ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: MARS; SVM; RF; rainfall; runoff; rainfall-runoff modelling
Online: 13 June 2022 (03:29:36 CEST)
Nowadays, great attention has been attributed to the study of runoff and its fluctuation over space and time. There is a crucial need for a good soil and water management system to overcome the challenges of water scarcity and other natural adverse events like floods and landslides, among others. Rainfall-runoff modeling is an appropriate approach for runoff prediction, making it possible to take preventive measures to avoid damage caused by natural hazards such as floods. In the present study, several data driven models, namely: Multiple linear regression (MLR), Multiple adaptive regression splines (MARS), Support vector machine (SVM), and Random Forest (RF), were used for rainfall-runoff prediction of the Gola watershed, located in the south-eastern part of the Uttarakhand. The performance of the models was evaluated based on the coefficient of determination (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and percent bias (PBAIS) indices. In addition to the numerical comparison, the models were evaluated and their performances were evaluated base on graphical plotting, i.e., line diagram, scatter plot, Violin plot, relative error plot and Taylor diagram (TD). The comparison results revealed that the four heuristic methods gave higher accuracy than the MLR model. Among the machine learning models, the RF (RMSE (m3/s), R2, NSE, and PBIAS (%) = 6.31, 0.96, 0.94, and -0.20 during the training period, respectively, and 5.53, 0.95, 0.92, and -0.20 during the testing period, respectively) surpassed the MARS, SVM, and the MLR models in forecasting daily runoff for all cases studies. Among all four models, the RF model outperformed in the training and testing periods. It can be summarized that the RF model is best-in-class and delivers a strong potential for runoff prediction of the Gola watershed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0404.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Runoff runoff; Mountainous region; Watershed; Landscape; Climate; Management
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:21:43 CET)
Watershed’s landscape features and climate features have a significant influence on the mountainous catchment’s hydrological response. This literature review synthesizes recent kinds of literature investigating associations between surface runoff and catchment’s landscape features, and the potential controls of climate variables, with an emphasis on mountainous regions. Such factors are significant controls on surface runoff through their influence on the rate of infiltration capacity, antecedent soil moisture conditions, and underlying bedrock structure. The literature review indicates that there are considerable issues that remain to be resolved in advance a concrete understanding of the influence of catchment’s characteristics on surface runoff response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0403.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Climate Projection; Downscaling; Drought; Runoff; Snow; Wildfire
Online: 26 July 2022 (10:42:21 CEST)
Snowpack loss in midlatitude mountains is ubiquitously projected by Earth system models, though the magnitudes, persistence and time horizons of decline vary. Using daily downscaled hydroclimate and snow projections we examine changes in snow seasonality across the U.S. Pacific Southwest region during a simulated severe 20-year dry spell in the 21st century (2051–2070) developed as part of the 4th California Climate Change Assessment to provide a "stress test" for water resources. Across California’s mountains, substantial declines (30–100% loss) in median peak annual snow water equivalent accompany changes in snow seasonality throughout the region compared to the historic period. We find 80% of historic seasonal snowpacks transition to ephemeral conditions. Subsetting empirical-statistical wildfire projections for California by snow seasonality transition regions indicates a two-to-four-fold increase in burned area, consistent with recent observations of high elevation wildfires following extended drought conditions. By analyzing six of the major California snow-fed river systems we demonstrate snowpack reductions and seasonality transitions result in concomitant declines in annual runoff (47-58% of historic values). The negative impacts to statewide water supply reliability by the projected dry spell will likely be magnified by changes in snowpack seasonality and increased wildfire activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0184.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: urbanization; climate change; SWMM; LID; runoff; water quality
Online: 18 January 2019 (11:13:21 CET)
The Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to evaluate the impact of urbanization, climate change, and implementation of Low Impact Developments (LIDs) at the Mahabad Dam watershed, Iran. Several scenarios of urbanization, with and without climate change impacts, in different locations were defined, including near outlet, middle, far end, and whole watershed. Climate change was considered to change the intensity of rainfall and increase evaporation. Vegetative swales were implemented as LIDs to evaluate their applicability to reduce pollutant loads. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the area was input into ArcGIS, and the watershed was delineated using the ArcSWAT extension to identify topographic features. Water quality properties were defined in the software, and each scenario was run for a twelve-hour simulation. The results indicated that urbanization affects the imperviousness of sub-catchments, and location of urbanization affects the amount and timing of runoff and pollutant yields. Fifty-percent urbanization near the watershed outlet resulted in 23.1% and 27.4% increases in runoff and pollutant loads, respectively. Fifty-percent urbanization in the middle resulted in 28.8% and 35.4% increases in runoff and pollutant loads; and, at the far end, 23.1% and 3.9% increases in runoff and pollutant loads were the result; Fifty-percent urbanizing the whole watershed gave 58.6% and 66.3% increases in runoff and pollutant loads, respectively; Under climate change scenarios (higher intensity, shorter duration rainfall) peaks occurred earlier. Moreover, results showed LIDs decreased pollution loads up to 25%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0090.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: streamflow; runoff model GR4J; performance; simulation; watershed; Bonou;
Online: 12 March 2018 (14:03:11 CET)
The study aims to analyze the performance criteria of the GR4J model to reproduce high water flows in the Ouémé watershed at Bonou's outlet which has been vulnerable to climate change in recent decades. The methodology focused on the use of daily climatological and hydrometric data extracted from files of National Directorate of Meteorology, and General Directorate of Water; they were supplemented by those of SIEREM/HSM dataset over the period 1961-2015. The rainfall was regionalized using Thiessen method. The performance of the GR4J model was assessed with NSE, RMSE and KGE criteria. The results indicate that the study area is marked by rainfall variabilities and detection of two breakpoints (1968 and 1987) which divide the series into three sub-periods; these discontinuities have repercussions on the streamflow. It's found that GR4J model overestimates the streamflow during the low water period and underestimates them in high water. However, the efficiency and performance criteria NSE, RMSE and KGE calculated on high water flow rates are better in calibration than in validation. The KGE values are range between 83-85% in calibration and 56-68% during validation, which gives to GR4J model the efficiency and performance to reproduce high flow rates in the study area
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0018.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; hydrology; rainfall-runoff models; model uncertainty
Online: 5 June 2017 (03:40:23 CEST)
Hydro-climatic projections in West Africa are attributed with high uncertainties that are difficult to quantify. This study assesses the influence of the parameter sensitivities and uncertainties of three rainfall runoff models on simulated discharge in current and future times using meteorological data from 8 Global Climate Models. The IHACRES Catchment Moisture Deficit (IHACRES-CMD) model, the GR4J and the Sacramento model were chosen for this study. During model evaluation, 10,000 parameter sets have been generated for each model and used in a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis using the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method. Out of the three models, IHACRES-CMD recorded the highest Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.92 and 0.86 for the calibration (1997-2003) and the validation (2004-2010) period respectively. The Sacramento model was able to adequately predict low flow patterns on the catchment while the GR4J and IHACRES-CMD over and under estimate low flow respectively. The use of multiple hydrological models to reduce uncertainties caused by model approaches is recommended along with other methods of sustainable river basin managements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0508.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: hydrologic modelling; Pettit method; SWAT; surface runoff; water yield
Online: 30 August 2022 (05:28:34 CEST)
Climate and land use changes are two factors affecting the hydrology of watersheds. The greatest effect of climate change is probably the change in the hydrological cycle, thus water availability for human consumption, industry, and power generation. While the change in land use can cause changes in the hydrological components of the basin, such as evapotranspiration, runoff, and groundwater recharge. From these projections, it is necessary to understand the processes involved in climate change and land use and its impact on water systems. In this context, the objective of this study was to simulate climate change scenarios combined with the land use change and to analyze the impacts on the hydrology in the Piracicaba basin. Two periods were selected based on the preliminary result of detection of the abrupt change point of the annual flow series, using Petitt's non-parameter test. The first period selected prior to the occurrence of the point of the change was from 1985 to 2000. The other period after the point of the change was 2001 to 2015. Land use maps of the years 1990 and 2010 were used to represent the two periods. The results showed a good performance of the SWAT model. The NS (Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient) was 0.88 in calibration for both periods. In the validation, the NS was 0.92 and 0.94 for the first and second periods respectively. We then simulate climate and land use changes scenarios and compare them to the current scenario (baseline). The simulation results showed that the hydrological processes in the Piracicaba basin in the period 1985-2015, had more intense responses to land use change than climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0605.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: GR2M; Inverse Distance Weighting; Rainfall-Runoff Model; Sensitivity Analysis
Online: 29 January 2021 (08:56:55 CET)
Accurate monthly runoff estimation is fundamental in water resources management, planning, and development, resulting in preventing and reducing water-related problems, such as flooding and drought. This article evaluates the performance of the monthly hydrological rainfall-runoff model, GR2M model, in Thailand's southern basins. The GR2M model requires only two parameters, and no prior research has been reported on its application in this region. The 37 runoff stations, which are distributively located in three sub-watersheds of Thailand's southern region, namely; Thale Sap Songkhla, Peninsular-East Coast, and Peninsular-West Coast, were selected as study cases. The available monthly hydrological data of runoff, rainfall, air temperature from the Royal Irrigation Department (RID) and the Thai Meteorological Department (TMD) were collected and analyzed. Thornthwaite method was utilized for the determination of evapotranspiration. The model's performance was conducted using three statistical indices: Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE), Correlation Coefficient (r), and Overall Index (OPI). The model's calibration results for 37 runoff stations gave the average of NSE, r, and OPI of 0.637, 0.825, and 0.757, and those values for verification of 0.465, 0.750, and 0.639, respectively. It indicated a model's acceptable performance and could apply the GR2M model for determining monthly runoff variation in this region. The spatial distribution of X1 and X2 values was conducted by using IDW method. It was susceptible to the X1 value and X2 value of approximately more than 0.90 gave the higher model's performance.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: M.C.W.H.; semi-arid regions; rainfall; runoff; Vs; λ; AMC
Online: 5 January 2020 (14:54:16 CET)
In this study a new approach for planning Micro-Catchment Water Harvesting (M.C.W.H.) systems for irrigation in semi-arid regions such as the Aegean islands, is presented. M.C.W.H. is a cheap solution for constructing irrigation infrastructure with zero energy cost in regions where water is scarce. The proposed approach introduces simple linear relationships for estimating the annual volume of water Vs collected mainly from the CA (Contributing Area), stored in the root zone (Infiltration Basin, IB), according to the annual rainfall and runoff depths, after having determined the ratio of areas of micro-catchment (MC) components i.e. λ= ΑCA/ΑΙΒ and its whole area AMC This procedure was applied in Paros island of the Cyclades complex in the middle of the Aegean sea in east Mediterranean. Besides, income-cost analysis was performed via NPV method for almond, peach and apricot trees. The new approach was proved versatile and easy to use. Besides, the investment turned out to be advantageous two years after the MCs construction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0096.v1
Online: 9 October 2019 (10:16:32 CEST)
In this work a modified version of the well-known Simple Water Balance (SWB) model, comprising here three parameters instead of one, was used. Although simple, the model was tested in large-scale river basins in east-central Greece, upstream two hydrometric stations. The available historic runoff records comprised 19 hydrologic years each, on a monthly basis. Thirteen among them were used for calibrating the model, whereas the six subsequent, for validating it. Two different efficiency criteria were used as a measure of performance of the modified model. Their values, calculated for both calibration and validation stages, were close and relatively high. Thus, keeping in mind both the size and complexity of the river basins studied, one can conclude that the modified model, despite its simplistic concept and lumped form, fits satisfactorily the historic runoff series.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0118.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Irrigation; rainwater harvest; surface runoff; ecologic recycling; landscape ecology
Online: 11 September 2019 (12:56:15 CEST)
The reserves of water, which is one of the most important requirements for human life, gradually decreases under current conditions and rapidly depletes despite being one of the renewable resources. Considering the global water reserves, it became imperative to implement measures to protect the anticipated water reserves. The fact that the amount of quality water per capita decreases every day in the world and the increasing competition in water management could be considered among the indicators of the above-mentioned case. In recent years, as the effects of this adversity became increasingly more evident, several sustainable methods were adopted all over the world such as rain gardens and rainwater storage facilities. These sustainable techniques could be observed in many areas, especially in urban centers. In the present study, the area with the highest water collection was determined at Karadeniz Technical University Kanuni Campus and identified as the study area. Precipitation per square meter and surface runoff volume were identified based on the GIS (Geographic Information System) data, annual water collection volume was calculated, and information on economic and ecological recycling of the water was provided. In conclusion, the precipitation data for 11 years were compared, and it was calculated that the average annual precipitation was 64.06 kg/m2 and annual surface runoff water was 552.77 m3. Based on the surface runoff water volume in the months when no irrigation is conducted, a reservoir was designed under the vehicle road and water recycling recommendations were developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: green roof; water retention efficiency; runoff quality; hydrological performance
Online: 4 June 2018 (11:56:40 CEST)
This study assessed the hydrological performance and runoff water quality of 12 green roof (GR) modular systems located at the Universidad de los Andes campus (Bogotá, Colombia). Based on 223 rainfall events spanning a 3-year period, average rainfall retention was 85% (SD = 25%). T-tests, Welch Test, multiple linear regressions and correlation analysis were performed in order to assess the potential effect of air temperature, substrate type, vegetation cover, relative humidity, antecedent dry weather period (ADWP), rainfall duration and rainfall maximum intensity. In some cases, GR design variables (i.e. growing media and type of vegetation) were found to be significant for describing rainfall retention efficiencies and, depending on the GR type, some hydrological variables were also correlated with the rainfall retention. Rainfall and GR runoff were monitored for Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), Nitrates, Nitrites, Ammonia, Total Phosphorus (TP), Phosphates, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Color, Turbidity, Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Coliforms, metals and Poliaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results obtained confirmed that GR systems have the ability to neutralize pH, but are source of the rest of the aforementioned parameters, excluding PAHs (with concentrations below detection limits), Ammonia, TSS, Se and Li, where differences with reference values (rainfall and plastic panel runoff) were not statistically significant. Substrate type, event size and rainfall regime are relevant variables for explaining runoff water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0037.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; evapotranspiration; IHACRES model; rainfall; runoff; quantile mapping
Online: 7 December 2016 (11:14:14 CET)
Climate simulations in West Africa have been attributed with large uncertainties. Global climate projections are not consistent with changes in observations at the regional or local level of the Niger basin, making management of hydrological projects in the basin uncertain. This study evaluates the potential of using the quantile mapping bias correction to improve the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) outputs for use in hydrology impact studies. Rainfall and temperature projections from 8 CMIP5 Global Climate Models (GCM) were bias corrected using the quantile mapping approach. Impacts of climate change was evaluated with bias corrected rainfall, temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET). The IHACRES hydrological model was adapted to the Niger basin and used to simulate impacts of climate change on discharge under present and future conditions. Bias correction significantly improved the accuracy of rainfall and temperature simulations compared to observations. Nash coefficient (NSE) for monthly rainfall comparisons of 8 GCMs to the observed was improved by bias correction from 0.69 to 0.84. The standard deviations among the 8 GCM rainfall data were significantly reduced from 0.13 to 0.03. Increasing rainfall, temperature, PET and river discharge were projected for all GCMs used in this study under the RCP8.5 scenario. These results will help improving projections and contribute to the development of sustainable climate change adaptation strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0213.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: GIS; Himalayan region; SRM model; simulation; snowmelt runoff; climate change
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:06:43 CET)
The current study was planned to simulate runoff due to the snowmelt in the Lidder River catchment of Himalayan region under climate change scenarios. A basic degree-day model, Snowmelt-Runoff Model (SRM) was utilized to assess the hydrological consequences of change in climate. The SRM model performance during the calibration and validation was assessed using volume difference (Dv) and coefficient of determination (R2). The Dv was found as 11.7, -10.1, -11.8, 1.96, and 8.6 during 2009-2014, respectively, while the R2 is 0.96, 0.92, 0.95, 0.90, and 0.94, respectively. The Dv and R2 values indicating that the simulated snowmelt runoff has a close agreement with the observed value. The simulated findings were also assessed under the different scenarios of climate change: a) increases in precipitation by +20 %, b) temperature rise of +2 °C, and c) temperature rise of +2 °C with a 20 % increase in snow cover. In scenario "b", the simulated results showed that runoff increased by 53 % in summer (April–September). In contrast, the projected increased discharge for scenarios "a" and "c" was 37 % and 67 %, respectively. In high elevation data-scarce mountain environments, the SRM is efficient in forecasting future water supplies due to the snowmelt runoff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0185.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rainfall-runoff; multiple temporal scales; non-linearity; small catchments; Mediterranean
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:56:57 CET)
Mediterranean catchments are characterized by significant spatial and temporal hydrological variability caused by the interaction of natural as well human-induced abiotic and biotic factors. This study investigates the (non-)linearity rainfall-runoff relationship at multiple temporal scales in representative small Mediterranean catchments (i.e., < 10 km2) to achieve a better understanding of the hydrological response. Rainfall-runoff relationship was evaluated in 44 catchments at annual and event –203 events in 12 of these 44 catchments– scales. A linear rainfall-runoff relation was observed at annual scale with higher scatter in pervious than impervious catchments. Larger scattering was observed at event scale, although pervious lithology and agricultural land use promoted significant rainfall-runoff linear relations in winter and spring. These relationships were particularly analysed during five hydrological years in Es Fangar catchment (3.35 km2; Mallorca, Spain) as a temporal downscaling to assess intra-annual variability in which antecedent wetness conditions played a significant role in runoff generation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0192.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: DEM resolution; runoff; sensitivity analysis; SWAT; SWAT-CUP; SUFI-2
Online: 20 January 2019 (09:38:28 CET)
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are essential in watershed delineation, but the sensitivity of simulated runoff to DEM resolution is poorly understood. This study investigates the impact of DEM resolution on topological attributes and simulated runoff in the Mahabad Dam watershed, Iran. To delineate the watershed, DEMs with 12.5 m, 30 m, and 90 m resolutions were acquired from the ALOS PALSAR, Space Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and ASTER global DEM data source, respectively. Watershed and streamlines were delineated in ArcGIS, with hydrologic analyses performed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Sensitivity analysis on parameters contributing to runoff was done using Sequential Uncertainties Fitting Ver-2 (SUFI-2) Algorithm, in SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Procedures (SWAT-CUP) software. Results showed the watershed area, reach lengths, and elevations in the watershed varied due to DEM resolutions. Higher amounts of runoff were generated when DEMs with finer resolutions were implemented. The 12.5 m DEM generated 3.48% and 0.42% more runoff compared with 90 m and 30 m DEMs, respectively. SWAT-CUP results showed the sensitivity of parameters contributing to runoff changes under different DEM resolutions. Regardless of DEM resolution, surface properties, available water capacity, and moisture levels in the soil are the most sensitive parameters. As the distribution of slope changes in different DEM resolutions, surface parameters are most affected. The findings indicate to reduce computation time and speed up computation procedures, researchers may use DEMs with coarser resolutions at the expense of minor decreases in accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: the Zuli River Basin; precipitation; runoff; sediment discharge; soil conservation measure
Online: 10 April 2018 (09:31:07 CEST)
Precipitation and human activities are two essential forcing dynamics that influence hydrological processes. To investigate those impacts, the Zuli River Basin (ZRB, a typical tributary basin of the Yellow River in China) was chosen to identify the impact of precipitation and human activities on runoff and sediment discharge. A double mass curve (DMC) analysis and the test methods, including accumulated variance analysis, sequential cluster, Lee-Heghnian, and moving t-test methods was utilized to determine the abrupt change point based on data from 1956 to 2015. Correlation formulas and multiple regression methods were used to calculate the runoff and sediment discharge reduction effects of soil conservation measures and to estimate the contribution rate of precipitation and soil conservation measures to runoff and sediment discharge. Our results show that the runoff reduction effect of soil conservation measures (45%) is greater than the sediment discharge reduction effect (32%). Soil conservation measures were the main factor controlling the 74.5% and 75.0% decrease in runoff and sediment discharge, respectively. Additionally, the contribution rate of vegetation measures was higher than that of engineering measures. This study provides scientific strategies for water resource management and soil conservation planning at catchment scale to face future hydrological variability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0136.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: HEC-HMS model; streamflow; water availability; rainfall-runoff; Tonle Sap Basin
Online: 28 December 2016 (11:22:01 CET)
Hydrologic studies on rainfall-runoff have been extensively conducted in many regions around the globe to fulfill various desirable needs with a purpose of effective and proper planning and managing water resources for present and future uses, whereas such study is not well drawn much attention to river catchments of Tonle Sap Lake Basin in Cambodia, which may prevail to water insecurity. The Stung Sreng catchment, which is one among them considered to be a significant basin for water resources management in Cambodia, is remarkably increasing under intolerable pressures in water resources development. This study was to apply HEC-HMS (Hydrological Engineering Center-Hydrological Model System) model to predict streamflow of Stung Sangker catchment, located in Tonlesap Lake Basin in Cambodia. The result showed that the calibration was good at monthly basis. The model performance was given by Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency criteria followed by 0.44 for daily and 0.71 for monthly basis, respectively. Moreover, the Percent Bias (PBIAS) for daily and monthly simulation was 4.13% and 3.56%, indicating a satisfactory model fit. The HEC-HMS conceptual model can be used to simulate flow of Stung Sangke catchment on a continuous time scale particularly monthly basis. The result also indicated that there was a clear seasonal variation in monthly water availability, especially during both wet and dry season.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0298.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Sediment yield; runoff; SWAT; Watershed; Hydrological model; Hydrological Response Units; Critical area
Online: 23 February 2022 (14:38:00 CET)
Mahanadi is one of the major inter-state east flowing perennial rivers in peninsular India. Hamp watershed of Seonath Sub-basin of upper Mahanadi basin was considered for the study to estimate the sediment yield and nutrient loss-based identification of critical agricultural sub-watershed and its critical Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in-terfaced with GIS i.e., ArcSWAT. The study area was divided into 14 sub-watersheds considering topographical parameters derived from DEM and drainage network. The land cover, soil layers, and DEM were used to generate 207 HRUs for analysis of annual runoff, sediment yield and nu-trient loss for 2004-2008 (calibration period) and 2010-2013 (validation period). The sediment yield, runoff estimation and nutrient loss matched consistently well with the monthly and seasonal measured values. On the basis of average annual sediment yield (18.18 t/ha), runoff (245.97 mm) and nutrient loss NO3-N (1.62 kg/ha), respectively, sub-watershed WS4 was categorized under high priority for critical are identification. The sub watershed WS4 comprises of 15 HRUs (No. 36 - 50) with four kharif crops viz rice, soybean, maize and sugarcane. Results showed that the crops soy-bean, maize and sugarcane reduced the average annual runoff by 18.1, 31.4 and 18.0 per cent, respectively whereas the sediment yield was increased drastically by 104.5, 37.5 and 5.7 per cent, respectively as compared to rice. Soybean and maize crops HRU generate significant amount of soil and nutrient loss and were found to be as the critical HRUs for the upper Mahanadi River basin
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0185.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: porous asphalt pavement system; stormwater; stormwater runoff; heavy metals removal; geotextile membrane
Online: 9 August 2018 (10:07:29 CEST)
Porous asphalt (PA) pavement systems with and without a geotextile layer were investigated in laboratory experiments to determine the impacts of the geotextile layer on processes leading to lead ion (Pb2+) removal from stormwater runoff. Two types of geotextile membranes placed separately at upper and lower levels within the PA systems were tested in an artificial rainfall experiment using synthetic rainwater. The effect of storage capacity within the system on Pb2+ removal was also investigated. Results indicated that the use of a geotextile layer resulted in a longer delay to the onset of effluent. The non-woven geotextile membrane placed below the reservoir course improved the Pb2+ removal rate by 20% over removal efficiency of the system using a woven geotextile placed just below the surface but before the choker course. Pb2+ ions were reduced by over 98% in the effluent after being held for 24 hours in reservoir storage. Results suggest that temporary storage of stormwater in the reservoir course of a PA system is essential to improving Pb2+ ion removal capability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0139.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: glacier mass balance; runoff; Tianshan Mts.; Koxkar River Basin; HBV model; interpolation
Online: 31 October 2016 (09:43:50 CET)
Water resources provided by alpine glaciers are an important pillar for people living in the arid regions in the west of China. In this study, the HBV (Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenavdelning) light model was applied to simulate glacier mass balance and runoff in the Koxkar River Basin (KRB) on the south slope of Mt. Tumur, western Tianshan Mts.. Daily temperature and precipitation were calculated by multiple linear regressions and gradient-inverse distance weighting, respectively, based on in-situ observed data by automatic weather stations (AWSs) in the basin (2007–2009) and at four meteorological stations neighbering the basin (1959–2009). Observed daily air temperature and precipitation were taken as input data for the HBV model, which was calibrated using runoff in 2007/08 and 2009/10, and validated in 2008/09 and 2010/11. Generally, the model could simulate runoff very well. The annual glacier mass balance and runoff were calculated using the HBV model driven by interpolated meteorological data for the period of 1959–2009. The simulated glacier mass balance were reasonable when compared with those observed values at nearby glaciers, indicating a decrease trend of mass balance in the basin with an average value of –370.4 mm a-1 since 1959. The annual runoff showed a slight increase trend (5.51 mm a-1). Futher analysis indicated that the runoff is more sensitive to temperature than precipitation amuont in the Koxkar river basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0345.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: surface water runoff; acoustic sensor array; reflected sound wave; reflection from rough surfaces
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:31:37 CEST)
Irrigation is a useful crop enhancement procedure up to the point where free surface water appears. Thereafter, water can begin to flow into waterways, leaching nutrients and giving rise to environmental damage, as well as being a waste of a precious resource. The current work addresses the problem of measuring free water on the surface of agricultural soils by a real-time acoustic remote sensing method. Directional acoustic transmitter and receiver arrays are used to define a ‘footprint’ on the ground from which changes in reflectance are sensed. These arrays are mounted on a moving irrigator. Chirp signals are used to provide along-path resolution and to ensure robustness against unwanted acoustic background noise from farm machinery and the irrigator. Field measurements have been conducted above a well-defined ‘quadrat’ with controlled and measured water content, and also with the instrument mounted on an operational irrigator. A structured light camera mounted above the footprint is used to validate surface water fraction. It is found that the areal fraction of free water on the soil surface can be reliably estimated from changes in the amplitude of the reflected sound waves. The mechanism giving rise to the observed acoustic reflectivity changes is discussed and a model is developed which agrees with normalized intensity observations with a coefficient of determination R2 between 0.65 and 0.83. The rms error between model predictions and observations is comparable to the rms variation of the measurements, indicating that there is insignificant error due to the choice of model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0024.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Slope based SCS Curve Number; Antecedent Moisture Condition; Land Use; Runoff potential; Urban watersheds
Online: 15 October 2020 (15:14:05 CEST)
The Soil Conservation Service - Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is extensively used to calculate the runoff from rainfall over a large catchment over the world. Slope is an important criterion for runoff but a very few attempts have been made to evaluate the effect of slope on the CN with runoff potential. The objective of this paper is to summarise the historical review on the effects of slope on CN and runoff potential in various regions by the hydrologists. This paper also depicts that how the various researchers proved the importance of consideration of slope for CN and runoff estimation. In addition, paper highlights the key features of research in future like to classify the watersheds on slope based CN, accurate Antecedent Moisture Condition (AMC) and proper initial abstraction in the various regions etc. Considering these parameters an accurate runoff estimation can be predicted and managed properly in the urban watersheds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0056.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rainfall-runoff; rainfall variability; Hortonian overland flow; saturation overland flow; ground cover; Burdekin catchment
Online: 13 June 2017 (05:04:48 CEST)
Rainfall is the main driver of hydrological processes in dryland environments and characterising the rainfall variability and processes of runoff generation are critical for understanding ecosystem function of catchments. Using remote sensing and in situ data sets, we assess the spatial and temporal variability of the rainfall, rainfall-runoff response, and effects of antecedent soil moisture and ground cover at different spatial scales on runoff coefficients in the Upper Burdekin catchment, northeast Australia, which is a major contributor of sediment and nutrients to the Great Barrier Reef. The high temporal and spatial variability of rainfall exerts significant controls on runoff generation processes. Rainfall amount and intensity are the primary runoff controls, and runoff coefficients for wet antecedent conditions were higher than for dry conditions. The majority of runoff occurred via surface runoff generation mechanisms, with subsurface runoff likely contributing little runoff due to the intense nature of rainfall events. At annual to seasonal temporal scales and for relatively large catchments, we could not detect a significant effect of ground cover on runoff. We conclude that in the range of moderate to large catchments (193 – 36,260 km2) runoff generation processes are sensitive to both antecedent soil moisture and ground cover. A higher runoff-ground cover correlation in drier months with sparse ground cover highlighted the critical role of cover at the onset of the wet season and how runoff generation is more sensitive to cover in drier months than in wetter months. The monthly water balance analysis indicates that runoff generation in wetter months (January and February) is partially influenced by saturation overland flow, most likely confined to saturated soils in riparian corridors, swales, and areas of shallow soil. By March and continuing through October, the soil ‘bucket’ progressively empties by evapotranspiration, and Hortonian overland flow becomes the dominant, if not exclusive, flow generation process. The results of this study can be used to better understand the rainfall-runoff relationships in dryland environments and subsequent exposure of coral reef ecosystems in Australia and elsewhere to terrestrial runoff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0092.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; warming levels; river runoff; extremes; emission pathway; LISFLOOD; Europe; PESETA project; climate adaptation
Online: 16 January 2020 (02:56:30 CET)
The outcomes of the 2015 Paris Agreement triggered a number of climate impact assessments, such as for floods and droughts, to focus on future time frames corresponding to the years of reaching specific levels of global warming. Yet, the links between the timing of the warming levels and the corresponding greenhouse gas concentration pathways to reach them, remain poorly understood. To address this gap, we compare projected changes of annual mean, extreme high and extreme low river discharges in Europe at 1.5°C and 2°C under scenarios RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 from an ensemble of Regional Climate Model (RCM) simulations. The statistical significance of the difference between the two scenarios for both warming levels is then evaluated. Results show that in the majority of Europe (>95% of the surface area for the annual mean discharge, >98% for high and low extremes), the changes projected in the two pathways are statistically indistinguishable. These results suggest that in studies of changes at specific warming levels the projections of the two pathways can be merged into a single ensemble without major loss of information. With regard to the uncertainty of the unified ensemble, findings show that the projected changes of annual mean, extreme high and extreme low river discharge are statistically significant in large portions of Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0275.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: flood; Geodesign; urban growth; development; land use/land cover; green infrastructure; drainage; stormwater; runoff; underground storage
Online: 28 April 2019 (10:35:14 CEST)
The consequences of growing urbanization can be perceived in multiple levels around the globe: overpopulated living conditions, water and air pollution, loss of open space, costly transportation infrastructure, food shortages, fires and floods. The Houston metropolitan area is an example of fast urban growth, with a population increase of more than sixteen percent in seven years, going from 5.8 million people in 2010 to 6.9 million in 2017 . By 2045, the robust growth of the region is projected to lead to the addition of approximately five hundred square miles of developed area, including an estimated six million parking spaces, seven hundred eighty million square feet of non-residential uses, and three and a half billion square feet of residential use . The accelerated development, in addition to physical features, geomorphic processes and human activities in the region are believed to have caused Houston to suffer through over fifty devastating floods since its settlement, despite some successful flood damage reduction projects. The present study focused on the potential outcomes of an increased use of green infrastructure in comparable urban areas, and its effects on flooding volume. Results from the research revealed that not only these measures would likely improve the performance of existing urban drainage systems and attenuate flood incidence in the area, but would also promote connectivity between areas otherwise detached or only accessible by car, improving walkability and incentivizing engagement in outdoor activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0161.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: soil erosion; rainfall simulator; soil protection; USLE; soil loss ratio; cover crops; C-factor; runoff coefficient
Online: 9 January 2023 (10:54:58 CET)
In the Czech Republic, the Universal Soil Loss Equation provides the basis for defining the soil protection strategy. Field rainfall simulators were used to define the actual cover-management factor values of the most extensively seeded crops in the Czech Republic. More than 380 simulations between 2016 and 2021 provided data. The methodology focused on multi-seasonal measurements to cover the most important phenological phases. A comparison with the original USDA values for maize showed that it is desirable to redefine the C-factor. 71 fallow plot experiments showed that the rainfall-runoff relation is much easier to replicate than the actual sediment transport. For 30-minute intensive rainfall, the runoff ratio reached 62%, and the coefficient of variation was 25%. On saturated soil, the runoff ratio reached 81% and the coefficient of variation dropped to 12%. Soil protection techniques have a significant effect on runoff reduction. Maize seeded after cover crops and combined with reduced tillage or direct seeding can reduce the runoff ratio to 10-20% for ‘dry’ conditions and to 12-40% for ‘saturated’ conditions. Concerning soil loss, the variations are greater, with the coefficient of variation reaching 42% during fallow plot experiments. The reader should consider associated uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0206.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Strip-mined land; bioenergy; biomass; energy crop; miscanthus; SWAT model; SWAT-CUP; runoff; nutrients; and water quality
Online: 21 January 2019 (10:57:36 CET)
Strip-mined land (SML) disturbed by coal-mining is the non-crop land resource that can be utilized to cultivate high-yielding energy crops such as miscanthus for bioenergy applications. However, the biomass yield potential, annual availability and environmental impacts on growing energy crops in SML are less understood. In this study, we estimated the yield potential of miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis) in SML and its environmental impacts on local streams using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). After calibration and validation of the SWAT model, the results demonstrated that miscanthus yield potentials were 2.6 (0.8−5.53), 10.0 (1.3−16.0) and 16.0 (1.34−26.0) Mg ha-1 with the fertilizer application rate of 0, 100, and 200 kg-N ha-1 respectively. Furthermore, cultivation of miscanthus in the SML has the potential to reduce sediment (~20%) and nitrate (2.5%−10.0 %) loads reaching to water streams with a marginal increase in phosphorus load. The available SML in the United States could produce about 10 to 16 dry Tg of biomass per year without negatively impacting the water quality. In conclusion, SML can provide a unique opportunity to produce biomass for bioenergy applications, while improving stream water quality in highly dense mining area (the Appalachian region) in the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Adequate drainage structures; Rainfall IDF Curve relationship; predicted peak rate of runoff (Qlogy); Gumbel’s Extreme Value Distribution Method.
Online: 1 June 2021 (11:14:54 CEST)
Due to the increase in the emission of greenhouse gases, the hydrologic cycle is being altered on the daily basis. This has affected the variations in relations of intensity, duration, and frequency of rainfall events. Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) curves describe the relationship between rainfall intensity, rainfall duration and return period. IDF curves are one of the most often applied implements in water resource engineering, in areas such as for operating, planning and designing of water resource projects, or for numerous engineering projects aimed at controlling floods. In particular, IDF curves for precipitation answer problems of improper drainage systems or conditions and extreme characters of precipitation which are the main cause of floods in Nyabugogo catchment. This study aims to establish Rainfall IDF empirical equations, curves and hydrological discharge (predicted peak rate of runoff (Qlogy)) equations for eight Districts that will be used for designing an appropriate and sustainable hydraulic structures for controlling flood to reduce potential loss of human and aquatic life, degradation of water, air and soil quality and property damage and economic lessen caused by flood in Nyabugogo catchment. However Goodness of Fit tests revealed that Gumbel’s Extreme-Value Distribution method appears to have the most appropriate fit compared with Pearson type III distribution for validating the Intensity-Duration-Frequency curves and equations through the use of daily annual for each meteorological station. The findings of the study show that the intensity of rainfall increases with a decrease in rainfall duration. Additionally, a rainfall of every known duration will have a higher intensity if its return period is high, while the predicted peak rate of runoff (Qlogy) increases also with an increase in the intensity of rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0083.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: evapotranspiration; green infrastructure; HYDRUS; leaf water potential; low impact development; optimization; overdesign; stomatal conductance; simulated runoff test; static sizing; stormwater control measure; tree trench
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:28:40 CET)
Green infrastructure systems are often overdesigned. This may be a byproduct of static sizing (e.g., accounting for a design storm’s runoff volume but not exfiltration rates) or may be deliberate (e.g., buffering against performance loss through time). Regardless, overdesign may compromise plants’ access to water in systems where soil pits are embedded in infiltration beds. It could raise the storm size required for water to reach soil pits, reducing water availability between storms, which could ultimately induce plant physiological stress. This study investigated the hydrological dynamics and water relations of a tree trench system suspected to have been overbuilt and identified factors contributing to, compounding, and mitigating the risk of plant stress. Results provided strong evidence that the abovementioned processes played out. Water in the infiltration bed reached soil pits only once in three years, with that event occurring during a hydrant release. Moreover, minimal water was retained in the soil pit during the event due to the hydraulic properties of the soil media. Through a growing season, one of the two tree types frequently experienced water stress, while the other did so only rarely. These contrasting responses can likely be attributed to roots either being largely confined to the soil pits or reaching a deeper water source. Implications of these results for green infrastructure design are considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0037.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: cover crop; spontaneous vegetation; vineyard; topsoil water content; soil erosion; runoff coefficient; sediment trap; temporal stability; Mediterranean region
Online: 3 July 2018 (11:20:06 CEST)
Soil erosion seriously affects vineyards. In this study, the influence of two plant covers on soil moisture and the effect of different physiographic conditions on runoff and sediment yields were evaluated in a rainfed vineyard formed by four fields (NE Spain) during 15 months. One field had spontaneous vegetation as plant cover and three fields had a cover crop of common sainfoin. The vineyards’ rows were dry and stable, whereas the inter-row areas were wet although very variable, and the corridors were wet and very stable. Soil moisture in the inter-row areas with Common sainfoin was much higher than in the rows (62% - 70%) whereas this difference was lower with spontaneous vegetation (40%). Two runoff and sediment traps (STs) were installed in two ephemeral gullies, and 26 time-integrated surveys (TIS) done. The mean and maximum runoff yields were 9.8 and 30.7 l TIS–1 in ST2 and 13.5 and 30.2 l TIS–1 in ST3. The mean turbidity was 333 and 19 g l–1, and the maximum sediment yields were 41,260 and 2,778 g TIS–1 in ST2 and ST3. Changes in the canopy covers (grapevines and plant covers) and rainfall parameters explained the runoff and sediment dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0108.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Variance Inflation Factor; VIF; multiple regression; Landsat; Austin; Lady Bird Lake; water quality; environmental factor; energy flux; urban runoff
Online: 17 October 2017 (03:38:28 CEST)
A simple approach to enable water-management agencies employing free data to achieve the goal of using a single set of predictive equations for water-quality retrievals with satisfactory accuracy is proposed. Multiple regression-derived equations based on surface reflectance, band ratios, and environmental factors as predictor variables for concentrations of Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Nitrogen (TN), and Total Phosphorus (TP) were derived using a hybrid forward-selection method that considers Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) in the forward-selection process. Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI/TIRS images were jointly utilized with environmental factors, such as wind speed and water surface temperature, to derive the single set of equations. The coefficients of determination of the best-fitting resultant equations varied from 0.62 to 0.79. Among all chosen predictor variables, ratio of reflectance of visible red (Band 3 for Landsat TM and ETM+, or Band 4 for Landsat OLI/TIRS) to visible blue (Band 1 for Landsat TM and ETM+, or Band 2 for Landsat OLI/TIRS) has a strong influence on the predictive power for TSS retrieval. Environmental factors including wind speed, remote sensing-derived water surface temperature, solar altitude, and time difference (in days) between the image acquisition and water sampling were found important in water-quality parameter estimation.