REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0034.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer; microRNA; miR-144; Therapeutic target
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:05:01 CET)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small and non-coding RNAs displaying aberrant expression in the tissue and plasma of cancer patients in comparison to healthy individuals. In past decades, accumulating data proposed that miRNAs could be diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in cancer patients. It has been identified that miRNAs can act either as oncogenes through silencing of tumor inhibitors or tumor suppressor via targeting oncoproteins. MiR-144 is located in chromosomal region 17q11.2 that was widely destroyed in many types of cancers. Several studies revealed that miR-144 has different target genes including rapamycin, zonula occludens1, SFRP1, and ANO1. MiR-144 acts as a tumor suppressor or oncogene by targeting specific genes. In this review, we define the role of miR‐144 and its targets in different cancers and provide understanding in tumor proliferation, migration, and apoptosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: cross-tolerance; acute kidney injury; miArray; miR-21a; miR-144-3p; miR-146a-5p; miR-451a; miR-762
Online: 4 January 2020 (04:55:30 CET)
Background: Pre-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protected the kidney against a later lethal ischemia. To reveal the mechanisms of renal cross-tolerance and septic acute kidney injury we investigated the effects of LPS on miRNA expression in the kidney. Methods: Male NMRI mice were injected with 40 and 10 mg/kg LPS ip. and sacrificed at 1.5 and 6 hours (early preconditioning, EP) and at 24 and 48 hours (late preconditioning, LP). The miRNA profile was established using miRCURY LNA™ microarray and confirmed with qPCR. Results: Plasma urea concentration peaked at 24 hours after LPS and decreased thereafter. Renal TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA were extremely elevated at all time-points. miRNome changes were mild at 1.5 hours, most miRNAs were altered at 6 and 24 hours and declined by 48 hours. Not all miRNAs could be assayed or validated by qPCR. In EP miR-762 was newly identified and validated and was the most elevated miRNA with both methods. In LP miR-21a-5p was the most influenced miRNA followed by miR-451a, miR-144-3p and miR-146a-5p. MiR-21a-3p increased significantly in both EP and LP. Conclusion: miR-762 might attenuate the LPS-induced immune response during EP and the miR-144/451 cluster is involved in LPS-induced renal preconditioning.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0278.v1
Online: 11 February 2021 (11:04:50 CET)
Discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) twenty years ago, has advocated a new era of “Molecular Genetics”. About 2000 miRNAs are present, that regulate one third of the genome. MiRNAs dysregulated expression may contribute to several diseases including tumor growth. Their presence in body fluids, reflecting levels alteration in various cancers, merit circulating miRNAs as the “next generation biomarkers” for early stages tumor diagnosis and/or prognosis. Herein, we performed a comprehensive literature search focusing on the origin, biosynthesis and role of miRNAs and summarized the foremost studies centering on miRs value as non-invasive biomarkers in different non-communicable diseases, including various cancer types. Moreover, during chemotherapy many miRNAs were linked to multidrug resistance, via modulating numerous biological processes and/or pathways that will be highlighted as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0125.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: PCSK7; miR-125a-5p; miR-143-3p; miR-409-3p; RNA regulator; proprotein convertases
Online: 8 June 2022 (10:45:01 CEST)
The regulatory mechanism of PCSK7 gene is still unknown, although its encoded protein PC7 is the most ancient and highly conserved of all proprotein convertases and exhibits enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions in liver triglyceride regulation. Bioinformatics algorithms were used to predict regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) of PCSK7 expression. This led to the identification of 4 miRNAs, namely miR-125a-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-409-3p, and miR-320a-3p, with potential binding sites on the 3’-untranslated region (3′-UTR) of human PCSK7 mRNA. The expression patterns of these miRNAs and PCSK7 mRNA were assessed in three different cell lines with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), which revealed reciprocal expression patterns between the expression levels of the four selected miRNAs and PCSK7. Next, the interactions and effects of these miRNAs on PCSK7 expression levels were investigated via cell-based expression analysis, dual-luciferase assay, and Western blot analysis. The data revealed that PCSK7 mRNA levels decreased in cells transfected with vectors overexpressing miR-125a-5p, miR-143-3p, and miR-409-3p, but not miR-320a-3p. The dual-luciferase assay demonstrated that the above 3 miRNAs could directly interact with putative target sites in PCSK7 3′-UTR and regulate its expression, whereas miR-320-3p exhibited no interaction. Western blot analysis further revealed that overexpression of miR-125a-5p in Huh7 cells inhibits the expression and ability of PC7 to cleave human transferrin receptor 1. Our results support a regulatory role of these miRNAs in PCSK7 expression and function and opens the way to assess their roles in the regulation of PC7 activity in vivo in the development of hepatic steatosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0073.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: MicroRNAs; miR-126; mir-197; mir-223; Cardiometabolic Disease; Diabetes; Cardiovascular disease; Atherosclerosis; Inter Media Thickness
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:52:25 CET)
We aim to investigate if serum levels of microRNAs: miR-126, mir-197 and mir-223, previously implicated in cardiometabolic disease, are reproducibly associated with incident-diabetes (inc-DM), incident-cardiovascular disease (inc-CVD) and with carotid atherosclerosis (measured for the maximum thickness of the intima-media of the carotid bulb (IMT)). The microRNAs were measured, one: in serum of 553 subjects from the baseline exam of the Swedish prospective cohort, Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC-CC), with 169 subjects who developed CVD and 140 DM (16 years follow-up) and, two: in 1221 subjects from the Malmö Offspring Study (MOS), with 14 de-veloped CVD and 12 DM (3.7 years follow-up). Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship of serum-concentrations of the microRNAs and inc-DM, inc-CVD, IMT-bulb respectively. In MDC-CC, miR-126 showed significant positive association with inc-DM (p= 0.01) whereas in fully adjusted model, the association was borderline significant (p= 0.05). The results were not replicated in MOS. There was no consistent significant association between the microRNAs with IMT or inc-CVD in any cohort. Our results do not support previous reports on significant associations between these microRNAs and the risk of CMD, as they were not reproducible in our cohorts. In addition, the directionality of any associations found were not consistent with those previously reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0462.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: HCC; hsa-miR-21-5p; hsa-miR-155-5p; hsa-miR-192-5p; hsa-miR-199a-5p; liver cirrhosis; HCV; AFP-negative HCC
Online: 25 November 2022 (02:26:16 CET)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) early diagnosis is challenging. Moreover, for patients with al-pha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative HCC, this challenge is augmented. MicroRNAs (miRs) profile may serve as potential HCC molecular markers. We aimed to assess plasma homo sabines (hsa)-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-155-5p, hsa-miR-192-5p, hsa-miR-199a-5p expression levels, as panel of biomarkers for HCC in chronic hepatitis C virus (CHCV) patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), es-pecially AFP-negative HCC cases, a step toward non-protein coding (nc) RNA precision medicine. Subjects and Methods: 79 patients enrolled with CHCV infection with LC, subclassified into LC group without HCC (n=40) and LC with HCC (n=39) in comparison with 15 apparently healthy control subjects. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to measure plasma hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-155-5p, hsa-miR-192-5p, and hsa-miR-199a-5p. Results: Plasma hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-155-5p demonstrated significant upregulation, while hsa-miR-199a-5p demonstrated significant downregulation in the HCC group (n=39) when compared to LC group (n=40). Hsa-miR-21-5p expression was positively correlated with serum AFP, insulin, and insulin re-sistance (r=0.5, p<0.001, r=0.334, p=0.01, and r=0.303, p=0.02, respectively). According to the ROC curves, for differentiating HCC from LC, combining AFP with each of hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-155-5p, and miR199a-5p improved the diagnostic sensitivity to 87%, 82%, and 84%, re-spectively, vs 69% for AFP alone, with an acceptable specificity of 77.5%, 77.5%, and 80%, respec-tively, and AUC= 0.89, 0.85, and 0.90, respectively vs. 0.85 for AFP alone. Hsa-miR-21-5p/hsa-miR-199a-5p and hsa-miR-155-5p/hsa-miR-199a-5p ratios discriminated HCC from LC at AUC=0.76 and 0.71, respectively, with sensitivities=94% and 92%, and specifici-ties=48% and 53%, respectively. Upregulation of plasma hsa-miR-21-5p was considered as an independent risk factor for HCC development [OR=1.198(1.063–1.329), p=0.002]. Conclusion: Combining each of hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-155-5p, and hsa-miR-199a-5p with AFP made possi-ble to identify HCC development in LC patients’ cohort with higher sensitivity than using AFP alone. Hsa-miR-21-5p/hsa-miR-199a-5p and hsa-miR-155-5p/hsa-miR-199a-5p ratios are poten-tial HCC molecular markers for AFP-negative HCC patients. Hsa-miR-21-5p was linked to insu-lin metabolism in HCC patients’ group as well as being an upregulated independent risk factor for the emergence of HCC from LC in CHCV patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0205.v1
Online: 30 November 2017 (16:21:35 CET)
Plasmonic sensors exploiting the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) of noble metal nanoparticles are common in the visual spectrum. However, for bio-sensors the near infra-red (NIR) windows (600 nm – 900 nm and 1000 nm -1400 nm) are of interest, as it is a region where the absorption coefficient of water, melaninm deoxy- and hemoglobin are all low. The first part of this paper reviews the work that has been undertaken on using gold (Au) and silver (Ag) particles in Metal Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) in the NIR. Despite this success there are limitations, as there is only a narrow band in the visual and NIR where losses are low for traditional plasmonic materials. Further, noble metals are not compatible with standard silicon manufacturing processes, making it challenging to produce on-chip integrated plasmonic sensors with Au or Ag. Therefore, it is desirable to use different materials for plasmonic chemical and biological sensing, that are foundry-compatible with silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). One material that has received significant attention is highly doped Ge which starts to exhibit metallic properties at a wavelength as short as 6 μm. This is discussed in the second part of the paper and the results of recent analysis are included.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0443.v1
Online: 16 June 2021 (12:07:30 CEST)
Studies have shown that stress such as hypoxia, chemotherapy, radiotherapy can lead to polyploidization of tumor cells, which play an important role in tumor heterogeneity and malignant phenotype. Paclitaxel (PTX) treatment promoted polyploid cancer cells (PCCs) formation, and miR-378d is sharply reduced in PCCs of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) cells, but miR-378d participation PCCs formation and the impact on the biological behavior of ESCC remains unclear. We analyzed the PCCs formation and biological behavior of ESCC cells in vivo and in vitro, and the related proteins regulated by miR-378d. Results showed that miR-378d expression was associated with good prognosis in ESCC patients. miR-378d inhibition promoted PCCs formation, heterogenicity, chemo-resistance, monoclonal formation, EMT, migration, invasion, stemness and metastasis of ESCC cells. miR-378d can target downregulated AKT1, and inactivating the AKT-β-catenin signaling pathway, miR-378d and AKT can also regulated RhoA expression. AKT and RhoA regulated polyploidization and depolyploidization. Therefore, miR-378d expression is a good prognostic factor of ESCC patients and regulates polyploidization and malignant phenotype of tumor cells through AKT and RhoA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0343.v1
Online: 21 December 2021 (13:57:27 CET)
Abstract The expression patterns of microRNAs (small non-coding RNAs) are altered in many biological processes such as myogenesis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of predicted miR-202, its target genes Akt2 and Rock-1 as a potential regulator of myoblast in the myocyte differentiation process using the C2C12 cell line. After confirmation of the differentiation process induced by 3% horse serum, the expression level of miRNA and its targets were evaluated. In the following, a luciferase assay was conducted to approve the effect of miRNA on its target. Our results indicated that miR-202 and Akt2 were significantly up-regulated during differentiation, while Rock-1 was downregulated. Co-transfection of miRNA with psiCHECK2-Rock-1 significantly presented that Rock-1 was directly targeted by miR-202. On the contrary, miR-202 has failed to enforce its inhibitory effect on Akt2 expression. In particular, miR-202 seems to be a regulator of muscle differentiation pathway thought targeting Rock-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0272.v1
Online: 15 November 2021 (19:24:40 CET)
MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) expression promotes inflammatory responses in macrophages. Activation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elevates miR-155, while the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL10) reduces miR-155 levels. MiR-155 exists in two forms, miR-155-5p and miR-155-3p, produced from the precursor of miR-155 (pre-miR-155). MiR-155-5p is the most abundant strand in activated macrophages, but in response to LPS, the miR-155-3p level is upregulated first, followed by miR-155-5p later. We have previously identified CELF2 protein which interacts with pre-miR-155 and impairs miR-155-5p expression. We now show that CELF2 only regulates the miR-155-5p expression and that another protein FUBP1 controls miR-155-3p levels in response to LPS and IL10.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0726.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, intrauterine growth restriction, liver, metabolism, triglycerides, oxidative stress, mitochondria, miR-203a-3p, miR-29a/b/c
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:50:15 CEST)
Rates of gestational cannabis use have increased despite limited evidence for its safety in fetal life. Recent animal studies demonstrate that prenatal exposure to 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9-THC, the psychoactive component of cannabis) promotes intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), culminating in postnatal metabolic deficits. Given IUGR is associated with impaired hepatic function, we hypothesized that 9-THC offspring would exhibit hepatic dyslipidemia. Pregnant Wistar rat dams received daily injections of vehicular control or 3 mg/kg 9-THC i.p. from embryonic day (E) 6.5 through E22. Exposure to 9-THC decreased the liver to body weight ratio at birth, followed by catch-up growth by three weeks of age. At six months, 9-THC-exposed male offspring exhibited increased visceral adiposity and higher hepatic triglycerides. This was instigated by augmented expression of enzymes involved in triglyceride synthesis (ACC, SCD, FABP1, and DGAT2) at three weeks. Furthermore, the expression of hepatic DGAT1/DGAT2 was sustained at six months, concomitant with mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e., elevated p66shc) and oxidative stress. Interestingly, decreases in miR-203a-3p and miR-29a/b/c, both implicated in dyslipidemia, was also observed in these 9-THC-exposed offspring. Collectively, these findings indicate that prenatal 9-THC exposure results in long-term dyslipidemia associated with enhanced hepatic lipogenesis. This is attributed by mitochondrial dysfunction and epigenetic mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0563.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: miR-125b-2; testis; PAP; reproduction; sperm; mitochondria
Online: 23 November 2018 (14:06:22 CET)
microRNAs can cause male infertility by impacting sperm quality and impaired spermatogenesis. Since the miR-125 family plays an important role in regulating embryo development, but the function of miR-125b-2 in male reproduction remains unknown. In this study, we prepared a model of miR-125b knockout (KO) mice. Among the KO mice, the progeny test showed that litter sizes decreased significantly and the rate of non-parous females increased significantly (p<0.05). At the same time, the testosterone concentration increased significantly (p<0.01), with the remarkable decrease for estradiol (p<0.05). Moreover, sperm count decreased obviously (p<0.05) and the percentage of abnormal sperms increased significantly (p<0.01). Testicular transcriptome sequencing demonstrated that there were 173 up-regulated genes, including Papolb (PAP), and 151 down-regulated genes in KO mice compared with wild type (WT). KEGG and GO analysis showed many of these genes were involved in sperm mitochondrial metabolism and other cellular biological processes. Meanwhile, the sperm mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) copy number was increased significantly (p<0.01) in KO mice, but the integrity of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA) had no change. In the top 10 up-regulated genes, as a testis specific expressing gene, PAP can affect the process of spermatogenesis. Western blotting and Luciferase Assay validated that PAP was the target of miR-125b-5p. Intriguingly, we also found that both miR-125b and PAP were only highly expressed in germ cells (GC) instead of Leydig cells (LC) and Sertoli cells (SC), and miR-125b-5p could target PAP to regulate TM3 cell secretion of testosterone (p<0.05). Our study firstly demonstrated that miR-125b-2 could regulate testosterone secretion by directly targeting PAP and increase sperm mtDNA copy number to affect semen quality. The study indicated that miR-125b-2 had a positive influence on the reproductive performance of animal and could be a potential therapeutic target for male infertility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0074.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; miR-30a; TET1; Drp-1
Online: 16 January 2017 (04:44:44 CET)
Several recent studies have indicated that miR-30a plays critical roles in various biological processes and diseases. However, the mechanism of miR-30a participation in the regulation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is ambiguous. Our previous study demonstrated that miR-30a may function as a novel therapeutic target for lung ﬁbrosis by blocking mitochondrial fission, which is dependent on dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp-1). However, the regulatory mechanism between miR-30a and Drp-1 has yet to be investigated. In addition, whether miR-30a can act as a potential therapeutic has not been verified in vivo. In this study, the miR-30a expression in IPF patients was evaluated. Computational analysis and a dual luciferase reporter system assay were used to identify the target gene of miR-30a, and cell transfection was used to confirm this relationship. Ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) was validated as a direct target of miR-30a, and the transfection of miR-30a mimic/inhibitor significantly reduced/increased the expression of TET1 protein. Further experiment verified that the interference on TET1(siRNA) could inhibit the hydroxymethlation of the Drp-1 promoter. Finally, miR-30a agomir was designed and applied to identify and validate the therapeutic effect of miR-30a in vivo. Our study demonstrated that miR-30a could inhibit the TET1 expression by base pairing with complementary sites in the 3′ untranslated region to regulate the hydroxymethlation of the Drp-1 promoter. Furthermore, miR-30a could act as a potential therapeutic target for IPF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0602.v1
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:38:28 CET)
Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) is a chronic disease characterized by progressive disability and joint pain. Meniscus chondrocytes apoptosis is the main cause of reduced chondrocyte number and self-repair function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of miR-27b-3p in KOA.In this study, we found that the expression of miR-27b-3p was downregulated in cultured IL-1β treated chondrocyte and cartilage tissues in KOA. KOA overexpression evidently reduced IL-1β induced chondrocyte apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression.The upregulated iNOS and COX-2 mRNA and proteins expression was also inhibited by miR-27b-3p mimics. The expression of nitric oxide, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 was also inhibited by miR-27b-3p mimics. The target gene of miR-27b-3p was confirmed to be BDNF. TrkB/CREB pathway was proved to be the downstream pathway of miR-27b-3p/BDNF axis.The apoptotic cell percentage and nitric oxide, PGE2, TNF-α and IL-6 expression was induced by BDNF+IL-1β. This induction was inhibited by miR-27b-3p mimics. The cartilage tissues stained with safranin O results showed miR-27b-3p greatly decreased KOA induced cartilage degradation. The expression of BDNF、TrkB and p-CREB was inhibited by len-miR-27b-3p. MiR-27b-3p also reduced the expression of TNF-α、IL-6 and Bax, and increased Bcl-2 expression. These results indicated miR-27b-3p could applied to inhibit the development of KOA and miR-27b-3p/BDNF/TrkB/CREB pathway could serve as novel treatment target to handle KOA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0189.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: miR-139-5p; SLC7A11; proliferation; migration; pancreatic cancer (PANC)
Online: 17 September 2019 (12:42:14 CEST)
Objective: Pancreatic carcinoma (PANC) is one of the important aggressive cancers, with deficiency in effective therapeutics. Studies have unveiled that miR-139-5p expression is significantly downregulated in other types of cancers. However, the functions and mechanisms of miR-139-5p in PANC remain unclear. Methods: Bioinformatic analysis was performed to analyze the differentially expressed genes in the TCGA database. PANC cell line with overexpressed miR-139-5p and Solute Carrier Family 7, Member 11 (SLC7A11) was established, and has been used to detect cell proliferation, migration, invasion and colony formation in PANC. Subsequently, bioinformatic analysis and luciferase assay were performed to confirm that SLC7A11 was a target gene of miR-139-5p. Xenograft mouse model was used to investigate the role of miR-139-5p in PANC tumorigenicity. Results: Through bioinformatic analysis, miR-139-5p was predicted to regulate phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway by targeting SLC7A11. MiR-139-5p was found to be lowly expressed in PANC tissues, while SLC7A11 was highly expressed. Low expression of miR-139-5p and high expression of SLC7A11 were positively associated with poor clinical outcomes. PANC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion could be inhibited by miR-139-5p overexpression and could be promoted by SLC7A11 overexpression. MiR-139-5p could regulate the protein expression level of PI3K and Akt associated with phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway could be by inhibiting the expression of SLC7A11. MiR-139-5p overexpression could suppress PANC tumor growth and the expression of SLC7A11, p-PI3K, p-Akt in tumor tissues. Therefore, the inhibiting effect of miR-139-5p to PANC cell proliferation, invasion and migration, at least, was partly due to its inhibiting effect on SLC7A11 expression. Conclusion: These results demonstrated a novel role of miR-139-5p/SLC7A11 in PANC and provided potential prognostic predictors for PANC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0304.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: glioblastoma; GBM; glioma; STAT3; STAT5A; hsa-miR-181d; microRNA
Online: 29 August 2019 (05:22:29 CEST)
Background: Glioblastoma (GBM), a malignant grade IV tumor, is the most malignant brain tumor due to its hyper-proliferative and apoptosis-evading characteristics. The signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT) family genes, including STAT3 and STAT5A, have been indicated to play important roles in GBM progression. Increasing number of reports suggest that Garcinol, a polyisoprenylated benzophenone and major bioactive component of Garcinia indica contains potent anti-cancer activities. Material & Methods: The present study investigated the anti-GBM effects of garcinol, focusing on the STAT3/STAT5A activation, using a combination of bioinformatics, in vitro, and ex vivo assays. Results: Our bioinformatics analysis of TCGA - GBM cohort (n=173) showed that STAT3 and STAT5A are preferentially elevated in primary and recurrent GBM, compared to non-tumor brain tissues, and is significantly correlated with reduced overall survival. In support, our immunohistochemical staining of a GBM cohort (n=30) showed an estimated 5.3-fold (p<0.001) elevation in STAT3 and STAT5A protein expression in primary and recurrent GBM versus the non-tumor group. In vitro, garcinol treatment significantly suppressed the proliferative, invasive, and migratory potential of U87MG or GBM8401 cells, dose-dependently. In addition, garcinol anticancer effect significantly attenuated the GBM stem cell-like phenotypes, as reflected by diminished ability of U87MG or GBM8401 to form colonies and tumorspheres and suppressed expression of OCT4 and SOX2. Furthermore, analysis on GBM transcriptome revealed an inverse correlation between the level of STAT3/5A and hsa-miR-181d. Garcinol-mediated anti-GBM effects were associated with an increased hsa-miR-181d/STAT3 and hsa-miR-181d/5A ratio. Conclusion: We present evidence of anti-GBM efficacy of garcinol mediated by enhancing the hsa-miR-181d/STAT3 and hsa-miR-181d/5A ratios in GBM cells. Our findings suggest a potential new therapeutic agent for combating aggressive GBM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0545.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: miR-3687, FOXP1, cyclin E2, Bladder Cancer, Tumor formation
Online: 27 September 2018 (13:05:54 CEST)
Cyclin E2, a member of the cyclin family, is a key cell cycle-related protein. This protein plays essential roles in cancer progression, and as such, an inhibitor of cyclin E2 has been approved to treat several types of cancers. Even so, mechanisms underlying how to regulate cyclin E2 expression in cancer remain largely unknown. The current study found that miR-3687 is up-regulated in clinical bladder cancer (BC) tumor tissues, TCGA database and human BC cell lines. Inhibition of miR-3687 expression significantly reduces human BC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, which are concurrently with the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and downregulation of cyclin E2 protein expression. Interestingly, overexpression of cyclin E2 reversed the inhibition of BC proliferation induced by miR-3687. Mechanistic studies suggest that miR-3687 could bind to the 3'-UTR of foxp1 mRNA, downregulates FOXP1 protein expression, and in turn promotes the transcription of cyclin E2, thereby promoting the growth of BC cells. Collectively, the current study not only establishes a novel regulatory axis of miR-3687/FOXP1 in regard to regulation of cyclin E2 expression in BC cells, but also provides strong suggestive evidence that miR-3687 and FOXP1 may be potentially promising targets in therapeutic strategies of human BC.
Online: 26 February 2020 (02:50:17 CET)
Both lung adenocarcinoma and SARS-CoV-2 infection could cause pulmonary inflammation. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, not only as the functional receptor of SARS-CoV-2 but also play key role in lung adenocarcinoma. To study the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung adenocarcinoma patients, mRNA and miRNA profiles were obtained from TCGA and GEO databases followed by bioinformatics analysis. A regulatory network which regards angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as the center would be structured. In addition, via immunological analysis about key factors in lung adenocarcinoma patients, to explore the essential reasons for the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2. Compared with normal tissue, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 was increased in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Furthermore, a total of 7 differently expressed correlated mRNAs (ACE2, CXCL9, MMP12, IL6, AZU1, FCN3, HYAL1 and IRAK3) and 5 differently expressed correlated miRNAs (miR-125b-5p, miR-9-5p, miR-130b-5p, miR-381-3p and miR-421) were screened followed by enrichment analysis. Interestingly, toll-like receptor signaling pathway with the most frequent occurrence was enriched by mRNA (IL6) and miRNA (miR-125b-5p) sets simultaneously. Finally through comprehensive analysis, it was assumed that miR-125b-5p-ACE2-IL6 axis in the structured regulatory network could alter risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0161.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: miR-29a; cholestasis; apoptosis; ER stress; toll like receptors; epigenetics
Online: 11 June 2018 (14:03:48 CEST)
Both fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver are the end results of most kinds of chronic liver damage and present a common but difficult clinical challenge throughout the world. The inhibition of the fibrogenic, proliferative, and migratory effects of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has become an experimental therapy for preventing and even reversing hepatic fibrosis. Furthermore, a complete understanding of the function of non-coding RNA-mediated epigenetic mechanisms in HSC activation may improve our perception of liver fibrosis pathogenesis. This review focuses on an evolving view of molecular mechanisms in which HSC activation by miR-29a signaling may moderate their profibrogenic phenotype, thus supporting the use of miR-29a agonists as a potential therapy for treating liver fibrosis in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0340.v1
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:45:51 CEST)
Numerous proteomic and transcriptomic studies have been carried out to better understand the current multi-variant SARS-CoV-2 virus mechanisms of action and effects. However, they are mostly centered on mRNAs and proteins. The effect of the virus on human post-transcriptional regulatory agents such as microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the regulation of 60% of human gene activity remains poorly explored. Similar to what we have previously done with other viruses such as Ebola and HIV, in this study we investigated the miRNA profile of lung epithelial cells following infection with SARS-CoV-2. At the 24 and 72 hours post-infection, SARS-CoV-2 did not drastically alter the miRNome. About 90% of the miRNAs remained non-differentially expressed. The results revealed that miR-1246, miR-1290 and miR-4728-5p were the most upregulated over time. miR-196b-5p and miR-196a-5p were the most downregulated at 24 h while at 72 h, miR-3924, miR-30e-5p and miR-145-3p showed the highest level of downregulation. In the top significantly enriched KEGG pathways of genes targeted by differentially expressed miRNAs we found, among others, MAPK, RAS, P13K-Akt and renin secretion signaling pathways. By RT-qPCR, we also showed that SARS-CoV-2 may regulate several predicted host mRNA targets involved in the entry of the virus into host cells (ACE2, TMPRSS2, ADAM17 and FURIN), in renin–angiotensin system (RAS) (Renin, Angiotensinogen, ACE), innate immune response (IL-6, IFN1β, CXCL10, SOCS4) and fundamental cellular processes (AKT, NOTCH, WNT). Finally, we demonstrated by dual luciferase assay a direct interaction between miR-1246 and ACE-2 mRNA. This study highlights the modulatory role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0184.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Spectral; Geochemistry; Random Forest; Regression; Whole Rock; MIR; SWIR; VNIR; NMF
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:35:45 CET)
The efficacy of predicting geochemical parameters with a 2-chain workflow using spectral data as the initial input is evaluated. Spectral measurements spanning the approximate 400-25000nm spectral range are used to train a workflow consisting of a non-negative matrix function (NMF) step, for data reduction, and a random forest regression (RFR) to predict 8 geochemical parameters. Approximately 175000 spectra with their corresponding chemical analysis were available for training, testing and validation purposes. The samples and their spectral and chemical parameters represent 9399 drillcore. Of those, approximately 20000 spectra and their accompanying analysis were used for training and 5000 for model validation. The remaining pairwise data (150000 samples) were used for testing of the method. The data are distributed over 2 large spatial extents (980 km2 and 3025 km2 respectively) and allowed the proposed method to be tested against samples that are spatially distant from the initial training points. Global R2 scores and wt.% RMSE on the 150000 validation samples are Fe(0.95/3.01), SiO2(0.96/3.77), Al2O3(0.92/1.27), TiO(0.68/0.13), CaO(0.89/0.41), MgO(0.87/0.35), K2O(0.65/0.21) and LOI(0.90/1.14), given as Parameter(R2/RMSE), and demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of predicting the 8 parameters and is stable enough, in the environment tested, to extend beyond the training sets initial spatial location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0049.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: IgAN; miR-148b; let-7b; Tubular atrophy; Interstitial fibrosis; MEST-C
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:06:53 CEST)
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the most common forms of glomerular disease. It is diagnosed by the dominant or co-dominant IgA deposition in the mesangial region by histopathological examination of kidney biopsy. Kidney biopsy has its own complication and not performed frequently. microRNA (miRNA) is a small RNA, which plays an important role at the post transcriptional level by downregulating mRNAs. We have tried to establish a miRNA based biomarker for IgAN. We quantified miR-148b and let-7b from plasma in IgAN patients and healthy controls. Logistic regression models and receiver operating curve analysis used to analyze the miRNAs quantity and Oxford MEST-C scoring parameters (M- Mesangial hypercellularity, E- Endocapillary hypercellularity, S- Segmental glomerulosclerosis, T- Tubular atrophy/Interstitial fibrosis, C- Crescents). miR-148b and let-7b levels in IgAN were found to be higher by 2.9 and 5.48 times than the healthy controls, respectively. let-7b was positively correlated with complement C3 levels. Similarly, miR-148b was positively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and negatively correlated with S, T, and blood pressure (BP). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for miR-148b against T were 0.87, 0.77, and 0.85, respectively. The threshold value of miR-148b concentration was found to be 8479 to differentiate the severe condition of IgAN. Furthermore, the decrease in miR-148b concentration at a threshold point indicated the progression of the severity of the IgAN. It can also be used to predict the IgAN at an earlier stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0247.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: vitamin D receptor, cytokines, miR-346, primary sclerosing cholangitis, colorectal cancer
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:36:38 CEST)
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a cholestatic liver disorder frequently associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). Patients with PSC and UC have higher risk of colorectal neoplasia than patients with UC without PSC. Oncogenic properties of micro RNA 346 (miR-346) have been recently reported. In this study we investigated expressions of miR-346 and its two target genes i.e. the receptor of vitamin D (VDR) and the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which are known to modulate carcinogenesis. Biopsies from ascending and sigmoid colon were obtained from patients with PSC with and without UC, patients with UC and healthy controls. MiR-346 expression was increased in ascending but not sigmoid colon of patients with PSC and UC when compared to other analyzed groups (p<0.001 for all). In patients with UC an exceptionally low colonic expression of miRNA-346 was accompanied by the increase in VDR expression, and the extensive upregulation of TNF-α gene which protein product is known to be cytotoxic to tumor cells at high concentration. In summary, a substantial upregulation of miRNA-346 in ascending colon of patients with PSC and UC may be responsible for the inhibition of VDR and TNF-α signaling -pathway which may result in an inadequate suppression of neoplasia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0223.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: 4-AAQB; SOD2; hsa-miR-324; colon cancer stem cells; chemoresistance; chemosensitivity
Online: 13 July 2018 (04:24:11 CEST)
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in both sexes globally. This is not unconnected with the heterogeneity and plasticity of CRC stem cells (CRC-SCs) which stealthily exploit niche-related and (epi)genetic factors to facilitate metastasis, chemoresistance, tumor recurrence, and disease progression. Despite accumulating evidence of the role of dysregulated microRNAs in malignancies, the therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological-targeting of CRC-SC-associated microRNAs is relatively under-explored. Experimental approach: In this present study, we employed relatively new bioinformatics approaches, analyses of microarray data, western blot, RT-PCR, and functional assays to show that hsa-miR-324-5p expression is significantly suppressed in CRC cells, and inversely correlates with the aberrant expression of SOD2. Results: This converse hsa-miR-324-5p/SOD2 relationship is associated with enhanced oncogenicity, which is effectively inhibited by 4-AAQB as evidenced by inhibited cell viability and proliferation, as well as, attenuated migration, invasion and clonogenicity in 4-AAQB-treated DLD1 and HCT116 cells. We also showed that 4-AAQB-induced re-expression of hsa-miR-324-5p, akin to short-interfering RNA reduced SOD2 expression, correlates with the concurrent down-regulation of SOD2, N-cadherin, vimentin, c-Myc, and BcL-xL2, with concomitant up-regulation of E-cadherin and BAX2 proteins. Enhanced expression of hsa-miR-324-5p in the CRC cells suppressed their tumorigenicity in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, 4-AAQB synergistically potentiates FOLFOX anticancer effect by eliciting the re-expression of SOD2-suppressed hsa-miR-324 and inhibiting SOD2-mediated tumorigenicity. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the pre-clinical anti-CSC efficacy of 4-AAQB, with or without FOLFOX in CRC, and suggest a potential novel therapeutic strategy for CRC patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: miR-221-3p/222-3p cluster; human adipose tissue; obesity; type 2 diabetes
Online: 24 February 2022 (09:54:33 CET)
Background: The course of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) development is highly dependent on adipose tissue (AT) angiogenesis. Moreover, angiogenic microRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal role in AT functionality. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of the human AT miR-221-3p/222-3p cluster and their regulatory network with obesity and T2D. Methods: miR-221-3p/222-3p and their target genes (TG) expression levels were measured in visceral and subcutaneous ATs from patients classified according to their BMI and to their glycemic status with a high degree of insulin resistance (IR) and T2D. In silico analyses of miR-221-3p/222-3p and their TGs were performed to identify relevant signaling pathways. Results: A multivariate analysis, including the simultaneous expression of miR-221-3p and miR-222-3p as dependent variables, showed significant differences considering the variables; tissue depot, obesity, IR and T2D altogether as independent variables. In addition, miRNAs and their TGs were differentially expressed according to obesity degree, glycemic status, and AT depot type. Our in silico analysis showed that miR-221-3p/222-3p cluster TGs are mostly involved in angiogenesis, WNT signaling pathway and apoptosis. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the miR-221-3p/222-3p cluster and their related regulatory networks could represent tangible targets for the management of obesity and associated metabolic disorders
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0103.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: heart disease; atrial fibrillation; atrial fibrosis; transcriptome; microRNA; RNA sequencing; syndecan-1; miR-302
Online: 7 February 2022 (19:01:55 CET)
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a form of sustained cardiac arrhythmia and microRNAs (miRs) play crucial roles in pathophysiology of AF. To identify novel miR-mRNA pairs, we performed RNAseq from atrial biopsies of AF and non-AF patients. Differentially expressed miRs (11-down and 9-up) and mRNAs (95-up and 82-down) were identified and hierarchically clustered in a heat-map. Subsequently, GO, KEGG, and GSEA analyses were run to identify deregulated pathways. Then, miR targets were predicted in miRDB database, and a regulatory network of negatively correlated miR-mRNA pairs was constructed using Cytoscape. To select potential candidate genes from GSEA analysis, top-50 enriched genes in GSEA were overlaid with predicted targets of differentially deregulated miRs. Besides, protein-protein-interaction (PPI) network of enriched genes in GSEA was constructed, and subsequently GO and canonical pathway analyses were run for genes in PPI network. Our analyses showed that TNF-α, p53, EMT, and SYDECAN1 signaling were among the highly affected pathways in AF samples. SDC-1 (syndecan-1) was the top-enriched gene in p53, EMT, and SYDECAN1 signaling. Consistently, SDC-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in atrial samples of AF patients. Among negatively correlated miRs, miR-302b-3p was experimentally validated to suppress SDC-1 transcript levels. Overall, our results suggested that miR-302b-3p/SDC-1 axis may involve in pathogenesis of AF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Obstetrics & Gynaecology Keywords: microRNA; miR-142-3p; endometriosis; cytoskeleton; integrin; collagen; WASL; ITGAV; endometrial stroma cells; in vitro study
Online: 17 July 2020 (16:08:42 CEST)
Downregulated microRNA-142-3p signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of endometriosis  , an invasive disease where the lining of the uterus grows at ectopic locations, by yet incompletely understood mechanisms. Using bioinformatics and in vitro assays, this study identifies cytoskeletal regulation and integrin signaling as two relevant categories of miR-142-3p targets. qPCR revealed that miR-142-3p upregulation in St-T1b cells downregulates ROCK2, CFL2, RAC1, WASL and ITGAV. qPCR and Western-blotting showed miR-142-3p effect on WASL and ITGAV was significant also in primary endometriotic stroma cells. Luciferase reporter assays in ST-T1b cells then confirmed direct regulation of ITGAV and WASL. On the functional side, miR-142-3p upregulation significantly reduced ST-T1b cell size, the size of vinculin plaques, migration through fibronectin-coated transwell filters and the ability of ST-T1b and primary endometriotic stroma cells to contract collagen I gels. These results suggest that miR-142-3p has a strong mechanoregulatory effect on endometrial stroma cells and its external administration reduces the invasive endometrial phenotype. Within the limits of an in vitro investigation, our study provides new mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of endometriosis and provides a perspective for the development of miR-142-3p based drugs for inhibiting invasive growth of endometriotic cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0321.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: MicroRNA; osteoprotegerin (OPG); orthodontic tooth movement (OTM); miR-3198; mechanical stresses; periodontal ligament cells (PDL cells); compression; tension
Online: 18 July 2018 (08:58:19 CEST)
Background: Osteoclastic bone resorption in the compression zone of periodontal ligament (PDL) plays a role in orthodontic tooth movement, and is regulated by the balance of RANKL and OPG. Compression downregulates OPG, conversely, tension upregulates OPG in PDL cells. However, the regulatory mechanism of OPG expression in PDL cells under different mechanical stresses remains unclear. Methods: To study microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles, compression (2g/cm2) or tension (15%-elongation) was applied to immortalized human PDL (HPL) cells, and miRNA was extracted. The miRNA expression was analyzed using a human miRNA microarray, and the changes of the miRNA expression were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. In addition, miR-3198-mimic and -inhibitor were transfected into HPL cells to understand the resulting OPG expression and production. Results: Certain miRNAs were expressed differentially under compression and tension. Some miRNAs including miR-3198 were upregulated only by compression. Real-time RT-PCR confirmed that compression induced miR-3198, but tension reduced it, in HPL cells. miR-3198-inhibitor upregulated and miR-3198-mimic reduced OPG in HPL cells. miR-3198-inhibitor rescued the compression-mediated downregulation of OPG. On the other hand, miR-3198-mimic reduced OPG expression under tension. Conclusion: We conclude that miR-3198 is upregulated by compression and is downregulated by tension, suggesting that miR-3198 downregulates OPG in response to mechanical stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Long non-coding RNA; Prostate androgen-regulated transcript 1; miR-204-3p; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2
Online: 24 May 2022 (11:57:26 CEST)
Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor of the lung and the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 80%–85% of lung cancer, 40% of NSCLCs will have spread beyond the lungs by the time it is diagnosed. Long non-coding RNA (LncRNA) prostate androgen-regulated transcript 1 (PART-1) was reported that promote the development of several cancers. In the current study, we conducted experiments to investigate the role of PART-1 in the proliferation, invasion, and migration of NSCLC. The expression level of the PART-1 gene increased significantly in the NSCLC cell lines, including A549, H1229, H1650, H1975, and PC9. Knocking down of PART-1 inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and migration of A549 cells, moreover, decreased the tumor proliferation in nude mice. We confirmed that PART-1 targeted miR-204-3p directly, and miR-204-3p targeted the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) directly. Furthermore, we discovered that PART-1 involved the NSCLC progression by regulating the miR-204-3p-targeted IGFBP-2 pathway. LncRNA PART-1 might be a target for treating NSCLC, and a warning sign of diagnosis of early lung cancer.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0134.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Fibromyalgia (FM); Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS); microRNA; miRNome; pharmacogenomics; pharmacoepigenomics; SM2miR; Pharmaco-miR; repoDB; ME/CFS Common Data Elements (CDEs)
Online: 14 February 2019 (11:04:45 CET)
Fibromyalgia (FM) and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) are diseases of unknown etiology presenting complex and often overlapping symptomatology. Despite promising advances on the study of miRNomes of these diseases, no validated molecular diagnostic biomarker yet exists. Since FM and ME/CFS patient treatments commonly include polypharmacy it is of concern that biomarker miRNAs are masked by drug interactions. Aiming at discriminating between drug-effects and true disease-associated differential miRNA expression, we evaluated the potential impact of commonly prescribed drugs on disease miRNomes, as reported by the literature. By using the web search tools SM2miR, Pharmaco-miR and repoDB, we found a list of commonly prescribed drugs that impact on FM and ME/CFS miRNomes and therefore could be interfering in the process of biomarker discovery. On another end, disease-associated miRNomes may incline patient´s response to treatment and toxicity. Here, we explored treatments for diseases in general that could be affected by FM and ME/CFS miRNomes finding a long list of them, including treatments for lymphoma, a type of cancer affecting ME/CFS patients at a higher rate than healthy population. We conclude that FM and ME/CFS miRNomes could help refine pharmacogenomic/pharmacoepigenomic analysis to elevate future personalized medicine and precision medicine programs in the clinic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0247.v2
Subject: Keywords: obesity; obesity paradox; diabetes; insulin resistance (IR); whole body insulin resistance (WBIR); tissue-specific insulin resistance; muscle insulin resistance (MIR); subcutaneous insulin resistance (s-AIR); visceral adipose insulin resistance (v-AIR); hepatic insulin resistance (HIR); lipid-induced insulin resistance (LIIIR); glycation-induced insulin resistance (GIIIR)
Online: 9 October 2019 (04:21:56 CEST)
Even though it has long been known that diabetes develops in distinctive stages over a long span of time, no comprehensive diabetes development model has been developed yet. Insulin resistance (IR) plays a central role in development of diabetes. A widespread belief regarding IR is that it is a global parameter affecting the whole body simultaneously by impairing merely glucose uptake in tissues. However, the analysis by a new methodology that we have named integrated approach suggests that IR not merely impairs glucose uptake in tissues but also produces tissue-specific metabolic disruptions varying widely from tissue to tissue, and that IR would not necessarily develop simultaneously over the whole body but instead develop first preferentially in the muscle tissue with a relatively low cell turnover and then progress in sequence to the subcutaneous adipose tissue to the visceral adipose tissue to the liver with higher cell turnovers. This is the most important rationale for subdividing IR into four distinct tissue-specific IRs: muscle insulin resistance (MIR), subcutaneous adipose insulin resistance (s-AIR), visceral adipose insulin resistance (v-AIR), and hepatic insulin resistance (HIR). Sequential development of tissue-specific IRs, in the order of MIR, s-AIR, v-AIR, and HIR, producing tissue-specific metabolic disruptions, is nothing but the whole body insulin resistance (WBIR) evolving in four distinctively insulin-resistant stages. Four-stage evolution from rapid weight gain to visceral obesity to rapid weight loss to full-blown diabetic state not only complies well with the natural development history of diabetes, but also resolves most of controversies on diabetes or obesity. Development of the four-stage WBIR evolution model, which also refutes the entrenched notion of the lipid-induced insulin resistance (LIIR) but instead supports the glycation-induced insulin resistance (GIIR) proposed in this study, may possibly be considered a breakthrough in study of diabetes as well as obesity.