ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0016.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: lipids; regulation; microalgae; transcription factors
Online: 1 June 2022 (11:09:11 CEST)
Microalgae biomass is considered a promising alternative feedstock for biodiesel production due to its high productivity of neutral lipids, specially under abiotic stress conditions. Among the unicellular microalgae that show this characteristic, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii appears as one of the most important model species that have increased lipids production under abiotic stress conditions. In this study, we show that cells cultivated under mixotrophic condition supplemented with 0.1 M of NaCl rapidly raises their amount of neutral lipids in C. reinhardtii without reduction of their cellular growth rate, being therefore a promising condition for biomass towards bioenergy production. The nuclear proteome of these cells was investigated where we identified 323 proteins with an enrichment of almost 60% of nuclear proteins in the total dataset. We found 61 proteins differentially regulated upon salt treatment, including proteins annotated in functional categories related to translation and nucleosome assembly functions, among others. Additionally, we identified Transcription factor proteins (TFs) and analyzed their likely Transcription factors-binding regulatory elements identifying target genes related to lipids metabolism and kinase functions, indicating possible regulatory pathways of lipids biosynthesis. Together these data can help understand regulatory nuclear mechanisms leading to an increase of lipids in the first 24h of salt stress 0.1M NaCl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0085.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: lipid extracted microalgae, isoprenoids, detoxification
Online: 14 April 2017 (09:11:15 CEST)
Microalgae are recognized as a third generation feedstock for biofuel production due to its rapid growth rate and lignin-free characteristic. In this study, the lipid extracted microalgae biomass residues was used as the material to produce isoprene, α-pinene and β-pinene with the engineered E. coli strain. We adopted an optimal sulfuric acid hydrolysis method to convert holocellulose into fermentable sugar efficiently (6.37 g/L) and explored a novel detoxification strategy (phosphoric acid/calcium hydroxide) to remove inhibitors notably. 55.32 % acetic acid, 99.19 % furfural and 98.22 % 5-HMF were cut down with the phosphoric acid/calcium hydroxide method, and the fermentation concentration of isoprene (223.23 mg/L), α-pinene (382.21 μg/L) and β-pinene (17.4 mg/L) using the detoxified hydrolysate as the carbon source account for approximately 86.02 %, 90.16 % and 88.32 % of those produced by the engineered E. coli strain fermented on pure glucose, respectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0658.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: microalgae; industries; manufacturers; isolation; bioactive compounds; microalgae products; nutraceuticals; pharmaceutical; cosmeceutical; biofuels; biofertilizer; wastewater treatment
Online: 25 December 2020 (12:55:27 CET)
Microalgae are known as a rich source of bioactive compounds which exhibit different biological activities. Increased demand for sustainable biomass for production of important bioactive components with various potential especially therapeutic applications has resulted in noticeable interest in algae. Utilization of microalgae in multiple scopes has been growing in various industries ranging from harnessing renewable energy to exploitation of high-value products. The focuses of this review are on the isolation of bioactive compounds from microalgae regarding different metabolites which are currently used and new possible applications of the compounds in industries and future prospects. Moreover, this work discusses the advantage, potential new beneficial strains, applications, limitations, research gaps and future prospect of microalgae in industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0017.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: FAEEs; biodiesel; mixed biocatalysts; lipases; microalgae
Online: 2 February 2019 (03:23:32 CET)
The production of fatty acids ethyl esters (FAEEs) to be used as biodiesel from oleaginous microalgae shows great opportunities as an attractive source for the production of renewable fuels without competing with human food. To ensure the economic viability and environmental sustainability of the microbial biomass as a raw material, the integration of its production and transformation into the biorefinery concept is required. In the present work, lipids from wet Isochrysis galbana microalga were extracted with ethyl acetate with and without drying the microalgal biomass (dry and wet extraction method, respectively). Then, FAEEs were produced by lipase-catalyzed transesterification and esterification of the extracted lipids with ethanol using lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB) and Pseudomonas cepacia (PC) lipase supported on SBA-15 mesoporous silica functionalized with amino groups. The conversion to FAEEs with CALB (97 and 85.5 mol% for dry and wet extraction, respectively) and PS (91 and 87 mol%) biocatalysts reached higher values than those obtained with commercial Novozym 435 (75 and 69.5 mol%). Due to the heterogeneous nature of the composition of microalgae lipids, mixtures with different CALB:PC biocatalyst ratio were used to improve conversion of wet-extracted lipids. The results showed that a 25:75 combi-lipase produced a significantly higher conversion to FAEEs (97.2 mol%) than those produced by each biocatalyst independently from wet-extracted lipids and similar ones than those obtained by each lipase from the dry extraction method. Therefore, that optimised combi-lipase biocatalyst, along with achieving the highest conversion to FAEEs, would allow improving viability of a biorefinery since biodiesel production could be performed without the energy-intensive step of biomass drying.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0063.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Microalgae; Bio acids; Phytohormones; Medium Culture; Stress
Online: 3 February 2023 (08:45:13 CET)
Natural astaxanthin is a precious substance obtained from some organisms such as microalgae. This plant has many benefits for humans, so research into its cost-effective and economical production has recently increased. For this purpose, some methods such as the use of different culture media, gene engineering, different stresses, nanoparticles, bio acids, and phytohormones are important. Accordingly, this review study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of the factors mentioned above for the high production of astaxanthin in microalgae, especially Haematococcus pluvialis (H.p).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0284.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: microalgae; biomass; photosynthesis; mixotrophic; LC-MS/MS
Online: 15 November 2022 (09:54:52 CET)
NH4Cl is one of the nitrogen sources for microalgal cultivation. However, excessive amounts of NH4Cl affects microalgal physiology and biomass contents. In this study, the effects of ammonium on microalgal growth and TAG content in the green microalga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) was investigated. Microalgal growth and TAG content under photoautotrophic conditions were found to be unchanged with 17 mM of ammonium, while this compound interfered with microalgal growth and induced TAG content under mixotrophic conditions with acetate supplementation. This suggested that ammonium could induce TAG production when acetate occurred in microalgal cultivation. Further, the effects of two different concentrations of NH4Cl (17 mM and 60 mM) on the cells under mixotrophic conditions were investigated. The results showed that both concentrations reduced microalgal growth, but induced total lipid and TAG content, especially after a 4-day cultivation. The oxygen evolution and Fv/Fm ratio showed that both concentrations completely inhibited the oxygen evolution on Day 4. The 60 mM NH4Cl reduced the Fv/Fm ratio from 0.7 to 0.48 indicating that ammonium supplementation directly affects the microalgae photosynthesis performance. A total of 1782 proteins were successfully identified using proteomics analysis. Among them, there were nine overexpressed proteins and four proteins were underexpressed. Using the protein–ligand interaction analysis, nitrogen metabolism is involved under NH4Cl conditions. This information can provide biochemical knowledge for microalgae development for sustainable energy usage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Biological contaminants; grazers; microalgae; open cultivation; biopesticides
Online: 26 October 2021 (14:36:19 CEST)
Microalgae biomass is a budding raw material for the origination of food, fuel, and other value-added products. However, bulk production of microalgal biomass at commercial level is a herculean task for the current microalgal mass production technologies due to the undesirable contaminations by biological pollutants. These contaminants hamstring the production of microalgae biomass by debilitating the growth of cultures, crumble the quality of biomass and sometimes may crash the whole culture. The best utilization of the microalgae biomass at industrial level could be attained by avoiding various possible biological contaminations in mass cultivation system, understanding the contamination mechanisms, and the complex interactions of algae with other microorganisms. This review explores the various types of biological pollutants, their possible mode of infection along with mechanisms, different controlling methods to maintain desired microalgae culture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0377.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: algae; wastewater; microalgae; biofuels; phytoplankton; aquaculture; phycology
Online: 29 December 2019 (09:34:40 CET)
Microalgae wastewater treatment has long been promoted as a sustainable method to handle the influx of human waste due to population growth. Initially, in the early 1900’s, microalgae was noted to increase wastewater treatment efficiency by aerating the water and consuming waste. By mid-century, wastewater grown microalgae was being investigated as a way to produce biomass for food, fuel, and other biomaterials. The space race in the 1960’s led to the use of microalgae in life support systems. Technological developments and political pressure in the 1970’s spurred studies of the impact of wastewater on the growth of phytoplankton in the oceans as well as methods to use microalgae wastewater treatment in aquaculture. Simultaneously, the oil crisis of that decade promoted research of alternative fuels, which included microalgae biofuels via the Aquatic Species Program. This program led to research into the use of wastewater as a feedstock for microalgae growth. By the later 2000’s, instability in the oil market caused another energy crisis which further prompted investment in microalgae biofuels, some of which involved combined wastewater treatment. Currently, microalgae wastewater treatment is being researched as a way to cut back on greenhouse gas emissions to curb global warming and produce sustainable biofuels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0043.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: microalgae; photobioreactor; flashing light effect; Computational Fluid Dynamics
Online: 5 June 2019 (14:56:44 CEST)
In a thin-volume photobioreactor where a concentrated suspension of microalgae is circulated throughout the established spatial irradiance gradient, microalgal cells experience a time-variable irradiance. Deploying this feature is the most convenient way of obtaining the so-called “flashing light” effect, improving biomass production in high irradiance. This work investigates the light flashing features of sloping wavy photobioreactors, a recently proposed type, by introducing and validating a Computational Fluid Dynamics model. Two characteristic flow zones (straight top-bottom stream and local recirculation stream), both effective toward light flashing, have been found and characterised: a recirculation-induced frequency of 3.7 Hz and straight flow-induced frequency of 5.6 Hz were estimated. If the channel slope is increased, the recirculation area becomes less stable while the recirculation frequency is nearly constant with flow rate. The validated CFD model is a mighty tool that could be reliably used to further increase the flashing frequency by optimising the design, the dimensions, the installation and the operational parameters of the sloping wavy photobioreactor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0702.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Andean microalgae consumption; Atacama; cyanobacteria; Llayta; microethnography; Nostoc
Online: 30 October 2018 (04:43:02 CET)
Llayta is a dietary supplement used by rural communities in Perú and northern Chile since pre-Columbian days. Llayta is the biomass of colonies of a Nostoc cyanobacterium grown in wetlands of the Andean highlands, harvested, sun-dried and sold as an ingredient for human consumption. The biomass has a substantial content of essential amino acids (58% of total amino acids) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (33% total fatty acids). This ancestral practice is being loss and the causes were investigated by an ethnographic approach to register the social representations of Llayta, to document how this Andean feeding practice is perceived and how much the community knows about Llayta. Only 37% of the participants (mostly adults) have had a direct experience with Llayta; other participants (mostly children) did not have any knowledge about it. These social responses reflect anthropological and cultural tensions associated to lack of knowledge on Andean algae, sites where to find Llayta, where it is commercialized, how it is cooked and on its nutritional benefits. The loss of this ancestral feeding practice, mostly on northern Chile, is probably associated to cultural changes, migration of the rural communities, and a very limited access to the available information. We propose that Llayta consumption can be revitalized by developing appropriate educational strategies and investigating potential new food derivatives based on the biomass from the isolated Llayta cyanobacterium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0141.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: salinity, light, growth, microalgae, Amphidinium, Nephroselmis, Tetraselmis, Asteromonas, Dunaliella
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:20:55 CET)
After a 1.5 year screening survey in the lagoons of Western Greece in order to isolate and culture sturdy species of microalgae for aquaculture or other value added uses, as dictated primarily by a satisfactory potential for their mass-culture, five species emerged and their growth was monitored in laboratory conditions. Amphidinium carterae, Nephroselmis sp., Tetraselmis sp. (var. red pappas), Asteromonas gracilis and Dunaliella sp. were batch cultured using low (20 ppt), sea (40 ppt) and high salinity (50 or 60 or 100 ppt) and in combination with a low (2000 lux) and high (8000 lux) intensity of illumination. The results exhibited that all these species can be grown adequately in all salinities and with best growth in terms of maximum cell density, specific growth rate (SGR) and biomass yield (g dry weight/L) at high illumination (8000 lux). The five species examined exhibited different responses in the salinities used, Amphidinium clearly does best in 20 ppt far better than 40 ppt and even more than 50 ppt. Nephroselmis and Tetraselmis grow almost the same in 20 and 40 ppt and less well in 60 ppt. Asteromonas does best in 100 ppt although it can grow quite well in both 40 and 60 ppt. Dunaliella grows equally well in all salinities (20-40-60 ppt). Concerning productivity as maximum biomass yield at the end of the culture period, first rank is occupied by Nephroselmis with ~3.0 g d.w./L, followed by Tetraselmis (2.0 g/L), Dunaliella (1.58 g/L), Amphidinium (1.19 g/L) and Asteromonas (0.7 g/L) with all values recorded at high light (8000 lux).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0176.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: dewatering; response surface methodology; Arduino; aluminum electrodes; microalgae harvesting
Online: 9 July 2020 (07:46:18 CEST)
Microalgal harvesting is one of the most challenging processes in the development of algal research and development. Several methods, such as centrifugation, flocculation, and filtration, are available at the laboratory scale. However, the requirement of expensive pieces of equipment and the possibility of biomass contamination are recurring gaps that hinder the development of microalgae I+D in different parts of the world. Recently, the electroflotation has been proved as a suitable method for the harvesting of different species of microalgae and cyanobacteria. To this day, there are no companies that sell laboratory-scale electroflotation equipment; this is mainly due to the gap in the knowledge on which factors (time, mixing rate, number of electrodes, and others) will affect the efficiency of concentration without reducing the biomass quality. This paper aims to build an innovative low-cost electroflotation system under 300 USD with cheap and resistant materials. To achieve our goal, we test the interaction of three variables (time, mixing rate, and amount of electrodes) were evaluated. Results showed that an efficiency closer to 100% could be achieved under 20 minutes using >10 electrodes and 150 rpm. We hope this innovative approach can be used by different researchers to improve our knowledge of the concentration and harvesting of algae and cyanobacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0108.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microalgae; cyanobacteria; biomass composition; culture optimization; growth on wastewaters
Online: 10 November 2019 (10:56:59 CET)
The purpose of this work is to define optimal growth conditions for batch culture of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis gaditana. Thus, we study the effect of three variables on algae growth: i.e., inoculum:culture medium ratio, light:darkness photoperiod and type of culture medium, including both synthetic media and wastewaters. The results showed that the initial inoculum volume did not affect the amount of biomass at the end of the growth (14 days), whereas an excess (18 h) or defect (6 h) in the number of hours of light is determinant for its development. The contribution of nutrients from different culture media modified the growth of the different species. A. maxima was favoured in seawater enriched with Guillard's F/2 as well as C. vulgaris and N. gaditana but in fresh water medium. I. galbana had the greatest growth in the marine environment enriched with Walne’s media. Nitrate was the limiting growth reagent at the end of the exponential phase of growth for C. vulgaris and N. gaditana, while iron was for A. maxima and I. galbana. All species demonstrated their capability to grow in effluents from a wastewater treatment plant and they efficiently consume nitrogen, especially the three microalgae species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Microalgae; hydrothermal liquefaction; pretreatment, low O and N biocrude
Online: 2 September 2019 (10:33:06 CEST)
A hydrothermal pretreatment of the microalga Nannochloropsis gaditana at mild temperatures has been studied in order to reduce N and O content in the biocrude obtained by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The work is focused on the evaluation of temperature, reactor loading and time (factors) to maximize the yield of the pretreated biomass and the heteroatom contents transferred from the microalga biomass to the aqueous phase (responses). The study followed the factorial design and response surface methodology. An equation for every response has been obtained, which leads to the accurate calculation of the operating conditions required to obtain a given value of these responses. Temperature and time are critical factors with a negative effect on the pretreated biomass yield, but a positive one on the N and O recovery in the aqueous phase. The slurry concentration has to be low to increase heteroatom recovery and high to maximize the pretreated microalga yields
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0361.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Biomass valorization; Microalgae; Nutrient recovery; Purple phototrophic bacteria; Swine manure
Online: 19 January 2023 (12:20:24 CET)
Piggery wastewater (PWW) is characterized by its high concentrations of organic matter and ammonium, and by their odour nuisance. Traditionally, PWW has been treated in open anaerobic lagoons, anaerobic digesters and activated sludge systems, which exhibit high greenhouse gas emissions, a limited nutrients removal and a high energy consumption, respectively. Photosyn-thetic microorganisms can support a sustainable PWW treatment in engineered photobioreactors at low operating costs and with an efficient recovery of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous. These microorganisms are capable of absorbing solar irradiation through the photosynthesis process to obtain energy, which is used for their growth and associated carbon and nutrients assimilation. Purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) represent the photosynthetic microorganisms with the most versatile metabolism in nature, while microalgae are the most studied photosynthetic microor-ganisms in recent years. This review describes the fundamentals, symmetry and asymmetry of PWW treatment using photosynthetic microorganisms such as PPB and microalgae. The main photobioreactor configurations along with the potential of PPB and microalgae biomass valori-zation strategies are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0211.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: microalgae; CRISPR/Cas9; gene editing; spermidine; SPD1; auxotrophy; selectable marker
Online: 14 January 2022 (11:55:22 CET)
Biotechnological application of the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hinges on the availability of selectable markers for effective expression of multiple transgenes. However, biological safety concerns limit the establishment of new antibiotic resistance genes and until today, only few auxotrophic markers exist for C. reinhardtii. The recent improvements in gene editing via CRISPR/Cas9 allows directed exploration of new endogenous selectable markers. Since editing frequencies with CRISPR/Cas9 techniques are often low, the Cas9-sgRNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) delivery protocol was strategically optimized by applying nitrogen starvation to the pre-culture, increasing editing frequencies from 10% to 66% after pre-selection. Probing the essential polyamine biosynthesis pathway, the spermidine synthase gene (SPD1) is shown to be a potent selectable marker with versatile biotechnological applicability. Very low levels of spermidine (0.75 mg/L) were required to maintain normal mixotrophic and phototrophic growth in newly designed spermidine auxotrophic strains. Complementation of these strains with a synthetic SPD1 gene was achieved when the mature protein was targeted to either the cytosol or the chloroplast. This work highlights the potential of new selectable markers for biotechnology as well as basic research and proposes an effective pipeline for the identification of new auxotrophies in C. reinhardtii.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0616.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: olive-oil mill wastewater; wastewater; microalgae; Chlorella sp.; phenolic compounds
Online: 25 June 2021 (11:42:54 CEST)
The Mediterranean diet has among its cornerstones the use of olive oil for its nutraceutical and organoleptic properties. Despite the numerous merits, olive-oil mill wastewater (OMWW), which is generated by the olive-oil extraction process, is one of the most serious environmental pollutants in the Mediterranean countries. The polluting potential of OMWW is due to its high content of tannins, polyphenols, polyalcohols, pectins and lipids. In this experiment, we tested the ability of five microalgae of the Chlorella group (SEC_LI_ChL_1, CL-Sc, CL-Ch, FB and Idr) in lowering the percentage of total phenolic compounds in vegetation water. In order to close the recovery cycle of a fortified citrus olive oils previously developed, we tested the vegetation wa-ter obtained with three different extraction processes (conventional, lemon and orange peels) at three concentrations each (10%, 25% and 50%). Results showed that strains Idr, FB and CL-Sc from the Lake Massaciuccoli can tolerate vegetation water from conventional and lemon peels extraction up to 25%; these strains can also reduce the phenolic compounds within the tests. The results demonstrate that the application of microalgae for OMWW treatment represent an inter-esting opportunity, and an eco-friendly low-cost solution to be developed within the companies as a full-scale approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0572.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: microalgae; marine bacteria; quorum sensing signals; alkyl quinolones; microbial loop
Online: 24 May 2021 (13:34:11 CEST)
Quorum sensing (QS) describes a process by which bacteria can sense the local cell density of their own species, thus enabling them to coordinate gene expression and physiological processes on a community-wide scale. Small molecules called autoinducers or QS signals, which act as intraspecies signals, mediate quorum sensing. As our knowledge of QS has progressed, so too has our understanding of the structural diversity of QS signals, along with the diversity of bacteria conducting QS and the range of ecosystems in which QS takes place. It is now also clear that QS signals are more than just intraspecies signals. QS signals mediate interactions between species of prokaryotes, and between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In recent years, our understanding of QS signals as mediators of algae–bacteria interactions has advanced such that we are beginning to develop a mechanistic understanding of their effects. This review will summarize the recent efforts to understand how different classes of QS signals contribute to the interactions between planktonic microalgae and bacteria in our oceans, primarily N-acyl-homoserine lactones, their degradation products tetramic acids, and 2-alkyl-4-quinolones. In particular, this review will discuss the ways in which QS signals alter microalgae growth and metabolism, namely as direct effectors of photosynthesis, regulators of the cell cycle, and as modulators of other algicidal mechanisms. Furthermore, the contribution of QS signals to nutrient acquisition is discussed, and finally how microalgae can modulate these small molecules to dampen their effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0469.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: microalgae; thermochemical processing; biofuel and bioenergy; torrefaction; liquefaction; pyrolysis; gasification
Online: 21 August 2020 (04:24:54 CEST)
Over the last decades, microalgal biomass has gained a significant role in the development of different high-end (nutraceuticals, colorants, food supplements, and pharmaceuticals) and low-end products (biodiesel, bioethanol, and biogas) due to rapid growth and high carbon fixing efficiency. Therefore, microalgae are considered a useful and sustainable resource to attain energy security while reducing our current reliance on fossil fuels. From the technologies available for obtaining biofuels using microalgae biomass, thermochemical processes (pyrolysis, HTL, gasification) have proven to be processed with higher viability, because they use all biomass. However, the biocrudes obtained from direct thermochemical conversion have substantial quantities of heteroatoms (oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur) due to the complexity of the biomass's content of chemical components (lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins). As a solution, catalyst-based processes have emerged as a sustainable solution for the increase in biocrude production. This paper's objective is to present a comprehensive review of recent developments on catalyst mediated conversion of algal biomass. Special attention will be given to operating conditions, strains evaluated, and challenges for the optimal yield of algal-based biofuels through pyrolysis and HTL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0233.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: lignocellulosic substrate; pre-treatment; microalgae/cyanobacteria; biogas; problems; animal feed
Online: 10 August 2020 (03:46:14 CEST)
Modern day civilization is dependent on energy generation by fossil fuels. But the major drawback of using fossil fuels is environmental pollution. Microalgae are potential candidate for production of various products of interest, such as proteins, mini food, pigments and triglycerides that can be converted into biofuels. Lignocellulosic feedstocks are the most abundantly available raw material of plants that can serve as a promising feedstock for cultivating bacteria, fungi, yeasts and microalgae to produce biofuels and other value-added products. Owing to the abundant availability of these low/no cost substrates, can be utilized as feedstocks for cultivating microalgae to generate biogas/biodiesel. Likewise, there is much room to exploit defatted algal biomass to be used as animal/fish feed and oil producing/accumulating genes knowledge in future to produce high and good quality biodiesel and biogas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0168.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Carbon nanotubes; Microalgae; Mode of action; Nanofibers; Silica nanotubes; Toxicity
Online: 13 February 2020 (12:33:37 CET)
Nanoparticles (NPs) have various applications in medicine, cosmetics, optics, catalysis, environmental purification, and other areas nowadays. With an increasing annual production of NPs, the risks of their harmful influence to the environment and human health is rising. Currently, our knowledge about the mechanisms of interaction between NPs and living organisms is limited. Additionally, poor understanding of how physical and chemical characteristic and different conditions influence the toxicity of NPs restrict our attempts to develop the standards and regulations which might allow us to maintain the safe living conditions. The marine species and their habitat environment are under continuous stress due to anthropogenic activities which result in the appearance of NPs in the aquatic environment. Our study aimed to evaluate and compare biochemical effects caused by the influence of different types of carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and silica nanotubes on four marine microalgae species. We have evaluated the changes in growth-rate, esterase activity, membrane polarization, and size changes of microalgae cells using flow cytometry method. Our results demonstrated that toxic effects caused by the carbon nanotubes strongly correlated with the content of heavy metal impurities in the NPs. More hydrophobic carbon NPs with less ordered structure had a higher impact on the red microalgae P. purpureum because of higher adherence between the particles and mucous covering of the algae; silica NPs caused significant inhibition of microalgae growth-rate predominantly produced by mechanical influence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0696.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: microalgae; carotenoids; chlorophylls; lipids; mycosporin-like amino acids; antioxidants; UV-screen
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:15:07 CET)
A prominent feature of stress-tolerant microalgae is their versatile metabolism allowing then to synthesize a broad spectrum of molecules with beneficial effects on many aspects of human body functioning. This is in line with the current understanding that many stress-induced deleterious processes in the human body and in photosynthetic cell are mediated by the same mechanisms such as free-radical attacks and lipid peroxidation. These related risks are kept at bay by optical screening of harmful UV, enzymatic ROS elimination systems, and potent low-molecular antioxidants. Microalgae synthesize a broad spectrum of compounds exerting antioxidant and/or UV-absorbing properties. In microalgae, they increase stress-resilience of these organisms. In human body, they exhibit photoprotective, antiaging, and sunscreen activities. Therefore, these algal metabolites were recognized as promising ingredients for innovative cosmetics and cosmeceutical formulations. Ever increasing effort is being invested into the search for new natural biologically active substances from microalgae. This trend is also fueled by the growing demand for natural raw materials for food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetology associated with the global transition to a "greener" lifestyle. Here, we review the currently accumulated knowledge about the main groups of cosmeceutical compounds from microalgae.
REVIEW | doi:10.3390/sci1020043
Subject: Keywords: airborne wind turbines; climate change; EROI; microalgae; photolysis; renewable energy; technology introduction
Online: 7 August 2019 (00:00:00 CEST)
Because of the near-term risk of extreme weather events and other adverse consequences from climate change, and, at least in the longer term, global fossil fuel depletion, there is world-wide interest in shifting to noncarbon energy sources, especially renewable energy (RE). Because of possible limitations on conventional renewable energy sources, researchers have looked for ways of overcoming these shortcomings by introducing radically new energy technologies. The largest RE source today is bioenergy, while solar energy and wind energy are regarded as having the largest technical potential. This paper reviews the literature on proposed new technologies for each of these three RE sources: microalgae for bioenergy, photolysis and airborne wind turbines. The main finding is that their proponents have underestimated the difficulties facing their introduction on a very large scale.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Dunaliella salina; microalgae; red LED; blue LED; growth; carotenoids; plastoquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase; photosynthesis
Online: 19 April 2019 (09:47:41 CEST)
The halotolerant photoautotrophic marine microalga Dunaliella salina is one of the richest sources of natural carotenoids. Here we investigated the effects of high intensity blue, red and white light from light emitting diodes (LED) on the production of carotenoids by strains of D. salina under nutrient sufficiency and strict temperature control favouring growth. Growth in high intensity red light was associated with carotenoid accumulation and a high rate of oxygen uptake. On transfer to blue light, a massive drop in carotenoid content was recorded along with very high rates of photo-oxidation. In high intensity blue light, growth was maintained at the same rate as in red or white light, but without carotenoid accumulation; transfer to red light stimulated a small increase in carotenoid content. The data support chlorophyll absorption of red light photons to reduce plastoquinone in photosystem II, coupled to phytoene desaturation by plastoquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase, with oxygen as electron acceptor. Partitioning of electrons between photosynthesis and carotenoid biosynthesis would depend on both red photon flux intensity and phytoene synthase upregulation by the red light photoreceptor, phytochrome. Red light control of carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation reduces the rate of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as increases the pool size of anti-oxidant.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Bioenergy; marine fermentation; seawater; marine yeast; microalgae; seaweed; circular economy; high value chemicals
Online: 1 October 2021 (12:19:47 CEST)
Biofuels have many environmental and practical benefits as a transportation fuel. They are among the best alternatives to fossil fuels due to their capacity for negative carbon emissions, which is vital for archiving the global ambition of a Net-Zero Economy. However, conventional biofuel production takes place on inland sites and relies on freshwater and edible crops (or land suitable for edible crop production), which has led to the food vs fuel debate. It also suffers technical and economical barriers due to the energy balance and the cost of production compared to fossil fuels. Establishing a coastal integrated marine biorefinery (CIMB) system for the simultaneous production of biofuels, high-value chemicals, and other co-products could be the ultimate solution. The proposed system is based on coastal sites and relies on marine resources including seawater, marine biomass (seaweed) and marine microorganisms (marine yeasts and marine microalgae). The system will not require the use of arable land and freshwater in any part of the production chain and will be linked to offshore renewable energy sources to increase its economic and environmental value. This article aims to introduce the CIMB system as a potential vehicle for addressing global warming and speeding the global effort on climate change mitigation as well as increasing global water, food and energy security. I hope this perspective may serve to draw attention into research funding for this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0371.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Dictyosphaerium pulchellum; Freshwater microalgae; Growth kinetics; Heavy metal; Lipid accumulation; Micractinium pusillum; Photosynthesis; Toxicity
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:24:04 CEST)
Heavy metals have adverse effects on microalgae growth and metabolism. Photosynthesis and lipid profile are quite sensitive to heavy metal toxicity. The impact of chromium (Cr) on growth and photosynthetic activity of Dictyosphaerium pulchellum and Micractinium pusillum exposed to different concentrations (0 – 500 μg L-1) was investigated for 11 days. The influence of Cr on cell density and cell number followed similar trends, indicating a possible correlation among these growth responses. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in lipid content was observed with the increasing concentration of Cr however, growth was suppressed at higher concentrations exceeding 100 μg L-1. Addition of Cr in the cell culture medium showed a negative effect on quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and a photosynthetic inhibition of > 65% was noted in both species at 500 μg L-1. However, the lipid gravimetric analysis presented inner cell lipid content up to 36% and 30% of dry weight biomass for D. pulchellum and M. pusillum, respectively. The effects of chromium on growth and lipid accumulation in both microalgae species was concentration and exposure time dependent. This shows that an appropriate concentration of chromium in culture medium could be beneficial for higher lipid accumulation in freshwater eukaryotic microalgae species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0056.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Hermetia illucens prepupae; Black soldier fly; coffee silverskin; microalgae; toxic metals; bioaccumulation; chemical hazard
Online: 4 March 2020 (09:48:16 CET)
Among other species, Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens, HI, Diptera, Stratiomydae) has the great potential as food and feed ingredient in the EU, particularly thanks to its preference for organic waste as growth substrate. The production of insects as livestock feed or as food ingredient requires a strict monitoring of heavy metal content in the growth substrate in order to secure its safe. This study aims to investigate the presence of toxic metals cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and nickel in HI prepupae and their growth substrates based on coffee roasting by-product and microlagae Schizochytrium sp. and Isochrysis sp. Analyses were carried out via graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Cd, Pb, Ni, and As, and via Direct Mercury Analyzer for Hg. All metal concentrations found in growth substrates were below the legal limit of undesirable substances in animal feed (2002/32/EC). Metals concentrations in HI prepupae were in the range (mg kg-1 wet weight): Cd 0.072–0.084, Pb 0.018–0.026, Hg 0.010–0.032, As 0.036–0.047, Ni 0.18–0.76. HI prepupae accumulate Cd, Pb and Hg, but our results indicate that the risk of exposure to metals from consumption of HI prepupae is relatively low and in compliance with European Union regulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0244.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: contaminants of emerging concern; bisphenol; microalgae; Phaeodactylum tricornutum; bacteria, extracellular vesicles; electron microscopy; flow cytometry; mass spectrometry
Online: 17 June 2022 (03:57:22 CEST)
Small cellular particles are released into the surroundings of cells and are proposed to play an important role in intercellular communication and consequently the responses of microbial com-munities to environmental stressors. We studied the connection between the small cellular parti-cles and the efficiency of three culture series of the microalge Phaeodactylum tricornutum and bac-teria (axenic microalgae, bacterial culture and co-culture of the two) in removing bisphenols from their growth medium. The microorganism growth rate was determined by flow cytometry, protein profiles were examined by protein gel electrophoresis, cultures and small cellular particle isolates were imaged by scanning electron microscopy, and bisphenols were analyzed using gas chroma-tography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Higher growth rates of microal-gae were observed in the co-culture than in the axenic microalgal culture, while the presence of bisphenols neither influenced the morphology of the microalgal cells, protein profiles, nor the small cellular particle isolates. Biotic removal of bisphenols ranged from 0% to 71% and differed among the culture series in a compound-specific manner. However, it remains unclear which mechanisms influenced algal growth and bisphenol removal. Further research on the mechanisms of interspecies communication is needed to advance our understanding of microbial communities at the nano-level.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0088.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Microbiome; sound exposure; noise pollution; microalgae; artificial light; bioacoustics; ecosystem health; light pollution; photo-sonic restoration hypothesis
Online: 2 February 2021 (13:12:10 CET)
Globally, anthropogenic sound and artificial light pollution have increased to alarming levels. Evidence suggests that these can disrupt critical processes that impact ecosystems and human health. However, limited focus has been given to the potential effects of sound and artificial light pollution on microbiomes. Microbial communities are the foundations of our ecosystems. They are essential for human health and provide myriad ecosystem services. Therefore, disruption to microbiomes by anthropogenic sound and artificial light could have important ecological and human health implications. In this mini-review, we provide a critical appraisal of available scientific literature on the effects of anthropogenic sound and light exposure on microorganisms and discuss the potential ecological and human health implications. Our mini-review shows that a limited number of studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of anthropogenic sound and light pollution on microbiomes. However, based on these studies, it is evident that anthropogenic sound and light pollution have the potential to significantly influence ecosystems and human health via microbial interactions. Many of the studies suffered from modest sample sizes, suboptimal experiments designs, and some of the bioinformatics approaches used are now outdated. These factors should be improved in future studies. This is an emerging and severely underexplored area of research that could have important implications for global ecosystems and public health. Finally, we also propose the photo-sonic restoration hypothesis: does restoring natural levels of light and sound help to restore microbiomes and ecosystem stability?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0193.v1
Subject: Keywords: Hemocytes; innate immune cells; Phagocytic Activity; Respiratory Burst; microalgae; immunomodulator; shrimps L. vannamei; Vibrio harveyi; Extracellular Polysaccharide (EPS)
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:57:25 CET)
White shrimps are susceptible to outbreaks of vibriosis because they do not have any adaptive immune system, they only have a non-specific innate immune system. The administration of EPS from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non specific immune response and to test if EPS can be used as a protective agent for shrimp related to Vibrio infection. EPS was given to shrimps by immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. Result shows an increase in values of all immune parameters in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except the Differential Haemocyte Count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, Phagocytotic Activity (PA), Respiratory Burst (RB) in line as the EPS concentration increase. Although there is a decrease after the infection, the value obtained is not lower than the control value. These results indicate that EPS from Porphyrydium enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly and has the ability as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against Vibrio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Hemocytes; Innate Immune Cells; Phagocytic Activity; Respiratory Burst; White-Shrimp; Microalgae; Immunomodulator; Toxicity; Extracellular Polysaccharide; Vibrio harveyi; Danio rerio
Online: 18 February 2021 (15:56:44 CET)
Exopolysaccharides or extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, sPS) represent valuable metabolite compound synthesized from red microalgae. It is a non toxic natural agent and can be applied as immunostimulant. Toxicity test of exopolysaccharides from Porphyridium has been done in-vivo using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic model, or the ZET (Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test). The administration of extracellular polysaccharide or exopolysaccharides (EPS) from microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (synonym: P. purpureum) on shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated to determine the effect of this immunostimulant on their non specific immune response and to test if this compound can be used as a protective agent for shrimp related to Vibrio infection. For immune response, exopolysaccharides was given to shrimps by immersion method on day 1 and booster on day 8. Shrimp hemocytes were taken on day 1 (EPS administration), day 7 (no treatment), day 8 (EPS booster) and day 9 (Vibrio infection) and tested for their immune response on each treatment. Result shows that the EPS is not toxic as represented by the normal embryonic development and the mortality data. In the Pacific whiteshrimps, it show an increase in values of all immune parameters in line with the increasing EPS concentration, except the Differential Haemocyte Count (DHC). In detail, an increase was noted in total hemocytes (THC) value, Phagocytotic Activity (PA), Respiratory Burst (RB) in line with the EPS concentration increase. These results and other previous studies indicate that EPS from Porphyridium is safe and it enhances immune parameters in shrimp rapidly and has the ability as an immunostimulant or an immunomodulator. It is a good modulator for the non-specific immune cells of Pacific white shrimps, and it can be used as a preventive agent against vibriosis.