Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

International Trade and the Convergence in Youth Technological Awareness and Expectations within NAFTA: The Case of GMOs and Nuclear Power Technologies

Version 1 : Received: 9 May 2019 / Approved: 13 May 2019 / Online: 13 May 2019 (08:01:33 CEST)

How to cite: Niankara, I.; Adkins, L.C. International Trade and the Convergence in Youth Technological Awareness and Expectations within NAFTA: The Case of GMOs and Nuclear Power Technologies. Preprints 2019, 2019050143 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201905.0143.v1). Niankara, I.; Adkins, L.C. International Trade and the Convergence in Youth Technological Awareness and Expectations within NAFTA: The Case of GMOs and Nuclear Power Technologies. Preprints 2019, 2019050143 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201905.0143.v1).

Abstract

Relying on the USA, Canada and Mexico extract from the cross-national data sample on the environmental affection and cognition of adolescent students (Niankara, 2019), along with seemingly unrelated bivariate weighted ordered probit regression modeling (Niankara and Zoungrana, 2018), this study reports on the convergence of technological awareness and expectations within the context of international trade. We achieve this by adopting a regional perspective in investigating the effects of affective, cognitive and situational factors on youth's awareness and expectations about genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and nuclear power technology (NPT) within the North American free trade block. Identification of model parameters is achieved using maximum simulated likelihood methods. The findings show that although it has been over 20 years as of 2015 that USA, Canada, and Mexico ratified the north American free trade agreement (NAFTA), the diffusion of technology and information within the trade block has not succeeded in homogenizing awareness and expectations about GMOs and Nuclear power technology, as observed in the youth population across the three countries. Indeed, with regards to technological awareness, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada show 15% (GMOs) and 7.1% (NPT) more awareness respectively; while those in Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 19.5% less aware about GMOs and NPT. With respect to technological expectations, compared to youth from the USA, those from Canada and Mexico are respectively 34.4% and 39.9% more optimistic about GMOs, while 15% and 49.7% more optimistic about NPT. Overall, youth within NAFTA country members are respectively 2.5% and 6.7% more optimistic about GMOs and NPT for every level increase in their awareness about the two technologies.

Supplementary and Associated Material

Subject Areas

expectations convergence; NAFTA; sustainable development; technological transfer; youth awareness

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