statistical analysis was performed at p < 0.05 to determine the levels of residential awareness and knowledge regarding fire safety and the hazard and consequences. The findings illustrated that the items were highly reliable (α > 0.7) and normally distributed. Also, the results illustrated that the majority of residential house occupants in Libya have fair level of fire safety awareness and knowledge with overall percentage of 80% and 90%, respectively. On the other hand, the results further showed that majority of residential house occupants have good level of fire emergency involvement with 90%. This paper proposes a fire safety assessment method which may form the basis of future fire safety practice in Libya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0422.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: awareness; education; hearing loss; mineworkers; occupational health; health literacy; audiologists
Online: 18 October 2018 (12:04:09 CEST)
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of occupation health personnels (OHPs) regarding education and training of mineworkers on occupational noise induced hearing loss (ONIHL) and its impact on mineworkers’ hearing. Qualitative, in-depth telephonic and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 OHPs comprising representatives from the state, employer and labour as well as audiologists and occupational health hygienists. Purposive and snowball sampling were utilized to recruit participants. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Findings revealed that mineworkers have a superficial awareness and knowledge of the impact of noise on their hearing and health. Moreover, OHPs are not knowledgeable on how mineworkers are educated on ONIHL and its latent consequences. Furthermore, language, low levels of education and literacy as well as the financial constraints were factors that had a negative impact on raising awareness and training mineworkers. There is a need to prioritize health literacy among mineworkers. Additionally, audiologists need to play an active role in educating mineworkers about the effects of excessive exposure to noise. There is a need to take into account literacy levels and language barriers in planning training material for mineworkers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0371.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Cyber security; privacy; awareness; impact; cyber-attacks; benefits of cyber security.
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:43:25 CET)
Background: Cyber security is used to save the important data from getting hacked, took by some unknown access. It makes our environment a safe place for us to work out or share our information and since privacy is almost everyone’s top priority, there must be the surety of saving the private information. Methods: In today’s world cyber security is really important as there are now many devices, websites, new technology which makes it a lot easier for hackers to get into anyone’s files which stores crucial data. However, many steps can be reserved to protect the data such as; educating your employees with how to prevent your files or computers from getting hacked, avoid clicking on websites that don’t seem safe, use firewalls, antimalware system and most importantly make sure to keep passwords that are hard to guess and try to go for a face recognition instead of pins and passcodes. Results and Conclusion: This all does not only makes using technology safe but also favors your business for the safety of employees working within the organization. The customers being assured about their data being safe, improves productivity since viruses can slow down computers which may trigger the focus of staff during the working hours. It could save your system from adware; the links of websites are also prevented from slow internet speeds. There is no denying at the fact that cyber security is a major requirement for everyone who is indulged with technology today.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0619.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Wealth curve; Intelligence quotient (IQ); Emotional Intelligence (EI); Emotional Awareness (EA);
Online: 3 August 2021 (14:51:48 CEST)
The authors developed a wealth curve (bell curve) that can predict a group of individual’s wealth based on the crossover interaction effect of the average intelligence quotient (one's ability to perform, comprehend and learn) and emotional awareness (emotional ability to recognize and make sense of emotions). To move towards the right on the X-axis of the Kabir wealth curve (e.g. accumulate more wealth), individuals have to improve emotional awareness and choose a professional career path that lands higher income. Similarly, those facing social injustice can accumulate more wealth by improving emotional awareness, which will help them navigate challenging environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0120.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Information security; Cybercrime; cyber awareness; cybersecurity basics; cybersecurity hygiene; Blockchain technology
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:34:35 CEST)
The ignorance of or lack of knowledge about cybersecurity aspects causes a critical problem regarding confidentiality and privacy. This security problem will continue to exist even if the user possesses less expertise in information security. The modern IT technologies are well developed, and almost everyone uses the features of IT technologies and services within the Internet. However, people are being affected due to cybersecurity threats. People can adhere to the recommended cybersecurity guidelines, rules, adopted standards, and cybercrime preventive measures. However, it is not possible to entirely avoid cybercrimes. Cybercrimes often lead to sufficient business losses and spread forbidden themes (hatred, terrorism, child porn, etc.). Therefore, to reduce the risk of cybercrimes, a web-based Blockchain-enabled cybersecurity awareness program (WBCA) process is introduced in this paper. The proposed web-based cybersecurity awareness program trains users to improve their security skills. The proposed program helps with understanding the common behaviors of cybercriminals and improves user knowledge of cybersecurity hygiene, best cybersecurity practices, modern cybersecurity vulnerabilities, and trends. Furthermore, the proposed WBCA uses the Blockchain technology to protect the model from the potential threats. The proposed model is validated and tested using real-world cybersecurity topics with real users and cybersecurity experts. We anticipate that the proposed program can be extended to other domains, such as national or corporate courses, to increase the cybersecurity awareness level of users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0199.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: auditory arts; psychiatry; heavy metal music; mental disorder; bipolar; education; awareness
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:45:03 CEST)
1) Background: Bipolar or manic-depressive disorder is a malign mental disease that frequently faces social stigma. Educational and thinking models are needed to increase people’s awareness and understanding of the disorder. The arts have potential to achieve this goal. 2) Methods: This paper builds on the recent use of heavy metal music as a thinking and education model. It emphasizes the artistic component of heavy metal and its potential to characterize the symptomatology during the episodes of (hypo)mania and depression and the recurrence of these episodes. Heavy metal music has diversified into subgenres that become allegorical to both the symptoms of episodes and the recurrence of bipolar cycles. 3) Results: Examples of songs are given that mirror distinct facets of the disorder. 4) Conclusion: Although the links drawn between art (music) and science (psychiatry) are inherently subjective, such connections might be used to trigger a learning process, facilitate judgment and decision-making, and induce affective reactions and memory formation in the listener. The approach may facilitate collaborative efforts and serve healthcare professionals and educators as a communication tool to aid the public’s comprehension of the disease and an associated social paradox: On one hand, bipolar disorder incurs substantial costs to society. On the other hand, it benefits from the creative artistic and scientific endeavors of bipolar individuals from which cultural and political gains may ensue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0212.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Main Agroecological Structure; agroecology; Andean agroecosystems; agrobiodiversity index; cultural dimensions; farmer awareness
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:28:29 CEST)
The agro-biodiversity present in agro-ecosystems is fundamental in guaranteeing sustainability and resilience. However, there are very few proposals for evaluating it and, even less, ones that include indicators to analyze the influence of the structural and spatial configuration of a landscape in order to favor agro-biodiversity connectivity to productive systems, management and conservation practices, and the producer (farmer)’s perceptions, awareness and ability to favor it on his farm. The Main Agro-ecological Structure MAS is redefined as an environmental agro-biodiversity index. New indicators are established for a total of 10 criteria and 29 indicators of systems that describe the agro-biodiversity of agro-ecosystems. Methodologies for its evaluation are also described, and the possibility of adapting certain indicators according to the ecological and cultural contexts where the farms are located is discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Anesthesiology Keywords: visual patient; patient monitoring; avatar-based technology; situation awareness; user-centered design
Online: 2 March 2020 (00:56:03 CET)
Visual Patient technology is a situation awareness–oriented visualization technology that translates numerical and waveform patient monitoring data into a new user-centered visual language. Vital sign values are converted into colors, shapes, and rhythmic movements—a language humans can easily perceive and interpret—on a patient avatar model in real time. In this review, we summarize the current state of the research on the Visual Patient, including the technology, its history, and its scientific context. We also provide a summary of our primary research and a brief overview of research work on similar user-centered visualizations in medicine. In several computer-based studies under various experimental conditions, Visual Patient transferred more information per unit time, increased perceived diagnostic certainty, and lowered perceived workload. Eye tracking showed the technology worked because of the way it synthesizes and transforms vital sign information into new and logical forms corresponding to the real phenomena. The technology could be particularly useful for improving situation awareness in settings with high cognitive demand or when users must make quick decisions. This comprehensive review of Visual Patient research is the foundation for an evaluation of the technology in clinical applications, starting with a high-fidelity simulation study in early 2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Medical Illiteracy, Public Awareness, Periodontal Diseases, Global Burden of Disease, Google Trends
Online: 13 February 2019 (15:54:04 CET)
Background: The progression of periodontal diseases at national Portuguese level and its public awareness are of great interest, mainly due to the high burden of periodontitis. Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence progression of periodontal diseases in Portugal and correspondent public awareness, between 2004 and 2017, by using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), Directorate-General of Health (DGH) and Google® Trends (GT). Methods: For the period 2004-2017, Portuguese national data of periodontal diseases prevalence were searched in the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation of GBD and DGH and for public awareness, GT comparison tool between Portuguese words for “Periodontitis”, “Gingivitis”, “Gums” and “Periodontal disease” trends was used. Results: For the period 2004-2017, the overall prevalence of periodontitis slightly increased from 11.3% to 11.7%. During that period the GT search term “Gums” (“Gengivas”) was the most relevant. It increased steadily over time while the search term “Periodontal disease” (“Doença periodontal”) decreased, being these search trends significantly correlated (
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0539.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Ontology Model, Context Mashup, Context Type, Context Awareness, Internet of Things (IoT)
Online: 27 July 2018 (12:57:06 CEST)
In an open and dynamic IoT (the Internet of Things) environment, a common context information model is essential for active things to share common knowledge, reason their situations, and support adaptive interoperability with each other. There have been many studies on the IoT context information models based on semantic technology, but most of them have assumed a static situation based on a service-oriented information model suitable for specific applications of the IoT. In the case of applying their models to an open and dynamic IoT environment, two issues have been observed: Most of the models ignore (a) the mashup of the open-world semantics of context information generated by multiple context sources and (b) the reconciliation of the semantic relationships between multiple context entities under dynamic situation changes. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a context information model that is flexible enough to express complex and diverse semantic relationships between context information generated from a variety of context information sources in the IoT. The main background of this proposal is to propose an adaptive context model that can effectively mash up various context classes that use ontology in open and dynamic IoT environments. In this paper, we also show the effectiveness of the proposed model through an adequate verification model and a practical example.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0064.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: Energy use; indoor environment; health; behaviour change; awareness campaign; people-centred approach
Online: 10 October 2017 (17:41:16 CEST)
This paper attempts to alter a prevailing assumption that buildings use energy to an understanding that in fact, people use energy. Therefore, to successfully accelerate the transition to a low-carbon society and economy more emphasis should be on motivating people and increasing their awareness by making them energy conscious building users and therefore active players in the energy transition process. In this context, this paper provides insights from the Horizon 2020 MOBISTYLE project. It demonstrates research and development approaches, highlights the main project objectives, and presents findings of an ethnographic (qualitative) study of users’ habits, practices, and needs. The aim of the project is to motivate behavioural change by raising consumer awareness through the provision of attractive personalized information on user’s energy use, indoor environment and health, all enabled by an integrated information and communication technology (ICT) service. In this context, the anthropological people-centred approach is integrated into the MOBISTYLE approach putting users at the centre of the ICT tools development process. The main quantitative objective of the project is a reduction of energy use for at least 16 % prompted by the provision of combined information and feedback systems on energy, indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and health. The most relevant motivational factors and key performance indicators (KPIs) for encouraging a more energy conscious and healthy lifestyle were defined by means of a people-centred approach, adopting anthropological inquiries in different settings. Information about users’ lifestyles and their needs was collected in focus groups with potential users in five case studies, located in different European Union (EU) countries. Behaviour change is achieved through awareness campaigns, which encourage users to be pro-active about their energy consumption and to simultaneously improve health and well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: recommendation system; context awareness; location based services; mobile computing, cloud-based computing
Online: 18 September 2017 (08:54:04 CEST)
The ubiquity of mobile sensors (such as GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope) together with increasing computational power have enabled an easier access to contextual information, which proved its value in next generation of the recommender applications. The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers in many disciplines, such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, to filter the query results and provide recommendations based on different user status. A context-aware recommendation system (CoARS) provides a personalized service to each individual user, driven by his or her particular needs and interests at any location and anytime. Therefore, a contextual recommendation system changes in real time as a user’s circumstances changes. CoARS is one of the major applications that has been refined over the years due to the evolving geospatial techniques and big data management practices. In this paper, a CoARS is designed and implemented to combine the context information from smartphones’ sensors and user preferences to improve efficiency and usability of the recommendation. The proposed approach combines user’s context information (such as location, time, and transportation mode), personalized preferences (using individuals past behavior), and item-based recommendations (such as item’s ranking and type) to personally filter the item list. The context-aware methodology is based on preprocessing and filtering of raw data, context extraction and context reasoning. This study examined the application of such a system in recommending a suitable restaurant using both web-based and android platforms. The implemented system uses CoARS techniques to provide beneficial and accurate recommendations to the users. The capabilities of the system is evaluated successfully with recommendation experiment and usability test.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0070.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: decision-making; human-autonomous systems interaction; human performance; intelligent machines; overreliance; situational awareness
Online: 23 January 2023 (13:19:41 CET)
Autonomous systems and intelligent machines are involved in almost all areas of human activity and they are now more and more present in our everyday life. The reason for this extensive use certainly resides in all the benefits these machines offer to the users. In experimental settings, numerous studies have demonstrated the positive effects that the introduction of autonomous systems have on human decision-making and performance. However, studies have shown in addition that the introduction of these systems can have important negative effects as well. Considering that autonomous systems are now introduced in sensitive domains like the military or medicine, we need more than ever a comprehensive understanding of the effects they cause on human performance and decision-making, and particularly in tasks and contexts with a social or moral dimension. The aim of this narrative review is threefold. First, we will provide an overview of the main effects on a human agent’s decision-making and performance produced by the introduction of autonomous systems. Second, we will review the conditions identified as underlying factors of these effects, and see how current models of human – autonomous systems interaction integrate those conditions. Third, we will conclude this review by highlighting new directions for future investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0301.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: students’ awareness; climate change; climate information; mitigation activities; Democratic Re-public of Congo
Online: 16 November 2022 (08:58:25 CET)
Students are often portrayed as future leaders. Their participation in climate change mitigation would improve when they access climate information and gain a high level of climate change awareness. This study was initiated to assess the Congolese students’ awareness of climate change by focusing on their sources of information on climate change, knowledge about the causes and impacts of climate change and activities that can raise awareness on climate change. Using a convenience sampling technique, we collected data through individual interviews conducted among 1,278 students from 13 universities across the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The interview results showed that all students irrespective of their disciplines were concerned about climate change, a phenomenon strongly driven by human activities, such as deforestation (78%), urbanisation (30%), agriculture activities (30%) and transport services (26%). The students’ perceptions of climate change impacts included increase in temperature (82%), decrease in the number of rainy days (66%), proliferation of pests (60%) and increase in the number of malaria patients (39%). The primary sources of information that significantly affected students’ awareness of climate change included environment-related university courses and television broadcasts. The awareness-raising and mitigation actions related to climate change recommended by the students included educating people about good waste management (56%), planting trees (65%) and using the taxes paid by mining companies for the restoration of degraded ecosystems. The students believed that in DRC, all layers of the society (educational institutions, civil society organisations, community members and businesses) are important in building resilience to climate change. This study can guide teachers to focus their educational efforts on shaping pro-environmental behaviour in students.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0196.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Perspective Taking; Self-Awareness; Self-Representation; Metarepresentation; Theory of Mind; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
Online: 7 April 2021 (11:35:01 CEST)
Only by understanding the ability to take third-person perspective can we begin to elucidate the neural processes responsible for one’s inimitable conscious experience. The current study examined differences in hemispheric laterality during a first-person perspective (1PP) and third-person perspective (3PP) taking task, when using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). Participants were asked to take either the 1PP or 3PP when identifying the number of spheres in a virtual scene. During this task, single-pulse TMS was delivered to the motor cortex of both the left and right hemispheres of 10 healthy volunteers. Measures of TMS-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the contralateral abductor pollicis brevis (APB) were employed as an indicator of lateralized cortical activation. The data suggest that the right hemisphere is more important in discriminating between 1PP and 3PP. These data add a novel method for determining perspective taking and add to the literature supporting the role of the right hemisphere in meta representation.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Covid-19; Twitter; sustainable cities; sustainable citizenship; environmental awareness; responsible consumption; sustainable tourism
Online: 5 February 2021 (22:15:27 CET)
The social confinement resulting from the COVID-19 crisis temporarily reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Although experts consider that the decrease in pollution rates was not drastic, some surveys detect a growth in social concern about the climate. In this new climate-conscious environment, municipalities and local governments are promoting a new way of living and caring for cities, even before they can regain national and international freedom of movement. This work analyzes the connection between the new climate awareness arising from the COVID-19 crisis, the proposals of sustainable citizenship around the world, and its communication on Twitter to educate the new eco-conscious audience. The methodology mixes quantitative and qualitative analysis, using the Twitonomy Premium tool and the Twitter research tool, with data extracted at the end of December 2020. Among the top 10 most influential and active accounts, the results show educational institutions, local institutions, companies, neighborhood, associations, and influencers. The impossibility of living the city, has not prevented citizen education and commitment to make real change for when that city and its citizens return to normality. Although this new normality must be different: more ecological, more responsible, more sustainable and practiced from early childhood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Fathers; Human papillomavirus (HPV); awareness; HPV knowledge; HPV vaccine acceptability; Latino; Hispanic men
Online: 21 December 2020 (12:14:51 CET)
Objective: Despite increasing interest in understanding factors influencing awareness, knowledge, and acceptability of the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine among Latino parents to date, limited information is available specific to Latino fathers living in the United States. Methods: This descriptive qualitative study explored Latino fathers’ awareness, knowledge, and acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their adolescent children. Data were collected through individual, semi-structured interviews and analyzed using a hybrid method of thematic analysis that incorporated deductive and inductive approaches. Results: Nineteen, majority foreign-born Latino fathers (63.2%; n = 12) fathers of male and female adolescents participated in the study. Four main themes and two subthemes emerged from the analyses. Results found fathers’ low awareness and knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine. Results also identified fathers’ positive attitude toward vaccines in general. Moreover, results revealed fathers’ trust in healthcare providers. This trust translated into an increased willingness to vaccinate their children against HPV if recommended by their child’s primary healthcare provider. Conclusion: Findings indicate the need for increased efforts to raise awareness and knowledge among Latino fathers of HPV and the HPV vaccine. In addition, findings underscore the critical role of healthcare providers’ recommendation of the HPV vaccine. Given the limited research focused on Latino fathers, this study’s findings are valuable in building a knowledge foundation needed for developing future studies and interventions to promote the HPV vaccine by targeting Latino fathers living in the United States. Future research should quantify Latino fathers' awareness, knowledge, and acceptability of the HPV vaccine for their children, and preferences for educational interventions to promote HPV vaccination.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; Public AwareneSs; Public Practice; Social Distancing and Saudi Arabia
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:27:01 CEST)
Objectives: Social distancing measures are currently implemented to control COVID-19 pandemic in many countries, including Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the awareness and adherence of the Saudi population to these measures. Methods: A web-based questionnaire was designed with 16 questions (8 questions related to demographics, 3 in relation to awareness about social distancing and 5 related to overall practice of social distancing). Results: 5105 participants completed the survey [58.4% female, 66.3% young individuals (aged 18-37 years), 55.8% bachelor degree holders, and 51.0% from the western region]. The Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH) was the main source of information about COVID-19 for most participants (78.2%). High awareness (81.3%) regarding social distancing was observed, associated mainly with female participants, those from the middle region and those with high education and income. Overall implementation of social distancing was satisfactory (score 3.13/5), with 37.8% never leaving home during the home-stay period. Better adherence to social distancing was observed for female participants, higher degree holders and those aged over 38 years. Conclusions: Organised plans by the Saudi MOH have been effective in raising awareness and improving practice of social distancing among public. However, the observed lower practice of social distancing by individuals with lower education and income indicates the need for targeted interventions to achieve better outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0044.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: air pollution; environmental awareness; environmental education; green gas emission; sustainable development; water shortage
Online: 4 June 2018 (13:01:55 CEST)
This study inscribes itself in the global discussion on the nurturing of pro-environmental behaviors among young people for a sustainable future. Here we focus on students' interest in Ecosystem Services and Sustainability to explain their awareness and optimism about the environmental issues of air pollution, water shortage and green gas emission in 50 countries around the world. To this end, we use the cross-sectional survey data of the OECD's Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, along with seemingly unrelated bi-variate weighted ordered Probit modeling with country specific effects. The results show that in addition to factors such as age, gender, immigration status, and economic, social and cultural status, interest in the biosphere is a significant determinant of students' environmental awareness and optimism. In fact, a one level increase in students' interest in ecosystem services and sustainability raises on average their awareness level by 15.3% for the issue of air pollution, 15.7% for the issue of water shortage, and 24.6% for the issue of green gas emission. Although students' interest in the biosphere seems to not have a significant effect on their expectations about the issue of green gas emission, it does however raise their level of optimism by 0.8% for the issue of air pollution, and 0.2% for the issue of water shortage. Furthermore, every one level increase in students' environmental awareness leads to 17.3% more optimism about the issue of air pollution, 15.8% more optimism about the issue of water shortage, and 17.4% more optimism about the issue of green gas emission. Therefore, relying on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), our results imply that governments and policy makers can successfully leverage young people interests in the biosphere to effectively achieve their goals for sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0332.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Pine nuts; Neja nuts; NTFPs; Non-timber forest products; Socio-economic importance; Public awareness
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:22:17 CEST)
Non-woody forest products play a vital role in the economic uplifts of the local communities living in forest areas. This study was conducted in the Shishikoh Valley, district Chital to identify the economic importance of the Chilghoza nuts. The study was based on interviews and questionnaires, and a total of 50 questionnaires were collected from the whole valley. The results showed that before 2003, the people were unaware of the high economic value of the Chilghoza nuts, they used to sell the Chilghoza nuts at a very low price (US$ 1.7 to 2.4 per bag: approximately 5 Kg) and harvest it for fuelwood purposes. After the IPRP interventions, training and awareness, the local people started conservation of Chilghoza trees and sustainable cone harvesting. The total collection and sell out of Chilghoza nuts in the Shishikoh valley jumped to 87.9 tons and US$ 7.64/kg in 2005 from 32.7 tons and US$ 0.34-0.48/kg, respectively. This study concludes that IPRP interventions improved the economic values of Chilghoza nuts as well as the living standards of the local people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: maritime autonomy; autonomous ship; safety; digital twin; deep reinforcement learning; collision avoidance; situational awareness
Online: 26 September 2022 (08:55:58 CEST)
The use of digital twins for the development of Autonomous Maritime Surface Vessels (AMSVs) has enormous potential to resolve the increasing need for water-based navigation and safety at the seas. Aiming at the problem of lack of broad and integrated digital twin implementations with live data along with the absence of a digital twin-driven framework for AMSV design and development, an application framework for the development of a fully autonomous vessel using an integrated digital twin in a 3D simulation environment has been presented. Our framework has four layers to ensure that the simulation and the real-world boat as well as the environment are as close as possible. Åboat, an experimental research platform for maritime automation and autonomous surface ship applications, equipped with two trolling electric motors, cameras, LiDARs, IMU and GPS has been used as the case study to provide a proof of concept. Åboat and its sensors, alongwith the environment have been replicated in a 3D simulation environment. Using the proposed application framework, we develop obstacle detection and path planning systems based on machine learning which leverage live data from a 3D simulation environment to mirror the complex dynamics of the real world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Clean Energy Production; Nuclear Awareness; Nuclear Electrical Power; Nuclear Optimism; Nuclear Waste; Sustainable Development
Online: 10 May 2019 (14:31:53 CEST)
Relying on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) extract from the cross-national data sample on the environmental affection and cognition of adolescent students, and seemingly unrelated bivariate weighted ordered probit regression modeling, this study adopts a national perspective to investigate the determinants of adolescent students' awareness and expectations about nuclear power technology and nuclear waste in the UAE. Identification of model parameters is achieved through maximum simulated likelihood estimation. The findings show that each level increase in UAE youth's interest in ecosystem services and sustainability raises their awareness of nuclear electrical power and nuclear waste by 13.5%, while reducing by 2.4% their level of optimism towards the technology. Furthermore, we find significant heterogeneity in youth awareness and expectations about nuclear power technology across the seven Emirates. Accounting for all other factors (including interest in ecosystem services), UAE youth awareness about nuclear electrical power technology appears to not significantly influence their expectations about the evolution of this technology for the next 20 years. Given that the UAE first nuclear power plant ``Barakah'' is scheduled to start operations end of 2019 beginning 2020, and the typical long life-span of nuclear wastes, our results provide important insights for developing sustainable nuclear energy policies and establishing a long-term nuclear energy program in the UAE.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0351.v1
Subject: Keywords: lecture based instruction; actual community-based instruction; maternal and child care; social competency skills; community awareness
Online: 13 April 2021 (12:47:52 CEST)
Maternal-child care is one of the foundations of primary health care. Nurses’ competency skills they have been taught. Community awareness is an important part of preventive healthcare, and nurses must be aware of the factors that impact the health of the community. This study examines the effectiveness of lecture-based instructions in maternal and child care and its implications to students' social competency skills and community awareness in Nursing Colleges in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The researcher uses survey questionnaire and employed the descriptive design where fifteen (15) nursing students and five (5) teachers were purposively selected. The findings revealed that the weighted mean for the effectiveness of lecture based instruction in maternal and child care is 3.91 with verbal description of “Effective”, the effects of lecture based instruction in maternal and childcare to students’ social competency skills and community awareness got the weighted mean of 3.87 and interpreted as “very satisfactory” and the effectiveness of actual community-based instruction is very effective with weighted mean of 4.25 and is higher compare to lecture based instruction. The results also revealed that students and teachers were challenged in lecture-based instruction in maternal and chi8ldcare during distance learning. Recommendations for the enhancement of lecture-based instruction in maternal and childcare in social competency skills and community awareness were also made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; virus’ transmission; fear of contagion; breathing difficulty; healthy adolescents; emotion awareness; anxiety-state
Online: 15 August 2020 (08:25:22 CEST)
The COVID-19 appears as a catastrophic health risk with psychological, emotional, social and relational implications. From the early stages of the virus spread, the elderly population was identified as the most vulnerable and the health authorities have rightly focused on such frailest population. Conversely, less attention was paid to emotional and psychological dimension of children and adolescents. Actually, they were less at risk quoad vitam or quoad valetudinem, nevertheless they had to face a reality of anxiety, fears and uncertainties. The current study investigated state anxiety and emotion awareness in a healthy sample of older adolescents, 84 females and 64 males, aged 17 to 19, during the pandemic lockdown, using Self-rating Anxiety Scale and the Italian Emotion Awareness Questionnaire. An unexpected anxious phenomenology, impacting the anxiety ideo-affective domain, was found, while the somatic symptomatology appeared to be less severe. The highest anxiety symptom were the breathing difficulties. These findings supported the hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic may be a risk condition for an increased state anxiety in older adolescents and suggest the need to provide 1. an effective, empathic communication system with the direct participation of older adolescents, 2. a psychological counseling service for stress management of adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0347.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: interocular suppression; consciousness; color vision; visual search; attentional templates; early visual system; awareness; continuous flash suppression; binocoular rivalry
Online: 18 January 2021 (14:32:29 CET)
Color can direct visual attention to specific locations through bottom-up and top-down mechanisms. Using Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) as way to investigate the factors that gate access to consciousness, the current study investigated whether color also directly affected the timing of conscious perception. Low or high spatial frequency (SF) gratings with different orientations were shown as targets to the non-dominant eye of human participants. CFS patterns were presented at a rate of 10Hz to the dominant eye to delay conscious perception of the targets, and participants had the task to report the target’s orientation as soon as they could see it. With low-SF targets, two types of color-based effects became evident. First, when the targets and the CFS patterns had different colors, the targets entered consciousness faster than in trials where the targets and CFS patterns had the same color. Second, when participants searched for a specific target color, targets that matched these search settings entered consciousness faster compared to conditions where the target color was irrelevant and could vary from trial to trial. Thus, the current study demonstrates that color is a central feature of human perception and leads to faster conscious perception of visual stimuli through bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Mobile data science; artificial intelligence; machine learning; natural language processing; expert system; data-driven decision making; context-awareness; intelligent mobile apps
Online: 14 September 2020 (00:01:39 CEST)
Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have grown rapidly in recent years in the context of computing with smart mobile phones that typically allows the devices to function in an intelligent manner. Popular AI techniques include machine learning and deep learning methods, natural language processing, as well as knowledge representation and expert systems, can be used to make the target mobile applications intelligent and more effective. In this paper, we present a comprehensive view on mobile data science and intelligent apps in terms of concepts and AI-based modeling that can be used to design and develop intelligent mobile applications for the betterment of human life in their diverse day-to-day situation. This study also includes the concepts and insights of various AI-powered intelligent apps in several application domains, ranging from personalized recommendation to healthcare services, including COVID-19 pandemic management in recent days. Finally, we highlight several research issues and future directions relevant to our analysis in the area of mobile data science and intelligent apps. Overall, this paper aims to serve as a reference point and guidelines for the mobile application developers as well as the researchers in this domain, particularly from the technical point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems; RPAS; Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; UAV; Unmanned Aerial Systems; UAS; Detect and Avoid; DAA; Separation Assurance; Self Separation; Collision Avoidance; Situational Awareness; Drones; Aircraft; ADS-B; Real Time Simulations
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:31:56 CEST)
Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) are increasingly becoming relevant actors flying through the airspace and will assume much more importance in the future perspective. In order to allow their safe integration with manned conventional traffic in non-segregated airspaces, in accordance with the overall Air Traffic Management (ATM) paradigm, specific enabling technologies are needed. As well known, among the enabling technologies identified as crucial for RPAS integration into the overall ATM system, the Detect and Avoid (DAA) technology is fundamental. In the meantime, to support extended surveillance, the universal introduction on-board of aircraft of cooperative Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) is increasingly implemented, having the potential to allow coverage of the whole airspace also in remote areas not usually covered by conventional radar surveillance. In this paper, the experimental results are presented and discussed that have been obtained through the real-time validation, with hardware and human in the loop (RTS-HIL) simulations, of an automatic ADS-B based Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance System aimed to support RPAS automatic operations as well as remote pilot decision making. In the paper, after an introductory outline of the Concept of Operations (ConOps) of the system and of its architectural organization, while also providing basic information about the main system functionalities, the description is reported of the tests that have been carried out and the obtained results are described and discussed, in order to emphasize the performances and limitations of the proposed system. In particular, not only the quantitative performances obtained are reported and commented but also the feedbacks received by the pilots in order to improve the system are described, for instance in terms of preferred typology of conflict resolution manoeuver elaborated by the system.