ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0237.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Independent Component Analysis; PolSAR; speckle filtering; statistical classification
Online: 11 July 2020 (09:49:37 CEST)
The Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been recently introduced as a reliable alternative to identify canonical scattering mechanisms within Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images. This manuscript addresses two important aspects when applying such methods on real data, namely speckle filtering and statistical classification with ICA. A novel PolSAR data processing framework is introduced by adjusting the Lee's sigma filter to the particular nature of the Touzi's polarimetric decomposition. In its current form, it allows the use of the ICA mixing matrix in the derived speckle filter. An extension of the Fromont at al. iterative segmentation is introduced, equally. This proposed framework is tested using P band airborne PolSAR data acquired for the ESA campaign TropiSAR campaign.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0171.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: principal component analysis; collective variables; molecular dynamics; energy landscape; solvent effects; linear response theory; independent component analysis
Online: 12 May 2022 (10:53:37 CEST)
Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimensionalities of high dimensional datasets in a variety of research areas. For example, biological macromolecules, such as proteins, exhibit many degrees of freedom, allowing them to adopt intricate structures and exhibit complex functions by undergoing large conformational changes. Therefore, molecular simulations of and experiments on proteins generate a large number of structure variations in high dimensional space. PCA and many PCA-related methods have been developed to extract key features from such structural data, and these approaches have been widely applied for over 30 years to elucidate macromolecular dynamics. This review mainly focuses on the methodological aspects of PCA and related methods, and their applications for investigating protein dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0334.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Neutrosophic Failed-independent Number; Failed independent Neutrosophic-Number; Minimal Set
Online: 4 March 2022 (04:18:55 CET)
New setting is introduced to study neutrosophic failed-independent number and failed independent neutrosophic-number arising neighborhood of different vertices. Neighbor is a key term to have these notions. Having all possible edges amid vertices in a set is a key type of approach to have these notions namely neutrosophic failed-independent number and failed independent neutrosophic-number. Two numbers are obtained but now both settings leads to approach is on demand which is finding biggest set which have all vertices which are neighbors. Let NTG : (V,E,σ,μ) be a neutrosophic graph. Then failed independent number I(NTG) for a neutrosophic graph NTG : (V,E,σ,μ) is maximum cardinality of a set S of vertices such that every two vertices of S are endpoints for an edge, simultaneously; failed independent neutrosophic-number In(NTG) for a neutrosophic graph NTG : (V,E,σ,μ) is maximum neutrosophic cardinality of a set S of vertices such that every two vertices of S are endpoints for an edge, simultaneously. As concluding results, there are some statements, remarks, examples and clarifications about some classes of neutrosophic graphs namely path-neutrosophic graphs, cycle-neutrosophic graphs, complete-neutrosophic graphs, star-neutrosophic graphs, complete-bipartite-neutrosophic graphs and complete-t-partite-neutrosophic graphs. The clarifications are also presented in both sections “Setting of Neutrosophic Failed-Independent Number,” and “Setting of Failed Independent Neutrosophic-Number,” for introduced results and used classes. Neutrosophic number is reused in this way. It’s applied to use the type of neutrosophic number in the way that, three values of a vertex are used and they’ve same share to construct this number to compare with other vertices. Summation of three values of vertex makes one number and applying it to a comparison. This approach facilitates identifying vertices which form neutrosophic failed-independent number and failed independent neutrosophic-number arising neighborhoods of vertices. In path-neutrosophic graphs, two neighbors, form maximal set but with slightly differences, in cycle-neutrosophic graphs, two neighbors forms maximal set. Other classes have same approaches. In complete-neutrosophic graphs, a set of all vertices leads us to neutrosophic failed-independent number and failed independent neutrosophic-number. In star-neutrosophic graphs, a set of vertices containing only center and one other vertex, makes maximal set. In complete-bipartite-neutrosophic graphs, a set of vertices including two vertices from different parts makes intended set but with slightly differences, in complete-t-partite-neutrosophic graphs, a set of t vertices from different parts makes intended set. In both settings, some classes of well-known neutrosophic graphs are studied. Some clarifications for each result and each definition are provided. Using basic set to extend this set to set of all vertices has key role to have these notions in the form of neutrosophic failed-independent number and failed independent neutrosophic-number arising neighborhood of vertices. The cardinality of a set has eligibility to neutrosophic failed-independent number but the neutrosophic cardinality of a set has eligibility to call failed independent neutrosophic-number. Some results get more frameworks and perspective about these definitions. The way in that, two vertices have connections amid each other, opens the way to do some approaches. A vertex could affect on other vertex but there’s no usage of edges. These notions are applied into neutrosophic graphs as individuals but not family of them as drawbacks for these notions. Finding special neutrosophic graphs which are well-known, is an open way to pursue this study. Some problems are proposed to pursue this study. Basic familiarities with graph theory and neutrosophic graph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: independent learning independent campus; educational ecosystem; link and match; industrial revolution 4.0
Online: 24 February 2022 (08:02:46 CET)
Independent Learning Independent Campus (MBKM) is a program to develop an educational ecosystem that is in harmony with learning in higher education and the needs of industry. The limited link and match between universities and the business and industrial world in Indonesia are obstacles in realizing Indonesia as a developed country in the Industrial Revolution 4.0 era. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the Independent Learning Independent Campus (MBKM) program on improving the performance of Ibn Khaldun University Bogor. The method used in this study is descriptive statistics with quantitative analysis. The sample that participated in this study consisted of all active students, lecturers, and administration staff. The research data was obtained through distribution to 6100 students, 233 lecturers, and 150 education staff. The research stages include socializing the understanding of MBKM, filling out the survey, calculating the distribution of respondents' filling, and concluding the assessment category using the weighted mean score (WMS) method. Based on the result, the implementation of MBKM in University of Ibn Khaldun Bogor based on all indicators can conclude that MBKM improve the performance of Ibn Khaldun Bogor University in the good category with an average percentage assessment criteria above 75%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Heterogeneous Cellular Networks; Deliberate Jamming; Inter-cell Interference; Independent Homogenous Poisson Point Process; Coverage Probability; Reverse Frequency Allocation
Online: 8 September 2021 (11:57:04 CEST)
The demand of high data rate and ubiquitous coverage in heterogeneous cellular (HetNets) is increasing progressively. In order to meet this demand, sophisticated model having applied interference reduction scheme and cell association technique is needed. The small base station (sBS)are deployed inside the broadcasting area of macro base station (mBS), in heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets). Since mBS has high transmission power therefore a large number of users get connected with mBS. This causes disproportion of load distribution across the HetNets. For load balancing users from high power mBS are migrated to low power sBS to increase network capacity and to decrease the load from mBS. This results in interference in the communication signal because of strong mBS Interference. Hence, we need interference management technique to mitigate interference and user association and to efficiently use sBSs’ resources. Inter-cell interference (ICI) limit the HetNets’ performance. Additionally, there exist deliberate jamming interference which depends on jammers transmission power and its proximity with the target, which notably degrades the network performance. In this paper, we employ reverse frequency allocation scheme (RFA) to reduce inter cell interference, deliberate jamming interference and to accomplish load balancing. The proposed setup is analyzed inquisitively and with the help of simulations. The result shows reduction in interferences as well as balance of load distribution in the network achieved by employing RFA scheme together with cell association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0146.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Graph theory; Complete graph; Independent set; Power set
Online: 7 June 2021 (07:43:12 CEST)
In this article, there's an effort to make sense about the new versions of matroid. I believe that there's new idea on the background of. matroid. Two styles of matroid is defined in the background of fixed graphs and after that the attributes of these new notion on the graph and its parameters have been studied. The focus of this article is on the version of matroid which has the basis on the cycles as if there's gentle discussion on the results which are based on the set of independent vertices as matroid-x. The relation amid fundamental parameters and specific set like independent set and minimal set in the terminology of graph theory have been considered. Matroid is the word to use in the study on the parameters of graph theory as if set theory and its terminology are also recorded. The terms of word in various terminology have been relatively used. There are open ways to use hypergraphs or some serious relations amid these two types.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Feature extraction; independent component analysis; 3D inversion; physical properties
Online: 3 August 2021 (09:45:30 CEST)
A major problem in the post-inversion geophysical interpretation is the extraction of geological information from inverted physical property models, which do not necessarily represent all underlying geological features. No matter how accurate the inversions are, each inverted physical property model is sensitive to limited aspects of subsurface geology and is insensitive to other geological features that are otherwise detectable with complementary physical property models. Therefore, specific parts of the geological model can be reconstructed from different physical property models. To show how this reconstruction works, we simulated a complex geological system that comprises an original layered earth model that has passed several geological deformations and alteration overprints. Linear combination of complex geological features comprised three physical property distributions: Electrical resistivity, induced polarization chargeability, and magnetic susceptibility models. This study proposes a multivariate feature extraction approach to extract information about the underlying geological features comprising the bulk physical properties. We evaluated our method in numerical simulations and compared three feature extraction algorithms to see the tolerance of each method to the geological artifacts and noises. We show that the fast-independent component analysis (fast-ICA) algorithm by negentropy maximization is a robust method in the geological feature extraction that can handle the added unknown geological noises. The post-inversion physical properties are also used to reconstruct the underlying geological sources. We show that the sharpness of the inverted images is an important constraint on the feature extraction process. Our method successfully separates geological features in multiple 3D physical property models. This methodology is reproducible for any number of lithologies and physical property combinations and can recover the latent geological features, including the background geological patterns from overprints of chemical alteration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: mandalika; tourist village; independent tourist village; ecotourism; mangrove; SEM
Online: 8 October 2018 (06:03:50 CEST)
Village development aims to improve the welfare of villagers and the quality of human life. The purpose of this study was to formulate a coastal tourism management model toward developing independent tourist village. This study employed a quantitative approach by using survey methods. The data analysis was performed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). There were 4 variables namely: the potential of mangrove ecosystem, the perception of coastal community, the coastal tourism facilities, and the coastal ecotourism. The results indicated that there were 2 variables which had a significant effect on the management of coastal tourist village namely the perception of coastal community and coastal ecotourism. Furthermore, the management of coastal tourist village had a significant effect on the development of independent tourist village, and the management of coastal tourist village was a strong mediator to develop an independent coastal tourist village.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0744.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: glaucoma; independent prescibing; optometrist; visual fields; intraocular pressure; shared care
Online: 30 March 2021 (13:52:26 CEST)
Aim: Reporting 3 year outcomes of a community shared care scheme run by specialised independent prescribing (IP) optometrists for stable glaucoma and ocular hypertension (OHT) patients in West Kent, England. Purpose: Shared Care Schemes for glaucoma exist to alleviate the burden on Hospital Eye Services (HES) glaucoma clinics. We studied the effectiveness of community care by highly trained and qualified IP optometrists in terms of disease stability and referral rate into HES.Methods: Retrospective longitudinal review of 200 eyes with stable early to moderate stage glaucoma and OHT followed-up in two specialist optometry practices. Outcome measures included visual field mean deviation (VFMD), intraocular pressure (IOP), changes to treatment and referral rate into HES. Inclusion criteria included all patients with OHT and glaucoma (open angle and primary angle closure) referred for community follow-up. Incomplete data sets were excluded.Results: Mean age 71yrs (range 28 - 93yrs) and equal male: female ratio. n= 159 at year 3. The results for both outcomes showed no significant change from baseline at 12 or 24-month time points. However, a significant change from baseline at 36 months was observed for both outcomes: mean reduction of 0.7 mmHg in IOP, and a mean reduction of 0.3 dB in VFMD. There was a statistically significant change in the number of drops used at 36 months (p=0.001). 11 patients had a change in medication within 3 years. One patient was referred back to HES for uncontrolled IOP and consideration of trabeculectomy.Conclusion: Community follow-up of stable cases of glaucoma and OHT by highly qualified IP optometrists was safe, with stability of disease maintained and few referrals back to HES.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Eddy current; lift-off; material-independent; permeability measurement; non-destructive testing
Online: 30 October 2020 (14:36:29 CET)
Eddy current sensors can be used to test the characteristics and measure the parameters of the conductive samples. As the main obstacle of the multi-frequency eddy current sensor, the lift-off distance affects the effectiveness and accuracy of the measurement. In this paper, a material-independent algorithm has been proposed for the restoration of the lift-off distance when using the multi-frequency eddy current sensor, which is based on the approximation under the thin-skin effect. Experiment testing on the performance of the proposed method is presented. Results show that from the dual-frequency inductance, the lift-off distance could be restored with a maximum error of 0.24 mm for the distance up to 12 mm. Besides, the derived lift-off distance is used for the inversion of the magnetic permeability. Based on a lift-off insensitive inductance (LII) feature, the magnetic permeability of steels can be inversed in an iterative manner, with an error of less than 0.6 % for the lift-off distance up to 12 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0228.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution; Quantum Optics; Two-Photon Interference
Online: 27 March 2018 (15:24:03 CEST)
Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution (MDI-QKD) is a two-photon protocol devised to eliminate eavesdropping attacks that interrogate or control the detector in realized quantum key distribution systems. In MDI-QKD, the measurements are carried out by an untrusted third party, and the measurement results are announced openly. Knowledge or control of the measurement results gives the third party no information about the secret key. Error-free implementation of the MDI-QKD protocol requires the crypto-communicating parties, Alice and Bob, to independently prepare and transmit single photons that are physically indistinguishable, with the possible exception of their polarization states. In this paper, we apply the formalism of quantum optics and Monte Carlo simulations to quantify the impact of small errors in wavelength, bandwidth, polarization and timing between Alice's photons and Bob's photons on the MDI-QKD quantum bit error rate (QBER). Using published single-photon source characteristics from two-photon interference experiments as a test case, our simulations predict that the finite tolerances of these sources contribute (4.04+/-20/Nsifted) to the QBER in an MDI-QKD implementation generating an Nsifted-bit sifted key.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0261.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Glacial Isostatic Adjustment; gravimetric land uplift rate modelling; GRACE; independent component analysis
Online: 25 January 2019 (15:08:15 CET)
The mantle mass flow interconnected with the process of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and the reformation of the Earth’s crust constantly perturbs the observed gravity field towards a hypothetic isostatic state. We analyse the temporal changes of the gravity field from the GRACE data, using different mathematical and/or statistical methods to detect the GIA amidst other gravity signals. A number of gravimetric post-glacial land uplift rate (LUR) modelling methods are investigated and compared with the data from a total number of 515 GPS stations and preferred GIA forward models in Fennoscandia and North America. We investigate three mathematical methods, namely regression, principal component, and independent component analysis (ICA) to extracting the GIA signal from the GRACE monthly geoid heights. We use some regularization techniques to exploit the GRACE monthly data to their maximum spatial resolution and to increase the Signal to Noise Ratio of their short wavelengths. Near the centres of the study areas the gravimetric LUR model using the fast-ICA algorithm of Hyvärinen and Oja (2000) is shown to be in a complete agreement with the GPS data and the predictions of the GIA forward models, and for the whole areas, subject to epeirogeny movement of the two regions, their discrepancies reach to the extrema at -1.8 and +3.3, and -4.5 and +7.5 mm/a, respectively. We show that the largest discrepancies between the gravimetric model using the ICA method and the GIA forward model, occur for the sub-regions likely collocated with strong ice mass change signals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0022.v1
Subject: Keywords: AIED; independent robot teachers; robotics; embodied pedagogical agents; full-fledged robot teachers
Online: 4 December 2017 (08:54:09 CET)
Global teacher shortage is a serious concern with grave implications for the future of education. This calls for novel ways of addressing teacher roles. The economic benefits of tireless labour inspires the need for teachers who are unlimited by natural human demands, highlighting consideration for the affordances of robotics and Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED) as currently obtainable in other areas of human life. This however demands designing robotic personalities that can take on independent teacher roles despite strong opinions that robots will not be able to fully replace humans in the classroom of the future. In this paper, we argue for a future classroom with independent robot teachers, highlighting the minimum capabilities required of such personalities in terms of personality, instructional delivery, social interaction and affect. We describe our project on the design of a robot teacher based on these. Possible directions for future system development and studies are highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0288.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: data-independent acquisition (DIA); mass spectrometry, precursor mass range selection, Arabidopsis; quantitative proteomics.
Online: 13 July 2021 (10:06:11 CEST)
Data independent acquisition - mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) is becoming widely utilised for robust and accurate quantification of samples in quantitative proteomics. Here, we describe the systematic evaluation of the effects of DIA precursor mass range on total protein identification and quantification. We show that a narrow mass range of precursors (~250 m/z) for DIA-MS enables a higher number of protein identifications. Subsequent application of DIA with narrow precursor range (from 400 to 650 m/z) on Arabidopsis sample with spike-in of known proteins identified 34.7% more proteins than in conventional DIA (cDIA) with a wide precursor range of 400-1200 m/z. When combining several DIA-MS analyses with narrow precursor ranges (i.e., 400-650, 650-900 and 900-1200 m/z), we were able to quantify 10,099 protein groups with a median coefficient of variation of <6%. These findings represent a 59.4% increase in the number of proteins quantified than with cDIA analysis. This is particularly important for low abundance proteins, as exemplified by the 6-protein mix spike-in. In cDIA only 5 out of the 6-protein mix were quantified while our approach allowed accurate quantitation of all six proteins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Oroxylum indicum; Oroxyquinone; Traditional medicine; Bioassay Guided Fractionation; caspase-independent apoptosis; anti-metastatic
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:55:57 CET)
Leaf crude extract (aqueous) of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz induces genomic DNA fragmentation, comet formation, and inhibition of cell proliferation in prostate cancer cell line, PC3 as assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, comet assay, and MTT assay respectively. The bioactive compound was purified through bioassay-guided fractionation using preparative HPLC and MTT as-say. The brown and water-soluble compound was characterized using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, and the compound was iden-tified as a glycosylated hydroquinone derivative, 2-[p-(2-Carboxyhydrazino)phenoxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahy-dro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (molecular formula, C13H18N2O8; molecular mass = 330). The identified phytocompound has not been reported earlier elsewhere. Therefore, the common name of the novel anticancer phytocompound isolated from oroxylum indicum in this current study is named as oroxyquinone. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of oroxyquinone on PC3 cells was 19.44 µg/ml (95% CI = 17.97 to 21.04). Oroxyquinone induced cell cycle arrest at S phases and inhibition of cell migration on PC3 as assessed by flow cytome-try and wound healing assay respectively. On investigating the molecular mechanism of inducing apoptosis, the results indicated that the oroxyquinone induced apoptosis through the p38 pathway and cell cycle arrest, however, not through caspase-3 and PARP pathways. The present study identifies a novel an-ticancer molecule and provides scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic potency of OI for ethnomedicinal uses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0510.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: RAF kinase independent; RAS; MST2; ASK; PLK; RHO-α; apoptosis; cell cycle; cancer therapy
Online: 22 March 2021 (10:29:37 CET)
Abstract: Oncogenic RAS mutations drive more than half of human cancers, and RAS inhibition is the holy grail of oncology. Thirty years of relentless efforts and harsh disappointments have taught us about the intricacies of oncogenic RAS signalling that allow us to now get a pharmacological grip on this elusive protein. The inhibition of effector pathways, such as the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, has largely proven disappointing. So far, most of these efforts were aimed at blocking the activation of ERK. Here, we discuss RAF dependent pathways that are regulated through RAF functions independent of catalytic activity and their potential role as targets to block oncogenic RAS signalling. We focus on the now well documented roles of RAF kinase independent functions in apoptosis, cell cycle progression and cell migration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0635.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Intellectual property protection; independent R&D investment; green technology innovation; masking effect; threshold effect
Online: 25 November 2020 (11:20:02 CET)
Due to the continuous trade friction between China and the United States, for domestic enterprises in China, the cost of importing foreign technologies is increasing. Thus, the independent research and development (R&D) becomes particularly important for the realization of green technology innovation (GTI). This paper establishes a non-linear mediating effect model based on the data of various regions in China from 2012 to 2018. The main results are shown in the following. Firstly, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between the intensity of intellectual property protection (IPP) and the level of GTI. Furthermore, the independent R&D investment has a masking effect between them. Secondly, by taking the independent R&D investment as a threshold variable, we prove our findings. Considering that the intensity of IPP is at a high level in most regions of China, the above statements mean that the enterprises need to continuously increase their investment in R&D, in order to further improve the regional ability in GTI. Meanwhile, local governments should also stimulate enterprises' willingness to expand their scale in R&D by issuing incentive policies, such as R&D tax incentives and government subsidies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0342.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Geometry & Topology Keywords: generalized topological space; generalized sets; generalized exterior operator; generalized frontier operator; consistent; independent axioms
Online: 23 March 2020 (07:14:43 CET)
In a generalized topological space Tg = (Ω, Tg), generalized interior and generalized closure operators g-Intg, g-Clg : P (Ω) −→ P (Ω), respectively, are merely two of a number of generalized primitive operators which may be employed to topologize the underlying set Ω in the generalized sense. Generalized exterior and generalized frontier operators g-Extg, g-Frg : P (Ω) −→ P (Ω), respectively, are other generalized primitive operators by means of which characterizations of generalized operations under g-Intg, g-Clg : P (Ω) −→ P (Ω) can be given without even realizing generalized interior and generalized closure operations first in order to topologize Ω in the generalized sense. In a recent work, the present authors have defined novel types of generalized interior and generalized closure operators g-Intg, g-Clg : P (Ω) −→ P (Ω), respectively, in Tg and studied their essential properties and commutativity. In this work, they propose to present novel definitions of generalized exterior and generalized frontier operators g-Extg, g-Frg : P (Ω) −→ P (Ω), respectively, a set of consistent, independent axioms after studying their essential properties, and established further characterizations of generalized operations under g-Intg, g-Clg : P (Ω) −→ P (Ω) in Tg.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0193.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: agricultural machinery; load sensing; independent metering; digital flow control; displacement control; constant pressure systems.
Online: 9 October 2018 (15:56:08 CEST)
A fluid power industry powering the agricultural machinery faces big challenges nowadays. An issue of energy saving has become important due to increasing fuel costs and more stringent emissions regulations impacting vehicle development. A recent study conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy shows that the efficiency of fluid power averages 21 percent. This offers a huge opportunity to improve the current state-of-the-art of fluid power machines, in particular to improve the energy consumption of current applications and create innovative solutions. To increase energy efficiency of fluid power systems reduction of throttling losses and potential energy recovery strategies are needed. Aim of this work is to present classification of current energy saving architectures and aid the development of new techniques for mobile fluid power machines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0375.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: availability; cipher coding; clogged water; honeycomb tori; maintainability; mutually independent Hamiltonian paths (MIHP); interference; privacy; reliability; wicked problems
Online: 18 August 2021 (11:22:39 CEST)
Holistic information integrity for managing wicked problems, developing equity is getting attention. Artifitial intelligence based topologies, dual sensor-information nodes, are prototyped to offer more availability, reliability, maintainability for operating healthy urbanism. Bipartite spider-webs, cube-connected cycles are aimed in ‘the radial-ring urban-building skeleton’ and ‘wetlands and sparsely populated areas’, respectively. Furthermore, honeycomb tori, mathematical HT(m), m≥2, for tasks related to wireless communications, are found having two mutually independent Hamiltonian paths (MIHP). This parallelism creates dual cipher-coding, supports logistic privacy, and help prevent information loss, electromagnetic interference, unexpected changes caused by such as clogged water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0020.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: the free-energy principle; internal model hypothesis; unconscious inference; infomax principle; predictive information; independent component analysis; principal component analysis
Online: 11 May 2018 (06:24:06 CEST)
The mutual information between the state of a neural network and the state of the external world represents the amount of information stored in the neural network that is associated with the external world. In contrast, the surprise of the sensory input indicates the unpredictability of the current input. In other words, this is a measure of inference ability, and an upper bound of the surprise is known as the variational free energy. According to the free-energy principle (FEP), a neural network continuously minimizes the free energy to perceive the external world. For the survival of animals, inference ability is considered to be more important than simply memorized information. In this study, the free energy is shown to represent the gap between the amount of information stored in the neural network and that available for inference. This concept involves both the FEP and the infomax principle, and will be a useful measure for quantifying the amount of information available for inference.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0012.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: NP-complete; graph theory; layered graph; polynomial time; quasi-polynomial time; dynamic programming; independent set; vertex cover; dominating set
Online: 2 May 2018 (05:41:54 CEST)
The independent set, IS, on a graph is such that no two vertices in have an edge between them. The MIS problem on G seeks to identify an IS with maximum cardinality, i.e. MIS. is a vertex cover, i.e. VC of if every is incident upon at least one vertex in . is dominating set, DS, of if either or and . The MVC problem on G seeks to identify a vertex cover with minimum cardinality, i.e. MVC. Likewise, MCV seeks a connected vertex cover, i.e. VC which forms one component in G, with minimum cardinality, i.e. MCV. A connected DS, CDS, is a DS that forms a connected component in G. The problems MDS and MCD seek to identify a DS and a connected DS i.e. CDS respectively with minimum cardinalities. MIS, MVC, MDS, MCV and MCD on a general graph are known to be NP-complete. Polynomial time algorithms are known for bipartite graphs, chordal graphs, cycle graphs, comparability graphs, claw-free graphs, interval graphs and circular arc graphs for some of these problems. We introduce a novel graph class, layered graph, where each layer refers to a subgraph containing at most some k vertices. Inter layer edges are restricted to the vertices in adjacent layers. We show that if then MIS, MVC and MDS can be computed in polynomial time and if , where , then MCV and MCD can be computed in polynomial time. If , for , then MIS, MVC and MDS require quasi-polynomial time. If then MCV, MCD require quasi-polynomial time. Layered graphs do have constraints such as bipartiteness, planarity and acyclicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0338.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: migratory birds; Newcastle disease virus-GVII; poultry; phylogenetics; sequence-independent; sin-gle-primer amplification (SISPA); velogenic; whole genome sequencing (WGS)
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:40:10 CEST)
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype VII is a highly pathogenic Orthoavulavirus that has caused multiple outbreaks among poultry in Egypt since 2011. This study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity of NDV prevailing in domestic and wild birds in Egyptian governorates. A total of 37 oropharyngeal swabs from wild birds and 101 swabs from domestic bird flocks including chickens, ducks, turkeys, and swans were collected from different geographic regions within 13 governorates during 2019-2020. Virus isolation and propagation via embryonated eggs revealed 91 swab samples produced allantoic fluid containing hemagglutination activity, suggestive of virus presence. The use of RT-PCR targeted to F gene successfully detected NDV in 85 samples. The geographical prevalence of NDV spread to 12 governorates in domestic birds, migratory and non-migratory wild birds. Following whole genome sequencing, we assembled six NDV genome sequences (70 - 99% of genome coverage), including five full F gene sequences. All NDV strains carried high virulence, based on the presence of polybasic amino acids (RRQRF) at the F gene cleavage site. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NDV strains belonged to class II within genotype VII.1.1. The presence of genetically similar virulent NDV in wild birds further highlights their role in the dissemination of NDV in poultry populations across Egypt. Continued genomic surveillance in both wild birds and poultry would be necessary for monitoring NDV incursions and genetic diversification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0374.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: olive mill solid waste (OMSW); white-rot fungi; laccase; manganese-independent peroxidase; manganese peroxidase; Anthracophyllum discolor; Stereum hirsutum; whole cell
Online: 29 March 2022 (05:21:39 CEST)
White-rot fungi (WRF) have specific enzymes to degrade lignocellulosic and phenolic compounds. Therefore, their direct application could be an alternative to biodegrade complex lignocellulosic biomass such as olive mill solid waste (OMSW). The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of A. discolor and S. hirsutum to grow in OMSW as the sole substrate under static conditions and evaluate the phenolic removal compounds and lignin degradation. The lignolytic enzyme activity was determined, as was the phenolic compound removal. At the same time, lignin degradation and structural changes were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Both strains were able to grow using OMSW as the sole substrate without adding other nutrients, oxygen and/or agitation. The higher ligninolytic enzyme activity was found at day 8, and the highest phenolic removal (more than 80% with both strains) was reached after 24 days of incubation. The CLSM analysis confirmed lignin degradation through the drop in lignin fluorescence from 3967 for untreated OMSW to 235 and 221 RFU after 24 days of treatment by A. discolor and S. hirsutum respectively. The results indicate that both WRF could be suitable candidates to design an in-situ pretreatment step of OMSW, as long as in future research the WRFs have the same performance in non-sterile conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0079.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD); amyloid precursor protein (APP); familial AD (FAD); sporadic AD (SAD); BACE1 inhibitors; APP-independent generation of beta amyloid
Online: 6 April 2018 (15:16:08 CEST)
The present article analyzes the results of recent clinical trials of beta secretase inhibition in sporadic Alzheimer’ disease (SAD), considers the striking dichotomy between successes in tests of BACE1 inhibitors in healthy subjects and familial AD (FAD) models versus persistent failures of clinical trials and interprets it as a confirmation of key predictions for a mechanism of APP-independent, beta secretase inhibition-resistant production of beta amyloid in SAD, previously proposed by us. In the light of this concept, FAD and SAD should be regarded as distinctly different diseases as far as beta-amyloid generation mechanisms are concerned, and whereas beta secretase inhibition would be neither applicable nor effective in treatment of SAD, the BACE1 inhibitor(s) deemed failed in SAD trials could be perfectly suitable for treatment of FAD. Moreover, targeting the aspects of AD other than cleavages of the APP by beta and alpha secretases should have analogous impacts in both FAD and SAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0257.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: divergent current density; new superconductivity; Meissner effect; new type of condensation; energy generation; electrostatic potential; independent current source; voltage-controlled current source; renewable energy
Online: 16 March 2020 (04:18:23 CET)
Societies around the world face serious energy problems related to the consumption of fossil fuels and the emission of dangerous radiation. To solve these problems, a new superconductor exhibiting a critical temperature higher than room temperature has been pursued but not achieved. This paper proposes a new energy generation system based on a circuit approach. Secondary to this process, a new type of superconductivity without refrigeration is demonstrated. In our previous paper , this system was proposed, but it did not describe the underlying theory in detail and did not mention an actual method to generate energy from the system. The present paper describes the theory of the existence of divergent current density and new superconductivity with no refrigeration. Moreover, the present paper proposes a method for extracting energy from the system by employing a voltage-controlled current source (i.e., a voltage–current converting method).The principle of the system is based on a circuit of two loops and independent current sources. First, the two electric loops are prepared, each with 4 diodes, where the diodes are oriented in the same direction within each loop, but their direction is opposite from loop to loop; four independent current sources connect the loops. In this circuit system, current is added iteratively as it flows along the loop according to Kirchhoff’s circuit law. As a result, a large current and electric potential are present along the loop. To confirm that this system works properly, it is necessary to demonstrate the presence of divergent currents in the transient state, and to do this, the present paper employs the Dirac equation and Lorentz conservation. Electric circuit software is employed to demonstrate that the presented method generates energy actually from our system.Our results confirm the presence of divergent current at a connected point of an independent current source in the transient state. Moreover, in the steady state, the theory demonstrates the Meissner effect (i.e., a London equation) and a new type of macroscopic wave function and condensation. For an initial small input current of 0.1 μA, the simulation reveals a large generating current of 7 kA and electric power of 1011 W, which is much larger than unit of power from an average thermal power station; moreover, the system presents with superconducting electrical transport conditions.The present study is significant because it demonstrates theoretically the existence of divergent current density and a new type of superconductivity requiring no refrigeration. Secondly, the simulations show the generation of a large energy density that can be obtained in a small laboratory room with minimal cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0033.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: temperature-independent superconductivity; circuit-approached superconductivity; electron pair; Bose–Einstein condensation; large superconducting energy gap; London equation; Meissner effect; macroscopic wave function; critical current density; negative voltages
Online: 15 July 2020 (03:30:06 CEST)
This paper proposes a method to generate a new type of superconductivity that is temperature independent with a high critical current density. This study is significant because the method does not require refrigeration, specific setups, or specific substances. That is, the method for generating the superconductivity is very simple. Many conventional superconductor studies have not yet reached this point. Moreover, compared with our previously developed superconductivity (PNS) [1-3], the critical currents in this study are much larger, which is important for practical applications. In the theoretical approaches, even though the mechanism of pairing, and the Bose–Einstein condensation are the same in this study as in PNS, the present paper emphasizes the mechanism of the Meissner effect in addition to formulating the critical current density. Further, we establish a simulation method with an equivalent circuit that reveals the superconductivity properties in terms of the transport current and the electromagnetic characteristics.The principles of the presented system are as follows:First a voltage source, a current source and a load are connected in series.Then, the voltage of the voltage source is adjusted to balance the voltage of the load.Under this condition, the balance of the two voltages provides a zero voltage between the taps of the current source and the generated current from the voltage source becomes zero because of the internal infinite resistance of the current source.As a result, the electric power generated by the two sources is zero, and therefore, the load cannot generate Joule heating because of energy conservation.However, the current from the current source (not the voltage source) is not zero; therefore, we can predict that the resistance of the load must be zero.A summary of our theory and numerical calculations is as follows. First, the strong combination of a two-electron pair is demonstrated. Then, given that two electrons combine extremely strongly because of the spin magnetic attractive force, analytical calculations of the center-of-mass motion of the Hamiltonian of the pair eventually result in a macroscopic wave function. From this macroscopic wave function, we derive a London equation using the concept of an internal toroid. The key point is that, when a sample exhibits a Meissner effect, it should release the additional energy from the internal magnetic field as a discharge current, which involves a negative voltage. Based on the inductance of this toroid, an equivalent circuit is produced. Using this circuit, we simulate this phenomenon, which results in the generation of a negative voltage and evidence of the Meissner effect, in addition to zero voltages and non-zero currents for the sample.