ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Kampus Mengajar; MBKM; Students; Education; Dhaniswara Junior High School Surabaya
Online: 8 June 2023 (04:06:11 CEST)
Kampus Mengajar is a teaching and learning activity in schools as part of the independent campus learning policy (MBKM) initiated by Nadiem Anwar Makarim, B.A., M.B.A. as Minister of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology of the Republic of Indonesia. This article aims to find out the teaching campus, a form of direct student service in the world of education? This article is a qualitative descriptive with a literature study. The result of this article is that all work program designs that have been prepared together can be implemented well at SMP Dhaniswara Surabaya and get quite satisfactory results.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0533.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Emotional intelligence; job satisfaction; teacher; Scoping review
Online: 7 June 2023 (10:16:56 CEST)
Recent trends in assessing teachers' psychological aspects have led to considering emotional intelligence (EI) as one of the main factors determining teachers' job satisfaction. The present study aims to explore the different effects of emotional intelligence on teachers' job satisfaction. This study used the Scoping review method and focused specifically on studies conducted from January 2014 to February 2023, and 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the results indicated that emotional intelligence has both direct and indirect positive effects on teachers' job satisfaction. However, the results on the effects of various EI models on teachers' job satisfaction were inconsistent. The findings suggest that more research is needed to investigate the impact of the ability model of EI on teachers’ job satisfaction, as well as longitudinal studies to understand the long-term effects of this relationship. Finally, studies are also needed to determine whether demographic factors influence the effects of EI on teachers’ job satisfaction in different countries and contexts.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0411.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; schools; ocean literacy; citizen science; SDGs
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:14:18 CEST)
Human activities continue to degrade oceanic, coastal and inland waters. The generational change in the role of society in actively looking after the health of water resources can be achieved through the expansion of ocean and water literacy in schools. The Network of European Blue Schools established under the EU4Ocean Coalition for Ocean Literacy has improved ocean and water literacy; however, this Network needs to grow and be supported. Here we present ProBleu; a recently funded EU project that will expand and support the Network, partly through the use of citizen science. The core of the proposed methodology is facilitating school activities related to ocean and water literacy through funding calls to sustain and enrich current school activities, and kick-start and support new activities. The outcomes of the project are anticipated to have wide and long-term impacts across society, oceanic, coastal and inland water environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0336.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: distributed leadership; school principal’s practices; teacher leadership; teacher profes-sional development
Online: 5 June 2023 (14:30:33 CEST)
Distributed leadership is based on increasing the knowledge of the skills of those who exercise the role of leaders in the school. The objectives are a) to analyse school principals’ practices aimed at creating professional development opportunities linked to teacher leadership for school improvement and b) to relate the perceptions of teacher leaders with professional development opportunities granted by principals. The methods of the study were based on an examination of 21 interviews, between individual semi-structured interviews with school principals and group interviews with teacher leaders at six public schools in Chile, as well as a documentary analysis of institutional educational projects using grounded theory and NVivo 12 software. The results are presented in three categories: management of principals about school organisation, development of the professional capacities of teacher leaders, and management of principals about school coexistence and participation of teacher leaders. The conclusions detailing school principal practices show that distributed leadership practices are helpful in developing teachers’ leadership competencies. Furthermore, this study suggests that training amplifies the beneficial effects of distributed leadership on teachers’ development. Finally, the findings imply that school principals should regularly fulfil their managerial responsibilities and pay more attention to teacher training to improve the school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mathematics; Self-efficacy; Learning disability; Dyscalculia
Online: 31 May 2023 (09:50:56 CEST)
In the study, it was aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale in order to determine the self-efficacy perceptions of classroom teachers in the field of mathematics learning difficulties. In the development process of the scale, the basic resources and the scale development studies in the literature were examined. First, a pool of substances was created. Content validity was ensured by taking the opinions of 21 expert participants in the 24 question areas determined in the item pool. Content validity index was used in content validity. In this analysis, two questions were removed from the scale. Preliminary application was made with 44 participating teachers who are experts in their fields and exploratory factor analysis was started. For exploratory factor analysis, 359 people consisting of classroom teachers in Sakarya province were studied. In the explanatory factor analysis, 5 items were removed from the scale by looking at the factor load. The factor loadings for the 17 items in the scale vary between 0.508 and 0.976. Among the comparative fit indices obtained as a result of confirmatory factor analysis, RMSEA=0.067 and Cmin/DF=1.568 were calculated. The Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient of the measurements is 0.970. The data obtained were analyzed with statistical methods using SPSS 25, AMOS 24 and Microsoft Excel programs. The validity and reliability criteria of the scale developed within the scope of the study were met.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2092.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: NEP; new education policy; Indian education system; technology in education; outcome based education
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:39:53 CEST)
Bridging the gap between traditional education and matching the pace of education with the rest of the world, Govt. of India implemented a new education policy this year which was much awaited for a long time. The new education policy is a big step to change India's overall education scenario by changing the examination pattern. However, this new type of decision-making process seeks to ensure that it achieves great benefits covering all uncovered elements while keeping technology as a parameter, so this new policy in the previous education system is also missing some key issues that must be addressed in the next amendments. Making it an example of impact, this paper describes salient issues where new educational policies are silent or those grey areas have been only superficially touched upon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2006.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: AI Literacy; AI Expertise; Subject-linked; Pre-service Teacher; Micro-teaching
Online: 29 May 2023 (10:51:09 CEST)
Artificial intelligence, a key technological tool in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution, is being actively applied to education beyond industry, economy, and culture. In the future society, understanding and using artificial intelligence technology will be considered an essential skill for everyone, and the professionalism of AI education for pre-service teachers nurturing future talents is also important. This study verifies the effectiveness of pre-service teachers after undergoing a 15-week extension program consisting of AI Literacy Education (10 weeks), AI-Linked Subjet Education (3 weeks), and Micro-teaching (2 weeks) which was designed to enhance the AI education professionalism of pre-service teachers. The AI Literacy Education section consisted of understanding AI, AI ethics, and basic programming, and the education was conducted through both experience and practice. After that, the pre-service teachers analyzed the curriculum of the 5th and 6th grades of an elementary school, and developed a subject-related education program using AI tools in three stages. Using the developed program, micro-teaching classes were conducted twice. The study results are as follows. First, there was a change in the positive perception of AI (p<.05). Second, the understanding of AI educational technology tools was improved and the recognition of the usefulness of developing a curriculum-related program was expanded. Third, the importance of teacher competency development was learned through the micro-teaching, and the students' understanding of the learning process was expanded.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1901.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Clinical instructor; Undergraduate nursing students; Clinical learning; Descriptive phenomenological approach
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:50:14 CEST)
This study aimed to determine clinical instructors’ perceptions of the assessments used to evaluate the clinical knowledge of undergraduate nursing students. This study uses a descriptive phenomenological approach. Purposive sampling was used to recruit sixteen clinical instructors for semi-structured interviews between August to December 2019. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven-step method. Four criteria were used to ensure the study’s validity: credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Three themes were identified in the clinical instructors’ views on evaluating the clinical performance of student nurses: familiarity with students, patchwork clinical learning, and differing perceptions of the same scoring system. Study results suggest the need for a reliable, valid, and consistent approach to evaluating students’ clinical knowledge. If the use of patchwork clinical internships for student nurses is unavoidable, a method for assessing student nurses’ clinical performance that requires instructor consensus is necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1718.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: forest education; innovations in teaching; transformative learning; strategy games; sustainable forest landscape governance; social innovation
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:07:38 CEST)
Forest education is pivotal for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and promoting sustainable forest management in the face of global challenges. However, existing programs struggle to keep up with rapidly changing crises and uncertainties that contribute to deforestation and forest degradation. To address these challenges, integrating innovative approaches into forest education is crucial. This paper demonstrates the transformative use of a role-playing game as an innovative teaching method for integrated forest management. The game provides students with practical experience and a comprehensive understanding of landscape approaches, using the Congo Basin as a case study. Our research focuses on sustainable forest governance, stakeholder roles, and valuing natural assets and ecosystem services, supporting the transformation of economic, political, and social/cultural relationships at various scales. We highlight the potential of innovative forest education to foster sustainability, trigger critical thinking, resolve conflicts, and prevent costly forest losses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1677.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: family members of terminally ill patients in intensive care units; feeling experience when signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent
Online: 24 May 2023 (03:30:27 CEST)
All humans will experience the process of birth, old age, illness, and death. However, when faced with life-sustaining decisions, the families of patients are often faced with medical decisions as surrogates. In recent years, the families of patients have started to value the importance of the right to palliative care, although this often requires lengthy discussions. Therefore, this study explored the predictability of factors that affect the feeling experienced by patients’ families when signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent. This study used a cross-sectional study and interviewed 90 family members using a structural questionnaire. The study hypotheses were tested using a t-test, one-way analysis of variance, product–moment correlation, and hierarchical regression analysis. Attribute variables of family members, such as gender and whether they live with the patient, are predictors that affect the family member’s feeling experience when signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent. The emotional support from medical professionals to family members helps the family member to express their negative feelings on signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent; more informational support information provided to family members by medical professionals can alleviate negative feelings felt by family members when signing Do-Not-Resuscitate Consent. This study identified that family members’ knowledge about Do-Not-Resuscitate acquired from medical professionals is relatively low. It is suggested that critical care units regularly conduct training on hospice palliative care, implement standard care procedures of hospice palliative care at critical care units, and provide detailed medical information about advanced decisions to family members so as to reduce their emotional stress. This will ensure that intensive care units can also achieve the goal of critically ill hospice palliative care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1514.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Journey of Educators and Students; Post-Pandemic Education Era; Resiliency; Transformative Journey; Voices of Resiliency
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:10:03 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has invited us to envision education anew, embracing a new era of instructional practices and learning environments. This study explores language teachers' and students' experiences in the post-pandemic landscape, providing valuable insights into the challenges, adaptations, and opportunities. Grounded in socio-cultural perspectives and educational theories, such as Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory and Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory, the study employs Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to comprehensively analyze secondary data sources. Findings reveal the significant role of social interaction and cultural context in language learning, amid reduced face-to-face contact and increased reliance on technology. The study uncovers the intricate interplay between individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors, shedding light on educators' and learners' challenges. Autonomy, competence, and relatedness emerge as crucial for intrinsic motivation and optimal learning outcomes. While acknowledging limitations related to secondary data sources, the study offers a comprehensive overview of the literature, informing language education practices in the post-pandemic era. It contributes to understanding the complex dynamics and interactions within language education and calls for future research using primary data collection methods to explore experiences and perspectives further. By understanding post-pandemic experiences, this study aims to shape education policies, practices, and pedagogical approaches, supporting effective language learning and the well-being of educators and learners in this transformed educational context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; neuroscience; neuropedagogy; neuroeducation; higher education; design thinking; learning management system
Online: 19 May 2023 (03:32:57 CEST)
Higher education teaching staff members need to build a scientifically accurate and comprehensive understanding of the function of the brain in learning to optimize teaching and achieve excellent student learning. An international consortium developed a professional development six-module course on educational neuroscience and online community of practice applying design thinking. A mixed methods research design was employed to investigate the attitudes of thirty-two (N=32) participating academics using a survey comprising eleven closed and open questions. Data analysis methods included descriptive statistics, correlation, generalized additive model and grounded theory. The overall evaluation demonstrated a notable satisfaction level with regard to the quality of the course. Given the power of habits, mentoring and peer interactions are recommended to ensure the effective integration of theoretical neuroscientific evidence into teaching practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1244.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Critical Thinking; Language and Literature Education; Moral Reasoning; Values Integration
Online: 17 May 2023 (11:04:46 CEST)
In today's complex and rapidly changing world, integrating values, critical thinking, and moral reasoning in language and literature education is crucial for equipping students with the skills to navigate multifaceted ethical dilemmas and become responsible global citizens. This article highlights the connection between language, literature, critical thinking, moral reasoning, and values integration in education. Through language and literature, teachers can incorporate values education in their classroom, which can benefit not only individual students but also society as a whole. Theoretical frameworks such as character education, moral education, and values education provide the basis for this approach. The researcher recommends strategies for incorporating values integration in language and literature curricula, including the use of literary texts that promote critical thinking and moral reasoning skills. The limitations of this approach, including the challenges in assessing the effectiveness of values integration and potential resistance from some stakeholders, are also discussed. Ultimately, this article aims to call on educators to take a proactive role in promoting values integration in language and literature education, guided by the principles of Jesus Christ and the belief that education is not only about acquiring knowledge but developing character as well. Moreover, this concept has a significant and lasting impact on students' overall development that highlights the importance of values and moral reasoning needed to live a better life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Informal learning; Computers in education; Distance education and online learning; Learning communities; Mobile learning
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:31:13 CEST)
This article discusses the comparison between digital and traditional face-to-face coaching within the scope of shadow education institutions. While analyzing the differences and similarities between the two educational models, both their advantages and disadvantages are thoroughly discussed. In this context, interviews were conducted with students and teachers who receive education in both face-to-face and digital coaching, and the positive and negative aspects of both institutions, suitable and unsuitable courses, the future situation, and the effects on students' academic achievements were revealed. According to the results obtained from the research, it is noteworthy that students who do not receive education in digital coaching have prejudices against digitalization. Additionally, no significant difference was found between the academic achievements of students receiving education in digital coaching and those receiving education in face-to-face coaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital Age; Digital Era; Evolution of Pen and Paper; Screens and Keyboards
Online: 17 May 2023 (05:39:28 CEST)
Delve into the ebb and flow of human ingenuity as the researcher traces the evolution of writing from papyrus to pixels. Discover how humble instruments like quill pens and typewriters have propelled human into the digital frontier, forever reshaping the art of expression in the modern age. This article examines the evolution of writing tools from traditional pen and paper to digital writing in the modern age. It explores the development of writing materials such as papyrus, parchment, and paper, as well as the invention of writing tools including quill pens, fountain pens, and typewriters. The rise of digital writing tools, including word processing software and smartphones, is also discussed, along with their benefits such as increased efficiency and productivity, enhanced collaboration and sharing capabilities, and greater accessibility and flexibility. However, the article also highlights the challenges of writing in the digital age, including the impact of digital distractions on writing focus and quality, the issue of online plagiarism and copyright infringement, and the potential loss of traditional writing skills. The article concludes with recommendations for educators, school administrators, students, and researchers to strike a balance between digital and traditional writing practices, to embrace digital writing tools while preserving traditional writing skills, and to understand the importance of the evolution of writing. The theoretical frameworks of Social Construction of Technology (SCOT) Theory, Media Ecology Theory, and Activity Theory are also discussed in relation to the evolution of writing tools. Overall, this article provides valuable insights into the history, benefits, and challenges of writing in the digital age, as well as suggestions for navigating the future of writing and its tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1135.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Boundless Minds; Language and Literary Enlightenment; Symphony of Ethos
Online: 16 May 2023 (09:14:02 CEST)
In the intricate tapestry of our ever-evolving world, where complexities abound and change unfurls with unyielding speed, the amalgamation of values, critical thinking, and moral reasoning within the realm of language and literature education emerges as an imperious necessity. For it is through this harmonious integration that we fortify the minds of our students, bestowing upon them the indispensable tools to traverse the labyrinthine paths of multifaceted ethical quandaries, while shaping them into steadfast guardians of our shared global community. This article highlights the connection between language, literature, critical thinking, moral reasoning, and values integration in education. Through language and literature, teachers can incorporate values education in their classroom, which can benefit not only individual students but also society as a whole. Theoretical frameworks such as character education, moral education, and values education provide the basis for this approach. The researcher recommends strategies for incorporating values integration in language and literature curricula, including the use of literary texts that promote critical thinking and moral reasoning skills. The limitations of this approach, including the challenges in assessing the effectiveness of values integration and potential resistance from some stakeholders, are also discussed. Ultimately, this article aims to call on educators to take a proactive role in promoting values integration in language and literature education, guided by the principles of Jesus Christ and the belief that education is not only about acquiring knowledge but developing character as well. Moreover, this concept has a significant and lasting impact on students' overall development that highlights the importance of values and moral reasoning needed to live a better life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: EFL; language functions; speech acts; teacher’s perception; textbook evaluation
Online: 15 May 2023 (15:54:12 CEST)
This study mostly analyzes the pragmatic viewpoints of speech acts and language functions through Halliday’s (1975) language functions and Searle’s (1976) speech acts were adapted to analyze the functional aspects of the conversations and it was also intended to explore the teachers’ perception toward teaching and learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ textbooks and the teacher’s components of communicative knowledge regarding the functions of language in daily activity. The participants of this paper consisted of thirteen Sunrise 10, 11, 12 grades of Kurdish teachers at high school English in Iraqi Kurdistan. Through semi-structured interview, it was found that the conversations in the mentioned textbooks are insufficient from the pragmatic point of view. Some recommendation for the textbook designers, teachers, material developer were raised to make up the shortcomings of the textbooks. The findings reveal that the conversation texts in Sunrise textbooks are not meeting the systematic standard of pragmatic competence the English language learners and the book designer must be recommended to be aware of those shortcomings of the textbook series if they are required to develop their speaking skills in both student and activity series. The implications of this paper can be helpful in comparing the results of this study with other similar studies to check if there is a universal pattern in performing the speech acts and language functions and the interest to Kimberley Education for Life learners in increasing their knowledge of pragmatics in general and the role of language functions and speech acts investigated in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0996.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Cultural Awareness; Digital Storytelling; Enhancing Students’ Engagement; Multimodal Approaches
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:45:05 CEST)
Digital storytelling is a powerful tool for language learning that has gained popularity in recent years. By incorporating different modes of communication such as text, images, audio, and video, digital storytelling provides learners with engaging and interactive experiences that promote language acquisition and cultural awareness. Digital storytelling can also promote interaction among learners, which is crucial for language learning, and provide learners with opportunities to receive feedback and support from their peers. Additionally, digital storytelling can be used to promote cultural sensitivity and intercultural dialogue among language learners. Through storytelling, learners can gain insights into the customs, values, and beliefs of different communities, and create stories that reflect their own cultural backgrounds and experiences. This paper provides an overview of the benefits of digital storytelling for language learning and highlights the various ways in which it can be used to enhance language acquisition and cultural awareness. It concludes with recommendations on how to effectively incorporate digital storytelling into language teaching practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0789.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Language Learning; Novel Approach; Power of Music
Online: 11 May 2023 (04:58:08 CEST)
Teaching and learning a new language is a complex process that requires more than just memorizing vocabulary and grammar rules. Immersing oneself in the target language's culture and history is essential for achieving fluency and accuracy. In recent years, researchers have explored the potential of music as a tool for language learning. This paper discusses the benefits of using music in language learning, including improved listening comprehension, pronunciation and fluency, and cultural understanding. The theoretical framework of sociocultural theory, cognitive load theory, and task-based language learning is presented to support the use of music in language learning. This paper also provides practical recommendations for learners to incorporate music into their language learning routine, as well as resources for finding music in the target language, such as online music platforms and language learning apps. The article concludes by encouraging language learners to incorporate music into their language learning routine and providing resources for finding music in the target language, such as online music platforms and language learning apps. Overall, this paper demonstrates that music can be a powerful and enjoyable tool for enhancing language learning outcomes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0715.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Video Games; Gamification; Game Based Learning; Sustainable Development; Sustainability; Higher Education; Undergraduate Students; College Students
Online: 10 May 2023 (08:54:10 CEST)
Nowadays, the European Union and the governments of the different countries have focused on the development of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and the 2030 agenda, something that has been translated into education itself. Video Games, Gamification, and Game Based Learning have become different strategies and tools to enhance the learning process and some of the growing approaches used by teachers to develop sustainable education in the classrooms. This research aims to analyze the characteristics to promote sustainability in education using games and technology, specifically its learning benefits for Higher Education. A systematic review of the literature was conducted following the PRISMA methodology. At first, 2025 documents were found which, after the filtering phases, the number of articles has been reduced to nine, which subsequently were analyzed in depth. The results indicated that among the benefits of the use of games mediated by technologies are the following: it favors education for sustainability and it promotes the educational inclusion and the work of various social skills such as collaborative and cooperative work. Also, showed an increase of the number of publications between 2019 and 2023, reflecting the growing interest in the topic. However, there are some research gap in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0573.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Covid-19 pandemic era; digital divide; online learning; undergraduate students; South African universities
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:18:12 CEST)
Abstract This qualitative research study was aimed at exploring Covid-19 pandemic and its impact via online engagement on disadvantaged undergraduate students resulting in digital divide. The study was supported by the connectivism theory. The methodology approach was an eight year (2014-2022) duration systematic literature review using Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science (WoS) databases as advanced search strategies. Findings from the SLR provided 56 included relevant publications as confirmed in the Reference Section. Here, findings justified factors responsible for digital divide and the digital divide impacts. Connectivism was suggested as an approach to control digital divide. This study recommends connectivism to control digital divide experienced among disadvantaged undergraduate students in South African universities via numerous supports for free trainings in computer skills, while the government provides low data cost and free Wi-Fi services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0551.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; preschool education; inclusion; public policies
Online: 9 May 2023 (03:41:10 CEST)
In this study, we analyze the perspectives of Early Childhood Educators, working in various teaching sectors, on Inclusion in Preschool Education, following the publication of Decree-Law No. 54/2018, of July 6th, at a time when Learning and Inclusion Support Measures are being extended to all children, and when the SARS-CoV-19 (COVID-19) pandemic prevails in Portugal and worldwide. Based on a mixed-methodological approach and the application of a questionnaire survey to 250 Early Childhood Educators, we reflect on the implementation of the legal framework, the involvement of the Multidisciplinary Learning and Inclusion Support Team (EMAEI), teacher training, pedagogical/collaborative work, and support mobilized for Preschool Education children. The results obtained indicate quality and effectiveness in the pedagogical plan and collaborative work between teachers and specialist technicians, although higher education in the field of Inclusive Education does not seem to provide professionals with the necessary and in-depth knowledge on the subject. They also indicate that, alongside dissatisfaction with the insufficient support provided to Preschool Education children, the relevant Diploma is not fully applied, with doubts still remaining about its application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0510.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; Post-Pandemic; Higher Education; Online Learning; Global Citizenship; Hiroshima; Japan; Students’ Perception
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:20:14 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has struck educational experience systems around the globe. This paper investigates and evaluates the student participants’ perceptions who joined the international exchange seminar on global citizenship and peace held at a University in Hiroshima, Japan. Approximately seventy students and faculty members from nine to ten different universities from around the globe joined this summer program in August 2021 (online) and 2022 (face-to-face). This study is a mixed-method study. The first part consists of a quantitative analysis of BEVI data obtained from the students in the seminar before COVID-19 and after. The research concludes that there are no changes in the way students learn. The second part consists of qualitative data. This data shows the perceptions of students of online teaching versus hybrid teaching. It compares the differences in participants’ perceptions reported in students’ feedback on the programs during and post-COVID-19. Our results confirm prominent differences exist in the students’ perceptions of their learning experience during the pre-pandemic and post-pandemic periods. The findings of this study suggest that universities need to strive and define a meaning and purpose of international seminars, which enables students to experience a high level of intercultural social interaction face-to-face.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0308.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: cooperative learning; professional capital; learning of education professionals; long-term project
Online: 5 May 2023 (05:41:46 CEST)
This article presents the research results on developing professional capital in Lithuanian schools during the national project "Time for leaders". The longitudinal national initiative aimed to develop professional capital as the synergy of human, social and decisional components (Hargreaves and Fullan, 2019) of schools through the various cooperation-based learning experiences of educational professionals. The article provides an overview of project interventions (activities that stimulated cooperative learning of educational professionals) in the light of cooperative learning principles. The assessment of change over two project years in education professionals' perceptions of professional capital is presented using Cohen's d effect size measure. The measurement sample consisted of teachers (n1=5105; n2=4683) and school leaders (n1=439; n2=405) from 189 schools in 30 Lithuanian municipalities. The findings show a statistically significant medium positive change in professional capital. The most considerable change was estimated in the social and decisional capital dimensions and the relatively smallest - in the field of human capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: value communication; lecturing; parenting; value theory; Professor Obiora Ike; Edo state
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:59:49 CEST)
This study seeks to interrogate the degree to which lecturers and students of higher institutions in Nigeria perceive the role of lecturers doubling as parents under the term lecturenting, i.e., a coinage used to refer to a person who performs the dual roles of lecturing and parenting students of higher institutions. The study is based on Professor Obiora Ike’s ideology of communication of values, normally applicable to traditionally homes only. The research used a quantitative survey of 266 undergraduates and 109 lecturers, totaling 375 respondents from two purposively selected higher institutions in Nigeria, namely: Edo state University Uzairue and Federal Polytechnic Auchi, both in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo state, Nigeria. A questionnaire with a set of nine semi-structured questions was used to obtain data from the students during the school semesters between July 15 and August 31, 2022. The study was based on the value theory. Findings indicate that lecturers frequently engage in lecturenting which helped improve the academic performance of students but shows that students do not want lecturenting on their behavioral change. The study concludes that the more lecturers engage in Lecturenting, the more positive impact it will have on their students. It is recommended that lecturers should engage in the practice of lecturenting as it helps to improve student academic performance and that students should perceive lecturenting as positive as well as be favorably disposed to it and approach their lecturers for counselling frequently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0139.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: handwriting; developmental coordination disorder; dysgraphia; psychomotor therapy; effectiveness of psychomotor therapy
Online: 3 May 2023 (10:54:55 CEST)
In Switzerland, psychomotor therapy (PMT) is a standard treatment for children with graphomotor impairments, but scientific evidence of its effectiveness is rare. To investigate the effectiveness of PMT, we conducted a randomized field trial (RFT). The sample consisted of 121 first and second graders with graphomotor impairments, some of whom met the criteria of developmental coordination disorder, while the remaining suffered from developmental dysgraphia. The treatments lasted over 5 months. Handwriting fluency and consistency were measured five times on a digitizing tablet. All participating children completed a self-concept interview, and a standardized fine motor performance test twice. Psychomotor therapy significantly improved the fine motor skills of the therapy group compared to those of the waiting group. However, there was no evidence that the treated children improved more than the waiting children in terms of their graphomotor skills such as frequency, automaticity, and consistency of forming letters. Finally, the children of the therapy group showed partial improvements in their handwriting self-concept, while those of the waiting group children remained stable. This short-term RFT demonstrated the effectiveness of PMT in terms of fine motor skills and some aspects of the handwriting self-concept but showed no effects on handwriting fluency and consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0117.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Backward Design; Virtual Learning; Ecosystem; Design; Thinking
Online: 3 May 2023 (08:36:19 CEST)
Active learning has demonstrated its effectiveness regarding the improvement of the capacities of abstraction, comprehension, and development of cognitive, expression and relationship skills of the students. In this study, the redesign and implementation of an electromagnetism course for engineering students is presented, under the methodology of Backward Design (BD), recognized for its attributes for the development of active learning and its possibility of specifying the fun-damentals and principles of engineering education in the development of syllabus in higher ed-ucation. The purposes of this study were: 1) To implement the Backward Design (BD) methodology to develop argumentative, purposeful and interpretive skills in an electromagnetism course; 2) Design and apply rubrics to evaluate tests and laboratory reports, determine the level that best suits the knowledge, skills and competencies of students. 3) Assess the perception of students regarding the use of the methodology, their contributions to the development and understanding of the concepts of the course. The results of this educational research experience shown that the BD teaching approach was pedagogical and significantly superior to conventional models towards improving knowledge and skills of electromagnetism based on Hake's statistic (h) reached 0.73 that allow us to conclude that there was a learning gain in the students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1213.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: POGIL-based instruction; lecture-based instruction; the unit of circular motion; science performance self-efficacy
Online: 29 April 2023 (05:21:26 CEST)
This study compares the effects of lecture-based instruction and process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL)-based instruction on the self-efficacy performance of Grade 12 students. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design was adopted to investigate and assess the impact of POGIL-based instruction versus lecture-based instruction on students’ performance as measured by three types of cognitive outcomes; Knowing, Applying and Reasoning (KAR). Two government high schools in Alain were selected as research sites, one for the boys and one for the girls. The total number of participants was approximately 110 students (N=110); 54 were assigned to treatment groups (25 girls and 29 boys), and 56 were assigned to control groups (27 girls and 29 boys). The treatment group was taught a circular motion unit in physics using POGIL-based instruction, while the control group was taught the unit using lecture-based instruction. The study's findings showed statistically significant differences between students of the control group and the treatment group in favour of the latter regarding their science performance, self-efficacy and science-related attitudes. Moreover, positive correlations were found between participants’ performance at the KAR test, self-efficacy and scientific attitudes towards scientific inquiry after the intervention. In conclusion, it is recommended to shift teaching towards POGIL-based instruction due to its positive impact on students’ performance and self-efficacy. It is also suggested to replicate the study to include government and private schools, elementary and high schools, teachers and advisors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1003.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: creativity; three-phase SRL model; think-aloud; arts education; education quality; work quality.
Online: 26 April 2023 (15:26:12 CEST)
Abstract: Self-regulated Learning has become one of educational psychology's most critical research areas. Contemporary research indicates that student creativity is crucial to the success of arts education. However, there is limited research on creativity in arts education in Self-regulated Learning. Therefore, this study aims to define the creativity characteristics that determine the quality of students’ work. This study implemented a creative competition in painting and composition for first-year undergraduates. It evaluated the characteristics of creativity during the three main phases of the task: planning, execution, and completion. We discovered through semi-open questionnaires (n=178)，and using the content analysis method. According to the competition results, the students with the highest scores in Flow, Inspiration, and Idea Generation in the Performance phase had the best quality work. In the Forethought phase, Analogical Thinking and Idea Generation worked best for most students, while in the Performance phase, Flow Sense, Idea Generation, and Idea Manipulation worked best.Data on creativity characteristics at different work phases and final quality might adequately guide and organize educational procedures. These findings can serve as a theoretical foundation for quantifying the creativity phase in Self-regulated Learning and offer arts educators a reference for creativity instruction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0988.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Augmented reality; Teacher Education; SLR; Digital technologies for education
Online: 26 April 2023 (12:39:33 CEST)
The Practicum is regarded as a fundamental aspect of the training of prospective teachers. In addition, digital tools are increasingly used to enrich a traditional face-to-face experience. However, the technological exploitation of augmented reality (AR) by undergraduate students studying early childhood and primary education is low. A Systematic Literature Review (SLR) on the use of augmented reality (AR) in teacher training was conducted. Based on the overarching objectives of the ERASMUS+ project, entitled Digital Practicum 3.0 Exploring Augmented Reality, Remote Classrooms, and Virtual Learning to Enrich and Expand Preservice Teacher Education Preparation (2020-1-ES01-KA226-HE- 096120), the ultimate purpose of this study was to assess whether the use of this resource favors learning and expertise. Two main results are prominent. First, it is noteworthy how the use of this digital technology is limited, given the scarcity of studies. Second, the research studies available focus largely on the benefits of the use of AR in teacher education at a theoretical level. Thus, future research needs to further explore the use of AR in teacher training specially focused on the student teachers’ learning processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0886.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: POGIL-based instruction; lecture-based instruction; unit of circular motion; science performance
Online: 25 April 2023 (04:23:47 CEST)
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL)-based instruction versus lecture-based instruction on Grade 12 students’ performance in circular motion unit. A quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, the impact of POGIL-based instruction versus lecture-based instruction on students’ performance as measured by three types of cognitive outcomes: Knowing, Applying and Reasoning (KAR). The total number of participants was approximately 110 students (N=110); 54 were assigned to treatment groups (25 girls and 29 boys) and 56 were assigned to control groups (27 girls and 29 boys). The treatment group was taught a unit of circular motion in physics using POGIL-based instruction while the control group was taught the unit using lecture-based instruction. The findings of the study showed statistically significant differences between students of the control group and the treatment group in favor of the later regarding their circular motion performance, suggesting the superiority of the POGIL in enhancing student understanding of the circular motion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0863.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: body image; appearance-concerns; context; PE kit choice; exercise motives
Online: 25 April 2023 (02:19:06 CEST)
It is widely acknowledged that adolescent females are particularly at risk of low body-esteem. Low body-esteem is associated with poor mental health and other negative outcomes. Interventions to help raise body-image could have considerable impact, especially if the intervention is low-cost, easy to implement and scalable. We investigated the efficacy of an intervention where participnants could chose their own clothes to wear during a Physical Education (PE lesson) on changes in body-esteem. We hypothesized that body-esteem would improve with choice. To show that body-esteem is not a transient construct, we tested its stability when assessed in a test-retest design when completed in a classroom setting, hypothesizing body-esteem would be stable. Participants (N =110; Mage =14.9; SDage = 0.68) females completed a 14-item body-esteem scale 4 times; a) wearing school uniform in an assembly, b) during a PE lesson separated by a 2-week gap. The intervention was implemented where students got a choice of PE kit and could wear their own clothes. Findings indicate that body-esteem was stable in the classroom setting where clothes and context were stable, but improved significantly when participants were given a free choice of kit to wear during PE. We argue that this low-cost and scalable intervention represents a useful start point for helping support low body-esteem among a potentially vulnerable population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0848.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: bibliometric analysis; Sustainability; co-occurrence; thematic map
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:16:05 CEST)
This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of highly cited papers published in the journal Sustainability between 2009 and 2023. The aim is to identify influential countries, authors, and papers, as well as patterns in authorship and citation trends. The analysis focuses on frequently cited sources, the most cited research papers and references within the journal, and trends in author keywords. The analysis shows that Sustainability is a leading publication in sustainability research, with an annual growth rate of 53.57%. The selected papers, published between 2013 and 2022, have an average age of 2.11 years and an average of 88.12 citations each. The study highlights the most influential countries in sustainability research published in Sustainability, with China leading, followed by the United States and Germany. The most prolific authors are from China, Spain, and Italy. Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to address complex sustainability challenges, as shown in the papers published in Sustainability. The study emphasizes the importance of staying informed about emerging trends and research directions in the field of sustainability published in this journal Sustainability. It underscores the significance of fostering international collaborations and partnerships to address complex sustainability challenges facing our world today, as evidenced by the papers published in Sustainability. Overall, this bibliometric analysis provides valuable insights into the current state of sustainability research published in Sustainability and its implications for policy and practice. It highlights key areas for future research and underscores the need for interdisciplinary collaboration to address complex sustainability challenges, as demonstrated by the papers published in Sustainability. These findings have important implications for policymakers, researchers, and practitioners interested in promoting sustainable development in the field of sustainability., as published in Sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0709.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: invasion sport; gender; primary school; sport experience; structural equation
Online: 21 April 2023 (10:03:41 CEST)
The satisfaction of basic psychological needs leads students to engage in a sport modality on their own initiative. In the Spanish public educational system, mixed and heterogeneous, the gender and sport experience of students influence the teaching and motivation of invasion sports. This study investigated whether students' gender and sport experience, and method influence the psychological variables (basic psychological needs and sport adherence) when teaching school soccer and basketball. Furthermore, correlations were calculated between these psychological variables. The study involved 165 fifth and sixth grade students (age, 11.27 ± 0.68 years old) from several Spanish state schools in the same autonomous community. A non-random convenience sample was used. The needs for autonomy, perceived competence and social relationships were measured using the Basic Psychological Needs in Physical Exercise Scale. Sport adherence was measured using the Measure of Intentionality to be Physically Active. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cronbach's alpha were used to analyze the psychometric properties of the scales. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed with the Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests. There were significant differences in the needs for autonomy and perceived competence according to the students’ gender (boys > girls). Attending to sport adherence, there were also significant differences according to the students’ gender (boys > girls) and sport experience (experienced students > inexperienced students). Likewise, a regression analysis (structural equation model) revealed that the autonomy need showed low association with sport adherence. Higher perceived competence (β = 0.52) and social relationships (β = 0.36) were associated with greater adherence to sport (R2 = 0.65). Increased sport adherence will have health benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0546.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Economics universities; Learning; Online database systems, Students
Online: 19 April 2023 (05:01:25 CEST)
This study aims to evaluate the determinants that influence the adoption of online databases in the learning process of students at economics universities in Vietnam. A quantitative study with a meta-analysis was conducted by utilizing structural equation modeling (SEM). The sample consisted of 492 students from economics universities located in Vietnam who were surveyed using stratified random sampling. The results indicate that the adoption of online databases in student learning is influenced by six determinants, namely: (i) perceived effectiveness, (ii) perceived ease of use, (iii) technical barriers, (iv) personal usefulness, (v) usage attitudes, and (vi) convenience. Our study has revealed that students' intention to use the online database system is positively influenced by their perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. These findings could be valuable in shaping policies for enhancing the online database system at economics universities, taking into account the students' characteristics and the institution's needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0363.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Historical Role Models,Contemporary Role Models, Historical and Contemporary Role Models,Rabdan Academy, women leaders,women leaders in media
Online: 14 April 2023 (10:11:41 CEST)
Women's leadership continues to be a critical issue in today's society. Women face significant challenges in leadership, including limited representation in high-level positions and persistent gender-based discrimination. Many factors, including personal experiences, education, work experiences, and the influence of role models, influence women's leadership paths. This study explores how historical and contemporary role models help guide women's leadership choices. Specifically, we seek to understand the role of historical and contemporary role models in shaping women's perceptions of leadership and influencing their career aspirations.The study uses a qualitative research design to explore the experiences of women leaders in different industries. The participants were selected using purposive sampling, and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to identify patterns in the data, and the results were presented using descriptive statistics and qualitative data analysis.The study findings reveal that historical and contemporary role models significantly shape women's perceptions of leadership and influence their career aspirations. Women who have had access to role models in their personal lives or through media exposure are more confident in their ability to lead. They are more likely to pursue leadership positions. Historical role models provide women with tangible examples of what is possible regardingwomen's leadership. Studying role models from diverse backgrounds is essential in inspiring women from diverse backgrounds to pursue leadership roles.The study findings have significant implications for women's leadership development. They suggest efforts to increase the representation of women in leadership positions should focus on providing access to diverse role models. Additionally, the study highlights the importance of media representation of women leaders, as exposure to role models through media can help overcome barriers to access to role models in personal and professional networks.In conclusion, the study provides important insights into the influence of historical and contemporary role models on women's leadership paths. The study underscores the importance of role models in inspiring and guiding women's leadership journeys and the need for diverse and inclusive representation of women leaders in media and personal and professional networks. The findings provide practical recommendations for women's leadership development initiatives and future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Leadership Experiences; Women in Leadership; Adolescent experiences; UAE; Women; Leadership development; Qualitative research; Semi-structured interviews; Document analysis; Diary writing; Family upbringing; Cultural values; Education; Societal expectations
Online: 12 April 2023 (09:41:03 CEST)
Women have been leading organizations and communities for centuries, but their journeys in leadership have sometimes been challenging. This paper aims to reflect on women's positive and negative experiences in leadership roles and understand the factors contributing to their successes and challenges.To explore these issues, we will draw on various academic literature, including studies on gender and leadership and case studies of women in leadership positions. We will also examine the cultural and social factors that affect women's experiences in leadership, including bias and discrimination, societal expectations, and work-life balance challenges.One key theme from this analysis is the importance of role models and support networks in helping women succeed in leadership roles. Women with access to mentorship, sponsorship, and peer networks are more likely to thrive in their roles and overcome the challenges they may face. However, lacking female role models and mentors can make it difficult for women to advance in their careers and contribute to feelings of isolation and imposter syndrome.Another important theme is the need for organizations and society to address systemic biases and discrimination that prevent women from reaching their full potential. This can include initiatives such as unconscious bias training, flexible work arrangements, and policies that support gender diversity and inclusion.In conclusion, this paper highlights women's positive and negative experiences in leadership roles and emphasizes the need for ongoing efforts to support and empower women in leadership. By addressing the challenges women face and building a culture of inclusion and support, organizations and society can help unlock the full potential of women leaders and create a more equitable and just world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0263.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Childhood experiences; Adolescent experiences; UAE; Women; Leadership de-velopment; Qualitative research; Semi-structured interviews; Document analysis; Diary writing; Family upbringing; Cultural values; Education; Societal expectations
Online: 12 April 2023 (08:45:33 CEST)
This research paper aimed to explore the impact of childhood and adolescent experiences on the leadership development of Emirati women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Using a qualitative research methodology, the study utilized in-depth narrative semi-structured interviews, document analysis, and diary writing to understand the complex issue of leadership development. Findings indicate that childhood and adolescent experiences, including family upbringing, education, culture, and societal expectations, have significant impacts on the leadership development of Emirati women. Specifically, family upbringing and cultural values shape Emirati women's leadership aspirations and behaviors, while education and societal expectations provide opportunities and barriers for women's leadership development. The implications of these findings for policymakers and practitioners seeking to promote women's leadership development in the UAE are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Women Leadership; leadership development; identity; experience; role model; narrative; social; culture development
Online: 12 April 2023 (03:07:14 CEST)
This qualitative research study explores the experiences of three Emirati women who have achieved significant success in their higher education institutes in the (UAE). The study aims to understand how childhood and adolescent experiences shape the leadership development of these women, both positively and negatively. The study also includes interviews with family members and close colleagues of the participants to gain additional perspectives. The findings the importance of family support, role models, and mentors in shaping the leadership development of women in the UAE. The study also sheds light on the challenges and barriers that women face in leadership positions, including gender bias and discrimination. Overall, the study contributes to a deeper understanding of the experiences of Emirati women in leadership positions and provides insights into how to support their leadership development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0473.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ChatGPT; educational technology; research; programming education; large language model; GPT-3; artificial intelligence
Online: 28 March 2023 (04:14:47 CEST)
In recent years, the rise of advanced artificial intelligence technologies has had a profound impact on many fields, including education and research. One such technology is ChatGPT, a powerful large language model developed by OpenAI. This technology offers exciting opportunities for students and educators, including personalized feedback, increased accessibility, interactive conversations, lesson preparation, evaluation, and new ways to teach complex concepts. However, ChatGPT poses different threats to the traditional education and research system, including the possibility of cheating on online exams, human-like text generation, diminished critical thinking skills, and difficulties in evaluating information generated by ChatGPT. This study explores potential opportunities and threats that ChatGPT poses to overall education from the perspective of students and educators. Furthermore, for programming learning, we explore how ChatGPT helps students improve their programming skills. To demonstrate this, we conducted different coding-related experiments with ChatGPT, including code generation from problem descriptions, pseudocode generation of algorithms from texts, and code correction. We also verified the generated codes with an online judge system to evaluate their accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0317.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; DASS-21; mental well-being; movement control order; open distance learning.
Online: 17 March 2023 (03:56:38 CET)
The global Covid-19 crisis has seen the push for many education institutions substituting traditional classroom learning to online platforms. This change in the learning experience has been expected to cause major and likely unequal interruption not only in students’ learning, but their well-being overall. Given this, the present study aims to investigate how online or open distance learning, implemented during times of a health crisis, impacted the mental well-being of UiTM students. The study was conducted via an online survey and an online group discussion during the last week of online classes between 29th June to 1st July 2020. Following research on negative emotional states, the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) was included in the survey. Results indicate that students experienced varying levels of negative emotions, specifically feeling anxious over situations that might cause panic, feeling emotionally sensitive as well as feeling less motivated to do things. Discussions include how the government of Malaysia needs to ensure for students to be equipped with the right amenities that will offer a smoother ODL experience and that educational institutions provide their stakeholders with clear information so that students can make a more informed choice about their education.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0305.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 mitigation, education, indoor air quality, COVID-19 testing
Online: 16 March 2023 (11:16:45 CET)
In this case study, we describe a well-resourced private school system that implemented COVID-19 mitigation measures based on public health expert guidance as well as the lessons learned from this process. Avenues is a 10-year-old private school with campuses in NYC, São Paulo, Shenzhen, Silicon Valley, as well as online, which offers education at sixteen grades: 2 early learning years, followed by a pre-kindergarten–grade 12 school. We describe the mitigation measures Avenues implemented. We compare COVID-19 case prevalence at the school to the reported case prevalence in New York City, as reported by the New York State Department of Health. We compare the school's indoor air quality (IAQ) to ambient IAQ measures reported in the literature. The school's COVID-19 transmission mitigation measures successfully reduced the prevalence of COVID-19 among its students, staff, and faculty. The school also established a consistent high level of IAQ through various ventilation mechanisms. The school received positive parent and community feedback on the policies and procedures it established, with many parents commenting on the high level of communication and trust established by the school. This successful school reopening provides useful data for school closure and reopening standards to prepare for future pandemic and epidemic events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0285.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: basic life support education; student’s perceptions; education quality; skills to intervene.
Online: 15 March 2023 (12:52:23 CET)
An out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The survival rate can be influenced by the Chain of Survival. The school is the institution that has the opportunity to promote the education of citizens in Basic Life Support (BLS), increasing the number of trained bystanders. This study aimed to identify the theoretical and practical knowledge and self-reported skills in BLS, in order to characterise the motivation to intervene in an emergency situation. A quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional, and analytical study of the survey type was developed with a sample of 1215 students enrolled in 10th grade of secondary education in 2019-2020 in Portugal. The results point to a fragile appropriation of theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of BLS. Self-declared competences tend to rank below the theoretical knowledge manifested. Motivation to intervene is high: students are sensitive to the topic, willing to learn and highlight the importance and social relevance of the topic. We conclude that students do not feel nor are able to intervene in an OHCA episode. It seems necessary to develop didactic proposals that align the teaching of BLS with the Essential Learning at the end of compulsory education in Portugal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: false belief; Williams syndrome; theory of mind; social cognition
Online: 14 March 2023 (09:02:41 CET)
Background: People with Williams syndrome (WS) are characterized with hypersociability, fluency in languages, and advantageous face-processing skills, leading to the proposal of a social module. Previous studies on the mentalizing abilities of people with WS using two-dimensional pictures and mindreading from eyes, including normal-like, delayed, and deviant behaviors, have yielded mixed results. This study thus examined the mentalizing ability of people with WS through structured computerized animations of false belief tasks to investigate whether inferences about other people’s minds can be improved in this population. Method: Participants were shown animations with unexpected location and content changes. After viewing each animation, participants had to answer four types of questions: character identification, reality, memory, and false belief. Their responses were recorded and analyzed. Results: Comprehension of false belief was observed in 4-year-old healthy children, whereas children with WS showed unsuccessful comprehension of false belief (until they attained a mental age of 5.3 years), suggesting an improvement in theory of mind resulting from viewing structured computerized animations. This age is earlier than that reported by previous studies for using theory of mind to pass false belief tests (8.5 years old), even challenging the age at which individuals failed to pass the tests (12.10 years old). Conclusions: Structured computerized animations enhanced the mentalizing ability of people with WS to a certain extent. Compared to the typically developing controls, people with WS presented with a lower developmental level in processing false belief tasks. The educational implication of this study is to develop computerized social skills interventions for people with WS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0242.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19; mathematics; digital tools; digital skills; teacher; e-learning
Online: 14 March 2023 (03:42:56 CET)
This qualitative study explores the implementation and conformation process of digital devices in teaching and learning before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovation Theory as a framework, the study examines the adoption and adaptation of digital devices by in-service secondary mathematics teachers (n=62) and their perceptions and preferences towards instructional modality. The findings suggest that despite the increased reliance on digital devices during the pandemic, there is a less likelihood of using them in face-to-face classrooms in developing countries like Nepal. The adoption of online learning has not yet reached the confirmation stage, even after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to the pandemic, online learning was not widely implemented or confirmed by teachers in developing countries societies. The study also provides important insights into the challenges and opportunities of using digital devices in post-COVID-19 classrooms, and its implications for policymakers and educators in Nepal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0187.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teaching quality; international Students; teaching satisfaction; Chinese language; medical students; COVID-19 pandemic measures
Online: 10 March 2023 (08:47:17 CET)
The COVID-19 pandemic measures have negatively impacted education worldwide via travel restrictions, student visas, and physical attendanc,e among many other fac-tors. As one of the first places to impose strict pandemic measures and one of the last places to lift the measures, Mainland China provided a unique venue to investigate the effect of public health pandemic control policies on tertiary education. Considering the large portion of international students in medical schools and the higher susceptibility to the pandemic measures due to the natural synergy with teaching hospitals, medical schools can be an early forefront indicator of the impact of the pandemic on tertiary education. We surveyed 513 participants international medical students from Wen-zhou Medical University’s school of international studies in 2019 and 2022 about their satisfaction and demographic and cultural adaptation parameters. We found that the pandemic restrictions did not generally impact student satisfaction. Further analyzing the associated parameters, we found teaching satisfaction to be independent of age (P=.159), years in China (P=.896) and Chinese Level (P=.577) in the medical university. Teaching satisfaction is associated with the region of origin (P <0.001), acceptance of local social norms (P <0.001), satisfaction with the core values of Chinese culture (P <0.001), acclimatization to life in China (P <0.001), can easily make Chinese friends (P <0.001) among other factors. The findings of this study provide an understanding of the effects of pandemic measures on tertiary education satisfaction and other factors that can aid in international student satisfaction.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: student projects, student project management, cost, motivation
Online: 9 March 2023 (02:48:09 CET)
Student project management is becoming increasingly important in various settings such as technical clubs, planning clubs, and research laboratories. However, effective methodologies for managing student-led projects have not yet been established. This study aims to address key issues related to cost and motivation in student-led projects and propose effective improvement plans. The significance of this study lies in its potential to identify challenges faced in current student project management practices and offer solutions to mitigate risks. By sharing our findings, we aim to encourage further research on this topic and promote the adoption of effective methodologies for managing student-led projects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0113.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Self-regulation; Peer collaboration; online learning; communication
Online: 6 March 2023 (16:08:35 CET)
In this unprecedented era of computer-supported and distance learning, it is critical to rethink the way students are supported through vital skills like self-regulation and peer collaboration. A variety of digital media has emerged, allowing learners autonomy while requiring the ability to effectively regulate different components of the educational process for long-term academic success. We reviewed collaboration, communication, and self-regulation in digital learning environments as part of online learning. We discussed how these abilities are reflected in highly cited content. High-impact factor studies were identified using advanced software Herzing Publish or Perish to retrieve highly cited research publications metrics. The search resulted in 272 records from 2010 to 2022, 192 duplicates were identified to remove and 48 JCR articles were shortlisted for review. We examined and reflected on sufficient connections to make firm judgments about correlations of concepts. The review identified prominent themes surfaced in the high impact factor academic publication e.g., digital learning environment, interaction, engagement, feedback, self-efﬁcacy, motivation, meta-cognition, achievement, technology, blended learning, and orientation of ICT. Many studies support different features of SRL & PCL through different tools, access to educators or feedback, encouragement, and through peers. However, all of them discuss the processes that students use to self-regulate learning in these situations. It is suggested to examine whether the effectiveness of certain SRL processes varies by online learning mode.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Educational action research; unregistered community design; shared intellectual property; cooperative learning; K-16 students; net-zero emissions
Online: 6 March 2023 (04:35:22 CET)
Education is one of the most important tools available to policymakers and non-governmental bodies to promote a change in the behavior of society and to address the climate crisis, in line with the 4th and 13th Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. Project-based learning (PBL) addresses real and global challenges and allows the academic and professional formation of students. As part of the reflection stage of the educational action research method using the Business Canvas Model (BMC), pedagogic deficiencies were identified in the PBL and a didactic proposal was elaborated to emulate the interaction of students with the ecosystems of society. A prototype for improving the management of organic manures as soil amendments was initially developed, to provide the students with a quick start on the first steps of the proposed project. In the 10 sessions designed for the PBL (Make it happen!), the students elaborate a more sophisticated artifact in response to the demands of potential clients, as per the outcomes of the primary market research (5th session). Active teaching methods and tools, such as a modified template of the BMC with the Rumsfeld’s matrix, aid the metacognition of students and their competences development. In a double session of the PBL, the primary market research is organized with key stakeholders of the agroindustry to enquire about the feasibility of the implementation of the technological solution and the logistics at farm level. Finally, the evaluation relies on the suitability of the upgraded prototype to respond customers’ demands.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0045.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Micro-credentials; Higher Education; Online Learning; E-learning; MOOCs; Digital Learning Ecosystems
Online: 2 March 2023 (12:40:42 CET)
This review paper delves into using micro-credentials in higher education ecosystems as a digital enablers. Micro-credentials, which are digital credentials that attest to a learner’s mastery of a specific skill or knowledge area, are becoming more popular in higher education. The paper examines the successful implementation of micro-credential frameworks in higher education, using case studies to demonstrate the advantages of micro-credentials. The review emphasizes the agility and flexibility of microcredentials, which enable learners to acquire new skills quickly and respond to changes in the job market. In addition, the paper discusses the digital nature of micro-credentials and how they allow institutionsto provide targeted, skills-based training that isrelevant to employers. It also explores how micro-credentials are delivered through online platforms, making them convenient and easily accessible for learners. The review underscores the significance of digital infrastructure, connectivity, and public utility for promoting micro-credentials. The paper argues that micro-credentials function as a digital enabler for higher edu- cation ecosystems, allowing learners to acquire targeted training and enabling institutions to expand their offerings and reach more students. The paper concludes by highlighting the potential for micro-credentials to help bridge the skills gap and equip learners with the skills necessary to succeed in today’s digital economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0043.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital transformation; Education; Educational sciences; Internet of things
Online: 2 March 2023 (10:49:37 CET)
First came the digital banks without offices, and then the “fintech” companies that combined technology and finance to achieve greater efficiency and new business models. Later was the turn of transport and logistics, understood as the sector whose economic activities derived from the transport of people and goods, while on the one hand, it has had a new spring thanks to factors such as online sales. Then, perhaps catalyzed by the pandemic scenario, the turn has reached education, where years ago was only a complement of traditional education, now is a central part with multiple modern methodologies. Numerous studies exist about using or implementing these e-learning procedures, but technical analysis is barely found in references. This work aims to analyze the digital transformation of the main sectors of our society, including finances, transport, and education, together with several examples of how technology was helping to fight the pandemic scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: competition; trust; team; evaluation; vocational training; leadership education
Online: 1 March 2023 (07:59:24 CET)
The research question in this article concerns how a competitive environment affects the learner (officer cadet's) personal leadership development and their relationship to their team and with future civilian foundations. More specifically, what are the possible learning effects of the “hidden” curriculum? This article investigates how a more than 250 years of leadership education provides new army officers with new skills and how such an environment may affect the cadets' leadership training. The paper builds on ethnographic data gathered during the three-year education program in most of the relevant practical locations and contexts. Findings regarding trust in their learning environment, cadets have reported scores of (Mean 2.83) on a 1 (low trust) to 5 (high trust) Likert scale, underpinning interviewdata regarding the lack trust in the academy and in their fellow cadets. Cadets also point out that competition has hindered their learning (Mean 2.50). These findings are interpreted in relation to possible negative effects stemming from internal competition and the evaluation system as a whole. The overall output of this system is a zero–sum game, and thus effects evaluative practices and learning processes. This study is of relevance to higher education officers responsible for designing learning environments.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: tourism; child friendly; sustainable
Online: 28 February 2023 (06:20:18 CET)
Child-friendly tourism is a tourism concept that focuses on the welfare and needs of children as tourism actors. This concept is an important part of developing a sustainable tourism city because children are the future generation who will continue their role in maintaining the sustainability of the tourism industry. This article discusses the importance of child-friendly tourism in the development of a sustainable tourist city and provides some examples of best practices in creating a safe, comfortable and educational tourism environment for children. This article also discusses some of the challenges and opportunities in implementing the concept of child-friendly tourism, including how to involve children in decision-making and increase community participation in creating a better tourism environment for children. By adopting the concept of child-friendly tourism, tourist cities can build a sustainable tourism environment and preserve natural resources and local culture, while also providing positive and memorable tourism experiences for children and their families.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0463.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early childhood education; play and learning; educational transitions; educational setting; research with children; visual methodologies; qualitative research
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:03:38 CET)
Based on a reflection on the tensions between play, education, and learning in early childhood, this article aims to identify and analyze the factors that limit or negatively condition the possibilities for play at school during the transition between Early Childhood Education and Primary Education in Chile. The study was conducted in four Chilean schools, with the Transition Levels of Chilean Early Childhood Education (children aged 4 and 5) and the first two levels of Primary Education (children aged 6 and 7). Based on an ethnographic approach, we combined 22 ethnographic observation days spread over two consecutive years and 59 interviews of various types with children, educators, and parents. The results show structural-material limitations on school play that mainly affect children in Primary Education. Beyond, factors associated with routines, indications, and statements governing functioning and participation in this level tend to limit or prevent play, often considered a "non-legitimate" activity. Conclusions highlight the potentialities that children's restricted or resisted play can present in terms of learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial self-efficacy; entrepreneurial intention; higher vocational students; China
Online: 16 February 2023 (03:55:20 CET)
To reveal the influence of variables such as entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial inspiration, and incubation resources on students' entrepreneurial intentions in vocational colleges, this study took vocational colleges in Zhejiang Province, a province with a strong entrepreneurial climate in China, as an example. The study used a questionnaire to obtain data, and 614 valid questionnaires were collected from seven vocational colleges. The study divided entrepreneurship education into three dimensions: entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial inspiration, and incubation resources, and used structural equation modeling to investigate the influence of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions while introducing entrepreneurial efficacy as a mediating variable to examine the influence mechanism of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of higher education students. The results showed that entrepreneurial learning, entrepreneurial inspiration, incubation resources, and entrepreneurial efficacy were all significantly and positively correlated with entrepreneurial intentions and that entrepreneurial efficacy mediated between the two dimensions of entrepreneurship education (entrepreneurial learning and entrepreneurial inspiration) and entrepreneurial intentions. Therefore, to enhance the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in vocational institutions, we should stimulate students' sense of entrepreneurial efficacy, strengthen their entrepreneurial learning and inspire them to start their businesses. In turn, university incubation resources can be developed and utilized to enhance students' entrepreneurial confidence and intentions.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0269.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ICT in Education; ICT Infrastructure; Cost Implications
Online: 13 February 2023 (15:22:42 CET)
The domain of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) education has garnered significant consideration in recent times. However, several challenges are inherent to this area of study, including monetary expense, temporal factors, pedagogical environment, teacher training programs, incentive, syllabus design, and health-related concerns. This paper presents an analysis of the difficulties encountered in the realm of ICT education in Japan, taking into account ten different perspectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: STEM teaching; technology in education; teaching strategies; online inter-class tournaments; computational thinking
Online: 10 February 2023 (11:20:01 CET)
There are increasing calls in education for deeper integration of disciplines and better preparation for the personal and job challenges of a fast-changing and smarter society. Thus, we need to search for new effective didactic strategies. However, current classrooms are isolated. They practically never connect. This hinders the exchange of ideas. It inhibits imitation and recombination, the basic blocks of cultural evolution and innovation. In this paper, we analyze online inter-class tournaments. These are lessons where entire elementary or middle school classes interconnect synchronously and play an educational game. These are new types of academic activities, and only possible thanks to digital communication technology. In this paper, we examine four online tournaments, we analyze how feasible it is to carry them out and the benefits they bring. One tournament is for teaching machine learning and statistics. The second one teaches the conservation of momentum in physics and an engineering optimization challenge. The third tournament is for learning to solve word problems. The fourth one is for teaching natural and sexual selection along with developing statistical and population thinking. We found that these inter-class tournaments are feasible to implement in schools and that they are a promising mechanism to facilitate imitation, recombination, and innovation of teaching strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0175.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: translation; project-based learning; self-regulation; teaching and learning
Online: 10 February 2023 (02:39:10 CET)
The Pandemic in 2019 forced a digital adaptation with direct consequences on all educational stakeholders. On behalf of teachers and trainers, while many regarded these changes with some scepticism, others embraced the opportunity to integrate technology into their teaching methods and as learning resources. As translation trainers, it is essential to follow and understand the translation market. Thus, the exponential changes that digital technology has brought to this sector over the years impose constant shifts in teaching and learning methods and resources. In fact, translators require vast competencies, amongst which is the flexibility to adapt. In translation training Project-Based Learning (PBL) has been established as an essential teaching and learning method, as it has proven to foster the development of competencies as it simulates the translator's work environment. Thus, the need to adapt new strategies reinforced PBL and its benefits. PBL, however, similar to a freelance translator, places the student in the centre of the learning process, where self-regulation becomes essential, as it is necessary to analyse the market/situation and be flexible enough to adapt to the context accordingly. As of 2018-2019, technical translation courses at ISCAP have implemented PBL as their main teaching and learning method. At the same time, a study on student self-regulation began. The purpose was to understand student perception on their own self-regulation competence and its development or lack thereof after one year of PBL. Results indicate that PBL is seen as a useful simulation of the translation labour market and that it does enhance many essential competences, amongst which is student self-regulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0139.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: neoliberalism; education development; trade alliances; economic development; human capital; cultural capital; social capital; human capabilities; social action
Online: 8 February 2023 (06:27:28 CET)
This paper argues that the neoliberal consensus about education finance has broken down due to growing economic inequality. First, I use a comparative historical analysis of political alliances to examine patterns of world trade and nations’ policies for economic and educational development since World War II. The United States emphasized STEM-collegiate preparation for all students, while most countries continued the dual emphasis on technical-tertiary and higher education. Educational policy in the US and Pacific region also shifted to reliance on markets and student loans resulting in worsening economic inequality in access. Nations with dual technical and academic pathways in secondary and postsecondary education systems expand college enrollment rates more rapidly than the US. They also experience class conflict between the working-middle class and the new technology elite. Next, I examine how education policy shifted from national planning aligned with public funding to market-based incentives for institutional development, further exposing gaps in opportunity within nations. Finally, recognizing the variations in systemic causes of inequality, I argue that governments, education agencies, and civic activists can best promote equity by organizing to address barriers to opportunity for groups left behind in the wake of withering neoliberal education policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Mobile learning; mobile pedagogy, EdTech; digital immigrant; digital literacy
Online: 6 February 2023 (09:46:03 CET)
The sudden outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic challenged education systems worldwide to quickly pivot their teaching-learning processes from in-person to virtual modes in order to control the spread of the virus. In a short period of time, teachers were forced to adopt new remote teaching methods to ensure the continuation of education. This paper examines how teachers in Pakistan leveraged mobile technology as an alternative teaching strategy to provide access to education during these unprecedented times. Through in-depth individual interviews with selected teachers, the study explores the potential of mobile technology to transform traditional teaching methods into interactive learning environments. The findings highlight the importance of embracing new pedagogical possibilities offered by mobile technology and the need for effective teacher professional development in the post-pandemic era. The study offers valuable insights into how mobile technology can be effectively utilized in education, even in the most challenging circumstances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0012.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: emotional intelligence; mountain sports; life satisfaction; resilience
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:42:54 CET)
High-level performance in mountain sports would be unlikely unless different emotional factors are taken into account through the analysis of psychological characteristics such as mood, resilience or motivation, among many others. In this study, 788 people with a sports degree from the Spanish Federation of Mountain Sports and Climbing (FEDME) participated, 75.3% are men and 24.5% are women. The mean age of the participants was 49.8 years (±12.8), ranging from 18 to 76 years. The Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS-S), the RS-14 Resilience Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) instrument were used. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between the dimensions of emotional intelligence, resilience and life satisfaction. The results showed a relationship between several of the dimensions from the instruments used (p<.01). In terms of gender, higher scores were found for women than for men. The regression model shows that both the dimensions of emotional intelligence [Appraisal of own emotions (β=.104; p<.001); Use of emotions (β=.30; p<.001); Emotional Regulation (β=.103; p<.001)] and resilience [Personal competence (β=.402; p<.001)], are predictors of greater life satisfaction, with 44.1% positively explained by the regression model. Further proposals should extend the results obtained with the analysis of more sports modalities and provide evidence that would complement those extracted in this research.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online learning; e-learning; hybrid learning; innovation; education
Online: 31 January 2023 (08:07:58 CET)
In recent years, online learning has become one of the most popular methods of educational delivery due to advances in technology, which has been made even more evident in the COVID-19 lockdown period. Online education has evolved into a distinct field of study within the educational system over the last few years. It is also important to note that parallel with the growth in this field, there has also been an increase in the number of scholarly journals that regularly publish research in this field, reflecting the importance of this field in the modern day. In spite of the fact that online learning offers a wide range of educational options, from short courses to full-time degrees, as well as being accessible, flexible, environmentally friendly, and affordable, there are also certain challenges associated with this educational approach. These challenges include the lack of social interaction, technical errors, a lack of hands-on training, and difficulties in assessing students. It is, therefore, imperative to ask the crucial question of whether online learning can replace traditional classroom learning or whether it can supplement it in hybrid models with it, as well as what factors and conditions are likely to determine this in the short- and long-term, as well as how it will be blended together in the future. The purpose of this commentary is to provide a brief summary of the current status of both learning models, as well as their pros and cons, in order to answer the question that was posed above.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0549.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: childhood education; Hygiene; COVID-19; preventive behaviours; staying at home; mask wearing; hand washing; public goods
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:21:57 CET)
Childhood hygiene education has resulted in individuals engaging in hand washing and mask wearing to cope with COVID-19. Individuals can form sustainable development-related habits through childhood education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0509.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: education; medication-overuse headache (MOH); migraine; online; prevention; rational analgesic-use for headache; social networking services; social media
Online: 28 January 2023 (02:47:04 CET)
Introduction Headache is a common public health problem, but its burden could be avoided by raising headache awareness and the appropriate use of acute medication and prophylactic medication. Few reports on raising headache awareness in the general public have been reported, and there are no reports on headache awareness campaigns through social networking services (SNS), or social media, in Japan. We prospectively performed a headache awareness campaign from March 2022 through 2 SNS, targeting nurse and wind instrumental musicians, because they are with high headache prevalence. Methods Through the 2 SNS, the article and video were distributed, respectively. The article and video described the 6 important topics for the general public about headaches, which were described in the Clinical Practice Guideline for Headache Disorders 2021. Just after reading or watching them as e-learning, we performed online questionnaire sheets to investigate the awareness of the 6 topics through the 2 SNS. The awareness of the 6 topics before and after the campaign was evaluated. Results In the SNS nurse-senka, we obtained 1191 responses. Women comprised 94.4%, and the median (range) age was 45 (20 to 71) years old. Headache sufferers were 63.8%, but only 35.1% had consulted doctors. In the SNS Creatone, we got the response from 134 professional musicians, with 77.3% of women. The largest number of respondents were in their 20s (range 18-60 years old). Headache sufferers were 87.9%. Of them, 36.4% had consulted doctors, 24.2% were medication-overuse headache. The ratios of individuals who were aware of the 6 topics significantly increased from 15.2%-47.0% to 80.4-98.7% after the online questionnaire in both SNS (p < 0.001, all). Conclusions We conducted this headache awareness campaign through e-learning and an online survey via 2 SNS. The ratios of individuals who were aware of the 6 topics about headaches significantly increased 1 month after e-learning. Our results suggest that e-learning and online survey can improve headache awareness. The materials in this campaign can be installed into smartphone applications and further spread on SNS, leading to strong influence. With rapid digital transformations such as online telemedicine and artificial intelligence diagnosis, raising awareness will be more efficient and effective and should be important.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: computer thinking; game design; programming; review; robotics
Online: 27 January 2023 (12:04:52 CET)
This study presents review of 7580 papers in 13 academic journals, published from January 2015 to January 2020. After a detailed analysis of all papers, 46 papers were further selected showing research on a student population aged between 6 and 15 years old. In order for the paper to be included in the research, the condition was that the paper deals with teaching at least one of the following content areas: programming languages, game design, computer thinking (CT), algorithmic thinking and robotics programming. This study shows the representation of the listed content area in reviewed papers for the specified time period as well as a detailed analysis of the selected papers. Available data about study, participants and education level, country (first author), learning domain, teaching tools, research questions, hypothesis, pre/post-test results, interviews, control groups, course duration, research design, previous experience, project or grant and re-search purpose in detected papers were analysed. In addition, impact of studying some of the listed content areas on student learning performance, motivation, attitude and perception were investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Pedagogic Technology; Inclusive Schools; Children with Special Needs
Online: 23 January 2023 (04:02:43 CET)
Educators' subject-matter knowledge and their understanding of the many ways in which technology may be used to enhance student learning can both benefit from the usage of pedagogical technology, which is the primary goal of this kind of technology. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which kids with special needs might benefit academically by adopting various forms of technology into their daily routines. This work makes use of descriptive qualitative research together with the methodology and processes that come with case study research. The emphasis of this study was placed on three institutions that welcome students of all abilities. According to the results of the qualitative research, inclusive schools do not universally possess the resources necessary to successfully incorporate technology into the classroom. The results suggest that this teacher occupies a position that is about equivalent to the center of the acceptable range. This displays the instructor's existing proficiency in the use of technology to enhance the results for their students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0360.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: GBL; Games; Education; Learning; Motivation; Mathematics; Gamification
Online: 19 January 2023 (12:17:57 CET)
In this paper I describe elements of Game-Based Learning that can be used to support mathematics teaching using games. After creating a game that incorporates the elements described, the game was playtested against a small number of people who answered a questionnaire focusing on user experience, learning motivation and game design. The results are attached separately as well as the analysis. I believe that with further development this game-based approach can be a powerful tool to gamify common learning tools and increase learning motivation and appreciation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Pedagogical Residency Program; Pedagogical Practice; Pandemic of Covid-19
Online: 19 January 2023 (01:25:53 CET)
This article aims to discuss the activities developed through the Pedagogical Residency Program for literacy of the Pedagogy course at UFF (Universidade Federal Fluminense) at INFES (Northwest Fluminense Institute of Higher Education) located in Santo Antônio de Pádua/Rio de Janeiro/Brazil, which due to the COVID-19 Pandemic, it started to be carried out remotely, in a virtual context, using digital technologies. We will describe the context and activities that were carried out within this new reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Early Learning Assessment; Students Performance; Learning Communities; Motivation
Online: 13 January 2023 (10:52:23 CET)
In this paper, we have investigated the impact of an early learning assessment on students' motivation for improving their performance throughout the semester. An observation analysis was conducted on an entry level mechanical engineering course in which students are enrolled in during their first semester of engineering work. This study analyzes the effect that a first exam, with an average below a passing grade, has on student's outcome in the course. It was hypothesized that students were motivated to achieve their desired grade outcomes following inadequate performance on the first exam. This was investigated by diving into the results of the course and referencing initial performance to the remaining exam and assessment outcomes. Students were placed into grade bands ranging from 0 to 100 in 20% increments. Their results were tracked and it was shown that for the second mechanics exam, averages jumped 43.333%, 35.35%, and 30.055% for grade bands of 0 to 20, 20 to 40, and 40 to 60 respectively. Assessment grades increased as well with the remaining assessments being averaged to a score of 91.095%. Variables contributing to student performance came from both with-in and outside the classroom. Learning communities, material differentiation, and student and professor adaptation all contributed to the rise in performance. It was concluded that the internal and external variables acted in combination with one another to increase student dedication to achieve success.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0237.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Higher Education Act; Higher Education; Zambia; Universities
Online: 13 January 2023 (06:33:31 CET)
The higher education act of 2013 with its amendment act of 2021 was enacted to guide and regulate the provision of higher education in Zambia. This conceptual paper sought to assess the impact of this act in the higher education sector. It was qualitative in design and data was collected using content analysis. In this regard, literature regarding the Zambia higher education act and higher education provisions were scrutinised. The findings show that the higher education act has resulted in the creation of the higher education authority (HEA) which has brought sanity to the higher education sector by compelling all higher education institutions to be registering themselves and programmes with HEA. Further, the HEA has developed a policy for the promotion of academic staff in the higher education sector. However, the higher education act (the amended act of 2021) has negatively impacted the higher education sector. The amended act outlawed the spirit of accountability in the running of universities by removing stakeholders such as unions from sitting on the university council. Further, the act has reduced the number of councillors to sit on the council to run public universities from 16 to 8, thereby limiting the diversity of membership to the council. Furthermore, the higher education act has opened higher education institutions' affiliations to even private universities with little or no capacity, thereby further compromising the quality of higher. The Act has also increased the cost of running universities by introducing additional administrative structures in universities. Based on the above findings, the paper recommends that the Act be amended to remove the retrogressive clauses highlighted in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: pre-service teacher education; teacher evaluation; pre-service physical education teacher; class demonstration; teaching behavior analysis
Online: 9 January 2023 (03:09:08 CET)
This study aimed to evaluate the level of skill in observing teaching competency in pre-service physical education (PE) teachers and provide basic data to cultivate teaching competency. A total of 21 third-year pre-service PE teachers were selected as participants. The study derived descriptive statistics to analyze the participants’ observation skills regarding teaching competency in different class stages using evaluation results of class demonstrations by pre-service teachers. Mann–Whitney U test was conducted to verify the statistical significance of the evaluation between in-service and pre-service teachers. Compared with in-service teachers, pre-service teachers reported high agreement with intuitive teaching behaviors. However, pre-service teachers indicated low agreement with skills that required complex teaching behaviors depending on various situations. Based on theories by Schon (1983), pre-service teachers showed high “knowledge for practice” and low “knowledge in practice.” Thus, pre-service education must balance practical knowledge and theory rather than focus on theory-based education. This study provided directions for pre-service teacher education to enhance the competency of pre-service teachers for leading and analyzing classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0082.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: at-risk readers; elementary reading; reading remediation; orthographic mapping; reading fluency; reading comprehension; accelerated learning
Online: 6 January 2023 (09:39:03 CET)
Reading proficiency is requisite in our read-to-learn educational system, yet two-thirds of American students are not proficient readers. Assuring educational equity means supporting all learners with multiple component reading interventions that individually scaffold students while remediating weak literacy skills and providing intensive and sustainable intervention early. This study (N = 855) measured the efficacy of two different multiple component reading programs for students in grades three, four, and five. Grade levels of students were assigned to either the treatment intervention or the typical practice condition; and all students were pre-and post-tested using EasyCBM Reading Benchmarks. Students scoring at/below the 30th percentile on either benchmark were also assessed with the WRMT-3 Passage Reading Comprehension and Oral Reading Fluency measures. Students in the treatment condition received Readable English and students in typical practice condition continued to receive Amplify CKLA during their regular ELA times for 45—60 hours. Students receiving Readable English significantly outperformed students in the typical practice condition on measures of oral reading fluency, reading rate, accuracy, and passage comprehension. Raw scores, growth scale values, and grade equivalents are reported, and implications for practice are discussed. In a school year fraught with pandemic instructional interruptions and learning loss, elementary students in the intervention condition averaged a year’s worth of growth in reading fluency and nine months of growth in reading comprehension compared to three- and five-months fluency and comprehension growth in the typical practice condition. Students in the Readable English condition experienced meaningful gains in reading rate and accuracy that will give exponential word reading volume dividends to students able to read text faster and more accurately going forward. This study adds to accumulating evidence that multiple component reading programs designed to reinforce fluency skills also support reading comprehension gains for all students.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0109.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online environment; students; adaptation; counseling; support
Online: 6 January 2023 (02:13:25 CET)
The period of study in the online environment can be a very demanding trial for students and masters, especially for those who are not familiar with computer technology. This is largely due to a complex of factors that come from the changes to which they are subjected, such as: leaving the parental home and settling into another living environment (living in dormitories or other forms of accommodation) but also settling with an unfamiliar and very different educational environment from what they were familiar with. Along with all the changes occurring in the family and social plan, the students had to adapt to the educational system made exclusively online. Higher educa-tion institutions in Romania use, as a method of knowledge transmission, traditional learning methods, namely they use face-to-face lecture-type courses in a lecture hall or practical and ex-planatory activities in a seminar/laboratory room. The emergence of this pandemic forced higher education institutions to switch to an online teaching mode for all types of activities included in the educational process.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0049.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Zambia; Higher Education and Quality Assurance; Zambia’s Higher Education
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:58:38 CET)
This paper discussed the concept of quality assurance (QA) in higher education and its implications to higher education institutions (HEIs) and the possible challenges. The study evaluated literature concerning QA in Zambia and elsewhere. The findings of the study show that QA is implemented through external and internal mechanisms such as accreditation, registration, institutional auditing, and the use of external examiners, self-evaluation, and peer reviews. The QA implications to HEIs in Zambia are that there is a need for accreditation of academic programmes with the Higher Education Authority (HEA) by HEIs. Further, HEIs should establish QA units to spearhead quality issues, reactive, and introduce the use of external examiners to ensure quality. The challenges identified in the implementation of QA in HEIs include inadequate funding, infrastructure, shortage of qualified academic staff, and lack of standalone QA units in some HEIs. In this regard, it has been recommended among other things, government improve funding in public HEIs, construct infrastructure, HEIs establish QA units, and recruit and retain qualified academic staff to ensure the quality of education.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0047.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Zambia’s Higher Education Policy; Policies in Higher Education; Education and Policies in Zambia
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:46:40 CET)
Policies are adopted and implemented to achieve specific goals. In this regard, the Government of Zambia in 2019 adopted the higher education policy with many objectives which include, the expansion of access to higher education; reduction of gender and other forms of inequity in accessing higher education; the improvement of quality of higher education by increasing funding to higher education institutions, construction, and repair of infrastructure in higher and improvement in the provision of learning materials in higher education institutions (HEIs).This paper, therefore, sought to evaluate the higher education policy of 2019. The four criteria were used namely; effectiveness, equity, policy sustainability, and consistency. Other principles such as political and social acceptability of a policy were not used because the policy is already adopted and being implemented. Further, the principle of efficiency was not used because it would have been problematic to gauge the expenditure against the outcomes.The findings have revealed that the policy to some extent has been effective; some of the objectives such as increased access to higher education and reduction of inequality have been partially achieved. It has been established that the number of students pursuing higher education has been increased to 114,049 in 2020 from 91,969 in 2017. Further, in 2021, 48.5% of scholarships in public universities were awarded to female students while 51.5% were awarded to female students. Further, more students are encouraged to pursue science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and more women are pursuing studies in STEM-related fields. However, the policy has not helped to achieve the quality of higher education as funding in public HEIs has not improved. Further, infrastructure remains very poor and inadequate; and access to update and relevant learning materials also remains a challenge in HEIs. However, the policy seems to be duplicated by the recent re-launched Technical Education Vocation Entrepreneurship Training (TEVET) national policy.Given the above findings, it has been recommended that the government among other things improve funding and build infrastructure in public HEIs. There is also a need to harmonise the TEVET national policy with the higher education policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0025.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Management; Sustainability tools; Coaching process; Communication; Educational institution; Social sustainability of human beings.
Online: 3 January 2023 (09:23:21 CET)
The impetus for the development of coaching as a professional managerial activity is based on the needs and requirements of a modern sustainable society. The paper aims to explore the awareness of academic students about the coaching approach and to formu-late recommendations for its application in the academic environment. The article focuses on the views of experts in the field of coaching approach as a means of improving com-munication in the academic/educational setting, characterizes communication and coaching approach, coaching models and its benefits and barriers. The survey presents a survey of awareness of the coaching approach among college and university students of in Slovakia and the possibilities/options of its application in the academic environment. The research was carried out by the questionnaire method. The evaluation of the questionnaire and the statistical evaluation of established hypotheses and assumptions concerning the coaching approach. The proposion of students was the introduction of the subject "Basics of coaching" which could be taught for all students at University of Zilina, Slovakia. Acording to the survey, 468 students, representing 68%, have knowledge about coaching. Furthermore, 68% of students had or have doubts about achieving their goals during their studies. According to the results of the survey, only 24% of students had ex-perience with coaching. The cooperation with a coach was regarded as beneficial for 71% of participants of the survey, which had already experience the coaching lectures. The students of managerial fields would benefit in enhancing leadership skills and providing support of their working teams.Finally, suggest organizing an introductory full-day workshops for students of man-agement -future managers, followed by organizing individual thematic workshops for specific areas of coaching.Moreover, the usage of coaching skills is possible yet while they are students with applications in communication in their relationships, student jobs, searching the profes-sional job opportunities and accomplishing the final thesis.To raise awareness of coaching approach in the University of Zilina in a cooperation with The Counseling and Career Center and its activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0425.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: teacher motivation; work motivation; job satisfaction; COVID-19; Ghana
Online: 22 December 2022 (09:10:30 CET)
Teachers, particularly in developing contexts, were vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. As natural parental figures for students, they had to reconcile the dual role of ensuring the safety and health of students and their own and family well-being. The external crisis of COVID-19 heightened the negative experiences of teachers in their work environments during both online and physical instruction. The qualitative phenomenological study involving thirty (30) secondary school teachers in Ghana took a comprehensive and fresh look at how COVID-19 impacted the work motivation of teachers. It was found that teachers suffered a great deal of stress in the wake of the pandemic and had face-mounting concerns about their working conditions. The low morale of teachers precipitated by COVID-19 made them develop attrition intentions. However, intrinsic and altruistic traits such as passion, the feeling of responsibility, and the desire to contribute to society and foster student development made teachers resilient towards the deleterious effects of the pandemic to promote optimal teaching. Future studies should investigate the installation of support structures that strengthen the motivation of teachers in unforeseen crises.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0389.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: civic education; cultural activities; social behavior; Latin America; Europe
Online: 21 December 2022 (06:57:07 CET)
The objective of this research article is to determine if social and cultural capital are factors that cause inequalities in the level of knowledge in civic and citizenship education, between Latin American and European countries. To achieve this purpose, information from the National Study of Civic and Citizen Education -ICCS-, of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement -IEA-, of the year 2016, is used. Methodologically speaking, the Educational Production Function -EPF- is estimated and subsequently, the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition technique is applied to quantify the differences in civic and citizenship education and see how much they are explained by the characteristics of the student and their family. the school, the social and cultural capital. As a main result, educational inequalities were found in favor of European countries, and are due to a greater extent to differences in school resources, between Latin American and European countries, followed by differences in social and cultural capital, therefore, it is the European students who make the best use of and benefit from the differences in school endowments and in social and cultural capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Empathy; Emotional Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional competences; pre-primary Education
Online: 16 December 2022 (14:05:19 CET)
Today, concepts such as Emotional Education and Emotional Intelligence are recognized by many authors and researchers, emphasizing the importance of their development in all people, but especially in schools, specifically in teachers or educators and children. However, we still find many shortcomings within the schools that are needed to continue working. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of emotional intelligence and empathy in teachers, through a sample of 42 participants. The research was conducted based on two validated and highly reliable assessment tools, called TMMS-24 and TECA. The results of the TMMS-24 indicate that a large percentage of participants have an adequate score of emotional intelligence. The results of the TECA indicate that most of the participants are in the middle, high or extremely high scores in relation to the level of empathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0283.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: MTI teachers; sustainable professional development; current situations and difficulties
Online: 15 December 2022 (14:50:34 CET)
Sustainable teacher development is the key to the success in the program of Master of Translation and Interpretation (MTI) but there was limited research on their current situation and needs in China. In this study 514 teachers from 32 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions across China were investigated by means of quantitative questionnaires and online interviews concerning their current situation of career development and this research presented a comprehensive description of their age, academic qualifications and professional title. Also this study expounded the current situation and difficulties in academic research, teaching, translation practice and staff training. The findings were as follows. 1：In spite of reasonable age structure, approximately 50% of them had less than three years’ teaching experience in MTI. 2: There was a rise in the number of MTI teachers with doctoral degree but they found it hard to offer students professional guidance. 3: A large proportion of MTI teachers were in a slow stream of promotion in the title of professional post. 4: The proportion of the academic achievements related to translation in all the research projects and papers was small. 5: A majority of them worked as part-time translators. 6: About half of the teachers were not very satisfied with the effectiveness in their staff training program. Therefore it is suggested that more opportunities be provided for the MTI teachers to conduct translation practice in the professional sector and more researches be needed to thoroughly understand their requirement in terms of career development with a view to bridging the gap between content in the teacher training and their actual needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0123.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Bloom; Assessment; Validation
Online: 9 December 2022 (10:10:08 CET)
(1) Background: This study aims to validate the use of Bloom's revised taxonomy as an instrument for the design of assessment tests; (2) Methods: A validation has been carried out by external judges, as well as by teachers and students, validating the instrument by means of Aiken's V; (3) Results: Judges, teachers and students consider Bloom's revised taxonomy as an effective tool for the design of assessment tests; (4) Conclusions: Using Bloom's revised taxonomy as a model for designing assessment tests promotes learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0518.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: ICT integration; Teachers’ internal expectancy; Behavioral intention to use ICT; Instruction behavior; Higher vocational college
Online: 28 November 2022 (15:50:01 CET)
This study aimed to explore what factors affect teachers’ acceptance and instructional use of ICT in Chinese higher vocational colleges. Grounded in the modified UTAUT model, the current study investigated the direct and indirect effects of teachers’ performance expectancy, effort expectancy, external conditions, and behavioral intentions on using ICT in teaching. A total of 6087 teachers from 219 vocational colleges in 28 provinces in China participated in a large-scale survey. Structural equation modeling revealed that the teachers’ psychological perceptions (including performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and intention to use ICT technology) and the external support conditions (including professional development support, infrastructures, the climate of organizational reform and innovation, and teacher performance assessment mechanisms) significantly directly affect the use of ICT in Chinese higher vocational college teachers’ teaching practice. Moreover, this study confirmed the mediating role of teachers’ intention to use ICT in teaching in the relationship between teachers’ psychological perceptions and ICT instructional usage behavior. However, there were differences in the significance of these variables in the chain effect of teachers’ intention to use ICT. These findings expand our understanding of the factors influencing ICT use in teaching among VET teachers in China and thus provide practical implications for higher vocational college managers to promote teachers’ ICT teaching behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Sustainable gender equality; self-efficacy; gender mainstreaming; STEM higher education; STEM student teachers’ perceptions; scale validation, Spain, Creece
Online: 21 November 2022 (03:38:01 CET)
In the context of the Education-2030 Framework for Action, an important goal for initial STEM teacher education is to provide professional development on equality and gender awareness. This study explored whether STEM prospective secondary teachers are prepared to implement a sustainable gender-sensitive practice upon graduation. To this end, we cross-culturally validated the TEGEP (Teacher Self-Efficacy for Gender Equality practice) scale and compared STEM student teachers’ perceptions of self-efficacy by country and sex. Participants were 205 STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) secondary school student teachers (136 Greek and 69 Spanish) drawn from seven public universities (six Greek, one Spanish). Statistical analysis confirmed the structure and factor invariance of the TEGEP across country and between sexes showing evidence that gender equality self-efficacy level is only moderate and that perceived competence in gender knowledge was significantly higher in Greek than in Spanish STEM student teachers, while the latter felt more competent than the Greek in developing values and attitudes in regards to gender. The study provides a cross-validated instrument to measure gender equality self-efficacy in STEM teacher education and evaluate sustainable changes after planned interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: online physical training; attitudes: influencing factors; interview method.
Online: 21 November 2022 (01:18:01 CET)
In the context of the new crown epidemic, remote physical training will already be in order under the guidance of the Ministry of Education. There is a global focus on current lifestyle behaviors and the future health and well-being of youth. Youth physical activity, aerobic activity and muscle fitness levels are declining. Research on the effects of youth physical training and group attitudes is still in its infancy. This study conducted in-depth interviews with online physical training students, parents, teachers involved in the construction of online physical training, and sports practitioners through interview methods, documentation, and mathematical statistics. The results of the interviews were qualitatively coded using NVivo to summarize the attitudes of different subjects toward physical fitness training and the influencing factors, (1) students were basically satisfied with the teaching effect of online physical fitness training (2) parents thought the teaching effect of online physical fitness training was average (3) physical education teachers thought the effect of online physical fitness training was average (4) physical education practitioners thought the effect of online teaching was poor.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: normative grading; criterion-based grading; clinic evaluations; clinic interns
Online: 17 November 2022 (11:29:06 CET)
Background: Grades in clinical courses matter. They are often used to determine clinical academic awards, scholarships, and—most importantly—interns’ suitability for graduate medical education opportunities. Aware of these stakes, clinic preceptors may feel pressure to grade too leniently or uniformly. A fair method of adjusting for differences in preceptor bias is then needed. Approach: The authors propose a technique that employs the advantages of both criterion- and normative-based grading to adjust for differences in both grader leniency and uniformity. Evaluation: The technique produces fair adjustments to any raw assign grades, and the authors demonstrate how easily this process can be administered in any clinical setting where multiple preceptors are evaluating interns. Implications: This work provides a grading framework that is transparent to all stakeholders but places responsibilities at the appropriate level. That is, clinic performance evaluations are left to clinic preceptors but grading to clinic academic managers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0213.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Digital gap; academic performance; Information and Communication Technology; digital literacy; virtual education; Covid-19
Online: 15 November 2022 (01:12:52 CET)
This study analyzes the academic performance of students from an official school in Bogotá (Colombia) who had asymmetric access to Information and Communication Technologies during the first year of the Covid-19 pandemic. The Classical Linear Regression Model is employed using data from a survey of a representative group of students in the year 2020. Results show technological gaps between students that are associated with asymmetric academic performance against students with limited or null access to the Internet and electronic devices. Results also show that, among students with permanent access to the Internet, women have better scores compared to men’s scores, which implies that women can achieve better academic results than men in virtual education. It is also noted that the sole access to an electronic device does not guarantee good academic achievements if there is no full access to the Internet, and if ICT-use skills have not been developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: body expression; self-concept; pre-service training; physical activity; physical education; COVID-19 pandemic; emotions
Online: 14 November 2022 (06:23:17 CET)
Body Expression (BE) has been defined in the past decades as a discipline within Physical Education (PE) with very particular characteristics and a strong emotional component. In this study, a programme of this discipline was applied to university Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (PASS) students from six consecutive academic years: three prior to and three during the pandemic. A pre-post design was used to determine how the BE programme affected the university students' self-concept (SC). To do so, a questionnaire with a multidimensional approach to this construct was administered, whose dimensions were closely related to the BE programme's characteristics. The results revealed significant improvements in the final SC, compared to the initial SC. Men reported lower SC values than women before the programme implementation, but higher at the end. Therefore, the change was larger in men, so the programme may have had an equalising effect between groups. It was also verified that the pandemic had particularly affected women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: health literacy; food literacy; dietary intake; nutrition; office workers; health promotion
Online: 10 November 2022 (10:14:31 CET)
Widespread patterns of poor dietary behavior are a key factor causing the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases around the world. Research provides initial insights into the potential of food literacy (FL) to empower individuals to improve their dietary behavior. Yet, studies on FL interventions in working adults are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of a comprehensive 3-week workplace health promotion program (WHPP) on FL and dietary intake (DI) and to examine the association between FL and DI in a sample of 144 German office workers (30.0% female). Using two random intercept mixed linear regression models, we found significant strong improvements for both FL (β = 0.52, p < .0001) and DI (β = 0.63, p < .0001) after the WHPP when compared to baseline. Significant long-term improvements at 18 months where strong for FL (β = 0.55, p < .0001) and small for DI (β = 0.10, p < .0001). FL showed a significant moderate effect on DI across all measurement time points (β = 0.24, p < .0001). Our study fills a gap of long-term findings in the literature on FL interventions, offers insights into underlying mechanisms, and provides recommendations for effective WHPPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Career development; career conceptions; career education; middle school; educational intervention
Online: 3 November 2022 (03:21:35 CET)
Several studies confirmed the importance of career education interventions since childhood. This study aimed at testing a career education intervention designed for middle school students, conducted, after a specific training on Social Cognitive Career Theory, by students’ teachers. The career conceptions were assessed in both experimental and control groups through the Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment protocol before and after career education intervention. Result showed that. starting from the same level and increased their conceptions after the intervention. Experimental group increase, in a statistically significant way, more than the control group.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: EFL learning; learner autonomy; undergraduate education level
Online: 2 November 2022 (10:45:34 CET)
The study examined the learner autonomy in EFL learning at the undergraduate level in the context of Bangladesh. It investigated the effectiveness of learner autonomy on EFL learning. Besides, it explored the factors affecting autonomous learning in English language class. This study adopted a mixed- method approach. Data were collected from 60 students who had just completed their second semester at a private university in Dhaka city. The respondent students attended the compulsory English foundation course including their two semesters. Data were also collected from 12 ELT teachers teaching at the tertiary education level. Five EFL classes were observed following a sample of classroom observation schedule. Both open-ended and closed-ended questionnaires were used by the researchers for collecting the data from the students and teachers. Major findings of the study showed that lack of confidence, teachers’ dependency, lack of motivation, short-term goals in learning, huge confusions and confinement in memorization, tendency of using mother tongue and unawareness to self-evaluation of students affected learner autonomy in EFL learning of the undergraduate students. However, the study revealed that motivated students hardly faced any difficulties in achieving maximum outcomes with autonomous learning in the EFL class. Finally, the researchers gave a number of recommendations to bring out effective EFL learning with learner autonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0468.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: COVID-19 lockdown; critical realism; emergency remote teaching; higher education; rural-based university; unintended pedagogical consequences
Online: 31 October 2022 (06:43:22 CET)
In this empirical article, we argue that, while emergency remote teaching (ERT) may have achieved its goal of saving the academic years during the COVID-19 pandemic, it also constructed unintended pedagogical consequences that were possibly overlooked at the time of advocating it. The research question that the article attempted to answer is, what unintended pedagogical consequences did students and lecturers suffer because of the move to ERT at rural-based universities (RBUs) in South Africa? Drawing on students' and lecturers’ lived experiences of ERT, this article foregrounds unintended pedagogical consequences that arose at one RBU in South Africa during the transition from face-to-face teaching to ERT. Underpinned by the tenets of critical realism philosophy, as well as student integration theory, in-depth interviews with three lecturers and six students were conducted. The findings of the study indicate that home conditions, individual characteristics, pre-COVID-19 blended learning experiences, university training and support, and teaching, learning, and assessment practices and policies altogether contributed to the construction of unintended pedagogical consequences of ERT presented in this article. These consequences include (1) exclusion of low-income students in active teaching and learning, (2) equipping middle-class students with better chances of success than working-class students. (3) distressing female students and lecturers more than their male counterparts, and (4) unproductive assessment practices. This study may be beneficial to academics and policymakers from similar contexts in their plight to continue with remote teaching and assessment (RTA) beyond the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0374.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Influencer; Instagram; health promotion; followers; social media; fake content; media education
Online: 25 October 2022 (03:13:48 CEST)
The pandemic has accentuated the power that influencers have to influence their followers. Various scientific approaches highlight the lack of moral and ethical responsibility of these creators when disseminating content under highly sensitive tags such as health. This article presents a correlational statistical study of 443 Instagram accounts with more than one million followers belonging to health-related categories. This study aims to describe the content of these profiles and their authors and to determine whether they promote health as accounts that disseminate health-related content, identifying predictive factors of their content topics. In addition, it aims to portray their followers and establish correlations between the gender of the self-described health influencers, the characteristics of their audience and the messages that these prescribers share. Health promotion is not the predominant narrative among these influencers, who tend to promote beauty and normative bodies over health matters. A correlation is observed between posting health content, the gender of the influencers and the average age of their audiences. The study concludes with a discussion on the role of public media education and the improvement of ethical protocols on social networks to limit the impact of misleading and false content on sensitive topics, increasing the influence of real health prescribers.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0334.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: beginning teachers; teaching induction; teacher education
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:53:20 CEST)
The objective of this research-action, teaching and extension project was to support the beginning teacher, who graduated from the Pedagogy courses at UFF-INFES and UFRRJ/IE, raising the difficulties and solutions of this teacher's pedagogical practice, as well as implementing and analyzing strategies of professional induction of the newly graduated professor by the proposed pilot course with a focus on promoting dialogue between university and school. This project was aimed at graduates of Pedagogy courses who started as teachers in the early years of elementary school and early childhood education (with less than 5 years as a teacher). These teachers participated in two pilot courses (one in 2021 and the other in 2022) to help recent graduates in their professional induction through innovative actions that help them to take a leading role in their practices. For this, we seek to investigate: the impact of this program on their professional induction through narrative interviews, accompany them in this process and analyze the difficulties and solutions they found in their pedagogical practice as a result of the help that the project offered them; the role of mentors (teachers running the school) and the University at the beginning of their professional activities. Finally, we concluded that this course worked as a support for beginning teachers, allowing for greater reflection and better professional performance, as well as a way to reduce the shock of reality, demotivation and teacher abandonment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0261.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: System dynamics; Education; Teaching; Learning; Systemsthinking
Online: 19 October 2022 (02:13:49 CEST)
This article addresses a challenge modeling novices face in model conceptualization: the recognition of behavior modes. Despite behavior modes being at the heart of system dynamics modeling, there is no unifying taxonomy for them, making them harder to learn for beginners. The article proposes criteria a taxonomy should satisfy, critically reviews previous taxonomies in the literature, and then introduces a new consistent taxonomy based on slope and curvature with mode names that refer only to visual cues and free of references to prior mathematical or domain-specific knowledge. Evidence from an exploratory experiment suggests that novices actually have difficulties classifying curves when using previous taxonomies. Links from these elementary modes to analogous terms in other taxonomies in diverse disciplines allow this taxonomy to be related to other ones. The article concludes by mentioning relevant limitations and future steps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial competency; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial mindset; SEM; sustainable entrepreneurship
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:28:34 CEST)
Entrepreneurship has been viewed as an opportunity for economic development and changing economic scenarios in global markets. Women are viewed as a reservoir of entrepreneurial talent, so they can be growth engines in novel markets. Previous studies have considered entrepreneurship as the most effective way towards the economic empowerment of women. Female students engaged in entrepreneurial education have been addressed persistently, while what transforms them in an education process is still unclear. Considering the transforming global economy and its influence on higher education, this study aims to detect female students transforming entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention into sustainable entrepreneurship. Using a self-compiled survey, we targeted 752 female students to investigate their entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention. SPSS and AMOS were used to transform the data for interpretation. We assumed that the impact of female students’ entrepreneurial competency could be modified by an entrepreneurial mindset and result in entrepreneurial intention. To detect this causal relationship, this study employed reliability, factor, structural equation modeling (SEM), and bootstrap-ping analyses to verify the evidence. The result of the SEM confirms that female students’ entrepreneurial competency will, through their entrepreneurial mindset, impact entrepreneurial intention. With bootstrapping, 5000 samples were collected, and it was demonstrated that the measure constructs were still reliable in the model. This study found that there is a mediation effect between entrepreneurial competency and entrepreneurial intention. The entrepreneurial mindset plays a crucial role in the transformation process. Without an entrepreneurial mindset, entrepreneurial competency cannot exert a significant effect on entrepreneurial intention. The findings can help reinvent related entrepreneurial education in higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0545.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: perceptions of organizational justice; organizational citizenship behavior; job burnout; mediating effects
Online: 31 August 2022 (10:39:58 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between teachers' perception of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior and to reveal the mediating role of teacher job burnout between teachers' perception of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behavior. This study used a questionnaire to collect data from 857 teachers in 21 secondary schools in Chongqing, China. Through a series of hierarchical regression analyses, mediating effects tests, structural equation modeling tests, and dominance analyses, the findings consistently indicated that procedural justice was a positive predictor of organizational citizenship behavior, while teacher’s job burnout was a negative predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. In addition, the study results also indicated that job burnout had a significant mediating effect on the relationship between teachers' perceptions of organizational justice and organizational citizenship behaviors, particularly with the passion burnout and burnout of professional self-effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0528.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education; Health; Emotions; Materials; Physical Education; Emotional Intelligence; Emotional Education; Elderly
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:46:14 CEST)
This research is aimed at the knowledge of the effectiveness of the material resources in the sensa-tions of exploratory procedures in 365 older people who take part in the physical activity that the Sport Municipal Institute (SMI) offers in the different sports centers assigned to it in the city of Se-ville, using a descriptive design and with a questionnaire developed and validated previously by the Delphi method; showing the relationship between the basic emotions that seniors experience when handling sport, and the materials. So it is claimed that exist a relation between older people, which practice exercise with the materials that they use on it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Education 2030; gross enrollment ratio (GER); higher education expansion; SDG 4; student mobility
Online: 15 August 2022 (15:26:56 CEST)
Student mobility is one of the most important indicators to reflect institutional internationalization in a sustainable higher education system. While student mobility issues have been addressed persistently, the phenomenon is rarely discussed in association with higher education expansion. Since higher education sustainable development has received much scholarly attention, monitoring student mobility flows to adjust international strategies is necessary. This study explored practical approaches to detect student mobility flows in the process of higher education expansion. Targeting Taiwan’s higher education system as an example, we addressed the topic of system expansion and the core issues of student mobility. Target series data were collected from 1950 to 2021, including higher education enrollment, gross enrollment ratio (GER), and number of inbound and outbound students. The data were transformed with index formats, for example enrollment increasing ratio (IR) and net flow ratio. The cross-correlation function (CCF) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) were used to determine the correlations of the series data and their future trends. The findings suggested that the effect of system expansion, with GER and IR, might influence the mobility ratios significantly in the process of higher education expansion. This study confirmed that the time series approaches work well in detecting the phenomena of higher education expansion and their effects on student mobility flows in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0198.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: thematic analysis; Indonesia; physics education research; natural language processing
Online: 10 August 2022 (09:42:09 CEST)
Emergent physics education research (PER) literatures have been disseminated through academic publications within the community. The growing body of literatures over years challenge Indonesian PER scholars to understand how the research community has been progressed and what possible future work that should be emphasized. Nevertheless, previous traditional method of thematic analysis performed serious limitation when the number of PER literatures exponentially increased. Dealing with this large volume of publications, one of the machine learning studies namely natural language processing (NLP) was employed in this study to automate our thematic analysis among Indonesian PER literatures that are still limited to be explored. One of the well-known NLP algorithm, latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), has been performed to extract Indonesian PER topics and their associated development between 2014 and 2021. A total of 852 papers (~ 4 to 8 pages each) were collectively downloaded from five international conference proceedings organized by Indonesian PER researchers. Before their topics were modeled through LDA algorithm, our data corpus should be previously preprocessed through several common procedures of established NLP studies. Findings revealed that LDA has thematically quantified Indonesian PER topics and described their distinct development over certain period. The identified topics from this study demonstrated that Indonesian PER community has established robust development in eight distinctive topics to the present. They begin with initial interest in focusing research on physics laboratory and following the research based instruction in the late 2015. Indonesian PER scholars sustained to study continuous topic on 21st century skill until 2019 which gave way to a focus on developing relevant educational technology to address several forms of students’ performance including scientific literacy and problem solving. There is still lack of Indonesian PER literatures that have been attempted to address qualitative aspects of physics teaching and learning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0127.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: environmental literacy; sustainable environment; nursing students
Online: 8 August 2022 (03:40:49 CEST)
Environmental literate citizenship is a lifelong learning process that aims to develop citizens who have the knowledge, skills, and commitment to make responsible decisions that will affect the quality of the environment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the environmental literacy levels of nursing students in terms of sustainable environmental by considering the dimensions of environmental literacy. It was also aimed at understanding the correlation among dimensions of environmental literacy and revealing the factors affecting the dimensions of environmental literacy. This research was designed as a descriptive study in the survey model. A total of 278 nursing students participated in this research. It was revealed that students obtained a high score for use and concern from the dimensions of environmental literacy, their attitudes towards the environment were moderate; however, nursing students took the lowest points for the environmental knowledge component, which indicates that students need support in environmental knowledge. It was put forward that there were statistically significant differences based on gender and taking environmental related courses with dimensions of environmental literacy. All dimensions of environmental literacy were found to be positively correlated with each other, ranging from low to moderate relations.